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116th Congress   }                                   {    Rept. 116-15
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 1st Session     }                                   {          Part 1
_______________________________________________________________________

                                     

                                                                       


                       FOR THE PEOPLE ACT OF 2019

                               ----------                              

                              R E P O R T

                                 of the

                   COMMITTEE ON HOUSE ADMINISTRATION

                              to accompany

                                 H.R. 1

                             together with

                            DISSENTING VIEWS







[GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT]











 March 4, 2019.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed




































116th Congress   }                                   {    Rept. 116-15
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 1st Session     }                                   {          Part 1
_______________________________________________________________________

                                     

                                                                       


                       FOR THE PEOPLE ACT OF 2019

                               __________

                              R E P O R T

                                 of the

                   COMMITTEE ON HOUSE ADMINISTRATION

                              to accompany

                                 H.R. 1

                             together with

                            DISSENTING VIEWS






[GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT]










 March 4, 2019.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed


                                   ______

		 
                     U.S. GOVERNMENT PUBLISHING OFFICE 
		 
35-310                    WASHINGTON : 2019                 




















116th Congress   }                                   {    Rept. 116-15
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 1st Session     }                                   {          Part 1
======================================================================



 
                       FOR THE PEOPLE ACT OF 2019

                                _______
                                

 March 4, 2019.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

Ms. Lofgren, from the Committee on House Administration, submitted the 
                               following

                              R E P O R T

                             together with

                            DISSENTING VIEWS

                         [To accompany H.R. 1]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on House Administration, to whom was referred 
the bill (H.R. 1) to expand Americans' access to the ballot 
box, reduce the influence of big money in politics, and 
strengthen ethics rules for public servants, and for other 
purposes, having considered the same, report favorably thereon 
with an amendment and recommend that the bill as amended do 
pass.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
Amendment........................................................     2
Purpose and Summary..............................................   121
Background and Need for Legislation..............................   121
Hearings.........................................................   139
Committee Consideration..........................................   140
Committee Votes..................................................   140
Committee Oversight Findings.....................................   146
Statement of General Performance Goals and Objectives............   146
New Budget Authority, Entitlement Authority, and Tax Expenditures   146
Earmarks and Tax and Tariff Benefits.............................   146
Committee Cost Estimate..........................................   146
Congressional Budget Office Estimate.............................   147
Federal Mandates Statement.......................................   155
Advisory Committee Statement.....................................   155
Statement of Constitutional Authority............................   155
Applicability to Legislative Branch..............................   155
Section-by-Section Analysis of the Legislation...................   155
Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill as Reported.............   200
Dissenting Views.................................................   439

                               Amendment

    The amendment is as follows:
  Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the 
following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

  This Act may be cited as the ``For the People Act of 2019''.

SEC. 2. ORGANIZATION OF ACT INTO DIVISIONS; TABLE OF CONTENTS.

  (a) Divisions.--This Act is organized into 3 divisions as follows:
          (1) Division A--Voting.
          (2) Division B--Campaign Finance.
          (3) Division C--Ethics.
  (b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents of this Act is as 
follows:

Sec. 1. Short title.
Sec. 2. Organization of Act into divisions; table of contents.

                           DIVISION A--VOTING

                        TITLE I--ELECTION ACCESS

Sec. 1000. Short title; statement of policy.

              Subtitle A--Voter Registration Modernization

Sec. 1000A. Short title.

                Part 1--Promoting Internet Registration

Sec. 1001. Requiring availability of Internet for voter registration.
Sec. 1002. Use of Internet to update registration information.
Sec. 1003. Provision of election information by electronic mail to 
individuals registered to vote.
Sec. 1004. Clarification of requirement regarding necessary information 
to show eligibility to vote.
Sec. 1005. Effective date.

                  Part 2--Automatic Voter Registration

Sec. 1011. Short title; findings and purpose.
Sec. 1012. Automatic registration of eligible individuals.
Sec. 1013. Contributing agency assistance in registration.
Sec. 1014. One-time contributing agency assistance in registration of 
eligible voters in existing records.
Sec. 1015. Voter protection and security in automatic registration.
Sec. 1016. Registration portability and correction.
Sec. 1017. Payments and grants.
Sec. 1018. Treatment of exempt States.
Sec. 1019. Miscellaneous provisions.
Sec. 1020. Definitions.
Sec. 1021. Effective date.

                  Part 3--Same Day Voter Registration

Sec. 1031. Same day registration.

   Part 4--Conditions on Removal on Basis of Interstate Cross-Checks

Sec. 1041. Conditions on removal of registrants from official list of 
eligible voters on basis of interstate cross-checks.

        Part 5--Other Initiatives to Promote Voter Registration

Sec. 1051. Annual reports on voter registration statistics.

           Part 6--Availability of HAVA Requirements Payments

Sec. 1061. Availability of requirements payments under HAVA to cover 
costs of compliance with new requirements.

        Part 7--Prohibiting Interference With Voter Registration

Sec. 1071. [Reserved].
Sec. 1072. Establishment of best practices.

     Subtitle B--Access to Voting for Individuals With Disabilities

Sec. 1101. Requirements for States to promote access to voter 
registration and voting for individuals with disabilities.
Sec. 1102. Expansion and reauthorization of grant program to assure 
voting access for individuals with disabilities.

                  Subtitle C--Prohibiting Voter Caging

Sec. 1201. [Reserved].
Sec. 1202. Development and adoption of best practices for preventing 
voter caging.

                         Subtitle D--[Reserved]

                         Subtitle E--[Reserved]

 Subtitle F--Promoting Accuracy, Integrity, and Security Through Voter-
                    Verified Permanent Paper Ballot

Sec. 1501. Short title.
Sec. 1502. Paper ballot and manual counting requirements.
Sec. 1503. Accessibility and ballot verification for individuals with 
disabilities.
Sec. 1504. Durability and readability requirements for ballots.
Sec. 1505. Effective date for new requirements.

                    Subtitle G--Provisional Ballots

Sec. 1601. Requirements for counting provisional ballots; establishment 
of uniform and nondiscriminatory standards.

                        Subtitle H--Early Voting

Sec. 1611. Early voting.

                       Subtitle I--Voting by Mail

Sec. 1621. Voting by Mail.

    Subtitle J--Absent Uniformed Services Voters and Overseas Voters

Sec. 1701. Pre-election reports on availability and transmission of 
absentee ballots.
Sec. 1702. Enforcement.
Sec. 1703. Revisions to 45-day absentee ballot transmission rule.
Sec. 1704. Use of single absentee ballot application for subsequent 
elections.
Sec. 1705. Effective date.

            Subtitle K--Poll Worker Recruitment and Training

Sec. 1801. [Reserved].
Sec. 1802. Grants to States for poll worker recruitment and training.
Sec. 1803. State defined.

                 Subtitle L--Enhancement of Enforcement

Sec. 1811. Enhancement of enforcement of Help America Vote Act of 2002.

                 Subtitle M--Federal Election Integrity

Sec. 1821. Prohibition on campaign activities by chief State election 
administration officials.

  Subtitle N--Promoting Voter Access Through Election Administration 
                              Improvements

                     Part 1--Promoting Voter Access

Sec. 1901. Treatment of institutions of higher education.
Sec. 1902. Minimum notification requirements for voters affected by 
polling place changes.
Sec. 1903. [Reserved].
Sec. 1904. Permitting use of sworn written statement to meet 
identification requirements for voting.
Sec. 1905. [Reserved].
Sec. 1906. Reimbursement for costs incurred by States in establishing 
program to track and confirm receipt of absentee ballots.
Sec. 1907. Voter information response systems and hotline.

  Part 2--Improvements in Operation of Election Assistance Commission

Sec. 1911. Reauthorization of Election Assistance Commission.
Sec. 1913. Requiring states to participate in post-general election 
surveys.
Sec. 1914. Reports by National Institute of Standards and Technology on 
use of funds transferred from Election Assistance Commission.
Sec. 1915. Recommendations to improve operations of Election Assistance 
Commission.
Sec. 1916. Repeal of exemption of Election Assistance Commission from 
certain government contracting requirements.

                    Part 3--Miscellaneous Provisions

Sec. 1921. Application of laws to Commonwealth of Northern Mariana 
Islands.
Sec. 1922. No effect on other laws.

                        Subtitle O--Severability

Sec. 1931. Severability.

                      TITLE II--ELECTION INTEGRITY

                         Subtitle A--[Reserved]

                         Subtitle B--[Reserved]

                         Subtitle C--[Reserved]

                         Subtitle D--[Reserved]

                         Subtitle E--[Reserved]

         Subtitle F--Saving Eligible Voters From Voter Purging

Sec. 2501. Short title.
Sec. 2502. Conditions for removal of voters from list of registered 
voters.

    Subtitle G--No Effect on Authority of States to Provide Greater 
                        Opportunities for Voting

Sec. 2601. No effect on authority of States to provide greater 
opportunities for voting.

                        Subtitle H--Severability

Sec. 2701. Severability.

                      TITLE III--ELECTION SECURITY

Sec. 3000. Short title; sense of Congress.

       Subtitle A--Financial Support for Election Infrastructure

           Part 1--Voting System Security Improvement Grants

Sec. 3001. Grants for obtaining compliant paper ballot voting systems 
and carrying out voting system security improvements.
Sec. 3002. Coordination of voting system security activities with use 
of requirements payments and election administration requirements under 
Help America Vote Act of 2002.
Sec. 3003. Incorporation of definitions.

    Part 2--Grants for Risk-limiting Audits of Results of Elections

Sec. 3011. Grants to States for conducting risk-limiting audits of 
results of elections.
Sec. 3012. GAO analysis of effects of audits.

                           Part 3--[Reserved]

                     Subtitle B--Security Measures

Sec. 3101. Election infrastructure designation.
Sec. 3102. Timely threat information.
Sec. 3103. Security clearance assistance for election officials.
Sec. 3104. Security risk and vulnerability assessments.
Sec. 3105. Annual reports.

    Subtitle C--Enhancing Protections for United States Democratic 
                              Institutions

Sec. 3201. National strategy to protect United States democratic 
institutions.
Sec. 3202. National Commission to Protect United States Democratic 
Institutions.

 Subtitle D--Promoting Cybersecurity Through Improvements in Election 
                             Administration

Sec. 3301. Testing of existing voting systems to ensure compliance with 
election cybersecurity guidelines and other guidelines.
Sec. 3302. Treatment of electronic poll books as part of voting 
systems.
Sec. 3303. Pre-election reports on voting system usage.
Sec. 3304. Streamlining collection of election information.

                Subtitle E--Preventing Election Hacking

Sec. 3401. Short title.
Sec. 3402. Election Security Bug Bounty Program.
Sec. 3403. Definitions.

                  Subtitle F--Miscellaneous Provisions

Sec. 3501. Definitions.
Sec. 3502. Initial report on adequacy of resources available for 
implementation.

                        Subtitle G--Severability

Sec. 3601. Severability.

                      DIVISION B--CAMPAIGN FINANCE

                TITLE IV--CAMPAIGN FINANCE TRANSPARENCY

    Subtitle A--Findings Relating to Illicit Money Undermining Our 
                               Democracy

Sec. 4001. Findings relating to illicit money undermining our 
democracy.

                        Subtitle B--DISCLOSE Act

Sec. 4100. Short title.

            Part 1--Regulation of Certain Political Spending

Sec. 4101. Application of ban on contributions and expenditures by 
foreign nationals to domestic corporations, limited liability 
corporations, and partnerships that are foreign-controlled, foreign-
influenced, and foreign-owned.
Sec. 4102. Clarification of application of foreign money ban to certain 
disbursements and activities.

          Part 2--Reporting of Campaign-Related Disbursements

Sec. 4111. Reporting of campaign-related disbursements.
Sec. 4112. Application of foreign money ban to disbursements for 
campaign-related disbursements consisting of covered transfers.
Sec. 4113. Effective date.

                  Part 3--Other Administrative Reforms

Sec. 4121. Petition for certiorari.
Sec. 4122. Judicial review of actions related to campaign finance laws.

                         Subtitle C--Honest Ads

Sec. 4201. Short title.
Sec. 4202. Purpose.
Sec. 4203. Findings.
Sec. 4204. Sense of Congress.
Sec. 4205. Expansion of definition of public communication.
Sec. 4206. Expansion of definition of electioneering communication.
Sec. 4207. Application of disclaimer statements to online 
communications.
Sec. 4208. Political record requirements for online platforms.
Sec. 4209. Preventing contributions, expenditures, independent 
expenditures, and disbursements for electioneering communications by 
foreign nationals in the form of online advertising.

                     Subtitle D--Stand By Every Ad

Sec. 4301. Short title.
Sec. 4302. Stand By Every Ad.
Sec. 4303. Disclaimer requirements for communications made through 
prerecorded telephone calls.
Sec. 4304. No expansion of persons subject to disclaimer requirements 
on Internet communications.
Sec. 4305. Effective date.

                         Subtitle E--[Reserved]

                         Subtitle F--[Reserved]

                         Subtitle G--[Reserved]

  Subtitle H--Limitation and Disclosure Requirements for Presidential 
                          Inaugural Committees

Sec. 4701. Short title.
Sec. 4702. Limitations and disclosure of certain donations to, and 
disbursements by, Inaugural Committees.

                        Subtitle I--Severability

Sec. 4801. Severability.

                 TITLE V--CAMPAIGN FINANCE EMPOWERMENT

       Subtitle A--Findings Relating to Citizens United Decision

Sec. 5001. Findings relating to Citizens United decision.

                  Subtitle B--Congressional Elections

Sec. 5100. Short title.

                 Part 1--My Voice Voucher Pilot Program

Sec. 5101. Establishment of pilot program.
Sec. 5102. Voucher program described.
Sec. 5103. Reports.
Sec. 5104. Definitions.

   Part 2--Small Dollar Financing of Congressional Election Campaigns

Sec. 5111. Benefits and eligibility requirements for candidates.

````TITLE V--SMALL DOLLAR FINANCING OF CONGRESSIONAL ELECTION CAMPAIGNS

                        ````Subtitle A--Benefits

        ``Sec. 501. Benefits for participating candidates.
        ``Sec. 502. Procedures for making payments.
        ``Sec. 503. Use of funds.
        ``Sec. 504. Qualified small dollar contributions described.

             ````Subtitle B--Eligibility and Certification

        ``Sec. 511. Eligibility.
        ``Sec. 512. Qualifying requirements.
        ``Sec. 513. Certification.

````Subtitle C--Requirements for Candidates Certified as Participating 
                               Candidates

        ``Sec. 521. Contribution and expenditure requirements.
        ``Sec. 522. Administration of campaign.
        ``Sec. 523. Preventing unnecessary spending of public funds.
        ``Sec. 524. Remitting unspent funds after election.

                 ````Subtitle D--Enhanced Match Support

        ``Sec. 531. Enhanced support for general election.
        ``Sec. 532. Eligibility.
        ``Sec. 533. Amount.
        ``Sec. 534. Waiver of authority to retain portion of unspent 
                        funds after election.

               ````Subtitle E--Administrative Provisions

        ``Sec. 541. Freedom From Influence Fund.
        ``Sec. 542. Reviews and reports by Government Accountability 
                        Office.
        ``Sec. 543. Administration by Commission.
        ``Sec. 544. Violations and penalties.
        ``Sec. 545. Appeals process.
        ``Sec. 546. Indexing of amounts.
        ``Sec. 547. Election cycle defined.''
Sec. 5112. Contributions and expenditures by multicandidate and 
political party committees on behalf of participating candidates.
Sec. 5113. Prohibiting use of contributions by participating candidates 
for purposes other than campaign for election.
Sec. 5114. Effective date.

                   Subtitle C--Presidential Elections

Sec. 5200. Short title.

                       Part 1--Primary Elections

Sec. 5201. Increase in and modifications to matching payments.
Sec. 5202. Eligibility requirements for matching payments.
Sec. 5203. Repeal of expenditure limitations.
Sec. 5204. Period of availability of matching payments.
Sec. 5205. Examination and audits of matchable contributions.
Sec. 5206. Modification to limitation on contributions for Presidential 
primary candidates.
Sec. 5207. Use of Freedom From Influence Fund as source of payments.

                       Part 2--General Elections

Sec. 5211. Modification of eligibility requirements for public 
financing.
Sec. 5212. Repeal of expenditure limitations and use of qualified 
campaign contributions.
Sec. 5213. Matching payments and other modifications to payment 
amounts.
Sec. 5214. Increase in limit on coordinated party expenditures.
Sec. 5215. Establishment of uniform date for release of payments.
Sec. 5216. Amounts in Presidential Election Campaign Fund.
Sec. 5217. Use of general election payments for general election legal 
and accounting compliance.
Sec. 5218. Use of Freedom From Influence Fund as source of payments.

                         Part 3--Effective Date

Sec. 5221. Effective date.

 Subtitle D--Personal Use Services as Authorized Campaign Expenditures

Sec. 5301. Short title; findings; purpose.
Sec. 5302. Treatment of payments for child care and other personal use 
services as authorized campaign expenditure.

                        Subtitle E--Severability

Sec. 5401. Severability.

                  TITLE VI--CAMPAIGN FINANCE OVERSIGHT

         Subtitle A--Restoring Integrity to America's Elections

Sec. 6001. Short title.
Sec. 6002. Membership of Federal Election Commission.
Sec. 6003. Assignment of powers to Chair of Federal Election 
Commission.
Sec. 6004. Revision to enforcement process.
Sec. 6005. Permitting appearance at hearings on requests for advisory 
opinions by persons opposing the requests.
Sec. 6006. Permanent extension of administrative penalty authority.
Sec. 6007. Restrictions on ex parte communications.
Sec. 6008. Effective date; transition.

         Subtitle B--Stopping Super PAC-Candidate Coordination

Sec. 6101. Short title.
Sec. 6102. Clarification of treatment of coordinated expenditures as 
contributions to candidates.
Sec. 6103. Clarification of ban on fundraising for super PACs by 
Federal candidates and officeholders.

                        Subtitle C--Severability

Sec. 6201. Severability.

                           DIVISION C--ETHICS

                         TITLE VII--[RESERVED]

                         TITLE VIII--[RESERVED]

                 TITLE IX--CONGRESSIONAL ETHICS REFORM

  Subtitle A--Requiring Members of Congress to Reimburse Treasury for 
      Amounts Paid as Settlements and Awards Under Congressional 
                       Accountability Act of 1995

Sec. 9001. Requiring Members of Congress to reimburse Treasury for 
amounts paid as settlements and awards under Congressional 
Accountability Act of 1995 in all cases of employment discrimination 
acts by Members.

                   Subtitle B--Conflicts of Interests

Sec. 9101. [Reserved].
Sec. 9102. Conflict of interest rules for Members of Congress and 
congressional staff.
Sec. 9103. Exercise of rulemaking powers.

          Subtitle C--Campaign Finance and Lobbying Disclosure

Sec. 9201. Short title.
Sec. 9202. Requiring disclosure in certain reports filed with Federal 
Election Commission of persons who are registered lobbyists.
Sec. 9203. Effective date.

         Subtitle D--Access to Congressionally Mandated Reports

Sec. 9301. Short title.
Sec. 9302. Definitions.
Sec. 9303. Establishment of online portal for congressionally mandated 
reports.
Sec. 9304. Federal agency responsibilities.
Sec. 9305. Removing and altering reports.
Sec. 9306. Relationship to the Freedom of Information Act.
Sec. 9307. Implementation.

                        Subtitle E--Severability

Sec. 9401. Severability.

                          TITLE X--[RESERVED]

                           DIVISION A--VOTING

                        TITLE I--ELECTION ACCESS

Sec. 1000. Short title; statement of policy.

              Subtitle A--Voter Registration Modernization

Sec. 1000A. Short title.

                Part 1--Promoting Internet Registration

Sec. 1001. Requiring availability of Internet for voter registration.
Sec. 1002. Use of Internet to update registration information.
Sec. 1003. Provision of election information by electronic mail to 
individuals registered to vote.
Sec. 1004. Clarification of requirement regarding necessary information 
to show eligibility to vote.
Sec. 1005. Effective date.

                  Part 2--Automatic Voter Registration

Sec. 1011. Short title; findings and purpose.
Sec. 1012. Automatic registration of eligible individuals.
Sec. 1013. Contributing agency assistance in registration.
Sec. 1014. One-time contributing agency assistance in registration of 
eligible voters in existing records.
Sec. 1015. Voter protection and security in automatic registration.
Sec. 1016. Registration portability and correction.
Sec. 1017. Payments and grants.
Sec. 1018. Treatment of exempt States.
Sec. 1019. Miscellaneous provisions.
Sec. 1020. Definitions.
Sec. 1021. Effective date.

                  Part 3--Same Day Voter Registration

Sec. 1031. Same day registration.

   Part 4--Conditions on Removal on Basis of Interstate Cross-Checks

Sec. 1041. Conditions on removal of registrants from official list of 
eligible voters on basis of interstate cross-checks.

        Part 5--Other Initiatives to Promote Voter Registration

Sec. 1051. Annual reports on voter registration statistics.

           Part 6--Availability of HAVA Requirements Payments

Sec. 1061. Availability of requirements payments under HAVA to cover 
costs of compliance with new requirements.

        Part 7--Prohibiting Interference With Voter Registration

Sec. 1071. [Reserved].
Sec. 1072. Establishment of best practices.

     Subtitle B--Access to Voting for Individuals With Disabilities

Sec. 1101. Requirements for States to promote access to voter 
registration and voting for individuals with disabilities.
Sec. 1102. Expansion and reauthorization of grant program to assure 
voting access for individuals with disabilities.

                  Subtitle C--Prohibiting Voter Caging

Sec. 1201. [Reserved].
Sec. 1202. Development and adoption of best practices for preventing 
voter caging.

                         Subtitle D--[Reserved]

                         Subtitle E--[Reserved]

 Subtitle F--Promoting Accuracy, Integrity, and Security Through Voter-
                    Verified Permanent Paper Ballot

Sec. 1501. Short title.
Sec. 1502. Paper ballot and manual counting requirements.
Sec. 1503. Accessibility and ballot verification for individuals with 
disabilities.
Sec. 1504. Durability and readability requirements for ballots.
Sec. 1505. Effective date for new requirements.

                    Subtitle G--Provisional Ballots

Sec. 1601. Requirements for counting provisional ballots; establishment 
of uniform and nondiscriminatory standards.

                        Subtitle H--Early Voting

Sec. 1611. Early voting.

                       Subtitle I--Voting by Mail

Sec. 1621. Voting by Mail.

    Subtitle J--Absent Uniformed Services Voters and Overseas Voters

Sec. 1701. Pre-election reports on availability and transmission of 
absentee ballots.
Sec. 1702. Enforcement.
Sec. 1703. Revisions to 45-day absentee ballot transmission rule.
Sec. 1704. Use of single absentee ballot application for subsequent 
elections.
Sec. 1705. Effective date.

            Subtitle K--Poll Worker Recruitment and Training

Sec. 1801. [Reserved].
Sec. 1802. Grants to States for poll worker recruitment and training.
Sec. 1803. State defined.

                 Subtitle L--Enhancement of Enforcement

Sec. 1811. Enhancement of enforcement of Help America Vote Act of 2002.

                 Subtitle M--Federal Election Integrity

Sec. 1821. Prohibition on campaign activities by chief State election 
administration officials.

  Subtitle N--Promoting Voter Access Through Election Administration 
                              Improvements

                     Part 1--Promoting Voter Access

Sec. 1901. Treatment of institutions of higher education.
Sec. 1902. Minimum notification requirements for voters affected by 
polling place changes.
Sec. 1903. [Reserved].
Sec. 1904. Permitting use of sworn written statement to meet 
identification requirements for voting.
Sec. 1905. [Reserved].
Sec. 1906. Reimbursement for costs incurred by States in establishing 
program to track and confirm receipt of absentee ballots.
Sec. 1907. Voter information response systems and hotline.

  Part 2--Improvements in Operation of Election Assistance Commission

Sec. 1911. Reauthorization of Election Assistance Commission.
Sec. 1913. Requiring states to participate in post-general election 
surveys.
Sec. 1914. Reports by National Institute of Standards and Technology on 
use of funds transferred from Election Assistance Commission.
Sec. 1915. Recommendations to improve operations of Election Assistance 
Commission.
Sec. 1916. Repeal of exemption of Election Assistance Commission from 
certain government contracting requirements.

                    Part 3--Miscellaneous Provisions

Sec. 1921. Application of laws to Commonwealth of Northern Mariana 
Islands.
Sec. 1922. No effect on other laws.

                        Subtitle O--Severability

Sec. 1931. Severability.

SEC. 1000. SHORT TITLE; STATEMENT OF POLICY.

  (a) Short Title.--This title may be cited as the ``Voter Empowerment 
Act of 2019''.
  (b) Statement of Policy.--It is the policy of the United States 
that--
          (1) all eligible citizens of the United States should access 
        and exercise their constitutional right to vote in a free, 
        fair, and timely manner; and
          (2) the integrity, security, and accountability of the voting 
        process must be vigilantly protected, maintained, and enhanced 
        in order to protect and preserve electoral and participatory 
        democracy in the United States.

              Subtitle A--Voter Registration Modernization

SEC. 1000A. SHORT TITLE.

  This subtitle may be cited as the ``Voter Registration Modernization 
Act of 2019''.

                PART 1--PROMOTING INTERNET REGISTRATION

SEC. 1001. REQUIRING AVAILABILITY OF INTERNET FOR VOTER REGISTRATION.

  (a) Requiring Availability of Internet for Registration.--The 
National Voter Registration Act of 1993 (52 U.S.C. 20501 et seq.) is 
amended by inserting after section 6 the following new section:

``SEC. 6A. INTERNET REGISTRATION.

  ``(a) Requiring Availability of Internet for Online Registration.--
          ``(1) Availability of online registration and correction of 
        existing registration information.--Each State, acting through 
        the chief State election official, shall ensure that the 
        following services are available to the public at any time on 
        the official public websites of the appropriate State and local 
        election officials in the State, in the same manner and subject 
        to the same terms and conditions as the services provided by 
        voter registration agencies under section 7(a):
                  ``(A) Online application for voter registration.
                  ``(B) Online assistance to applicants in applying to 
                register to vote.
                  ``(C) Online completion and submission by applicants 
                of the mail voter registration application form 
                prescribed by the Election Assistance Commission 
                pursuant to section 9(a)(2), including assistance with 
                providing a signature as required under subsection (c).
                  ``(D) Online receipt of completed voter registration 
                applications.
  ``(b) Acceptance of Completed Applications.--A State shall accept an 
online voter registration application provided by an individual under 
this section, and ensure that the individual is registered to vote in 
the State, if--
          ``(1) the individual meets the same voter registration 
        requirements applicable to individuals who register to vote by 
        mail in accordance with section 6(a)(1) using the mail voter 
        registration application form prescribed by the Election 
        Assistance Commission pursuant to section 9(a)(2); and
          ``(2) the individual meets the requirements of subsection (c) 
        to provide a signature in electronic form (but only in the case 
        of applications submitted during or after the second year in 
        which this section is in effect in the State).
  ``(c) Signature Requirements.--
          ``(1) In general.--For purposes of this section, an 
        individual meets the requirements of this subsection as 
        follows:
                  ``(A) In the case of an individual who has a 
                signature on file with a State agency, including the 
                State motor vehicle authority, that is required to 
                provide voter registration services under this Act or 
                any other law, the individual consents to the transfer 
                of that electronic signature.
                  ``(B) If subparagraph (A) does not apply, the 
                individual submits with the application an electronic 
                copy of the individual's handwritten signature through 
                electronic means.
                  ``(C) If subparagraph (A) and subparagraph (B) do not 
                apply, the individual executes a computerized mark in 
                the signature field on an online voter registration 
                application, in accordance with reasonable security 
                measures established by the State, but only if the 
                State accepts such mark from the individual.
          ``(2) Treatment of individuals unable to meet requirement.--
        If an individual is unable to meet the requirements of 
        paragraph (1), the State shall--
                  ``(A) permit the individual to complete all other 
                elements of the online voter registration application;
                  ``(B) permit the individual to provide a signature at 
                the time the individual requests a ballot in an 
                election (whether the individual requests the ballot at 
                a polling place or requests the ballot by mail); and
                  ``(C) if the individual carries out the steps 
                described in subparagraph (A) and subparagraph (B), 
                ensure that the individual is registered to vote in the 
                State.
          ``(3) Notice.--The State shall ensure that individuals 
        applying to register to vote online are notified of the 
        requirements of paragraph (1) and of the treatment of 
        individuals unable to meet such requirements, as described in 
        paragraph (2).
  ``(d) Confirmation and Disposition.--
          ``(1) Confirmation of receipt.--Upon the online submission of 
        a completed voter registration application by an individual 
        under this section, the appropriate State or local election 
        official shall send the individual a notice confirming the 
        State's receipt of the application and providing instructions 
        on how the individual may check the status of the application.
          ``(2) Notice of disposition.--Not later than 7 days after the 
        appropriate State or local election official has approved or 
        rejected an application submitted by an individual under this 
        section, the official shall send the individual a notice of the 
        disposition of the application.
          ``(3) Method of notification.--The appropriate State or local 
        election official shall send the notices required under this 
        subsection by regular mail, and, in the case of an individual 
        who has provided the official with an electronic mail address, 
        by both electronic mail and regular mail.
  ``(e) Provision of Services in Nonpartisan Manner.--The services made 
available under subsection (a) shall be provided in a manner that 
ensures that, consistent with section 7(a)(5)--
          ``(1) the online application does not seek to influence an 
        applicant's political preference or party registration; and
          ``(2) there is no display on the website promoting any 
        political preference or party allegiance, except that nothing 
        in this paragraph may be construed to prohibit an applicant 
        from registering to vote as a member of a political party.
  ``(f) Protection of Security of Information.--In meeting the 
requirements of this section, the State shall establish appropriate 
technological security measures to prevent to the greatest extent 
practicable any unauthorized access to information provided by 
individuals using the services made available under subsection (a).
  ``(g) Accessibility of Services.--A state shall ensure that the 
services made available under this section are made available to 
individuals with disabilities to the same extent as services are made 
available to all other individuals.
  ``(h) Use of Additional Telephone-Based System.--A State shall make 
the services made available online under subsection (a) available 
through the use of an automated telephone-based system, subject to the 
same terms and conditions applicable under this section to the services 
made available online, in addition to making the services available 
online in accordance with the requirements of this section.
  ``(i) Nondiscrimination Among Registered Voters Using Mail and Online 
Registration.--In carrying out this Act, the Help America Vote Act of 
2002, or any other Federal, State, or local law governing the treatment 
of registered voters in the State or the administration of elections 
for public office in the State, a State shall treat a registered voter 
who registered to vote online in accordance with this section in the 
same manner as the State treats a registered voter who registered to 
vote by mail.''.
  (b) Special Requirements for Individuals Using Online Registration.--
          (1) Treatment as individuals registering to vote by mail for 
        purposes of first-time voter identification requirements.--
        Section 303(b)(1)(A) of the Help America Vote Act of 2002 (52 
        U.S.C. 21083(b)(1)(A)) is amended by striking ``by mail'' and 
        inserting ``by mail or online under section 6A of the National 
        Voter Registration Act of 1993''.
          (2) Requiring signature for first-time voters in 
        jurisdiction.--Section 303(b) of such Act (52 U.S.C. 21083(b)) 
        is amended--
                  (A) by redesignating paragraph (5) as paragraph (6); 
                and
                  (B) by inserting after paragraph (4) the following 
                new paragraph:
          ``(5) Signature requirements for first-time voters using 
        online registration.--
                  ``(A) In general.--A State shall, in a uniform and 
                nondiscriminatory manner, require an individual to meet 
                the requirements of subparagraph (B) if--
                          ``(i) the individual registered to vote in 
                        the State online under section 6A of the 
                        National Voter Registration Act of 1993; and
                          ``(ii) the individual has not previously 
                        voted in an election for Federal office in the 
                        State.
                  ``(B) Requirements.--An individual meets the 
                requirements of this subparagraph if--
                          ``(i) in the case of an individual who votes 
                        in person, the individual provides the 
                        appropriate State or local election official 
                        with a handwritten signature; or
                          ``(ii) in the case of an individual who votes 
                        by mail, the individual submits with the ballot 
                        a handwritten signature.
                  ``(C) Inapplicability.--Subparagraph (A) does not 
                apply in the case of an individual who is--
                          ``(i) entitled to vote by absentee ballot 
                        under the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens 
                        Absentee Voting Act (52 U.S.C. 20302 et seq.);
                          ``(ii) provided the right to vote otherwise 
                        than in person under section 3(b)(2)(B)(ii) of 
                        the Voting Accessibility for the Elderly and 
                        Handicapped Act (52 U.S.C. 20102(b)(2)(B)(ii)); 
                        or
                          ``(iii) entitled to vote otherwise than in 
                        person under any other Federal law.''.
          (3) Conforming amendment relating to effective date.--Section 
        303(d)(2)(A) of such Act (52 U.S.C. 21083(d)(2)(A)) is amended 
        by striking ``Each State'' and inserting ``Except as provided 
        in subsection (b)(5), each State''.
  (c) Conforming Amendments.--
          (1) Timing of registration.--Section 8(a)(1) of the National 
        Voter Registration Act of 1993 (52 U.S.C. 20507(a)(1)) is 
        amended--
                  (A) by striking ``and'' at the end of subparagraph 
                (C);
                  (B) by redesignating subparagraph (D) as subparagraph 
                (E); and
                  (C) by inserting after subparagraph (C) the following 
                new subparagraph:
                  ``(D) in the case of online registration through the 
                official public website of an election official under 
                section 6A, if the valid voter registration application 
                is submitted online not later than the lesser of 30 
                days, or the period provided by State law, before the 
                date of the election (as determined by treating the 
                date on which the application is sent electronically as 
                the date on which it is submitted); and''.
          (2) Informing applicants of eligibility requirements and 
        penalties.--Section 8(a)(5) of such Act (52 U.S.C. 20507(a)(5)) 
        is amended by striking ``and 7'' and inserting ``6A, and 7''.

SEC. 1002. USE OF INTERNET TO UPDATE REGISTRATION INFORMATION.

  (a) In General.--
          (1) Updates to information contained on computerized 
        statewide voter registration list.--Section 303(a) of the Help 
        America Vote Act of 2002 (52 U.S.C. 21083(a)) is amended by 
        adding at the end the following new paragraph:
          ``(6) Use of internet by registered voters to update 
        information.--
                  ``(A) In general.--The appropriate State or local 
                election official shall ensure that any registered 
                voter on the computerized list may at any time update 
                the voter's registration information, including the 
                voter's address and electronic mail address, online 
                through the official public website of the election 
                official responsible for the maintenance of the list, 
                so long as the voter attests to the contents of the 
                update by providing a signature in electronic form in 
                the same manner required under section 6A(c) of the 
                National Voter Registration Act of 1993.
                  ``(B) Processing of updated information by election 
                officials.--If a registered voter updates registration 
                information under subparagraph (A), the appropriate 
                State or local election official shall--
                          ``(i) revise any information on the 
                        computerized list to reflect the update made by 
                        the voter; and
                          ``(ii) if the updated registration 
                        information affects the voter's eligibility to 
                        vote in an election for Federal office, ensure 
                        that the information is processed with respect 
                        to the election if the voter updates the 
                        information not later than the lesser of 7 
                        days, or the period provided by State law, 
                        before the date of the election.
                  ``(C) Confirmation and disposition.--
                          ``(i) Confirmation of receipt.--Upon the 
                        online submission of updated registration 
                        information by an individual under this 
                        paragraph, the appropriate State or local 
                        election official shall send the individual a 
                        notice confirming the State's receipt of the 
                        updated information and providing instructions 
                        on how the individual may check the status of 
                        the update.
                          ``(ii) Notice of disposition.--Not later than 
                        7 days after the appropriate State or local 
                        election official has accepted or rejected 
                        updated information submitted by an individual 
                        under this paragraph, the official shall send 
                        the individual a notice of the disposition of 
                        the update.
                          ``(iii) Method of notification.--The 
                        appropriate State or local election official 
                        shall send the notices required under this 
                        subparagraph by regular mail, and, in the case 
                        of an individual who has requested that the 
                        State provide voter registration and voting 
                        information through electronic mail, by both 
                        electronic mail and regular mail.''.
          (2) Conforming amendment relating to effective date.--Section 
        303(d)(1)(A) of such Act (52 U.S.C. 21083(d)(1)(A)) is amended 
        by striking ``subparagraph (B)'' and inserting ``subparagraph 
        (B) and subsection (a)(6)''.
  (b) Ability of Registrant To Use Online Update To Provide Information 
on Residence.--Section 8(d)(2)(A) of the National Voter Registration 
Act of 1993 (52 U.S.C. 20507(d)(2)(A)) is amended--
          (1) in the first sentence, by inserting after ``return the 
        card'' the following: ``or update the registrant's information 
        on the computerized Statewide voter registration list using the 
        online method provided under section 303(a)(6) of the Help 
        America Vote Act of 2002''; and
          (2) in the second sentence, by striking ``returned,'' and 
        inserting the following: ``returned or if the registrant does 
        not update the registrant's information on the computerized 
        Statewide voter registration list using such online method,''.

SEC. 1003. PROVISION OF ELECTION INFORMATION BY ELECTRONIC MAIL TO 
                    INDIVIDUALS REGISTERED TO VOTE.

  (a) Including Option on Voter Registration Application To Provide E-
Mail Address and Receive Information.--
          (1) In general.--Section 9(b) of the National Voter 
        Registration Act of 1993 (52 U.S.C. 20508(b)) is amended--
                  (A) by striking ``and'' at the end of paragraph (3);
                  (B) by striking the period at the end of paragraph 
                (4) and inserting ``; and''; and
                  (C) by adding at the end the following new paragraph:
          ``(5) shall include a space for the applicant to provide (at 
        the applicant's option) an electronic mail address, together 
        with a statement that, if the applicant so requests, instead of 
        using regular mail the appropriate State and local election 
        officials shall provide to the applicant, through electronic 
        mail sent to that address, the same voting information (as 
        defined in section 302(b)(2) of the Help America Vote Act of 
        2002) which the officials would provide to the applicant 
        through regular mail.''.
          (2) Prohibiting use for purposes unrelated to official duties 
        of election officials.--Section 9 of such Act (52 U.S.C. 20508) 
        is amended by adding at the end the following new subsection:
  ``(c) Prohibiting Use of Electronic Mail Addresses for Other Than 
Official Purposes.--The chief State election official shall ensure that 
any electronic mail address provided by an applicant under subsection 
(b)(5) is used only for purposes of carrying out official duties of 
election officials and is not transmitted by any State or local 
election official (or any agent of such an official, including a 
contractor) to any person who does not require the address to carry out 
such official duties and who is not under the direct supervision and 
control of a State or local election official.''.
  (b) Requiring Provision of Information by Election Officials.--
Section 302(b) of the Help America Vote Act of 2002 (52 U.S.C. 
21082(b)) is amended by adding at the end the following new paragraph:
          ``(3) Provision of other information by electronic mail.--If 
        an individual who is a registered voter has provided the State 
        or local election official with an electronic mail address for 
        the purpose of receiving voting information (as described in 
        section 9(b)(5) of the National Voter Registration Act of 
        1993), the appropriate State or local election official, 
        through electronic mail transmitted not later than 7 days 
        before the date of the election for Federal office involved, 
        shall provide the individual with information on how to obtain 
        the following information by electronic means:
                  ``(A) The name and address of the polling place at 
                which the individual is assigned to vote in the 
                election.
                  ``(B) The hours of operation for the polling place.
                  ``(C) A description of any identification or other 
                information the individual may be required to present 
                at the polling place.''.

SEC. 1004. CLARIFICATION OF REQUIREMENT REGARDING NECESSARY INFORMATION 
                    TO SHOW ELIGIBILITY TO VOTE.

  Section 8 of the National Voter Registration Act of 1993 (52 U.S.C. 
20507) is amended--
          (1) by redesignating subsection (j) as subsection (k); and
          (2) by inserting after subsection (i) the following new 
        subsection:
  ``(j) Requirement for State To Register Applicants Providing 
Necessary Information To Show Eligibility To Vote.--For purposes 
meeting the requirement of subsection (a)(1) that an eligible applicant 
is registered to vote in an election for Federal office within the 
deadlines required under such subsection, the State shall consider an 
applicant to have provided a `valid voter registration form' if--
          ``(1) the applicant has substantially completed the 
        application form and attested to the statement required by 
        section 9(b)(2); and
          ``(2) in the case of an applicant who registers to vote 
        online in accordance with section 6A, the applicant provides a 
        signature in accordance with subsection (c) of such section.''.

SEC. 1005. EFFECTIVE DATE.

  (a) In General.--Except as provided in subsection (b), the amendments 
made by this part (other than the amendments made by section 1004) 
shall take effect January 1, 2020.
  (b) Waiver.--Subject to the approval of the Election Assistance 
Commission, if a State certifies to the Election Assistance Commission 
that the State will not meet the deadline referred to in subsection (a) 
because of extraordinary circumstances and includes in the 
certification the reasons for the failure to meet the deadline, 
subsection (a) shall apply to the State as if the reference in such 
subsection to ``January 1, 2020'' were a reference to ``January 1, 
2022''.

                  PART 2--AUTOMATIC VOTER REGISTRATION

SEC. 1011. SHORT TITLE; FINDINGS AND PURPOSE.

  (a) Short Title.--This part may be cited as the ``Automatic Voter 
Registration Act of 2019''.
  (b) Findings and Purpose.--
          (1) Findings.--Congress finds that--
                  (A) the right to vote is a fundamental right of 
                citizens of the United States;
                  (B) it is the responsibility of the State and Federal 
                Governments to ensure that every eligible citizen is 
                registered to vote;
                  (C) existing voter registration systems can be 
                inaccurate, costly, inaccessible and confusing, with 
                damaging effects on voter participation in elections 
                and disproportionate impacts on young people, persons 
                with disabilities, and racial and ethnic minorities; 
                and
                  (D) voter registration systems must be updated with 
                21st Century technologies and procedures to maintain 
                their security.
          (2) Purpose.--It is the purpose of this part--
                  (A) to establish that it is the responsibility of 
                government at every level to ensure that all eligible 
                citizens are registered to vote;
                  (B) to enable the State and Federal Governments to 
                register all eligible citizens to vote with accurate, 
                cost-efficient, and up-to-date procedures;
                  (C) to modernize voter registration and list 
                maintenance procedures with electronic and Internet 
                capabilities; and
                  (D) to protect and enhance the integrity, accuracy, 
                efficiency, and accessibility of the electoral process 
                for all eligible citizens.

SEC. 1012. AUTOMATIC REGISTRATION OF ELIGIBLE INDIVIDUALS.

  (a) Requiring States to Establish and Operate Automatic Registration 
System.--
          (1) In general.--The chief State election official of each 
        State shall establish and operate a system of automatic 
        registration for the registration of eligible individuals to 
        vote for elections for Federal office in the State, in 
        accordance with the provisions of this part.
          (2) Definition.--The term ``automatic registration'' means a 
        system that registers an individual to vote in elections for 
        Federal office in a State, if eligible, by electronically 
        transferring the information necessary for registration from 
        government agencies to election officials of the State so that, 
        unless the individual affirmatively declines to be registered, 
        the individual will be registered to vote in such elections.
  (b) Registration of Voters Based on New Agency Records.--The chief 
State election official shall--
          (1) not later than 15 days after a contributing agency has 
        transmitted information with respect to an individual pursuant 
        to section 1013, ensure that the individual is registered to 
        vote in elections for Federal office in the State if the 
        individual is eligible to be registered to vote in such 
        elections; and
          (2) not later than 120 days after a contributing agency has 
        transmitted such information with respect to the individual, 
        send written notice to the individual, in addition to other 
        means of notice established by this part, of the individual's 
        voter registration status.
  (c) One-time Registration of Voters Based on Existing Contributing 
Agency Records.--The chief State election official shall--
          (1) identify all individuals whose information is transmitted 
        by a contributing agency pursuant to section 1014 and who are 
        eligible to be, but are not currently, registered to vote in 
        that State;
          (2) promptly send each such individual written notice, in 
        addition to other means of notice established by this part, 
        which shall not identify the contributing agency that 
        transmitted the information but shall include--
                  (A) an explanation that voter registration is 
                voluntary, but if the individual does not decline 
                registration, the individual will be registered to 
                vote;
                  (B) a statement offering the opportunity to decline 
                voter registration through means consistent with the 
                requirements of this part;
                  (C) in the case of a State in which affiliation or 
                enrollment with a political party is required in order 
                to participate in an election to select the party's 
                candidate in an election for Federal office, a 
                statement offering the individual the opportunity to 
                affiliate or enroll with a political party or to 
                decline to affiliate or enroll with a political party, 
                through means consistent with the requirements of this 
                part;
                  (D) the substantive qualifications of an elector in 
                the State as listed in the mail voter registration 
                application form for elections for Federal office 
                prescribed pursuant to section 9 of the National Voter 
                Registration Act of 1993, the consequences of false 
                registration, and a statement that the individual 
                should decline to register if the individual does not 
                meet all those qualifications;
                  (E) instructions for correcting any erroneous 
                information; and
                  (F) instructions for providing any additional 
                information which is listed in the mail voter 
                registration application form for elections for Federal 
                office prescribed pursuant to section 9 of the National 
                Voter Registration Act of 1993;
          (3) ensure that each such individual who is eligible to 
        register to vote in elections for Federal office in the State 
        is promptly registered to vote not later than 45 days after the 
        official sends the individual the written notice under 
        paragraph (2), unless, during the 30-day period which begins on 
        the date the election official sends the individual such 
        written notice, the individual declines registration in 
        writing, through a communication made over the Internet, or by 
        an officially-logged telephone communication; and
          (4) send written notice to each such individual, in addition 
        to other means of notice established by this part, of the 
        individual's voter registration status.
  (d) Treatment of Individuals Under 18 Years of Age.--A State may not 
refuse to treat an individual as an eligible individual for purposes of 
this part on the grounds that the individual is less than 18 years of 
age at the time a contributing agency receives information with respect 
to the individual, so long as the individual is at least 16 years of 
age at such time.
  (e) Contributing Agency Defined.--In this part, the term 
``contributing agency'' means, with respect to a State, an agency 
listed in section 1013(e).

SEC. 1013. CONTRIBUTING AGENCY ASSISTANCE IN REGISTRATION.

  (a) In General.--In accordance with this part, each contributing 
agency in a State shall assist the State's chief election official in 
registering to vote all eligible individuals served by that agency.
  (b) Requirements for Contributing Agencies.--
          (1) Instructions on automatic registration.--With each 
        application for service or assistance, and with each related 
        recertification, renewal, or change of address, or, in the case 
        of an institution of higher education, with each registration 
        of a student for enrollment in a course of study, each 
        contributing agency that (in the normal course of its 
        operations) requests individuals to affirm United States 
        citizenship (either directly or as part of the overall 
        application for service or assistance) shall inform each such 
        individual who is a citizen of the United States of the 
        following:
                  (A) Unless that individual declines to register to 
                vote, or is found ineligible to vote, the individual 
                will be registered to vote or, if applicable, the 
                individual's registration will be updated.
                  (B) The substantive qualifications of an elector in 
                the State as listed in the mail voter registration 
                application form for elections for Federal office 
                prescribed pursuant to section 9 of the National Voter 
                Registration Act of 1993, the consequences of false 
                registration, and the individual should decline to 
                register if the individual does not meet all those 
                qualifications.
                  (C) In the case of a State in which affiliation or 
                enrollment with a political party is required in order 
                to participate in an election to select the party's 
                candidate in an election for Federal office, the 
                requirement that the individual must affiliate or 
                enroll with a political party in order to participate 
                in such an election.
                  (D) Voter registration is voluntary, and neither 
                registering nor declining to register to vote will in 
                any way affect the availability of services or 
                benefits, nor be used for other purposes.
          (2) Opportunity to decline registration required.--Each 
        contributing agency shall ensure that each application for 
        service or assistance, and each related recertification, 
        renewal, or change of address, or, in the case of an 
        institution of higher education, each registration of a student 
        for enrollment in a course of study, cannot be completed until 
        the individual is given the opportunity to decline to be 
        registered to vote.
          (3) Information transmittal.--Upon the expiration of the 30-
        day period which begins on the date the contributing agency 
        informs the individual of the information described in 
        paragraph (1), each contributing agency shall electronically 
        transmit to the appropriate State election official, in a 
        format compatible with the statewide voter database maintained 
        under section 303 of the Help America Vote Act of 2002 (52 
        U.S.C. 21083), the following information, unless during such 
        30-day period the individual declined to be registered to vote:
                  (A) The individual's given name(s) and surname(s).
                  (B) The individual's date of birth.
                  (C) The individual's residential address.
                  (D) Information showing that the individual is a 
                citizen of the United States.
                  (E) The date on which information pertaining to that 
                individual was collected or last updated.
                  (F) If available, the individual's signature in 
                electronic form.
                  (G) Information regarding the individual's 
                affiliation or enrollment with a political party, if 
                the individual provides such information.
                  (H) Any additional information listed in the mail 
                voter registration application form for elections for 
                Federal office prescribed pursuant to section 9 of the 
                National Voter Registration Act of 1993, including any 
                valid driver's license number or the last 4 digits of 
                the individual's social security number, if the 
                individual provided such information.
  (c) Alternate Procedure for Certain Contributing Agencies.--With each 
application for service or assistance, and with each related 
recertification, renewal, or change of address, any contributing agency 
that in the normal course of its operations does not request 
individuals applying for service or assistance to affirm United States 
citizenship (either directly or as part of the overall application for 
service or assistance) shall--
          (1) complete the requirements of section 7(a)(6) of the 
        National Voter Registration Act of 1993 (52 U.S.C. 
        20506(a)(6));
          (2) ensure that each applicant's transaction with the agency 
        cannot be completed until the applicant has indicated whether 
        the applicant wishes to register to vote or declines to 
        register to vote in elections for Federal office held in the 
        State; and
          (3) for each individual who wishes to register to vote, 
        transmit that individual's information in accordance with 
        subsection (b)(3).
  (d) Required Availability of Automatic Registration Opportunity With 
Each Application for Service or Assistance.--Each contributing agency 
shall offer each individual, with each application for service or 
assistance, and with each related recertification, renewal, or change 
of address, or in the case of an institution of higher education, with 
each registration of a student for enrollment in a course of study, the 
opportunity to register to vote as prescribed by this section without 
regard to whether the individual previously declined a registration 
opportunity.
  (e) Contributing Agencies.--
          (1) State agencies.--In each State, each of the following 
        agencies shall be treated as a contributing agency:
                  (A) Each agency in a State that is required by 
                Federal law to provide voter registration services, 
                including the State motor vehicle authority and other 
                voter registration agencies under the National Voter 
                Registration Act of 1993.
                  (B) Each agency in a State that administers a program 
                pursuant to title III of the Social Security Act (42 
                U.S.C. 501 et seq.), title XIX of the Social Security 
                Act (42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq.), or the Patient Protection 
                and Affordable Care Act (Public Law 111-148).
                  (C) Each State agency primarily responsible for 
                regulating the private possession of firearms.
                  (D) Each State agency primarily responsible for 
                maintaining identifying information for students 
                enrolled at public secondary schools, including, where 
                applicable, the State agency responsible for 
                maintaining the education data system described in 
                section 6201(e)(2) of the America COMPETES Act (20 
                U.S.C. 9871(e)(2)).
                  (E) In the case of a State in which an individual 
                disenfranchised by a criminal conviction may become 
                eligible to vote upon completion of a criminal sentence 
                or any part thereof, or upon formal restoration of 
                rights, the State agency responsible for administering 
                that sentence, or part thereof, or that restoration of 
                rights.
                  (F) Any other agency of the State which is designated 
                by the State as a contributing agency.
          (2) Federal agencies.--In each State, each of the following 
        agencies of the Federal government shall be treated as a 
        contributing agency with respect to individuals who are 
        residents of that State (except as provided in subparagraph 
        (C)):
                  (A) The Social Security Administration, the 
                Department of Veterans Affairs, the Defense Manpower 
                Data Center of the Department of Defense, the Employee 
                and Training Administration of the Department of Labor, 
                and the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services of the 
                Department of Health and Human Services.
                  (B) The Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration 
                Services, but only with respect to individuals who have 
                completed the naturalization process.
                  (C) In the case of an individual who is a resident of 
                a State in which an individual disenfranchised by a 
                criminal conviction under Federal law may become 
                eligible to vote upon completion of a criminal sentence 
                or any part thereof, or upon formal restoration of 
                rights, the Federal agency responsible for 
                administering that sentence or part thereof (without 
                regard to whether the agency is located in the same 
                State in which the individual is a resident), but only 
                with respect to individuals who have completed the 
                criminal sentence or any part thereof.
                  (D) Any other agency of the Federal government which 
                the State designates as a contributing agency, but only 
                if the State and the head of the agency determine that 
                the agency collects information sufficient to carry out 
                the responsibilities of a contributing agency under 
                this section.
          (3) Special rule for institutions of higher education.--
                  (A) Special rule.--For purposes of this part, each 
                institution of higher education described in 
                subparagraph (B) shall be treated as a contributing 
                agency in the State in which it is located, except 
                that--
                          (i) the institution shall be treated as a 
                        contributing agency only if, in its normal 
                        course of operations, the institution requests 
                        each student registering for enrollment in a 
                        course of study, including enrollment in a 
                        program of distance education, as defined in 
                        section 103(7) of the Higher Education Act of 
                        1965 (20 U.S.C. 1003(7)), to affirm whether or 
                        not the student is a United States citizen; and
                          (ii) if the institution is treated as a 
                        contributing agency in a State pursuant to 
                        clause (i), the institution shall serve as a 
                        contributing agency only with respect to 
                        students, including students enrolled in a 
                        program of distance education, as defined in 
                        section 103(7) of the Higher Education Act of 
                        1965 (20 U.S.C. 1003(7)), who reside in the 
                        State.
                  (B) Institutions described.--An institution described 
                in this subparagraph is an institution of higher 
                education which has a program participation agreement 
                in effect with the Secretary of Education under section 
                487 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 
                1094) and which is located in a State to which section 
                4(b) of the National Voter Registration Act of 1993 (52 
                U.S.C. 20503(b)) does not apply.
          (4) Publication.--Not later than 180 days prior to the date 
        of each election for Federal office held in the State, the 
        chief State election official shall publish on the public 
        website of the official an updated list of all contributing 
        agencies in that State.
          (5) Public education.--The chief State election official of 
        each State, in collaboration with each contributing agency, 
        shall take appropriate measures to educate the public about 
        voter registration under this section.

SEC. 1014. ONE-TIME CONTRIBUTING AGENCY ASSISTANCE IN REGISTRATION OF 
                    ELIGIBLE VOTERS IN EXISTING RECORDS.

  (a) Initial Transmittal of Information.--For each individual already 
listed in a contributing agency's records as of the date of enactment 
of this Act, and for whom the agency has the information listed in 
section 1013(b)(3), the agency shall promptly transmit that information 
to the appropriate State election official in accordance with section 
1013(b)(3) not later than the effective date described in section 
1011(a).
  (b) Transition.--For each individual listed in a contributing 
agency's records as of the effective date described in section 1011(a) 
(but who was not listed in a contributing agency's records as of the 
date of enactment of this Act), and for whom the agency has the 
information listed in section 1013(b)(3), the Agency shall promptly 
transmit that information to the appropriate State election official in 
accordance with section 1013(b)(3) not later than 6 months after the 
effective date described in section 1011(a).

SEC. 1015. VOTER PROTECTION AND SECURITY IN AUTOMATIC REGISTRATION.

  (a) Protections for Errors in Registration.--An individual shall not 
be prosecuted under any Federal or State law, adversely affected in any 
civil adjudication concerning immigration status or naturalization, or 
subject to an allegation in any legal proceeding that the individual is 
not a citizen of the United States on any of the following grounds:
          (1) The individual notified an election office of the 
        individual's automatic registration to vote under this part.
          (2) The individual is not eligible to vote in elections for 
        Federal office but was automatically registered to vote under 
        this part.
          (3) The individual was automatically registered to vote under 
        this part at an incorrect address.
          (4) The individual declined the opportunity to register to 
        vote or did not make an affirmation of citizenship, including 
        through automatic registration, under this part.
  (b) Limits on Use of Automatic Registration.--The automatic 
registration of any individual or the fact that an individual declined 
the opportunity to register to vote or did not make an affirmation of 
citizenship (including through automatic registration) under this part 
may not be used as evidence against that individual in any State or 
Federal law enforcement proceeding, and an individual's lack of 
knowledge or willfulness of such registration may be demonstrated by 
the individual's testimony alone.
  (c) Protection of Election Integrity.--Nothing in subsections (a) or 
(b) may be construed to prohibit or restrict any action under color of 
law against an individual who--
          (1) knowingly and willfully makes a false statement to 
        effectuate or perpetuate automatic voter registration by any 
        individual; or
          (2) casts a ballot knowingly and willfully in violation of 
        State law or the laws of the United States.
  (d) Contributing Agencies' Protection of Information.--Nothing in 
this part authorizes a contributing agency to collect, retain, 
transmit, or publicly disclose any of the following:
          (1) An individual's decision to decline to register to vote 
        or not to register to vote.
          (2) An individual's decision not to affirm his or her 
        citizenship.
          (3) Any information that a contributing agency transmits 
        pursuant to section 1013(b)(3), except in pursuing the agency's 
        ordinary course of business.
  (e) Election Officials' Protection of Information.--
          (1) Public disclosure prohibited.--
                  (A) In general.--Subject to subparagraph (B), with 
                respect to any individual for whom any State election 
                official receives information from a contributing 
                agency, the State election officials shall not publicly 
                disclose any of the following:
                          (i) The identity of the contributing agency.
                          (ii) Any information not necessary to voter 
                        registration.
                          (iii) Any voter information otherwise 
                        shielded from disclosure under State law or 
                        section 8(a) of the National Voter Registration 
                        Act of 1993 (52 U.S.C. 20507(a)).
                          (iv) Any portion of the individual's social 
                        security number.
                          (v) Any portion of the individual's motor 
                        vehicle driver's license number.
                          (vi) The individual's signature.
                          (vii) The individual's telephone number.
                          (viii) The individual's email address.
                  (B) Special rule for individuals registered to 
                vote.--With respect to any individual for whom any 
                State election official receives information from a 
                contributing agency and who, on the basis of such 
                information, is registered to vote in the State under 
                this part, the State election officials shall not 
                publicly disclose any of the following:
                          (i) The identity of the contributing agency.
                          (ii) Any information not necessary to voter 
                        registration.
                          (iii) Any voter information otherwise 
                        shielded from disclosure under State law or 
                        section 8(a) of the National Voter Registration 
                        Act of 1993 (52 U.S.C. 20507(a)).
                          (iv) Any portion of the individual's social 
                        security number.
                          (v) Any portion of the individual's motor 
                        vehicle driver's license number.
                          (vi) The individual's signature.
          (2) Voter record changes.--Each State shall maintain for at 
        least 2 years and shall make available for public inspection 
        (and, where available, photocopying at a reasonable cost), 
        including in electronic form and through electronic methods, 
        all records of changes to voter records, including removals, 
        the reasons for removals, and updates.
          (3) Database management standards.--The Director of the 
        National Institute of Standards and Technology shall, after 
        providing the public with notice and the opportunity to 
        comment--
                  (A) establish standards governing the comparison of 
                data for voter registration list maintenance purposes, 
                identifying as part of such standards the specific data 
                elements, the matching rules used, and how a State may 
                use the data to determine and deem that an individual 
                is ineligible under State law to vote in an election, 
                or to deem a record to be a duplicate or outdated;
                  (B) ensure that the standards developed pursuant to 
                this paragraph are uniform and nondiscriminatory and 
                are applied in a uniform and nondiscriminatory manner; 
                and
                  (C) not later than 45 days after the deadline for 
                public notice and comment, publish the standards 
                developed pursuant to this paragraph on the Director's 
                website and make those standards available in written 
                form upon request.
          (4) Security policy.--The Director of the National Institute 
        of Standards and Technology shall, after providing the public 
        with notice and the opportunity to comment, publish privacy and 
        security standards for voter registration information not later 
        than 45 days after the deadline for public notice and comment. 
        The standards shall require the chief State election official 
        of each State to adopt a policy that shall specify--
                  (A) each class of users who shall have authorized 
                access to the computerized statewide voter registration 
                list, specifying for each class the permission and 
                levels of access to be granted, and setting forth other 
                safeguards to protect the privacy, security, and 
                accuracy of the information on the list; and
                  (B) security safeguards to protect personal 
                information transmitted through the information 
                transmittal processes of section 1013 or section 1014, 
                the online system used pursuant to section 1017, any 
                telephone interface, the maintenance of the voter 
                registration database, and any audit procedure to track 
                access to the system.
          (5) State compliance with national standards.--
                  (A) Certification.--The chief executive officer of 
                the State shall annually file with the Election 
                Assistance Commission a statement certifying to the 
                Director of the National Institute of Standards and 
                Technology that the State is in compliance with the 
                standards referred to in paragraphs (3) and (4). A 
                State may meet the requirement of the previous sentence 
                by filing with the Commission a statement which reads 
                as follows: ``_____ hereby certifies that it is in 
                compliance with the standards referred to in paragraphs 
                (3) and (4) of section 1015(e) of the Automatic Voter 
                Registration Act of 2019.'' (with the blank to be 
                filled in with the name of the State involved).
                  (B) Publication of policies and procedures.--The 
                chief State election official of a State shall publish 
                on the official's website the policies and procedures 
                established under this section, and shall make those 
                policies and procedures available in written form upon 
                public request.
                  (C) Funding dependent on certification.--If a State 
                does not timely file the certification required under 
                this paragraph, it shall not receive any payment under 
                this part for the upcoming fiscal year.
                  (D) Compliance of states that require changes to 
                state law.--In the case of a State that requires State 
                legislation to carry out an activity covered by any 
                certification submitted under this paragraph, for a 
                period of not more than 2 years the State shall be 
                permitted to make the certification notwithstanding 
                that the legislation has not been enacted at the time 
                the certification is submitted, and such State shall 
                submit an additional certification once such 
                legislation is enacted.
  (f) Restrictions on Use of Information.--No person acting under color 
of law may discriminate against any individual based on, or use for any 
purpose other than voter registration, election administration, or 
enforcement relating to election crimes, any of the following:
          (1) Voter registration records.
          (2) An individual's declination to register to vote or 
        complete an affirmation of citizenship under section 1013(b).
          (3) An individual's voter registration status.
  (g) Prohibition on the Use of Voter Registration Information for 
Commercial Purposes.--Information collected under this part shall not 
be used for commercial purposes. Nothing in this subsection may be 
construed to prohibit the transmission, exchange, or dissemination of 
information for political purposes, including the support of campaigns 
for election for Federal, State, or local public office or the 
activities of political committees (including committees of political 
parties) under the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971.

SEC. 1016. REGISTRATION PORTABILITY AND CORRECTION.

  (a) Correcting Registration Information at Polling Place.--
Notwithstanding section 302(a) of the Help America Vote Act of 2002 (52 
U.S.C. 21082(a)), if an individual is registered to vote in elections 
for Federal office held in a State, the appropriate election official 
at the polling pace for any such election (including a location used as 
a polling place on a date other than the date of the election) shall 
permit the individual to--
          (1) update the individual's address for purposes of the 
        records of the election official;
          (2) correct any incorrect information relating to the 
        individual, including the individual's name and political party 
        affiliation, in the records of the election official; and
          (3) cast a ballot in the election on the basis of the updated 
        address or corrected information, and to have the ballot 
        treated as a regular ballot and not as a provisional ballot 
        under section 302(a) of such Act.
  (b) Updates to Computerized Statewide Voter Registration Lists.--If 
an election official at the polling place receives an updated address 
or corrected information from an individual under subsection (a), the 
official shall ensure that the address or information is promptly 
entered into the computerized Statewide voter registration list in 
accordance with section 303(a)(1)(A)(vi) of the Help America Vote Act 
of 2002 (52 U.S.C. 21083(a)(1)(A)(vi)).

SEC. 1017. PAYMENTS AND GRANTS.

  (a) In General.--The Election Assistance Commission shall make grants 
to each eligible State to assist the State in implementing the 
requirements of this part (or, in the case of an exempt State, in 
implementing its existing automatic voter registration program).
  (b) Eligibility; Application.--A State is eligible to receive a grant 
under this section if the State submits to the Commission, at such time 
and in such form as the Commission may require, an application 
containing--
          (1) a description of the activities the State will carry out 
        with the grant;
          (2) an assurance that the State shall carry out such 
        activities without partisan bias and without promoting any 
        particular point of view regarding any issue; and
          (3) such other information and assurances as the Commission 
        may require.
  (c) Amount of Grant; Priorities.--The Commission shall determine the 
amount of a grant made to an eligible State under this section. In 
determining the amounts of the grants, the Commission shall give 
priority to providing funds for those activities which are most likely 
to accelerate compliance with the requirements of this part (or, in the 
case of an exempt State, which are most likely to enhance the ability 
of the State to automatically register individuals to vote through its 
existing automatic voter registration program), including--
          (1) investments supporting electronic information transfer, 
        including electronic collection and transfer of signatures, 
        between contributing agencies and the appropriate State 
        election officials;
          (2) updates to online or electronic voter registration 
        systems already operating as of the date of the enactment of 
        this Act;
          (3) introduction of online voter registration systems in 
        jurisdictions in which those systems did not previously exist; 
        and
          (4) public education on the availability of new methods of 
        registering to vote, updating registration, and correcting 
        registration.
  (d) Authorization of Appropriations.--
          (1) Authorization.--There are authorized to be appropriated 
        to carry out this section--
                  (A) $500,000,000 for fiscal year 2019; and
                  (B) such sums as may be necessary for each succeeding 
                fiscal year.
          (2) Continuing availability of funds.--Any amounts 
        appropriated pursuant to the authority of this subsection shall 
        remain available without fiscal year limitation until expended.

SEC. 1018. TREATMENT OF EXEMPT STATES.

  (a) Waiver of Requirements.--Except as provided in subsection (b), 
this part does not apply with respect to an exempt State.
  (b) Exceptions.--The following provisions of this part apply with 
respect to an exempt State:
          (1) section 1016 (relating to registration portability and 
        correction).
          (2) section 1017 (relating to payments and grants).
          (3) Section 1019(e) (relating to enforcement).
          (4) Section 1019(f) (relating to relation to other laws).

SEC. 1019. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS.

  (a) Accessibility of Registration Services.--Each contributing agency 
shall ensure that the services it provides under this part are made 
available to individuals with disabilities to the same extent as 
services are made available to all other individuals.
  (b) Transmission Through Secure Third Party Permitted.--Nothing in 
this part shall be construed to prevent a contributing agency from 
contracting with a third party to assist the agency in meeting the 
information transmittal requirements of this part, so long as the data 
transmittal complies with the applicable requirements of this part, 
including the privacy and security provisions of section 1015.
  (c) Nonpartisan, Nondiscriminatory Provision of Services.--The 
services made available by contributing agencies under this part and by 
the State under sections 1006 and 1007 shall be made in a manner 
consistent with paragraphs (4), (5), and (6)(C) of section 7(a) of the 
National Voter Registration Act of 1993 (52 U.S.C. 20506(a)).
  (d) Notices.--Each State may send notices under this part via 
electronic mail if the individual has provided an electronic mail 
address and consented to electronic mail communications for election-
related materials. All notices sent pursuant to this part that require 
a response must offer the individual notified the opportunity to 
respond at no cost to the individual.
  (e) Enforcement.--Section 11 of the National Voter Registration Act 
of 1993 (52 U.S.C. 20510), relating to civil enforcement and the 
availability of private rights of action, shall apply with respect to 
this part in the same manner as such section applies to such Act.
  (f) Relation to Other Laws.--Except as provided, nothing in this part 
may be construed to authorize or require conduct prohibited under, or 
to supersede, restrict, or limit the application of any of the 
following:
          (1) The Voting Rights Act of 1965 (52 U.S.C. 10301 et seq.).
          (2) The Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act 
        (52 U.S.C. 20301 et seq.).
          (3) The National Voter Registration Act of 1993 (52 U.S.C. 
        20501 et seq.).
          (4) The Help America Vote Act of 2002 (52 U.S.C. 20901 et 
        seq.).

SEC. 1020. DEFINITIONS.

  In this part, the following definitions apply:
          (1) The term ``chief State election official'' means, with 
        respect to a State, the individual designated by the State 
        under section 10 of the National Voter Registration Act of 1993 
        (52 U.S.C. 20509) to be responsible for coordination of the 
        State's responsibilities under such Act.
          (2) The term ``Commission'' means the Election Assistance 
        Commission.
          (3) The term ``exempt State'' means a State which, under law 
        which is in effect continuously on and after the date of the 
        enactment of this Act, operates an automatic voter registration 
        program under which an individual is automatically registered 
        to vote in elections for Federal office in the State if the 
        individual provides the motor vehicle authority of the State 
        (or, in the case of a State in which an individual is 
        automatically registered to vote at the time the individual 
        applies for benefits or services with a Permanent Dividend Fund 
        of the State, provides the appropriate official of such Fund) 
        with such identifying information as the State may require.
          (4) The term ``State'' means each of the several States and 
        the District of Columbia.

SEC. 1021. EFFECTIVE DATE.

  (a) In General.--Except as provided in subsection (b), this part and 
the amendments made by this part shall apply with respect to a State 
beginning January 1, 2021.
  (b) Waiver.--Subject to the approval of the Commission, if a State 
certifies to the Commission that the State will not meet the deadline 
referred to in subsection (a) because of extraordinary circumstances 
and includes in the certification the reasons for the failure to meet 
the deadline, subsection (a) shall apply to the State as if the 
reference in such subsection to ``January 1, 2021'' were a reference to 
``January 1, 2023''.

                  PART 3--SAME DAY VOTER REGISTRATION

SEC. 1031. SAME DAY REGISTRATION.

  (a) In General.--Title III of the Help America Vote Act of 2002 (52 
U.S.C. 21081 et seq.) is amended--
          (1) by redesignating sections 304 and 305 as sections 305 and 
        306; and
          (2) by inserting after section 303 the following new section:

``SEC. 304. SAME DAY REGISTRATION.

  ``(a) In General.--
          ``(1) Registration.--Notwithstanding section 8(a)(1)(D) of 
        the National Voter Registration Act of 1993 (52 U.S.C. 
        20507(a)(1)(D)), each State shall permit any eligible 
        individual on the day of a Federal election and on any day when 
        voting, including early voting, is permitted for a Federal 
        election--
                  ``(A) to register to vote in such election at the 
                polling place using a form that meets the requirements 
                under section 9(b) of the National Voter Registration 
                Act of 1993 (or, if the individual is already 
                registered to vote, to revise any of the individual's 
                voter registration information); and
                  ``(B) to cast a vote in such election.
          ``(2) Exception.--The requirements under paragraph (1) shall 
        not apply to a State in which, under a State law in effect 
        continuously on and after the date of the enactment of this 
        section, there is no voter registration requirement for 
        individuals in the State with respect to elections for Federal 
        office.
  ``(b) Eligible Individual.--For purposes of this section, the term 
`eligible individual' means, with respect to any election for Federal 
office, an individual who is otherwise qualified to vote in that 
election.
  ``(c) Effective Date.--Each State shall be required to comply with 
the requirements of subsection (a) for the regularly scheduled general 
election for Federal office occurring in November 2020 and for any 
subsequent election for Federal office.''.
  (b) Conforming Amendment Relating to Enforcement.--Section 401 of 
such Act (52 U.S.C. 21111) is amended by striking ``sections 301, 302, 
and 303'' and inserting ``subtitle A of title III''.
  (c) Clerical Amendment.--The table of contents of such Act is 
amended--
          (1) by redesignating the items relating to sections 304 and 
        305 as relating to sections 305 and 306; and
          (2) by inserting after the item relating to section 303 the 
        following new item:

``Sec. 304. Same day registration.''.

   PART 4--CONDITIONS ON REMOVAL ON BASIS OF INTERSTATE CROSS-CHECKS

SEC. 1041. CONDITIONS ON REMOVAL OF REGISTRANTS FROM OFFICIAL LIST OF 
                    ELIGIBLE VOTERS ON BASIS OF INTERSTATE CROSS-
                    CHECKS.

  (a) Minimum Information Required for Removal Under Cross-check.--
Section 8(c)(2) of the National Voter Registration Act of 1993 (52 
U.S.C. 20507(c)(2)) is amended--
          (1) by redesignating subparagraph (B) as subparagraph (D); 
        and
          (2) by inserting after subparagraph (A) the following new 
        subparagraphs:
  ``(B) To the extent that the program carried out by a State under 
subparagraph (A) to systematically remove the names of ineligible 
voters from the official lists of eligible voters uses information 
obtained in an interstate cross-check, in addition to any other 
conditions imposed under this Act on the authority of the State to 
remove the name of the voter from such a list, the State may not remove 
the name of the voter from such a list unless--
          ``(i) the State obtained the voter's full name (including the 
        voter's middle name, if any) and date of birth, and the last 4 
        digits of the voter's social security number, in the interstate 
        cross-check; or
          ``(ii) the State obtained documentation from the ERIC system 
        that the voter is no longer a resident of the State.
  ``(C) In this paragraph--
          ``(i) the term `interstate cross-check' means the 
        transmission of information from an election official in one 
        State to an election official of another State; and
          ``(ii) the term `ERIC system' means the system operated by 
        the Electronic Registration Information Center to share voter 
        registration information and voter identification information 
        among participating States.''.
  (b) Requiring Completion of Cross-checks Not Later Than 6 Months 
Prior to Election.--Subparagraph (A) of section 8(c)(2) of such Act (52 
U.S.C. 20507(c)(2)) is amended by striking ``not later than 90 days'' 
and inserting the following: ``not later than 90 days (or, in the case 
of a program in which the State uses interstate cross-checks, not later 
than 6 months)''.
  (c) Conforming Amendment.--Subparagraph (D) of section 8(c)(2) of 
such Act (52 U.S.C. 20507(c)(2)), as redesignated by subsection (a)(1), 
is amended by striking ``Subparagraph (A)'' and inserting ``This 
paragraph''.
  (d) Effective Date.--The amendments made by this Act shall apply with 
respect to elections held on or after the expiration of the 6-month 
period which begins on the date of the enactment of this Act.

        PART 5--OTHER INITIATIVES TO PROMOTE VOTER REGISTRATION

SEC. 1051. ANNUAL REPORTS ON VOTER REGISTRATION STATISTICS.

  (a) Annual Report.--Not later than 90 days after the end of each 
year, each State shall submit to the Election Assistance Commission and 
Congress a report containing the following categories of information 
for the year:
          (1) The number of individuals who were registered under part 
        2.
          (2) The number of voter registration application forms 
        completed by individuals that were transmitted by motor vehicle 
        authorities in the State (pursuant to section 5(d) of the 
        National Voter Registration Act of 1993) and voter registration 
        agencies in the State (as designated under section 7 of such 
        Act) to the chief State election official of the State, broken 
        down by each such authority and agency.
          (3) The number of such individuals whose voter registration 
        application forms were accepted and who were registered to vote 
        in the State and the number of such individuals whose forms 
        were rejected and who were not registered to vote in the State, 
        broken down by each such authority and agency.
          (4) The number of change of address forms and other forms of 
        information indicating that an individual's identifying 
        information has been changed that were transmitted by such 
        motor vehicle authorities and voter registration agencies to 
        the chief State election official of the State, broken down by 
        each such authority and agency and the type of form 
        transmitted.
          (5) The number of individuals on the Statewide computerized 
        voter registration list (as established and maintained under 
        section 303 of the Help America Vote Act of 2002) whose voter 
        registration information was revised by the chief State 
        election official as a result of the forms transmitted to the 
        official by such motor vehicle authorities and voter 
        registration agencies (as described in paragraph (3)), broken 
        down by each such authority and agency and the type of form 
        transmitted.
          (6) The number of individuals who requested the chief State 
        election official to revise voter registration information on 
        such list, and the number of individuals whose information was 
        revised as a result of such a request.
  (b) Breakdown of Information by Race and Ethnicity of Individuals.--
In preparing the report under this section, the State shall, for each 
category of information described in subsection (a), include a 
breakdown by race and ethnicity of the individuals whose information is 
included in the category, to the extent that information on the race 
and ethnicity of such individuals is available to the State.
  (c) Confidentiality of Information.--In preparing and submitting a 
report under this section, the chief State election official shall 
ensure that no information regarding the identification of any 
individual is revealed.
  (d) State Defined.--In this section, a ``State'' includes the 
District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the United 
States Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of 
the Northern Mariana Islands, but does not include any State in which, 
under a State law in effect continuously on and after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, there is no voter registration requirement for 
individuals in the State with respect to elections for Federal office.

           PART 6--AVAILABILITY OF HAVA REQUIREMENTS PAYMENTS

SEC. 1061. AVAILABILITY OF REQUIREMENTS PAYMENTS UNDER HAVA TO COVER 
                    COSTS OF COMPLIANCE WITH NEW REQUIREMENTS.

  (a) In General.--Section 251(b) of the Help America Vote Act of 2002 
(52 U.S.C. 21001(b)) is amended--
          (1) in paragraph (1), by striking ``(2) and (3)'' and 
        inserting ``(2), (3), and (4)''; and
          (2) by adding at the end the following new paragraph:
          ``(4) Certain voter registration activities.--A State may use 
        a requirements payment to carry out any of the requirements of 
        the Voter Registration Modernization Act of 2019, including the 
        requirements of the National Voter Registration Act of 1993 
        which are imposed pursuant to the amendments made to such Act 
        by the Voter Registration Modernization Act of 2019.''.
  (b) Conforming Amendment.--Section 254(a)(1) of such Act (52 U.S.C. 
21004(a)(1)) is amended by striking ``section 251(a)(2)'' and inserting 
``section 251(b)(2)''.
  (c) Effective Date.--The amendments made by this section shall apply 
with respect to fiscal year 2018 and each succeeding fiscal year.

        PART 7--PROHIBITING INTERFERENCE WITH VOTER REGISTRATION

SEC. 1071. [RESERVED].

SEC. 1072. ESTABLISHMENT OF BEST PRACTICES.

  (a) Best Practices.--Not later than 180 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, the Election Assistance Commission shall develop 
and publish recommendations for best practices for States to use to 
deter and prevent violations of section 612 of title 18, United States 
Code (as added by section 1071), and section 12 of the National Voter 
Registration Act of 1993 (52 U.S.C. 20511) (relating to the unlawful 
interference with registering to vote, or voting, or attempting to 
register to vote or vote), including practices to provide for the 
posting of relevant information at polling places and voter 
registration agencies under such Act, the training of poll workers and 
election officials, and relevant educational materials. For purposes of 
this subsection, the term ``State'' includes the District of Columbia, 
the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the United 
States Virgin Islands, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana 
Islands.
  (b) Inclusion in Voter Information Requirements.--Section 302(b)(2) 
of the Help America Vote Act of 2002 (52 U.S.C. 21082(b)(2)) is 
amended--
          (1) by striking ``and'' at the end of subparagraph (E);
          (2) by striking the period at the end of subparagraph (F) and 
        inserting ``; and''; and
          (3) by adding at the end the following new subparagraph:
                  ``(G) information relating to the prohibitions of 
                section 612 of title 18, United States Code, and 
                section 12 of the National Voter Registration Act of 
                1993 (52 U.S.C. 20511) (relating to the unlawful 
                interference with registering to vote, or voting, or 
                attempting to register to vote or vote), including 
                information on how individuals may report allegations 
                of violations of such prohibitions.''.

     Subtitle B--Access to Voting for Individuals With Disabilities

SEC. 1101. REQUIREMENTS FOR STATES TO PROMOTE ACCESS TO VOTER 
                    REGISTRATION AND VOTING FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH 
                    DISABILITIES.

  (a) Requirements.--Subtitle A of title III of the Help America Vote 
Act of 2002 (52 U.S.C. 21081 et seq.), as amended by section 1031(a), 
is amended--
          (1) by redesignating sections 305 and 306 as sections 306 and 
        307; and
          (2) by inserting after section 304 the following new section:

``SEC. 305. ACCESS TO VOTER REGISTRATION AND VOTING FOR INDIVIDUALS 
                    WITH DISABILITIES.

  ``(a) Treatment of Applications and Ballots.--Each State shall--
          ``(1) permit individuals with disabilities to use absentee 
        registration procedures and to vote by absentee ballot in 
        elections for Federal office;
          ``(2) accept and process, with respect to any election for 
        Federal office, any otherwise valid voter registration 
        application and absentee ballot application from an individual 
        with a disability if the application is received by the 
        appropriate State election official within the deadline for the 
        election which is applicable under Federal law;
          ``(3) in addition to any other method of registering to vote 
        or applying for an absentee ballot in the State, establish 
        procedures--
                  ``(A) for individuals with disabilities to request by 
                mail and electronically voter registration applications 
                and absentee ballot applications with respect to 
                elections for Federal office in accordance with 
                subsection (c);
                  ``(B) for States to send by mail and electronically 
                (in accordance with the preferred method of 
                transmission designated by the individual under 
                subparagraph (C)) voter registration applications and 
                absentee ballot applications requested under 
                subparagraph (A) in accordance with subsection (c); and
                  ``(C) by which such an individual can designate 
                whether the individual prefers that such voter 
                registration application or absentee ballot application 
                be transmitted by mail or electronically;
          ``(4) in addition to any other method of transmitting blank 
        absentee ballots in the State, establish procedures for 
        transmitting by mail and electronically blank absentee ballots 
        to individuals with disabilities with respect to elections for 
        Federal office in accordance with subsection (d);
          ``(5) transmit a validly requested absentee ballot to an 
        individual with a disability--
                  ``(A) except as provided in subsection (e), in the 
                case in which the request is received at least 45 days 
                before an election for Federal office, not later than 
                45 days before the election; and
                  ``(B) in the case in which the request is received 
                less than 45 days before an election for Federal 
                office--
                          ``(i) in accordance with State law; and
                          ``(ii) if practicable and as determined 
                        appropriate by the State, in a manner that 
                        expedites the transmission of such absentee 
                        ballot; and
          ``(6) if the State declares or otherwise holds a runoff 
        election for Federal office, establish a written plan that 
        provides absentee ballots are made available to individuals 
        with disabilities in a manner that gives them sufficient time 
        to vote in the runoff election.
  ``(b) Designation of Single State Office To Provide Information on 
Registration and Absentee Ballot Procedures for All Disabled Voters in 
State.--Each State shall designate a single office which shall be 
responsible for providing information regarding voter registration 
procedures and absentee ballot procedures to be used by individuals 
with disabilities with respect to elections for Federal office to all 
individuals with disabilities who wish to register to vote or vote in 
any jurisdiction in the State.
  ``(c) Designation of Means of Electronic Communication for 
Individuals With Disabilities To Request and for States To Send Voter 
Registration Applications and Absentee Ballot Applications, and for 
Other Purposes Related to Voting Information.--
          ``(1) In general.--Each State shall, in addition to the 
        designation of a single State office under subsection (b), 
        designate not less than 1 means of electronic communication--
                  ``(A) for use by individuals with disabilities who 
                wish to register to vote or vote in any jurisdiction in 
                the State to request voter registration applications 
                and absentee ballot applications under subsection 
                (a)(3);
                  ``(B) for use by States to send voter registration 
                applications and absentee ballot applications requested 
                under such subsection; and
                  ``(C) for the purpose of providing related voting, 
                balloting, and election information to individuals with 
                disabilities.
          ``(2) Clarification regarding provision of multiple means of 
        electronic communication.--A State may, in addition to the 
        means of electronic communication so designated, provide 
        multiple means of electronic communication to individuals with 
        disabilities, including a means of electronic communication for 
        the appropriate jurisdiction of the State.
          ``(3) Inclusion of designated means of electronic 
        communication with informational and instructional materials 
        that accompany balloting materials.--Each State shall include a 
        means of electronic communication so designated with all 
        informational and instructional materials that accompany 
        balloting materials sent by the State to individuals with 
        disabilities.
          ``(4) Transmission if no preference indicated.--In the case 
        where an individual with a disability does not designate a 
        preference under subsection (a)(3)(C), the State shall transmit 
        the voter registration application or absentee ballot 
        application by any delivery method allowable in accordance with 
        applicable State law, or if there is no applicable State law, 
        by mail.
  ``(d) Transmission of Blank Absentee Ballots by Mail and 
Electronically.--
          ``(1) In general.--Each State shall establish procedures--
                  ``(A) to securely transmit blank absentee ballots by 
                mail and electronically (in accordance with the 
                preferred method of transmission designated by the 
                individual with a disability under subparagraph (B)) to 
                individuals with disabilities for an election for 
                Federal office; and
                  ``(B) by which the individual with a disability can 
                designate whether the individual prefers that such 
                blank absentee ballot be transmitted by mail or 
                electronically.
          ``(2) Transmission if no preference indicated.--In the case 
        where an individual with a disability does not designate a 
        preference under paragraph (1)(B), the State shall transmit the 
        ballot by any delivery method allowable in accordance with 
        applicable State law, or if there is no applicable State law, 
        by mail.
          ``(3) Application of methods to track delivery to and return 
        of ballot by individual requesting ballot.--Under the 
        procedures established under paragraph (1), the State shall 
        apply such methods as the State considers appropriate, such as 
        assigning a unique identifier to the ballot, to ensure that if 
        an individual with a disability requests the State to transmit 
        a blank absentee ballot to the individual in accordance with 
        this subsection, the voted absentee ballot which is returned by 
        the individual is the same blank absentee ballot which the 
        State transmitted to the individual.
  ``(e) Hardship Exemption.--
          ``(1) In general.--If the chief State election official 
        determines that the State is unable to meet the requirement 
        under subsection (a)(5)(A) with respect to an election for 
        Federal office due to an undue hardship described in paragraph 
        (2)(B), the chief State election official shall request that 
        the Attorney General grant a waiver to the State of the 
        application of such subsection. Such request shall include--
                  ``(A) a recognition that the purpose of such 
                subsection is to individuals with disabilities enough 
                time to vote in an election for Federal office;
                  ``(B) an explanation of the hardship that indicates 
                why the State is unable to transmit such individuals an 
                absentee ballot in accordance with such subsection;
                  ``(C) the number of days prior to the election for 
                Federal office that the State requires absentee ballots 
                be transmitted to such individuals; and
                  ``(D) a comprehensive plan to ensure that such 
                individuals are able to receive absentee ballots which 
                they have requested and submit marked absentee ballots 
                to the appropriate State election official in time to 
                have that ballot counted in the election for Federal 
                office, which includes--
                          ``(i) the steps the State will undertake to 
                        ensure that such individuals have time to 
                        receive, mark, and submit their ballots in time 
                        to have those ballots counted in the election;
                          ``(ii) why the plan provides such individuals 
                        sufficient time to vote as a substitute for the 
                        requirements under such subsection; and
                          ``(iii) the underlying factual information 
                        which explains how the plan provides such 
                        sufficient time to vote as a substitute for 
                        such requirements.
          ``(2) Approval of waiver request.--The Attorney General shall 
        approve a waiver request under paragraph (1) if the Attorney 
        General determines each of the following requirements are met:
                  ``(A) The comprehensive plan under subparagraph (D) 
                of such paragraph provides individuals with 
                disabilities sufficient time to receive absentee 
                ballots they have requested and submit marked absentee 
                ballots to the appropriate State election official in 
                time to have that ballot counted in the election for 
                Federal office.
                  ``(B) One or more of the following issues creates an 
                undue hardship for the State:
                          ``(i) The State's primary election date 
                        prohibits the State from complying with 
                        subsection (a)(5)(A).
                          ``(ii) The State has suffered a delay in 
                        generating ballots due to a legal contest.
                          ``(iii) The State Constitution prohibits the 
                        State from complying with such subsection.
          ``(3) Timing of waiver.--
                  ``(A) In general.--Except as provided under 
                subparagraph (B), a State that requests a waiver under 
                paragraph (1) shall submit to the Attorney General the 
                written waiver request not later than 90 days before 
                the election for Federal office with respect to which 
                the request is submitted. The Attorney General shall 
                approve or deny the waiver request not later than 65 
                days before such election.
                  ``(B) Exception.--If a State requests a waiver under 
                paragraph (1) as the result of an undue hardship 
                described in paragraph (2)(B)(ii), the State shall 
                submit to the Attorney General the written waiver 
                request as soon as practicable. The Attorney General 
                shall approve or deny the waiver request not later than 
                5 business days after the date on which the request is 
                received.
          ``(4) Application of waiver.--A waiver approved under 
        paragraph (2) shall only apply with respect to the election for 
        Federal office for which the request was submitted. For each 
        subsequent election for Federal office, the Attorney General 
        shall only approve a waiver if the State has submitted a 
        request under paragraph (1) with respect to such election.
  ``(f) Rule of Construction.--Nothing in this section may be construed 
to allow the marking or casting of ballots over the internet.
  ``(g) Individual With a Disability Defined.--In this section, an 
`individual with a disability' means an individual with an impairment 
that substantially limits any major life activities and who is 
otherwise qualified to vote in elections for Federal office.
  ``(h) Effective Date.--This section shall apply with respect to 
elections for Federal office held on or after January 1, 2020.''.
  (b) Conforming Amendment Relating to Issuance of Voluntary Guidance 
by Election Assistance Commission.--Section 311(b) of such Act (52 
U.S.C. 21101(b)) is amended--
          (1) by striking ``and'' at the end of paragraph (2);
          (2) by striking the period at the end of paragraph (3) and 
        inserting ``; and''; and
          (3) by adding at the end the following new paragraph:
          ``(4) in the case of the recommendations with respect to 
        section 305, January 1, 2020.''.
  (c) Clerical Amendment.--The table of contents of such Act, as 
amended by section 1031(c), is amended--
          (1) by redesignating the items relating to sections 305 and 
        306 as relating to sections 306 and 307; and
          (2) by inserting after the item relating to section 304 the 
        following new item:

``Sec. 305. Access to voter registration and voting for individuals 
with disabilities.''.

SEC. 1102. EXPANSION AND REAUTHORIZATION OF GRANT PROGRAM TO ASSURE 
                    VOTING ACCESS FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES.

  (a) Purposes of Payments.--Section 261(b) of the Help America Vote 
Act of 2002 (52 U.S.C. 21021(b)) is amended by striking paragraphs (1) 
and (2) and inserting the following:
          ``(1) making absentee voting and voting at home accessible to 
        individuals with the full range of disabilities (including 
        impairments involving vision, hearing, mobility, or dexterity) 
        through the implementation of accessible absentee voting 
        systems that work in conjunction with assistive technologies 
        for which individuals have access at their homes, independent 
        living centers, or other facilities;
          ``(2) making polling places, including the path of travel, 
        entrances, exits, and voting areas of each polling facility, 
        accessible to individuals with disabilities, including the 
        blind and visually impaired, in a manner that provides the same 
        opportunity for access and participation (including privacy and 
        independence) as for other voters; and
          ``(3) providing solutions to problems of access to voting and 
        elections for individuals with disabilities that are 
        universally designed and provide the same opportunities for 
        individuals with and without disabilities.''.
  (b) Reauthorization.--Section 264(a) of such Act (52 U.S.C. 21024(a)) 
is amended by adding at the end the following new paragraph:
          ``(4) For fiscal year 2020 and each succeeding fiscal year, 
        such sums as may be necessary to carry out this part.''.
  (c) Period of Availability of Funds.--Section 264 of such Act (52 
U.S.C. 21024) is amended--
          (1) in subsection (b), by striking ``Any amounts'' and 
        inserting ``Except as provided in subsection (b), any 
        amounts''; and
          (2) by adding at the end the following new subsection:
  ``(c) Return and Transfer of Certain Funds.--
          ``(1) Deadline for obligation and expenditure.--In the case 
        of any amounts appropriated pursuant to the authority of 
        subsection (a) for a payment to a State or unit of local 
        government for fiscal year 2020 or any succeeding fiscal year, 
        any portion of such amounts which have not been obligated or 
        expended by the State or unit of local government prior to the 
        expiration of the 4-year period which begins on the date the 
        State or unit of local government first received the amounts 
        shall be transferred to the Commission.
          ``(2) Reallocation of transferred amounts.--
                  ``(A) In general.--The Commission shall use the 
                amounts transferred under paragraph (1) to make 
                payments on a pro rata basis to each covered payment 
                recipient described in subparagraph (B), which may 
                obligate and expend such payment for the purposes 
                described in section 261(b) during the 1-year period 
                which begins on the date of receipt.
                  ``(B) Covered payment recipients described.--In 
                subparagraph (A), a `covered payment recipient' is a 
                State or unit of local government with respect to 
                which--
                          ``(i) amounts were appropriated pursuant to 
                        the authority of subsection (a); and
                          ``(ii) no amounts were transferred to the 
                        Commission under paragraph (1).''.

                  Subtitle C--Prohibiting Voter Caging

SEC. 1201. [RESERVED].

SEC. 1202. DEVELOPMENT AND ADOPTION OF BEST PRACTICES FOR PREVENTING 
                    VOTER CAGING.

  (a) Best Practices.--Not later than 180 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, the Election Assistance Commission shall develop 
and publish for the use of States recommendations for best practices to 
deter and prevent violations of section 613 of title 18, United States 
Code, as added by section 1201(a), including practices to provide for 
the posting of relevant information at polling places and voter 
registration agencies, the training of poll workers and election 
officials, and relevant educational measures. For purposes of this 
subsection, the term ``State'' includes the District of Columbia, the 
Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the United States 
Virgin Islands, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
  (b) Inclusion in Voting Information Requirements.--Section 302(b)(2) 
of the Help America Vote Act of 2002 (52 U.S.C. 21082(b)(2)), as 
amended by section 1072(b), is amended--
          (1) by striking ``and'' at the end of subparagraph (F);
          (2) by striking the period at the end of subparagraph (G) and 
        inserting ``; and''; and
          (3) by adding at the end the following new subparagraph:
                  ``(H) information relating to the prohibition against 
                voter caging and other questionable challenges (as set 
                forth in section 613 of title 18, United States Code), 
                including information on how individuals may report 
                allegations of violations of such prohibition.''.

                         Subtitle D--[Reserved]

                         Subtitle E--[Reserved]

 Subtitle F--Promoting Accuracy, Integrity, and Security Through Voter-
                    Verified Permanent Paper Ballot

SEC. 1501. SHORT TITLE.

  This subtitle may be cited as the ``Voter Confidence and Increased 
Accessibility Act of 2019''.

SEC. 1502. PAPER BALLOT AND MANUAL COUNTING REQUIREMENTS.

  (a) In General.--Section 301(a)(2) of the Help America Vote Act of 
2002 (52 U.S.C. 21081(a)(2)) is amended to read as follows:
          ``(2) Paper ballot requirement.--
                  ``(A) Voter-verified paper ballots.--
                          ``(i) Paper ballot requirement.--(I) The 
                        voting system shall require the use of an 
                        individual, durable, voter-verified paper 
                        ballot of the voter's vote that shall be marked 
                        and made available for inspection and 
                        verification by the voter before the voter's 
                        vote is cast and counted, and which shall be 
                        counted by hand or read by an optical character 
                        recognition device or other counting device. 
                        For purposes of this subclause, the term 
                        `individual, durable, voter-verified paper 
                        ballot' means a paper ballot marked by the 
                        voter by hand or a paper ballot marked through 
                        the use of a nontabulating ballot marking 
                        device or system, so long as the voter shall 
                        have the option to mark his or her ballot by 
                        hand.
                          ``(II) The voting system shall provide the 
                        voter with an opportunity to correct any error 
                        on the paper ballot before the permanent voter-
                        verified paper ballot is preserved in 
                        accordance with clause (ii).
                          ``(III) The voting system shall not preserve 
                        the voter-verified paper ballots in any manner 
                        that makes it possible, at any time after the 
                        ballot has been cast, to associate a voter with 
                        the record of the voter's vote without the 
                        voter's consent.
                          ``(ii) Preservation as official record.--The 
                        individual, durable, voter-verified paper 
                        ballot used in accordance with clause (i) shall 
                        constitute the official ballot and shall be 
                        preserved and used as the official ballot for 
                        purposes of any recount or audit conducted with 
                        respect to any election for Federal office in 
                        which the voting system is used.
                          ``(iii) Manual counting requirements for 
                        recounts and audits.--(I) Each paper ballot 
                        used pursuant to clause (i) shall be suitable 
                        for a manual audit, and shall be counted by 
                        hand in any recount or audit conducted with 
                        respect to any election for Federal office.
                          ``(II) In the event of any inconsistencies or 
                        irregularities between any electronic vote 
                        tallies and the vote tallies determined by 
                        counting by hand the individual, durable, 
                        voter-verified paper ballots used pursuant to 
                        clause (i), and subject to subparagraph (B), 
                        the individual, durable, voter-verified paper 
                        ballots shall be the true and correct record of 
                        the votes cast.
                          ``(iv) Application to all ballots.--The 
                        requirements of this subparagraph shall apply 
                        to all ballots cast in elections for Federal 
                        office, including ballots cast by absent 
                        uniformed services voters and overseas voters 
                        under the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens 
                        Absentee Voting Act and other absentee voters.
                  ``(B) Special rule for treatment of disputes when 
                paper ballots have been shown to be compromised.--
                          ``(i) In general.--In the event that--
                                  ``(I) there is any inconsistency 
                                between any electronic vote tallies and 
                                the vote tallies determined by counting 
                                by hand the individual, durable, voter-
                                verified paper ballots used pursuant to 
                                subparagraph (A)(i) with respect to any 
                                election for Federal office; and
                                  ``(II) it is demonstrated by clear 
                                and convincing evidence (as determined 
                                in accordance with the applicable 
                                standards in the jurisdiction involved) 
                                in any recount, audit, or contest of 
                                the result of the election that the 
                                paper ballots have been compromised (by 
                                damage or mischief or otherwise) and 
                                that a sufficient number of the ballots 
                                have been so compromised that the 
                                result of the election could be 
                                changed,
                        the determination of the appropriate remedy 
                        with respect to the election shall be made in 
                        accordance with applicable State law, except 
                        that the electronic tally shall not be used as 
                        the exclusive basis for determining the 
                        official certified result.
                          ``(ii) Rule for consideration of ballots 
                        associated with each voting machine.--For 
                        purposes of clause (i), only the paper ballots 
                        deemed compromised, if any, shall be considered 
                        in the calculation of whether or not the result 
                        of the election could be changed due to the 
                        compromised paper ballots.''.
  (b) Conforming Amendment Clarifying Applicability of Alternative 
Language Accessibility.--Section 301(a)(4) of such Act (52 U.S.C. 
21081(a)(4)) is amended by inserting ``(including the paper ballots 
required to be used under paragraph (2))'' after ``voting system''.
  (c) Other Conforming Amendments.--Section 301(a)(1) of such Act (52 
U.S.C. 21081(a)(1)) is amended--
          (1) in subparagraph (A)(i), by striking ``counted'' and 
        inserting ``counted, in accordance with paragraphs (2) and 
        (3)'';
          (2) in subparagraph (A)(ii), by striking ``counted'' and 
        inserting ``counted, in accordance with paragraphs (2) and 
        (3)'';
          (3) in subparagraph (A)(iii), by striking ``counted'' each 
        place it appears and inserting ``counted, in accordance with 
        paragraphs (2) and (3)''; and
          (4) in subparagraph (B)(ii), by striking ``counted'' and 
        inserting ``counted, in accordance with paragraphs (2) and 
        (3)''.

SEC. 1503. ACCESSIBILITY AND BALLOT VERIFICATION FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH 
                    DISABILITIES.

  (a) In General.--Section 301(a)(3)(B) of the Help America Vote Act of 
2002 (52 U.S.C. 21081(a)(3)(B)) is amended to read as follows:
                  ``(B)(i) ensure that individuals with disabilities 
                and others are given an equivalent opportunity to vote, 
                including with privacy and independence, in a manner 
                that produces a voter-verified paper ballot as for 
                other voters;
                  ``(ii) satisfy the requirement of subparagraph (A) 
                through the use of at least one voting system equipped 
                for individuals with disabilities, including nonvisual 
                and enhanced visual accessibility for the blind and 
                visually impaired, and nonmanual and enhanced manual 
                accessibility for the mobility and dexterity impaired, 
                at each polling place; and
                  ``(iii) meet the requirements of subparagraph (A) and 
                paragraph (2)(A) by using a system that--
                          ``(I) allows the voter to privately and 
                        independently verify the permanent paper ballot 
                        through the presentation, in accessible form, 
                        of the printed or marked vote selections from 
                        the same printed or marked information that 
                        would be used for any vote counting or 
                        auditing; and
                          ``(II) allows the voter to privately and 
                        independently verify and cast the permanent 
                        paper ballot without requiring the voter to 
                        manually handle the paper ballot.''.
  (b) Specific Requirement of Study, Testing, and Development of 
Accessible Paper Ballot Verification Mechanisms.--
          (1) Study and reporting.--Subtitle C of title II of such Act 
        (52 U.S.C. 21081 et seq.) is amended--
                  (A) by redesignating section 247 as section 248; and
                  (B) by inserting after section 246 the following new 
                section:

``SEC. 247. STUDY AND REPORT ON ACCESSIBLE PAPER BALLOT VERIFICATION 
                    MECHANISMS.

  ``(a) Study and Report.--The Director of the National Science 
Foundation shall make grants to not fewer than 3 eligible entities to 
study, test, and develop accessible paper ballot voting, verification, 
and casting mechanisms and devices and best practices to enhance the 
accessibility of paper ballot voting and verification mechanisms for 
individuals with disabilities, for voters whose primary language is not 
English, and for voters with difficulties in literacy, including best 
practices for the mechanisms themselves and the processes through which 
the mechanisms are used.
  ``(b) Eligibility.--An entity is eligible to receive a grant under 
this part if it submits to the Director (at such time and in such form 
as the Director may require) an application containing--
          ``(1) certifications that the entity shall specifically 
        investigate enhanced methods or devices, including non-
        electronic devices, that will assist such individuals and 
        voters in marking voter-verified paper ballots and presenting 
        or transmitting the information printed or marked on such 
        ballots back to such individuals and voters, and casting such 
        ballots;
          ``(2) a certification that the entity shall complete the 
        activities carried out with the grant not later than December 
        31, 2020; and
          ``(3) such other information and certifications as the 
        Director may require.
  ``(c) Availability of Technology.--Any technology developed with the 
grants made under this section shall be treated as non-proprietary and 
shall be made available to the public, including to manufacturers of 
voting systems.
  ``(d) Coordination With Grants for Technology Improvements.--The 
Director shall carry out this section so that the activities carried 
out with the grants made under subsection (a) are coordinated with the 
research conducted under the grant program carried out by the 
Commission under section 271, to the extent that the Director and 
Commission determine necessary to provide for the advancement of 
accessible voting technology.
  ``(e) Authorization of Appropriations.--There is authorized to be 
appropriated to carry out subsection (a) $5,000,000, to remain 
available until expended.''.
          (2) Clerical amendment.--The table of contents of such Act is 
        amended--
                  (A) by redesignating the item relating to section 247 
                as relating to section 248; and
                  (B) by inserting after the item relating to section 
                246 the following new item:

``Sec. 247. Study and report on accessible paper ballot verification 
mechanisms.''.

  (c) Clarification of Accessibility Standards Under Voluntary Voting 
System Guidance.--In adopting any voluntary guidance under subtitle B 
of title III of the Help America Vote Act with respect to the 
accessibility of the paper ballot verification requirements for 
individuals with disabilities, the Election Assistance Commission shall 
include and apply the same accessibility standards applicable under the 
voluntary guidance adopted for accessible voting systems under such 
subtitle.
  (d) Permitting Use of Funds for Protection and Advocacy Systems to 
Support Actions to Enforce Election-related Disability Access.--Section 
292(a) of the Help America Vote Act of 2002 (52 U.S.C. 21062(a)) is 
amended by striking ``; except that'' and all that follows and 
inserting a period.

SEC. 1504. DURABILITY AND READABILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR BALLOTS.

  Section 301(a) of the Help America Vote Act of 2002 (52 U.S.C. 
21081(a)) is amended by adding at the end the following new paragraph:
          ``(7) Durability and readability requirements for ballots.--
                  ``(A) Durability requirements for paper ballots.--
                          ``(i) In general.--All voter-verified paper 
                        ballots required to be used under this Act 
                        shall be marked or printed on durable paper.
                          ``(ii) Definition.--For purposes of this Act, 
                        paper is `durable' if it is capable of 
                        withstanding multiple counts and recounts by 
                        hand without compromising the fundamental 
                        integrity of the ballots, and capable of 
                        retaining the information marked or printed on 
                        them for the full duration of a retention and 
                        preservation period of 22 months.
                  ``(B) Readability requirements for paper ballots 
                marked by ballot marking device.--All voter-verified 
                paper ballots completed by the voter through the use of 
                a ballot marking device shall be clearly readable by 
                the voter without assistance (other than eyeglasses or 
                other personal vision enhancing devices) and by an 
                optical character recognition device or other device 
                equipped for individuals with disabilities.''.

SEC. 1505. EFFECTIVE DATE FOR NEW REQUIREMENTS.

  Section 301(d) of the Help America Vote Act of 2002 (52 U.S.C. 
21081(d)) is amended to read as follows:
  ``(d) Effective Date.--
          ``(1) In general.--Except as provided in paragraph (2), each 
        State and jurisdiction shall be required to comply with the 
        requirements of this section on and after January 1, 2006.
          ``(2) Special rule for certain requirements.--
                  ``(A) In general.--Except as provided in 
                subparagraphs (B) and (C), the requirements of this 
                section which are first imposed on a State and 
                jurisdiction pursuant to the amendments made by the 
                Voter Confidence and Increased Accessibility Act of 
                2019 shall apply with respect to voting systems used 
                for any election for Federal office held in 2020 or any 
                succeeding year.
                  ``(B) Delay for jurisdictions using certain paper 
                record printers or certain systems using or producing 
                voter-verifiable paper records in 2018.--
                          ``(i) Delay.--In the case of a jurisdiction 
                        described in clause (ii), subparagraph (A) 
                        shall apply to a voting system in the 
                        jurisdiction as if the reference in such 
                        subparagraph to `2020' were a reference to 
                        `2022', but only with respect to the following 
                        requirements of this section:
                                  ``(I) Paragraph (2)(A)(i)(I) of 
                                subsection (a) (relating to the use of 
                                voter-verified paper ballots).
                                  ``(II) Paragraph (3)(B)(ii)(I) and 
                                (II) of subsection (a) (relating to 
                                access to verification from and casting 
                                of the durable paper ballot).
                                  ``(III) Paragraph (7) of subsection 
                                (a) (relating to durability and 
                                readability requirements for ballots).
                          ``(ii) Jurisdictions described.--A 
                        jurisdiction described in this clause is a 
                        jurisdiction--
                                  ``(I) which used voter verifiable 
                                paper record printers attached to 
                                direct recording electronic voting 
                                machines, or which used other voting 
                                systems that used or produced paper 
                                records of the vote verifiable by 
                                voters but that are not in compliance 
                                with paragraphs (2)(A)(i)(I), 
                                (3)(B)(iii)(I) and (II), and (7) of 
                                subsection (a) (as amended or added by 
                                the Voter Confidence and Increased 
                                Accessibility Act of 2019), for the 
                                administration of the regularly 
                                scheduled general election for Federal 
                                office held in November 2018; and
                                  ``(II) which will continue to use 
                                such printers or systems for the 
                                administration of elections for Federal 
                                office held in years before 2022.
                          ``(iii) Mandatory availability of paper 
                        ballots at polling places using grandfathered 
                        printers and systems.--
                                  ``(I) Requiring ballots to be offered 
                                and provided.--The appropriate election 
                                official at each polling place that 
                                uses a printer or system described in 
                                clause (ii)(I) for the administration 
                                of elections for Federal office shall 
                                offer each individual who is eligible 
                                to cast a vote in the election at the 
                                polling place the opportunity to cast 
                                the vote using a blank pre-printed 
                                paper ballot which the individual may 
                                mark by hand and which is not produced 
                                by the direct recording electronic 
                                voting machine or other such system. 
                                The official shall provide the 
                                individual with the ballot and the 
                                supplies necessary to mark the ballot, 
                                and shall ensure (to the greatest 
                                extent practicable) that the waiting 
                                period for the individual to cast a 
                                vote is the lesser of 30 minutes or the 
                                average waiting period for an 
                                individual who does not agree to cast 
                                the vote using such a paper ballot 
                                under this clause.
                                  ``(II) Treatment of ballot.--Any 
                                paper ballot which is cast by an 
                                individual under this clause shall be 
                                counted and otherwise treated as a 
                                regular ballot for all purposes 
                                (including by incorporating it into the 
                                final unofficial vote count (as defined 
                                by the State) for the precinct) and not 
                                as a provisional ballot, unless the 
                                individual casting the ballot would 
                                have otherwise been required to cast a 
                                provisional ballot.
                                  ``(III) Posting of notice.--The 
                                appropriate election official shall 
                                ensure there is prominently displayed 
                                at each polling place a notice that 
                                describes the obligation of the 
                                official to offer individuals the 
                                opportunity to cast votes using a pre-
                                printed blank paper ballot.
                                  ``(IV) Training of election 
                                officials.--The chief State election 
                                official shall ensure that election 
                                officials at polling places in the 
                                State are aware of the requirements of 
                                this clause, including the requirement 
                                to display a notice under subclause 
                                (III), and are aware that it is a 
                                violation of the requirements of this 
                                title for an election official to fail 
                                to offer an individual the opportunity 
                                to cast a vote using a blank pre-
                                printed paper ballot.
                                  ``(V) Period of applicability.--The 
                                requirements of this clause apply only 
                                during the period in which the delay is 
                                in effect under clause (i).
                  ``(C) Special rule for jurisdictions using certain 
                nontabulating ballot marking devices.--In the case of a 
                jurisdiction which uses a nontabulating ballot marking 
                device which automatically deposits the ballot into a 
                privacy sleeve, subparagraph (A) shall apply to a 
                voting system in the jurisdiction as if the reference 
                in such subparagraph to `any election for Federal 
                office held in 2020 or any succeeding year' were a 
                reference to `elections for Federal office occurring 
                held in 2022 or each succeeding year', but only with 
                respect to paragraph (3)(B)(iii)(II) of subsection (a) 
                (relating to nonmanual casting of the durable paper 
                ballot).''.

                    Subtitle G--Provisional Ballots

SEC. 1601. REQUIREMENTS FOR COUNTING PROVISIONAL BALLOTS; ESTABLISHMENT 
                    OF UNIFORM AND NONDISCRIMINATORY STANDARDS.

  (a) In General.--Section 302 of the Help America Vote Act of 2002 (52 
U.S.C. 21082) is amended--
          (1) by redesignating subsection (d) as subsection (f); and
          (2) by inserting after subsection (c) the following new 
        subsections:
  ``(d) Statewide Counting of Provisional Ballots.--
          ``(1) In general.--For purposes of subsection (a)(4), 
        notwithstanding the precinct or polling place at which a 
        provisional ballot is cast within the State, the appropriate 
        election official shall count each vote on such ballot for each 
        election in which the individual who cast such ballot is 
        eligible to vote.
          ``(2) Effective date.--This subsection shall apply with 
        respect to elections held on or after January 1, 2020.
  ``(e) Uniform and Nondiscriminatory Standards.--
          ``(1) In general.--Consistent with the requirements of this 
        section, each State shall establish uniform and 
        nondiscriminatory standards for the issuance, handling, and 
        counting of provisional ballots.
          ``(2) Effective date.--This subsection shall apply with 
        respect to elections held on or after January 1, 2020.''.
  (b) Conforming Amendment.--Section 302(f) of such Act (52 U.S.C. 
21082(f)), as redesignated by subsection (a), is amended by striking 
``Each State'' and inserting ``Except as provided in subsections (d)(2) 
and (e)(2), each State''.

                        Subtitle H--Early Voting

SEC. 1611. EARLY VOTING.

  (a) Requirements.--Subtitle A of title III of the Help America Vote 
Act of 2002 (52 U.S.C. 21081 et seq.), as amended by section 1031(a) 
and section 1101(a), is amended--
          (1) by redesignating sections 306 and 307 as sections 307 and 
        308; and
          (2) by inserting after section 305 the following new section:

``SEC. 306. EARLY VOTING.

  ``(a) Requiring Voting Prior to Date of Election.--
          ``(1) In general.--Each State shall allow individuals to vote 
        in an election for Federal office during an early voting period 
        which occurs prior to the date of the election, in the same 
        manner as voting is allowed on such date.
          ``(2) Length of period.--The early voting period required 
        under this subsection with respect to an election shall consist 
        of a period of consecutive days (including weekends) which 
        begins on the 15th day before the date of the election (or, at 
        the option of the State, on a day prior to the 15th day before 
        the date of the election) and ends on the date of the election.
  ``(b) Minimum Early Voting Requirements.--Each polling place which 
allows voting during an early voting period under subsection (a) 
shall--
          ``(1) allow such voting for no less than 4 hours on each day, 
        except that the polling place may allow such voting for fewer 
        than 4 hours on Sundays; and
          ``(2) have uniform hours each day for which such voting 
        occurs.
  ``(c) Location of Polling Places Near Public Transportation.--To the 
greatest extent practicable, a State shall ensure that each polling 
place which allows voting during an early voting period under 
subsection (a) is located within walking distance of a stop on a public 
transportation route.
  ``(d) Standards.--
          ``(1) In general.--The Commission shall issue standards for 
        the administration of voting prior to the day scheduled for a 
        Federal election. Such standards shall include the 
        nondiscriminatory geographic placement of polling places at 
        which such voting occurs.
          ``(2) Deviation.--The standards described in paragraph (1) 
        shall permit States, upon providing adequate public notice, to 
        deviate from any requirement in the case of unforeseen 
        circumstances such as a natural disaster, terrorist attack, or 
        a change in voter turnout.
  ``(e) Effective Date.--This section shall apply with respect to 
elections held on or after January 1, 2020.''.
  (b) Conforming Amendment Relating to Issuance of Voluntary Guidance 
by Election Assistance Commission.--Section 311(b) of such Act (52 
U.S.C. 21101(b)), as amended by section 1101(b), is amended--
          (1) by striking ``and'' at the end of paragraph (3);
          (2) by striking the period at the end of paragraph (4) and 
        inserting ``; and''; and
          (3) by adding at the end the following new paragraph:
          ``(5) in the case of the recommendations with respect to 
        section 306, June 30, 2020.''.
  (c) Clerical Amendment.--The table of contents of such Act, as 
amended by section 1031(c) and section 1101(d), is amended--
          (1) by redesignating the items relating to sections 306 and 
        307 as relating to sections 307 and 308; and
          (2) by inserting after the item relating to section 305 the 
        following new item:

``Sec. 306. Early voting.''.

                       Subtitle I--Voting by Mail

SEC. 1621. VOTING BY MAIL.

  (a) Requirements.--Subtitle A of title III of the Help America Vote 
Act of 2002 (52 U.S.C. 21081 et seq.), as amended by section 1031(a), 
section 1101(a), and section 1611(a), is amended--
          (1) by redesignating sections 307 and 308 as sections 308 and 
        309; and
          (2) by inserting after section 306 the following new section:

``SEC. 307. PROMOTING ABILITY OF VOTERS TO VOTE BY MAIL.

  ``(a) In General.--If an individual in a State is eligible to cast a 
vote in an election for Federal office, the State may not impose any 
additional conditions or requirements on the eligibility of the 
individual to cast the vote in such election by absentee ballot by 
mail, except as required under subsection (b) and except to the extent 
that the State imposes a deadline for requesting the ballot and related 
voting materials from the appropriate State or local election official 
and for returning the ballot to the appropriate State or local election 
official.
  ``(b) Requiring Signature Verification.--
          ``(1) Requirement.--A State may not accept and process an 
        absentee ballot submitted by any individual with respect to an 
        election for Federal office unless the State verifies the 
        identification of the individual by comparing the individual's 
        signature on the absentee ballot with the individual's 
        signature on the official list of registered voters in the 
        State, in accordance with such procedures as the State may 
        adopt (subject to the requirements of paragraph (2)).
          ``(2) Due process requirements.--
                  ``(A) Notice and opportunity to cure discrepancy.--If 
                an individual submits an absentee ballot and the 
                appropriate State or local election official determines 
                that a discrepancy exists between the signature on such 
                ballot and the signature of such individual on the 
                official list of registered voters in the State, such 
                election official, prior to making a final 
                determination as to the validity of such ballot, shall 
                make a good faith effort to immediately notify such 
                individual by mail, telephone, and (if available) 
                electronic mail that--
                          ``(i) a discrepancy exists between the 
                        signature on such ballot and the signature of 
                        such individual on the official list of 
                        registered voters in the State;
                          ``(ii) such individual may provide the 
                        official with information to cure such 
                        discrepancy, either in person, by telephone, or 
                        by electronic methods; and
                          ``(iii) if such discrepancy is not cured 
                        prior to the expiration of the 7-day period 
                        which begins on the date of the election, such 
                        ballot will not be counted.
                  ``(B) Other requirements.--An election official may 
                not make a determination that a discrepancy exists 
                between the signature on an absentee ballot and the 
                signature of the individual who submits the ballot on 
                the official list of registered voters in the State 
                unless--
                          ``(i) at least 2 election officials make the 
                        determination; and
                          ``(ii) each official who makes the 
                        determination has received training in 
                        procedures used to verify signatures.
  ``(c) Deadline for Providing Balloting Materials.--If an individual 
requests to vote by absentee ballot in an election for Federal office, 
the appropriate State or local election official shall ensure that the 
ballot and relating voting materials are received by the individual--
          ``(1) not later than 2 weeks before the date of the election; 
        or
          ``(2) in the case of a State which imposes a deadline for 
        requesting an absentee ballot and related voting materials 
        which is less than 2 weeks before the date of the election, as 
        expeditiously as possible.
  ``(d) Accessibility for Individuals With Disabilities.--Consistent 
with section 305, the State shall ensure that all absentee ballots and 
related voting materials in elections for Federal office are accessible 
to individuals with disabilities in a manner that provides the same 
opportunity for access and participation (including with privacy and 
independence) as for other voters.
  ``(e) Uniform Deadline for Acceptance of Mailed Ballots.--If a ballot 
submitted by an individual by mail with respect to an election for 
Federal office in a State is postmarked on or before the date of the 
election, the State may not refuse to accept or process the ballot on 
the grounds that the individual did not meet a deadline for returning 
the ballot to the appropriate State or local election official.
  ``(f) No Effect on Ballots Submitted by Absent Military and Overseas 
Voters.--Nothing in this section may be construed to affect the 
treatment of any ballot submitted by an individual who is entitled to 
vote by absentee ballot under the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens 
Absentee Voting Act (52 U.S.C. 20301 et seq.).
  ``(g) Effective Date.--This section shall apply with respect to 
elections held on or after January 1, 2020.''.
  (b) Conforming Amendment Relating to Issuance of Voluntary Guidance 
by Election Assistance Commission.--Section 311(b) of such Act (52 
U.S.C. 21101(b)), as amended by section 1101(b) and section 1611(b), is 
amended--
          (1) by striking ``and'' at the end of paragraph (4);
          (2) by striking the period at the end of paragraph (5) and 
        inserting ``; and''; and
          (3) by adding at the end the following new paragraph:
          ``(6) in the case of the recommendations with respect to 
        section 307, June 30, 2020.''.
  (c) Clerical Amendment.--The table of contents of such Act, as 
amended by section 1031(c), section 1101(d), and section 1611(c), is 
amended--
          (1) by redesignating the items relating to sections 307 and 
        308 as relating to sections 308 and 309; and
          (2) by inserting after the item relating to section 306 the 
        following new item:

``Sec. 307. Promoting ability of voters to vote by mail.''.

  (d) Development of Biometric Verification.--
          (1) Development of standards.--The National Institute of 
        Standards, in consultation with the Election Assistance 
        Commission, shall develop standards for the use of biometric 
        methods which could be used voluntarily in place of the 
        signature verification requirements of section 307(b) of the 
        Help America Vote Act of 2002 (as added by subsection (a)) for 
        purposes of verifying the identification of an individual 
        voting by absentee ballot in elections for Federal office.
          (2) Public notice and comment.--The National Institute of 
        Standards shall solicit comments from the public in the 
        development of standards under paragraph (1).
          (3) Deadline.--Not later than one year after the date of the 
        enactment of this Act, the National Institute of Standards 
        shall publish the standards developed under paragraph (1).

    Subtitle J--Absent Uniformed Services Voters and Overseas Voters

SEC. 1701. PRE-ELECTION REPORTS ON AVAILABILITY AND TRANSMISSION OF 
                    ABSENTEE BALLOTS.

  Section 102(c) of the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting 
Act (52 U.S.C. 20302(c)) is amended to read as follows:
  ``(c) Reports on Availability, Transmission, and Receipt of Absentee 
Ballots.--
          ``(1) Pre-election report on absentee ballot availability.--
        Not later than 55 days before any regularly scheduled general 
        election for Federal office, each State shall submit a report 
        to the Attorney General, the Election Assistance Commission 
        (hereafter in this subsection referred to as the `Commission'), 
        and the Presidential Designee, and make that report publicly 
        available that same day, certifying that absentee ballots for 
        the election are or will be available for transmission to 
        absent uniformed services voters and overseas voters by not 
        later than 45 days before the election. The report shall be in 
        a form prescribed jointly by the Attorney General and the 
        Commission and shall require the State to certify specific 
        information about ballot availability from each unit of local 
        government which will administer the election.
          ``(2) Pre-election report on absentee ballot transmission.--
        Not later than 43 days before any regularly scheduled general 
        election for Federal office, each State shall submit a report 
        to the Attorney General, the Commission, and the Presidential 
        Designee, and make that report publicly available that same 
        day, certifying whether all absentee ballots have been 
        transmitted by not later than 45 days before the election to 
        all qualified absent uniformed services and overseas voters 
        whose requests were received at least 45 days before the 
        election. The report shall be in a form prescribed jointly by 
        the Attorney General and the Commission, and shall require the 
        State to certify specific information about ballot 
        transmission, including the total numbers of ballot requests 
        received and ballots transmitted, from each unit of local 
        government which will administer the election.
          ``(3) Post-election report on number of absentee ballots 
        transmitted and received.--Not later than 90 days after the 
        date of each regularly scheduled general election for Federal 
        office, each State and unit of local government which 
        administered the election shall (through the State, in the case 
        of a unit of local government) submit a report to the Attorney 
        General, the Commission, and the Presidential Designee on the 
        combined number of absentee ballots transmitted to absent 
        uniformed services voters and overseas voters for the election 
        and the combined number of such ballots which were returned by 
        such voters and cast in the election, and shall make such 
        report available to the general public that same day.''.

SEC. 1702. ENFORCEMENT.

  (a) Availability of Civil Penalties and Private Rights of Action.--
Section 105 of the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act 
(52 U.S.C. 20307) is amended to read as follows:

``SEC. 105. ENFORCEMENT.

  ``(a) Action by Attorney General.--
          ``(1) In general.--The Attorney General may bring civil 
        action in an appropriate district court for such declaratory or 
        injunctive relief as may be necessary to carry out this title.
          ``(2) Penalty.--In a civil action brought under paragraph 
        (1), if the court finds that the State violated any provision 
        of this title, it may, to vindicate the public interest, assess 
        a civil penalty against the State--
                  ``(A) in an amount not to exceed $110,000 for each 
                such violation, in the case of a first violation; or
                  ``(B) in an amount not to exceed $220,000 for each 
                such violation, for any subsequent violation.
          ``(3) Report to congress.--Not later than December 31 of each 
        year, the Attorney General shall submit to Congress an annual 
        report on any civil action brought under paragraph (1) during 
        the preceding year.
  ``(b) Private Right of Action.--A person who is aggrieved by a 
State's violation of this title may bring a civil action in an 
appropriate district court for such declaratory or injunctive relief as 
may be necessary to carry out this title.
  ``(c) State as Only Necessary Defendant.--In any action brought under 
this section, the only necessary party defendant is the State, and it 
shall not be a defense to any such action that a local election 
official or a unit of local government is not named as a defendant, 
notwithstanding that a State has exercised the authority described in 
section 576 of the Military and Overseas Voter Empowerment Act to 
delegate to another jurisdiction in the State any duty or 
responsibility which is the subject of an action brought under this 
section.''.
  (b) Effective Date.--The amendments made by this section shall apply 
with respect to violations alleged to have occurred on or after the 
date of the enactment of this Act.

SEC. 1703. REVISIONS TO 45-DAY ABSENTEE BALLOT TRANSMISSION RULE.

  (a) Repeal of Waiver Authority.--
          (1) In general.--Section 102 of the Uniformed and Overseas 
        Citizens Absentee Voting Act (52 U.S.C. 20302) is amended by 
        striking subsection (g).
          (2) Conforming amendment.--Section 102(a)(8)(A) of such Act 
        (52 U.S.C. 20302(a)(8)(A)) is amended by striking ``except as 
        provided in subsection (g),''.
  (b) Requiring Use of Express Delivery in Case of Failure to Meet 
Requirement.--Section 102 of such Act (52 U.S.C. 20302), as amended by 
subsection (a), is amended by inserting after subsection (f) the 
following new subsection:
  ``(g) Requiring Use of Express Delivery in Case of Failure To 
Transmit Ballots Within Deadlines.--
          ``(1) Transmission of ballot by express delivery.--If a State 
        fails to meet the requirement of subsection (a)(8)(A) to 
        transmit a validly requested absentee ballot to an absent 
        uniformed services voter or overseas voter not later than 45 
        days before the election (in the case in which the request is 
        received at least 45 days before the election)--
                  ``(A) the State shall transmit the ballot to the 
                voter by express delivery; or
                  ``(B) in the case of a voter who has designated that 
                absentee ballots be transmitted electronically in 
                accordance with subsection (f)(1), the State shall 
                transmit the ballot to the voter electronically.
          ``(2) Special rule for transmission fewer than 40 days before 
        the election.--If, in carrying out paragraph (1), a State 
        transmits an absentee ballot to an absent uniformed services 
        voter or overseas voter fewer than 40 days before the election, 
        the State shall enable the ballot to be returned by the voter 
        by express delivery, except that in the case of an absentee 
        ballot of an absent uniformed services voter for a regularly 
        scheduled general election for Federal office, the State may 
        satisfy the requirement of this paragraph by notifying the 
        voter of the procedures for the collection and delivery of such 
        ballots under section 103A.''.
  (c) Clarification of Treatment of Weekends.--Section 102(a)(8)(A) of 
such Act (52 U.S.C. 20302(a)(8)(A)) is amended by striking ``the 
election;'' and inserting the following: ``the election (or, if the 
45th day preceding the election is a weekend or legal public holiday, 
not later than the most recent weekday which precedes such 45th day and 
which is not a legal public holiday, but only if the request is 
received by at least such most recent weekday);''.

SEC. 1704. USE OF SINGLE ABSENTEE BALLOT APPLICATION FOR SUBSEQUENT 
                    ELECTIONS.

  (a) In General.--Section 104 of the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens 
Absentee Voting Act (52 U.S.C. 20306) is amended to read as follows:

``SEC. 104. USE OF SINGLE APPLICATION FOR SUBSEQUENT ELECTIONS.

  ``(a) In General.--If a State accepts and processes an official post 
card form (prescribed under section 101) submitted by an absent 
uniformed services voter or overseas voter for simultaneous voter 
registration and absentee ballot application (in accordance with 
section 102(a)(4)) and the voter requests that the application be 
considered an application for an absentee ballot for each subsequent 
election for Federal office held in the State through the next 
regularly scheduled general election for Federal office (including any 
runoff elections which may occur as a result of the outcome of such 
general election), the State shall provide an absentee ballot to the 
voter for each such subsequent election.
  ``(b) Exception for Voters Changing Registration.--Subsection (a) 
shall not apply with respect to a voter registered to vote in a State 
for any election held after the voter notifies the State that the voter 
no longer wishes to be registered to vote in the State or after the 
State determines that the voter has registered to vote in another State 
or is otherwise no longer eligible to vote in the State.
  ``(c) Prohibition of Refusal of Application on Grounds of Early 
Submission.--A State may not refuse to accept or to process, with 
respect to any election for Federal office, any otherwise valid voter 
registration application or absentee ballot application (including the 
postcard form prescribed under section 101) submitted by an absent 
uniformed services voter or overseas voter on the grounds that the 
voter submitted the application before the first date on which the 
State otherwise accepts or processes such applications for that 
election which are submitted by absentee voters who are not members of 
the uniformed services or overseas citizens.''.
  (b) Effective Date.--The amendment made by subsection (a) shall apply 
with respect to voter registration and absentee ballot applications 
which are submitted to a State or local election official on or after 
the date of the enactment of this Act.

SEC. 1705. EFFECTIVE DATE.

  The amendments made by this subtitle shall apply with respect to 
elections occurring on or after January 1, 2020.

            Subtitle K--Poll Worker Recruitment and Training

SEC. 1801. [RESERVED].

SEC. 1802. GRANTS TO STATES FOR POLL WORKER RECRUITMENT AND TRAINING.

  (a) Grants by Election Assistance Commission.--
          (1) In general.--The Election Assistance Commission 
        (hereafter referred to as the ``Commission'') shall make a 
        grant to each eligible State for recruiting and training 
        individuals to serve as poll workers on dates of elections for 
        public office.
          (2) Use of commission materials.--In carrying out activities 
        with a grant provided under this section, the recipient of the 
        grant shall use the manual prepared by the Commission on 
        successful practices for poll worker recruiting, training and 
        retention as an interactive training tool, and shall develop 
        training programs with the participation and input of experts 
        in adult learning.
  (b) Requirements for Eligibility.--
          (1) Application.--Each State that desires to receive a 
        payment under this section shall submit an application for the 
        payment to the Commission at such time and in such manner and 
        containing such information as the Commission shall require.
          (2) Contents of application.--Each application submitted 
        under paragraph (1) shall--
                  (A) describe the activities for which assistance 
                under this section is sought;
                  (B) provide assurances that the funds provided under 
                this section will be used to supplement and not 
                supplant other funds used to carry out the activities;
                  (C) provide assurances that the State will furnish 
                the Commission with information on the number of 
                individuals who served as poll workers after 
                recruitment and training with the funds provided under 
                this section; and
                  (D) provide such additional information and 
                certifications as the Commission determines to be 
                essential to ensure compliance with the requirements of 
                this section.
  (c) Amount of Grant.--
          (1) In general.--The amount of a grant made to a State under 
        this section shall be equal to the product of--
                  (A) the aggregate amount made available for grants to 
                States under this section; and
                  (B) the voting age population percentage for the 
                State.
          (2) Voting age population percentage defined.--In paragraph 
        (1), the ``voting age population percentage'' for a State is 
        the quotient of--
                  (A) the voting age population of the State (as 
                determined on the basis of the most recent information 
                available from the Bureau of the Census); and
                  (B) the total voting age population of all States (as 
                determined on the basis of the most recent information 
                available from the Bureau of the Census).
  (d) Reports to Congress.--
          (1) Reports by recipients of grants.--Not later than 6 months 
        after the date on which the final grant is made under this 
        section, each recipient of a grant shall submit a report to the 
        Commission on the activities conducted with the funds provided 
        by the grant.
          (2) Reports by commission.--Not later than 1 year after the 
        date on which the final grant is made under this section, the 
        Commission shall submit a report to Congress on the grants made 
        under this section and the activities carried out by recipients 
        with the grants, and shall include in the report such 
        recommendations as the Commission considers appropriate.
  (e) Funding.--
          (1) Continuing availability of amount appropriated.--Any 
        amount appropriated to carry out this section shall remain 
        available without fiscal year limitation until expended.
          (2) Administrative expenses.--Of the amount appropriated for 
        any fiscal year to carry out this section, not more than 3 
        percent shall be available for administrative expenses of the 
        Commission.

SEC. 1803. STATE DEFINED.

  In this subtitle, the term ``State'' includes the District of 
Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the 
United States Virgin Islands, and the Commonwealth of the Northern 
Mariana Islands.

                 Subtitle L--Enhancement of Enforcement

SEC. 1811. ENHANCEMENT OF ENFORCEMENT OF HELP AMERICA VOTE ACT OF 2002.

  (a) Complaints; Availability of Private Right of Action.--Section 401 
of the Help America Vote Act of 2002 (52 U.S.C. 21111) is amended--
          (1) by striking ``The Attorney General'' and inserting ``(a) 
        In General.--The Attorney General''; and
          (2) by adding at the end the following new subsections:
  ``(b) Filing of Complaints by Aggrieved Persons.--
          ``(1) In general.--A person who is aggrieved by a violation 
        of title III which has occurred, is occurring, or is about to 
        occur may file a written, signed, notarized complaint with the 
        Attorney General describing the violation and requesting the 
        Attorney General to take appropriate action under this section. 
        The Attorney General shall immediately provide a copy of a 
        complaint filed under the previous sentence to the entity 
        responsible for administering the State-based administrative 
        complaint procedures described in section 402(a) for the State 
        involved.
          ``(2) Response by attorney general.--The Attorney General 
        shall respond to each complaint filed under paragraph (1), in 
        accordance with procedures established by the Attorney General 
        that require responses and determinations to be made within the 
        same (or shorter) deadlines which apply to a State under the 
        State-based administrative complaint procedures described in 
        section 402(a)(2). The Attorney General shall immediately 
        provide a copy of the response made under the previous sentence 
        to the entity responsible for administering the State-based 
        administrative complaint procedures described in section 402(a) 
        for the State involved.
  ``(c) Availability of Private Right of Action.--Any person who is 
authorized to file a complaint under subsection (b)(1) (including any 
individual who seeks to enforce the individual's right to a voter-
verified paper ballot, the right to have the voter-verified paper 
ballot counted in accordance with this Act, or any other right under 
title III) may file an action under section 1979 of the Revised 
Statutes of the United States (42 U.S.C. 1983) to enforce the uniform 
and nondiscriminatory election technology and administration 
requirements under subtitle A of title III.
  ``(d) No Effect on State Procedures.--Nothing in this section may be 
construed to affect the availability of the State-based administrative 
complaint procedures required under section 402 to any person filing a 
complaint under this subsection.''.
  (b) Effective Date.--The amendments made by this section shall apply 
with respect to violations occurring with respect to elections for 
Federal office held in 2020 or any succeeding year.

                 Subtitle M--Federal Election Integrity

SEC. 1821. PROHIBITION ON CAMPAIGN ACTIVITIES BY CHIEF STATE ELECTION 
                    ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS.

  (a) In General.--Title III of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 
1971 (52 U.S.C. 30101 et seq.) is amended by inserting after section 
319 the following new section:
 ``campaign activities by chief state election administration officials
  ``Sec. 319A.  (a) Prohibition.--It shall be unlawful for a chief 
State election administration official to take an active part in 
political management or in a political campaign with respect to any 
election for Federal office over which such official has supervisory 
authority.
  ``(b) Chief State Election Administration Official.--The term `chief 
State election administration official' means the highest State 
official with responsibility for the administration of Federal 
elections under State law.
  ``(c) Active Part in Political Management or in a Political 
Campaign.--The term `active part in political management or in a 
political campaign' means--
          ``(1) serving as a member of an authorized committee of a 
        candidate for Federal office;
          ``(2) the use of official authority or influence for the 
        purpose of interfering with or affecting the result of an 
        election for Federal office;
          ``(3) the solicitation, acceptance, or receipt of a 
        contribution from any person on behalf of a candidate for 
        Federal office; and
          ``(4) any other act which would be prohibited under paragraph 
        (2) or (3) of section 7323(b) of title 5, United States Code, 
        if taken by an individual to whom such paragraph applies (other 
        than any prohibition on running for public office).
  ``(d) Exception in Case of Recusal From Administration of Elections 
Involving Official or Immediate Family Member.--
          ``(1) In general.--This section does not apply to a chief 
        State election administration official with respect to an 
        election for Federal office in which the official or an 
        immediate family member of the official is a candidate, but 
        only if--
                  ``(A) such official recuses himself or herself from 
                all of the official's responsibilities for the 
                administration of such election; and
                  ``(B) the official who assumes responsibility for 
                supervising the administration of the election does not 
                report directly to such official.
          ``(2) Immediate family member defined.--In paragraph (1), the 
        term `immediate family member' means, with respect to a 
        candidate, a father, mother, son, daughter, brother, sister, 
        husband, wife, father-in-law, or mother-in-law.''.
  (b) Effective Date.--The amendments made by subsection (a) shall 
apply with respect to elections for Federal office held after December 
2019.

  Subtitle N--Promoting Voter Access Through Election Administration 
                              Improvements

                     PART 1--PROMOTING VOTER ACCESS

SEC. 1901. TREATMENT OF INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION.

  (a) Treatment of Certain Institutions as Voter Registration Agencies 
Under National Voter Registration Act of 1993.--Section 7(a) of the 
National Voter Registration Act of 1993 (52 U.S.C. 20506(a)) is 
amended--
          (1) in paragraph (2)--
                  (A) by striking ``and'' at the end of subparagraph 
                (A);
                  (B) by striking the period at the end of subparagraph 
                (B) and inserting ``; and''; and
                  (C) by adding at the end the following new 
                subparagraph:
                  ``(C) each institution of higher education which has 
                a program participation agreement in effect with the 
                Secretary of Education under section 487 of the Higher 
                Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1094), other than an 
                institution which is treated as a contributing agency 
                under the Automatic Voter Registration Act of 2019.''; 
                and
          (2) in paragraph (6)(A), by inserting ``or, in the case of an 
        institution of higher education, with each registration of a 
        student for enrollment in a course of study, including 
        enrollment in a program of distance education, as defined in 
        section 103(7) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 
        1003(7)),'' after ``assistance,''.
  (b) Responsibilities of Institutions Under Higher Education Act of 
1965.--
          (1) In general.--Section 487(a)(23) of the Higher Education 
        Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1094(a)(23)) is amended to read as 
        follows:
          ``(23)(A)(i) The institution will ensure that an appropriate 
        staff person or office is designated publicly as a `Campus Vote 
        Coordinator' and will ensure that such person's or office's 
        contact information is included on the institution's website.
          ``(ii) Not fewer than twice during each calendar year 
        (beginning with 2020), the Campus Vote Coordinator shall 
        transmit electronically to each student enrolled in the 
        institution (including students enrolled in distance education 
        programs) a message containing the following information:
                  ``(I) Information on the location of polling places 
                in the jurisdiction in which the institution is 
                located, together with information on available methods 
                of transportation to and from such polling places.
                  ``(II) A referral to a government-affiliated website 
                or online platform which provides centralized voter 
                registration information for all States, including 
                access to applicable voter registration forms and 
                information to assist individuals who are not 
                registered to vote in registering to vote.
                  ``(III) Any additional voter registration and voting 
                information the Coordinator considers appropriate, in 
                consultation with the appropriate State election 
                official.
          ``(iii) In addition to transmitting the message described in 
        clause (ii) not fewer than twice during each calendar year, the 
        Campus Vote Coordinator shall transmit the message under such 
        clause not fewer than 30 days prior to the deadline for 
        registering to vote for any election for Federal, State, or 
        local office in the State.
          ``(B) If the institution in its normal course of operations 
        requests each student registering for enrollment in a course of 
        study, including students registering for enrollment in a 
        program of distance education, to affirm whether or not the 
        student is a United States citizen, the institution will comply 
        with the applicable requirements for a contributing agency 
        under the Automatic Voter Registration Act of 2019.
          ``(C) If the institution is not described in subparagraph 
        (B), the institution will comply with the requirements for a 
        voter registration agency in the State in which it is located 
        in accordance with section 7 of the National Voter Registration 
        Act of 1993 (52 U.S.C. 20506).
          ``(D) This paragraph applies only with respect to an 
        institution which is located in a State to which section 4(b) 
        of the National Voter Registration Act of 1993 (52 U.S.C. 
        20503(b)) does not apply.''.
          (2) Effective date.--The amendments made by this subsection 
        shall apply with respect to elections held on or after January 
        1, 2020.
  (c) Grants to Institutions Demonstrating Excellence in Student Voter 
Registration.--
          (1) Grants authorized.--The Secretary of Education may award 
        competitive grants to public and private nonprofit institutions 
        of higher education that are subject to the requirements of 
        section 487(a)(23) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 
        U.S.C. 1094(a)(23)), as amended by subsection (a) and that the 
        Secretary determines have demonstrated excellence in 
        registering students to vote in elections for public office 
        beyond meeting the minimum requirements of such section.
          (2) Eligibility.--An institution of higher education is 
        eligible to receive a grant under this subsection if the 
        institution submits to the Secretary of Education, at such time 
        and in such form as the Secretary may require, an application 
        containing such information and assurances as the Secretary may 
        require to make the determination described in paragraph (1), 
        including information and assurances that the institution 
        carried out activities to promote voter registration by 
        students, such as the following:
                  (A) Sponsoring large on-campus voter mobilization 
                efforts.
                  (B) Engaging the surrounding community in nonpartisan 
                voter registration and get out the vote efforts.
                  (C) Creating a website for students with centralized 
                information about voter registration and election 
                dates.
                  (D) Inviting candidates to speak on campus.
                  (E) Offering rides to students to the polls to 
                increase voter education, registration, and 
                mobilization.
          (3) Authorization of appropriations.--There are authorized to 
        be appropriated for fiscal year 2020 and each succeeding fiscal 
        year such sums as may be necessary to award grants under this 
        subsection.
  (d) Sense of Congress Relating to Option of Students to Register in 
Jurisdiction of Institution of Higher Education or Jurisdiction of 
Domicile.--It is the sense of Congress that, as provided under existing 
law, students who attend an institution of higher education and reside 
in the jurisdiction of the institution while attending the institution 
should have the option of registering to vote in elections for Federal 
office in that jurisdiction or in the jurisdiction of their own 
domicile.

SEC. 1902. MINIMUM NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR VOTERS AFFECTED BY 
                    POLLING PLACE CHANGES.

  (a) Requirements.--Section 302 of the Help America Vote Act of 2002 
(52 U.S.C. 21082), as amended by section 1601(a), is amended--
          (1) by redesignating subsection (f) as subsection (g); and
          (2) by inserting after subsection (e) the following new 
        subsection:
  ``(f) Minimum Notification Requirements for Voters Affected by 
Polling Place Changes.--
          ``(1) In general.--If a State assigns an individual who is a 
        registered voter in a State to a polling place with respect to 
        an election for Federal office which is not the same polling 
        place to which the individual was previously assigned with 
        respect to the most recent election for Federal office in the 
        State in which the individual was eligible to vote--
                  ``(A) the State shall notify the individual of the 
                location of the polling place not later than 7 days 
                before the date of the election; or
                  ``(B) if the State makes such an assignment fewer 
                than 7 days before the date of the election and the 
                individual appears on the date of the election at the 
                polling place to which the individual was previously 
                assigned, the State shall make every reasonable effort 
                to enable the individual to vote on the date of the 
                election.
          ``(2) Effective date.--This subsection shall apply with 
        respect to elections held on or after January 1, 2020.''.
  (b) Conforming Amendment.--Section 302(g) of such Act (52 U.S.C. 
21082(g)), as redesignated by subsection (a) and as amended by section 
1601(b), is amended by striking ``(d)(2) and (e)(2)'' and inserting 
``(d)(2), (e)(2), and (f)(2)''.

SEC. 1903. [RESERVED].

SEC. 1904. PERMITTING USE OF SWORN WRITTEN STATEMENT TO MEET 
                    IDENTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR VOTING.

  (a) Permitting Use of Statement.--Title III of the Help America Vote 
Act of 2002 (52 U.S.C. 21081 et seq.) is amended by inserting after 
section 303 the following new section:

``SEC. 303A. PERMITTING USE OF SWORN WRITTEN STATEMENT TO MEET 
                    IDENTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS.

  ``(a) Use of Statement.--
          ``(1) In general.--Except as provided in subsection (c), if a 
        State has in effect a requirement that an individual present 
        identification as a condition of receiving and casting a ballot 
        in an election for Federal office, the State shall permit the 
        individual to meet the requirement--
                  ``(A) in the case of an individual who desires to 
                vote in person, by presenting the appropriate State or 
                local election official with a sworn written statement, 
                signed by the individual under penalty of perjury, 
                attesting to the individual's identity and attesting 
                that the individual is eligible to vote in the 
                election; or
                  ``(B) in the case of an individual who desires to 
                vote by mail, by submitting with the ballot the 
                statement described in subparagraph (A).
          ``(2) Development of pre-printed version of statement by 
        commission.--The Commission shall develop a pre-printed version 
        of the statement described in paragraph (1)(A) which includes a 
        blank space for an individual to provide a name and signature 
        for use by election officials in States which are subject to 
        paragraph (1).
          ``(3) Providing pre-printed copy of statement.--A State which 
        is subject to paragraph (1) shall--
                  ``(A) make copies of the pre-printed version of the 
                statement described in paragraph (1)(A) which is 
                prepared by the Commission available at polling places 
                for election officials to distribute to individuals who 
                desire to vote in person; and
                  ``(B) include a copy of such pre-printed version of 
                the statement with each blank absentee or other ballot 
                transmitted to an individual who desires to vote by 
                mail.
  ``(b) Requiring Use of Ballot in Same Manner as Individuals 
Presenting Identification.--An individual who presents or submits a 
sworn written statement in accordance with subsection (a)(1) shall be 
permitted to cast a ballot in the election in the same manner as an 
individual who presents identification.
  ``(c) Exception for First-time Voters Registering by Mail.--
Subsections (a) and (b) do not apply with respect to any individual 
described in paragraph (1) of section 303(b) who is required to meet 
the requirements of paragraph (2) of such section.''.
  (b) Requiring States to Include Information on Use of Sworn Written 
Statement in Voting Information Material Posted at Polling Places.--
Section 302(b)(2) of such Act (52 U.S.C. 21082(b)(2)), as amended by 
section 1072(b) and section 1202(b), is amended--
          (1) by striking ``and'' at the end of subparagraph (G);
          (2) by striking the period at the end of subparagraph (H) and 
        inserting ``; and''; and
          (3) by adding at the end the following new subparagraph:
                  ``(I) in the case of a State that has in effect a 
                requirement that an individual present identification 
                as a condition of receiving and casting a ballot in an 
                election for Federal office, information on how an 
                individual may meet such requirement by presenting a 
                sworn written statement in accordance with section 
                303A.''.
  (c) Clerical Amendment.--The table of contents of such Act is amended 
by inserting after the item relating to section 303 the following new 
item:

``Sec. 303A. Permitting use of sworn written statement to meet 
identification requirements.''.

  (e) Effective Date.--The amendments made by this section shall apply 
with respect to elections occurring on or after the date of the 
enactment of this Act.

SEC. 1905. [RESERVED].

SEC. 1906. REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS INCURRED BY STATES IN ESTABLISHING 
                    PROGRAM TO TRACK AND CONFIRM RECEIPT OF ABSENTEE 
                    BALLOTS.

  (a) Reimbursement.--Subtitle D of title II of the Help America Vote 
Act of 2002 (42 U.S.C. 15401 et seq.) is amended by adding at the end 
the following new part:

     ``PART 7--PAYMENTS TO REIMBURSE STATES FOR COSTS INCURRED IN 
 ESTABLISHING PROGRAM TO TRACK AND CONFIRM RECEIPT OF ABSENTEE BALLOTS

``SEC. 297. PAYMENTS TO STATES.

  ``(a) Payments For Costs of Establishing Program.--In accordance with 
this section, the Commission shall make a payment to a State to 
reimburse the State for the costs incurred in establishing, if the 
State so chooses to establish, an absentee ballot tracking program with 
respect to elections for Federal office held in the State (including 
costs incurred prior to the date of the enactment of this part).
  ``(b) Absentee Ballot Tracking Program Described.--
          ``(1) Program described.--
                  ``(A) In general.--In this part, an `absentee ballot 
                tracking program' is a program to track and confirm the 
                receipt of absentee ballots in an election for Federal 
                office under which the State or local election official 
                responsible for the receipt of voted absentee ballots 
                in the election carries out procedures to track and 
                confirm the receipt of such ballots, and makes 
                information on the receipt of such ballots available to 
                the individual who cast the ballot, by means of online 
                access using the Internet site of the official's 
                office.
                  ``(B) Information on whether vote was counted.--The 
                information referred to under subparagraph (A) with 
                respect to the receipt of an absentee ballot shall 
                include information regarding whether the vote cast on 
                the ballot was counted, and, in the case of a vote 
                which was not counted, the reasons therefor.
          ``(2) Use of toll-free telephone number by officials without 
        internet site.--A program established by a State or local 
        election official whose office does not have an Internet site 
        may meet the description of a program under paragraph (1) if 
        the official has established a toll-free telephone number that 
        may be used by an individual who cast an absentee ballot to 
        obtain the information on the receipt of the voted absentee 
        ballot as provided under such paragraph.
  ``(c) Certification of Compliance and Costs.--
          ``(1) Certification required.--In order to receive a payment 
        under this section, a State shall submit to the Commission a 
        statement containing--
                  ``(A) a certification that the State has established 
                an absentee ballot tracking program with respect to 
                elections for Federal office held in the State; and
                  ``(B) a statement of the costs incurred by the State 
                in establishing the program.
          ``(2) Amount of payment.--The amount of a payment made to a 
        State under this section shall be equal to the costs incurred 
        by the State in establishing the absentee ballot tracking 
        program, as set forth in the statement submitted under 
        paragraph (1), except that such amount may not exceed the 
        product of--
                  ``(A) the number of jurisdictions in the State which 
                are responsible for operating the program; and
                  ``(B) $3,000.
          ``(3) Limit on number of payments received.--A State may not 
        receive more than one payment under this part.

``SEC. 297A. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

  ``(a) Authorization.--There are authorized to be appropriated to the 
Commission for fiscal year 2020 and each succeeding fiscal year such 
sums as may be necessary for payments under this part.
  ``(b) Continuing Availability of Funds.--Any amounts appropriated 
pursuant to the authorization under this section shall remain available 
until expended.''.
  (b) Clerical Amendment.--The table of contents of such Act is amended 
by adding at the end of the items relating to subtitle D of title II 
the following:

     ``Part 7--Payments to Reimburse States for Costs Incurred in 
 Establishing Program to Track and Confirm Receipt of Absentee Ballots

``Sec. 297. Payments to States.
``Sec. 297A. Authorization of appropriations.''.

SEC. 1907. VOTER INFORMATION RESPONSE SYSTEMS AND HOTLINE.

  (a) Establishment and Operation of Systems and Services.--
          (1) State-based response systems.--The Attorney General shall 
        coordinate the establishment of a State-based response system 
        for responding to questions and complaints from individuals 
        voting or seeking to vote, or registering to vote or seeking to 
        register to vote, in elections for Federal office. Such system 
        shall provide--
                  (A) State-specific, same-day, and immediate 
                assistance to such individuals, including information 
                on how to register to vote, the location and hours of 
                operation of polling places, and how to obtain absentee 
                ballots; and
                  (B) State-specific, same-day, and immediate 
                assistance to individuals encountering problems with 
                registering to vote or voting, including individuals 
                encountering intimidation or deceptive practices.
          (2) Hotline.--The Attorney General, in consultation with 
        State election officials, shall establish and operate a toll-
        free telephone service, using a telephone number that is 
        accessible throughout the United States and that uses easily 
        identifiable numerals, through which individuals throughout the 
        United States--
                  (A) may connect directly to the State-based response 
                system described in paragraph (1) with respect to the 
                State involved;
                  (B) may obtain information on voting in elections for 
                Federal office, including information on how to 
                register to vote in such elections, the locations and 
                hours of operation of polling places, and how to obtain 
                absentee ballots; and
                  (C) may report information to the Attorney General on 
                problems encountered in registering to vote or voting, 
                including incidences of voter intimidation or 
                suppression.
          (3) Collaboration with state and local election officials.--
                  (A) Collection of information from states.--The 
                Attorney General shall coordinate the collection of 
                information on State and local election laws and 
                policies, including information on the Statewide 
                computerized voter registration lists maintained under 
                title III of the Help America Vote Act of 2002, so that 
                individuals who contact the free telephone service 
                established under paragraph (2) on the date of an 
                election for Federal office may receive an immediate 
                response on that day.
                  (B) Forwarding questions and complaints to states.--
                If an individual contacts the free telephone service 
                established under paragraph (2) on the date of an 
                election for Federal office with a question or 
                complaint with respect to a particular State or 
                jurisdiction within a State, the Attorney General shall 
                forward the question or complaint immediately to the 
                appropriate election official of the State or 
                jurisdiction so that the official may answer the 
                question or remedy the complaint on that date.
          (4) Consultation requirements for development of systems and 
        services.--The Attorney General shall ensure that the State-
        based response system under paragraph (1) and the free 
        telephone service under paragraph (2) are each developed in 
        consultation with civil rights organizations, voting rights 
        groups, State and local election officials, voter protection 
        groups, and other interested community organizations, 
        especially those that have experience in the operation of 
        similar systems and services.
  (b) Use of Service by Individuals With Disabilities and Individuals 
With Limited English Language Proficiency.--The Attorney General shall 
design and operate the telephone service established under this section 
in a manner that ensures that individuals with disabilities are fully 
able to use the service, and that assistance is provided in any 
language in which the State (or any jurisdiction in the State) is 
required to provide election materials under section 203 of the Voting 
Rights Act of 1965..
  (c) Voter Hotline Task Force.--
          (1) Appointment by attorney general.--The Attorney General 
        shall appoint individuals (in such number as the Attorney 
        General considers appropriate but in no event fewer than 3) to 
        serve on a Voter Hotline Task Force to provide ongoing analysis 
        and assessment of the operation of the telephone service 
        established under this section, and shall give special 
        consideration in making appointments to the Task Force to 
        individuals who represent civil rights organizations. At least 
        one member of the Task Force shall be a representative of an 
        organization promoting voting rights or civil rights which has 
        experience in the operation of similar telephone services or in 
        protecting the rights of individuals to vote, especially 
        individuals who are members of racial, ethnic, or linguistic 
        minorities or of communities who have been adversely affected 
        by efforts to suppress voting rights.
          (2) Eligibility.--An individual shall be eligible to serve on 
        the Task Force under this subsection if the individual meets 
        such criteria as the Attorney General may establish, except 
        that an individual may not serve on the task force if the 
        individual has been convicted of any criminal offense relating 
        to voter intimidation or voter suppression.
          (3) Term of service.--An individual appointed to the Task 
        Force shall serve a single term of 2 years, except that the 
        initial terms of the members first appointed to the Task Force 
        shall be staggered so that there are at least 3 individuals 
        serving on the Task Force during each year. A vacancy in the 
        membership of the Task Force shall be filled in the same manner 
        as the original appointment.
          (4) No compensation for service.--Members of the Task Force 
        shall serve without pay, but shall receive travel expenses, 
        including per diem in lieu of subsistence, in accordance with 
        applicable provisions under subchapter I of chapter 57 of title 
        5, United States Code.
  (d) Bi-Annual Report to Congress.--Not later than March 1 of each 
odd-numbered year, the Attorney General shall submit a report to 
Congress on the operation of the telephone service established under 
this section during the previous 2 years, and shall include in the 
report--
          (1) an enumeration of the number and type of calls that were 
        received by the service;
          (2) a compilation and description of the reports made to the 
        service by individuals citing instances of voter intimidation 
        or suppression;
          (3) an assessment of the effectiveness of the service in 
        making information available to all households in the United 
        States with telephone service;
          (4) any recommendations developed by the Task Force 
        established under subsection (c) with respect to how voting 
        systems may be maintained or upgraded to better accommodate 
        voters and better ensure the integrity of elections, including 
        but not limited to identifying how to eliminate coordinated 
        voter suppression efforts and how to establish effective 
        mechanisms for distributing updates on changes to voting 
        requirements; and
          (5) any recommendations on best practices for the State-based 
        response systems established under subsection (a)(1).
  (e) Authorization of Appropriations.--
          (1) Authorization.--There are authorized to be appropriated 
        to the Attorney General for fiscal year 2019 and each 
        succeeding fiscal year such sums as may be necessary to carry 
        out this section.
          (2) Set-aside for outreach.--Of the amounts appropriated to 
        carry out this section for a fiscal year pursuant to the 
        authorization under paragraph (1), not less than 15 percent 
        shall be used for outreach activities to make the public aware 
        of the availability of the telephone service established under 
        this section, with an emphasis on outreach to individuals with 
        disabilities and individuals with limited proficiency in the 
        English language.

  PART 2--IMPROVEMENTS IN OPERATION OF ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION

SEC. 1911. REAUTHORIZATION OF ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION.

  Section 210 of the Help America Vote Act of 2002 (52 U.S.C. 20930) is 
amended--
          (1) by striking ``for each of the fiscal years 2003 through 
        2005'' and inserting ``for fiscal year 2019 and each succeeding 
        fiscal year''; and
          (2) by striking ``(but not to exceed $10,000,000 for each 
        such year)''.

SEC. 1913. REQUIRING STATES TO PARTICIPATE IN POST-GENERAL ELECTION 
                    SURVEYS.

  (a) Requirement.--Title III of the Help America Vote Act of 2002 (52 
U.S.C. 21081 et seq.), as amended by section 1904(a), is further 
amended by inserting after section 303A the following new section:

``SEC. 303B. REQUIRING PARTICIPATION IN POST-GENERAL ELECTION SURVEYS.

  ``(a) Requirement.--Each State shall furnish to the Commission such 
information as the Commission may request for purposes of conducting 
any post-election survey of the States with respect to the 
administration of a regularly scheduled general election for Federal 
office.
  ``(b) Effective Date.--This section shall apply with respect to the 
regularly scheduled general election for Federal office held in 
November 2020 and any succeeding election.''.
  (b) Clerical Amendment.--The table of contents of such Act, as 
amended by section 1904(c), is further amended by inserting after the 
item relating to section 303A the following new item:

``Sec. 303B. Requiring participation in post-general election 
surveys.''.

SEC. 1914. REPORTS BY NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY ON 
                    USE OF FUNDS TRANSFERRED FROM ELECTION ASSISTANCE 
                    COMMISSION.

  (a) Requiring Reports on Use Funds as Condition of Receipt.--Section 
231 of the Help America Vote Act of 2002 (52 U.S.C. 20971) is amended 
by adding at the end the following new subsection:
  ``(e) Report on Use of Funds Transferred From Commission.--To the 
extent that funds are transferred from the Commission to the Director 
of the National Institute of Standards and Technology for purposes of 
carrying out this section during any fiscal year, the Director may not 
use such funds unless the Director certifies at the time of transfer 
that the Director will submit a report to the Commission not later than 
90 days after the end of the fiscal year detailing how the Director 
used such funds during the year.''.
  (b) Effective Date.--The amendment made by subsection (a) shall apply 
with respect to fiscal year 2020 and each succeeding fiscal year.

SEC. 1915. RECOMMENDATIONS TO IMPROVE OPERATIONS OF ELECTION ASSISTANCE 
                    COMMISSION.

  (a) Assessment of Information Technology and Cybersecurity.--Not 
later than December 31, 2019, the Election Assistance Commission shall 
carry out an assessment of the security and effectiveness of the 
Commission's information technology systems, including the 
cybersecurity of such systems.
  (b) Improvements to Administrative Complaint Procedures.--
          (1) Review of procedures.--The Election Assistance Commission 
        shall carry out a review of the effectiveness and efficiency of 
        the State-based administrative complaint procedures established 
        and maintained under section 402 of the Help America Vote Act 
        of 2002 (52 U.S.C. 21112) for the investigation and resolution 
        of allegations of violations of title III of such Act.
          (2) Recommendations to streamline procedures.--Not later than 
        December 31, 2019, the Commission shall submit to Congress a 
        report on the review carried out under paragraph (1), and shall 
        include in the report such recommendations as the Commission 
        considers appropriate to streamline and improve the procedures 
        which are the subject of the review.

SEC. 1916. REPEAL OF EXEMPTION OF ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION FROM 
                    CERTAIN GOVERNMENT CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS.

  (a) In General.--Section 205 of the Help America Vote Act of 2002 (52 
U.S.C. 20925) is amended by striking subsection (e).
  (b) Effective Date.--The amendment made by subsection (a) shall apply 
with respect to contracts entered into by the Election Assistance 
Commission on or after the date of the enactment of this Act.

                    PART 3--MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

SEC. 1921. APPLICATION OF LAWS TO COMMONWEALTH OF NORTHERN MARIANA 
                    ISLANDS.

  (a) National Voter Registration Act of 1993.--Section 3(4) of the 
National Voter Registration Act of 1993 (52 U.S.C. 20502(4)) is amended 
by striking ``States and the District of Columbia'' and inserting 
``States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of the 
Northern Mariana Islands''.
  (b) Help America Vote Act of 2002.--
          (1) Coverage of commonwealth of the northern mariana 
        islands.--Section 901 of the Help America Vote Act of 2002 (52 
        U.S.C. 21141) is amended by striking ``and the United States 
        Virgin Islands'' and inserting ``the United States Virgin 
        Islands, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana 
        Islands''.
          (2) Conforming amendments to help america vote act of 2002.--
        Such Act is further amended as follows:
                  (A) The second sentence of section 213(a)(2) (52 
                U.S.C. 20943(a)(2)) is amended by striking ``and 
                American Samoa'' and inserting ``American Samoa, and 
                the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands''.
                  (B) Section 252(c)(2) (52 U.S.C. 21002(c)(2)) is 
                amended by striking ``or the United States Virgin 
                Islands'' and inserting ``the United States Virgin 
                Islands, or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana 
                Islands''.
          (3) Conforming amendment relating to consultation of help 
        america vote foundation with local election officials.--Section 
        90102(c) of title 36, United States Code, is amended by 
        striking ``and the United States Virgin Islands'' and inserting 
        ``the United States Virgin Islands, and the Commonwealth of the 
        Northern Mariana Islands''.
          (4) Effective date.--The amendments made by this subsection 
        shall apply with respect to fiscal years beginning with the 
        first fiscal year which begins after funds are appropriated to 
        the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands pursuant to 
        the payment under section 2.

SEC. 1922. NO EFFECT ON OTHER LAWS.

  (a) In General.--Except as specifically provided, nothing in this 
title may be construed to authorize or require conduct prohibited under 
any of the following laws, or to supersede, restrict, or limit the 
application of such laws:
          (1) The Voting Rights Act of 1965 (52 U.S.C. 10301 et seq.).
          (2) The Voting Accessibility for the Elderly and Handicapped 
        Act (52 U.S.C. 20101 et seq.).
          (3) The Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act 
        (52 U.S.C. 20301 et seq.).
          (4) The National Voter Registration Act of 1993 (52 U.S.C. 
        20501 et seq.).
          (5) The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 
        12101 et seq.).
          (6) The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 701 et seq.).
  (b) No Effect on Preclearance or Other Requirements Under Voting 
Rights Act.--The approval by any person of a payment or grant 
application under this title, or any other action taken by any person 
under this title, shall not be considered to have any effect on 
requirements for preclearance under section 5 of the Voting Rights Act 
of 1965 (52 U.S.C. 10304) or any other requirements of such Act.
  (c) No Effect on Authority of States to Provide Greater Opportunities 
for Voting.--Nothing in this title or the amendments made by this title 
may be construed to prohibit any State from enacting any law which 
provides greater opportunities for individuals to register to vote and 
to vote in elections for Federal office than are provided by this title 
and the amendments made by this title.

                        Subtitle O--Severability

SEC. 1931. SEVERABILITY.

  If any provision of this title or amendment made by this title, or 
the application of a provision or amendment to any person or 
circumstance, is held to be unconstitutional, the remainder of this 
title and amendments made by this title, and the application of the 
provisions and amendment to any person or circumstance, shall not be 
affected by the holding.

                      TITLE II--ELECTION INTEGRITY

                         Subtitle A--[Reserved]

                         Subtitle B--[Reserved]

                         Subtitle C--[Reserved]

                         Subtitle D--[Reserved]

                         Subtitle E--[Reserved]

         Subtitle F--Saving Eligible Voters From Voter Purging

Sec. 2501. Short title.
Sec. 2502. Conditions for removal of voters from list of registered 
voters.

    Subtitle G--No Effect on Authority of States to Provide Greater 
                        Opportunities for Voting

Sec. 2601. No effect on authority of States to provide greater 
opportunities for voting.

                        Subtitle H--Severability

Sec. 2701. Severability.

                         Subtitle A--[Reserved]

                         Subtitle B--[Reserved]

                         Subtitle C--[Reserved]

                         Subtitle D--[Reserved]

                         Subtitle E--[Reserved]

         Subtitle F--Saving Eligible Voters From Voter Purging

SEC. 2501. SHORT TITLE.

  This subtitle may be cited as the ``Stop Automatically Voiding 
Eligible Voters Off Their Enlisted Rolls in States Act'' or the ``Save 
Voters Act''.

SEC. 2502. CONDITIONS FOR REMOVAL OF VOTERS FROM LIST OF REGISTERED 
                    VOTERS.

  (a) Conditions Described.--The National Voter Registration Act of 
1993 (52 U.S.C. 20501 et seq.) is amended by inserting after section 8 
the following new section:

``SEC. 8A. CONDITIONS FOR REMOVAL OF VOTERS FROM OFFICIAL LIST OF 
                    REGISTERED VOTERS.

  ``(a) Verification on Basis of Objective and Reliable Evidence of 
Ineligibility.--
          ``(1) Requiring verification.--Notwithstanding any other 
        provision of this Act, a State may not remove the name of any 
        registrant from the official list of voters eligible to vote in 
        elections for Federal office in the State unless the State 
        verifies, on the basis of objective and reliable evidence, that 
        the registrant is ineligible to vote in such elections.
          ``(2) Factors not considered as objective and reliable 
        evidence of ineligibility.--For purposes of paragraph (2), the 
        following factors, or any combination thereof, shall not be 
        treated as objective and reliable evidence of a registrant's 
        ineligibility to vote:
                  ``(A) The failure of the registrant to vote in any 
                election.
                  ``(B) The failure of the registrant to respond to any 
                notice sent under section 8(d), unless the notice has 
                been returned as undeliverable.
                  ``(C) The failure of the registrant to take any other 
                action with respect to voting in any election or with 
                respect to the registrant's status as a registrant.
  ``(b) Notice After Removal.--
          ``(1) Notice to individual removed.--
                  ``(A) In general.--Not later than 48 hours after a 
                State removes the name of a registrant from the 
                official list of eligible voters for any reason (other 
                than the death of the registrant), the State shall send 
                notice of the removal to the former registrant, and 
                shall include in the notice the grounds for the removal 
                and information how the former registrant may contest 
                the removal, including a telephone number for the 
                appropriate election official., and how to contest the 
                removal or be reinstated, including a contact phone 
                number.
                  ``(B) Exceptions.--Subparagraph (A) does not apply in 
                the case of a registrant--
                          ``(i) who sends written confirmation to the 
                        State that the registrant is no longer eligible 
                        to vote in the registrar's jurisdiction in 
                        which the registrant was registered; or
                          ``(ii) who is removed from the official list 
                        of eligible voters by reason of the death of 
                        the registrant.
          ``(2) Public notice.--Not later than 48 hours after 
        conducting any general program to remove the names of 
        ineligible voters from the official list of eligible voters (as 
        described in section 8(a)(4)), the State shall disseminate a 
        public notice through such methods as may be reasonable to 
        reach the general public (including by publishing the notice in 
        a newspaper of wide circulation or posting the notice on the 
        websites of the appropriate election officials) that list 
        maintenance is taking place and that registrants should check 
        their registration status to ensure no errors or mistakes have 
        been made. The State shall ensure that the public notice 
        disseminated under this paragraph is in a format that is 
        reasonably convenient and accessible to voters with 
        disabilities, including voters who have low vision or are 
        blind.''.
  (b) Conditions for Transmission of Notices of Removal.--Section 8(d) 
of such Act (52 U.S.C. 20507(d)) is amended by adding at the end the 
following new paragraph:
          ``(4) A State may not transmit a notice to a registrant under 
        this subsection unless the State obtains objective and reliable 
        evidence (in accordance with the standards for such evidence 
        which are described in section 8A(a)(2)) that the registrant 
        has changed residence to a place outside the registrar's 
        jurisdiction in which the registrant is registered.''.
  (c) Conforming Amendments.--
          (1) National voter registration act of 1993.--Section 8(a) of 
        such Act (52 U.S.C. 20507(a)) is amended--
                  (A) in paragraph (3), by striking ``provide'' and 
                inserting ``subject to section 8A, provide''; and
                  (B) in paragraph (4), by striking ``conduct'' and 
                inserting ``subject to section 8A, conduct''.
          (2) Help america vote act of 2002.--Section 303(a)(4)(A) of 
        the Help America Vote Act of 2002 (52 U.S.C. 21083(a)(4)(A)) is 
        amended by striking ``, registrants'' and inserting ``, and 
        subject to section 8A of such Act, registrants''.
  (d) Effective Date.--The amendments made by this section shall take 
effect on the date of the enactment of this Act.

    Subtitle G--No Effect on Authority of States to Provide Greater 
                        Opportunities for Voting

SEC. 2601. NO EFFECT ON AUTHORITY OF STATES TO PROVIDE GREATER 
                    OPPORTUNITIES FOR VOTING.

  Nothing in this title or the amendments made by this title may be 
construed to prohibit any State from enacting any law which provides 
greater opportunities for individuals to register to vote and to vote 
in elections for Federal office than are provided by this title and the 
amendments made by this title.

                        Subtitle H--Severability

SEC. 2701. SEVERABILITY.

  If any provision of this title or amendment made by this title, or 
the application of a provision or amendment to any person or 
circumstance, is held to be unconstitutional, the remainder of this 
title and amendments made by this title, and the application of the 
provisions and amendment to any person or circumstance, shall not be 
affected by the holding.

                      TITLE III--ELECTION SECURITY

Sec. 3000. Short title; sense of Congress.

       Subtitle A--Financial Support for Election Infrastructure

           Part 1--Voting System Security Improvement Grants

Sec. 3001. Grants for obtaining compliant paper ballot voting systems 
and carrying out voting system security improvements.
Sec. 3002. Coordination of voting system security activities with use 
of requirements payments and election administration requirements under 
Help America Vote Act of 2002.
Sec. 3003. Incorporation of definitions.

    Part 2--Grants for Risk-limiting Audits of Results of Elections

Sec. 3011. Grants to States for conducting risk-limiting audits of 
results of elections.
Sec. 3012. GAO analysis of effects of audits.

                           Part 3--[Reserved]

                     Subtitle B--Security Measures

Sec. 3101. Election infrastructure designation.
Sec. 3102. Timely threat information.
Sec. 3103. Security clearance assistance for election officials.
Sec. 3104. Security risk and vulnerability assessments.
Sec. 3105. Annual reports.

    Subtitle C--Enhancing Protections for United States Democratic 
                              Institutions

Sec. 3201. National strategy to protect United States democratic 
institutions.
Sec. 3202. National Commission to Protect United States Democratic 
Institutions.

 Subtitle D--Promoting Cybersecurity Through Improvements in Election 
                             Administration

Sec. 3301. Testing of existing voting systems to ensure compliance with 
election cybersecurity guidelines and other guidelines.
Sec. 3302. Treatment of electronic poll books as part of voting 
systems.
Sec. 3303. Pre-election reports on voting system usage.
Sec. 3304. Streamlining collection of election information.

                Subtitle E--Preventing Election Hacking

Sec. 3401. Short title.
Sec. 3402. Election Security Bug Bounty Program.
Sec. 3403. Definitions.

                  Subtitle F--Miscellaneous Provisions

Sec. 3501. Definitions.
Sec. 3502. Initial report on adequacy of resources available for 
implementation.

                        Subtitle G--Severability

Sec. 3601. Severability.

SEC. 3000. SHORT TITLE; SENSE OF CONGRESS.

  (a) Short Title.--This title may be cited as the ``Election Security 
Act''.
  (b) Sense of Congress on Need to Improve Election Infrastructure 
Security.--It is the sense of Congress that, in light of the lessons 
learned from Russian interference in the 2016 Presidential election, 
the Federal Government should intensify its efforts to improve the 
security of election infrastructure in the United States, including 
through the use of individual, durable, paper ballots marked by the 
voter by hand.

       Subtitle A--Financial Support for Election Infrastructure

           PART 1--VOTING SYSTEM SECURITY IMPROVEMENT GRANTS

SEC. 3001. GRANTS FOR OBTAINING COMPLIANT PAPER BALLOT VOTING SYSTEMS 
                    AND CARRYING OUT VOTING SYSTEM SECURITY 
                    IMPROVEMENTS.

  (a) Availability of Grants.--Subtitle D of title II of the Help 
America Vote Act of 2002 (52 U.S.C. 21001 et seq.), as amended by 
section 1906(a), is amended by adding at the end the following new 
part:

 ``PART 8--GRANTS FOR OBTAINING COMPLIANT PAPER BALLOT VOTING SYSTEMS 
          AND CARRYING OUT VOTING SYSTEM SECURITY IMPROVEMENTS

``SEC. 298. GRANTS FOR OBTAINING COMPLIANT PAPER BALLOT VOTING SYSTEMS 
                    AND CARRYING OUT VOTING SYSTEM SECURITY 
                    IMPROVEMENTS.

  ``(a) Availability and Use of Grant.--The Commission shall make a 
grant to each eligible State--
          ``(1) to replace a voting system--
                  ``(A) which does not meet the requirements which are 
                first imposed on the State pursuant to the amendments 
                made by the Voter Confidence and Increased 
                Accessibility Act of 2019 with a voting system which 
                does meet such requirements, for use in the regularly 
                scheduled general elections for Federal office held in 
                November 2020, or
                  ``(B) which does meet such requirements but which is 
                not in compliance with the most recent voluntary voting 
                system guidelines issued by the Commission prior to the 
                regularly scheduled general election for Federal office 
                held in November 2020 with another system which does 
                meet such requirements and is in compliance with such 
                guidelines; and
          ``(2) to carry out voting system security improvements 
        described in section 298A with respect to the regularly 
        scheduled general elections for Federal office held in November 
        2020 and each succeeding election for Federal office.
  ``(b) Amount of Grant.--The amount of a grant made to a State under 
this section shall be such amount as the Commission determines to be 
appropriate, except that such amount may not be less than the product 
of $1 and the average of the number of individuals who cast votes in 
any of the two most recent regularly scheduled general elections for 
Federal office held in the State.
  ``(c) Pro Rata Reductions.--If the amount of funds appropriated for 
grants under this part is insufficient to ensure that each State 
receives the amount of the grant calculated under subsection (b), the 
Commission shall make such pro rata reductions in such amounts as may 
be necessary to ensure that the entire amount appropriated under this 
part is distributed to the States.
  ``(d) Ability of Replacement Systems to Administer Ranked Choice 
Elections.--To the greatest extent practicable, an eligible State which 
receives a grant to replace a voting system under this section shall 
ensure that the replacement system is capable of administering a system 
of ranked choice voting under which each voter shall rank the 
candidates for the office in the order of the voter's preference.

``SEC. 298A. VOTING SYSTEM SECURITY IMPROVEMENTS DESCRIBED.

  ``(a) Permitted Uses.--A voting system security improvement described 
in this section is any of the following:
          ``(1) The acquisition of goods and services from qualified 
        election infrastructure vendors by purchase, lease, or such 
        other arrangements as may be appropriate.
          ``(2) Cyber and risk mitigation training.
          ``(3) A security risk and vulnerability assessment of the 
        State's election infrastructure which is carried out by a 
        provider of cybersecurity services under a contract entered 
        into between the chief State election official and the 
        provider.
          ``(4) The maintenance of election infrastructure, including 
        addressing risks and vulnerabilities which are identified under 
        either of the security risk and vulnerability assessments 
        described in paragraph (3), except that none of the funds 
        provided under this part may be used to renovate or replace a 
        building or facility which is used primarily for purposes other 
        than the administration of elections for public office.
          ``(5) Providing increased technical support for any 
        information technology infrastructure that the chief State 
        election official deems to be part of the State's election 
        infrastructure or designates as critical to the operation of 
        the State's election infrastructure.
          ``(6) Enhancing the cybersecurity and operations of the 
        information technology infrastructure described in paragraph 
        (4).
          ``(7) Enhancing the cybersecurity of voter registration 
        systems.
  ``(b) Qualified Election Infrastructure Vendors Described.--
          ``(1) In general.--For purposes of this part, a `qualified 
        election infrastructure vendor' is any person who provides, 
        supports, or maintains, or who seeks to provide, support, or 
        maintain, election infrastructure on behalf of a State, unit of 
        local government, or election agency (as defined in section 
        3501 of the Election Security Act) who meets the criteria 
        described in paragraph (2).
          ``(2) Criteria.--The criteria described in this paragraph are 
        such criteria as the Chairman, in coordination with the 
        Secretary of Homeland Security, shall establish and publish, 
        and shall include each of the following requirements:
                  ``(A) The vendor must be owned and controlled by a 
                citizen or permanent resident of the United States.
                  ``(B) The vendor must disclose to the Chairman and 
                the Secretary, and to the chief State election official 
                of any State to which the vendor provides any goods and 
                services with funds provided under this part, of any 
                sourcing outside the United States for parts of the 
                election infrastructure.
                  ``(C) The vendor agrees to ensure that the election 
                infrastructure will be developed and maintained in a 
                manner that is consistent with the cybersecurity best 
                practices issued by the Technical Guidelines 
                Development Committee.
                  ``(D) The vendor agrees to maintain its information 
                technology infrastructure in a manner that is 
                consistent with the cybersecurity best practices issued 
                by the Technical Guidelines Development Committee.
                  ``(E) The vendor agrees to meet the requirements of 
                paragraph (3) with respect to any known or suspected 
                cybersecurity incidents involving any of the goods and 
                services provided by the vendor pursuant to a grant 
                under this part.
                  ``(F) The vendor agrees to permit independent 
                security testing by the Commission (in accordance with 
                section 231(a)) and by the Secretary of the goods and 
                services provided by the vendor pursuant to a grant 
                under this part.
          ``(3) Cybersecurity incident reporting requirements.--
                  ``(A) In general.--A vendor meets the requirements of 
                this paragraph if, upon becoming aware of the 
                possibility that an election cybersecurity incident has 
                occurred involving any of the goods and services 
                provided by the vendor pursuant to a grant under this 
                part--
                          ``(i) the vendor promptly assesses whether or 
                        not such an incident occurred, and submits a 
                        notification meeting the requirements of 
                        subparagraph (B) to the Secretary and the 
                        Chairman of the assessment as soon as 
                        practicable (but in no case later than 3 days 
                        after the vendor first becomes aware of the 
                        possibility that the incident occurred);
                          ``(ii) if the incident involves goods or 
                        services provided to an election agency, the 
                        vendor submits a notification meeting the 
                        requirements of subparagraph (B) to the agency 
                        as soon as practicable (but in no case later 
                        than 3 days after the vendor first becomes 
                        aware of the possibility that the incident 
                        occurred), and cooperates with the agency in 
                        providing any other necessary notifications 
                        relating to the incident; and
                          ``(iii) the vendor provides all necessary 
                        updates to any notification submitted under 
                        clause (i) or clause (ii).
                  ``(B) Contents of notifications.--Each notification 
                submitted under clause (i) or clause (ii) of 
                subparagraph (A) shall contain the following 
                information with respect to any election cybersecurity 
                incident covered by the notification:
                          ``(i) The date, time, and time zone when the 
                        election cybersecurity incident began, if 
                        known.
                          ``(ii) The date, time, and time zone when the 
                        election cybersecurity incident was detected.
                          ``(iii) The date, time, and duration of the 
                        election cybersecurity incident.
                          ``(iv) The circumstances of the election 
                        cybersecurity incident, including the specific 
                        election infrastructure systems believed to 
                        have been accessed and information acquired, if 
                        any.
                          ``(v) Any planned and implemented technical 
                        measures to respond to and recover from the 
                        incident.
                          ``(vi) In the case of any notification which 
                        is an update to a prior notification, any 
                        additional material information relating to the 
                        incident, including technical data, as it 
                        becomes available.

``SEC. 298B. ELIGIBILITY OF STATES.

  ``A State is eligible to receive a grant under this part if the State 
submits to the Commission, at such time and in such form as the 
Commission may require, an application containing--
          ``(1) a description of how the State will use the grant to 
        carry out the activities authorized under this part;
          ``(2) a certification and assurance that, not later than 5 
        years after receiving the grant, the State will carry out risk-
        limiting audits and will carry out voting system security 
        improvements, as described in section 298A; and
          ``(3) such other information and assurances as the Commission 
        may require.

``SEC. 298C. REPORTS TO CONGRESS.

  ``Not later than 90 days after the end of each fiscal year, the 
Commission shall submit a report to the appropriate congressional 
committees, including the Committees on Homeland Security, House 
Administration, and the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and 
the Committees on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, the 
Judiciary, and Rules and Administration of the Senate, on the 
activities carried out with the funds provided under this part.

``SEC. 298D. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

  ``(a) Authorization.--There are authorized to be appropriated for 
grants under this part--
          ``(1) $1,000,000,000 for fiscal year 2019; and
          ``(2) $175,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2020, 2022, 
        2024, and 2026.
  ``(b) Continuing Availability of Amounts.--Any amounts appropriated 
pursuant to the authorization of this section shall remain available 
until expended.''.
  (b) Clerical Amendment.--The table of contents of such Act, as 
amended by section 1906(b), is amended by adding at the end of the 
items relating to subtitle D of title II the following:

 ``Part 8--Grants for Obtaining Compliant Paper Ballot Voting Systems 
              and Carrying Out Voting System Improvements

        ``Sec. 298. Grants for obtaining compliant paper ballot voting 
                        systems and carrying out voting system security 
                        improvements.
        ``Sec. 298A. Voting system security improvements described.
        ``Sec. 298B. Eligibility of States.
        ``Sec. 298C. Reports to Congress.
        ``Sec. 298D. Authorization of appropriations.

SEC. 3002. COORDINATION OF VOTING SYSTEM SECURITY ACTIVITIES WITH USE 
                    OF REQUIREMENTS PAYMENTS AND ELECTION 
                    ADMINISTRATION REQUIREMENTS UNDER HELP AMERICA VOTE 
                    ACT OF 2002.

  (a) Duties of Election Assistance Commission.--Section 202 of the 
Help America Vote Act of 2002 (52 U.S.C. 20922) is amended in the 
matter preceding paragraph (1) by striking ``by'' and inserting ``and 
the security of election infrastructure by''.
  (b) Membership of Secretary of Homeland Security on Board of Advisors 
of Election Assistance Commission.--Section 214(a) of such Act (52 
U.S.C. 20944(a)) is amended--
          (1) by striking ``37 members'' and inserting ``38 members''; 
        and
          (2) by adding at the end the following new paragraph:
          ``(17) The Secretary of Homeland Security or the Secretary's 
        designee.''.
  (c) Representative of Department of Homeland Security on Technical 
Guidelines Development Committee.--Section 221(c)(1) of such Act (52 
U.S.C. 20961(c)(1)) is amended--
          (1) by redesignating subparagraph (E) as subparagraph (F); 
        and
          (2) by inserting after subparagraph (D) the following new 
        subparagraph:
                  ``(E) A representative of the Department of Homeland 
                Security.''.
  (d) Goals of Periodic Studies of Election Administration Issues; 
Consultation With Secretary of Homeland Security.--Section 241(a) of 
such Act (52 U.S.C. 20981(a)) is amended--
          (1) in the matter preceding paragraph (1), by striking ``the 
        Commission shall'' and inserting ``the Commission, in 
        consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security (as 
        appropriate), shall'';
          (2) by striking ``and'' at the end of paragraph (3);
          (3) by redesignating paragraph (4) as paragraph (5); and
          (4) by inserting after paragraph (3) the following new 
        paragraph:
          ``(4) will be secure against attempts to undermine the 
        integrity of election systems by cyber or other means; and''.
  (e) Requirements Payments.--
          (1) Use of payments for voting system security 
        improvements.--Section 251(b) of such Act (52 U.S.C. 21001(b)), 
        as amended by section 1061(a)(2), is further amended by adding 
        at the end the following new paragraph:
          ``(5) Permitting use of payments for voting system security 
        improvements.--A State may use a requirements payment to carry 
        out any of the following activities:
                  ``(A) Cyber and risk mitigation training.
                  ``(B) Providing increased technical support for any 
                information technology infrastructure that the chief 
                State election official deems to be part of the State's 
                election infrastructure or designates as critical to 
                the operation of the State's election infrastructure.
                  ``(C) Enhancing the cybersecurity and operations of 
                the information technology infrastructure described in 
                subparagraph (B).
                  ``(D) Enhancing the security of voter registration 
                databases.''.
          (2) Incorporation of election infrastructure protection in 
        state plans for use of payments.--Section 254(a)(1) of such Act 
        (52 U.S.C. 21004(a)(1)) is amended by striking the period at 
        the end and inserting ``, including the protection of election 
        infrastructure.''.
          (3) Composition of committee responsible for developing state 
        plan for use of payments.--Section 255 of such Act (52 U.S.C. 
        21005) is amended--
                  (A) by redesignating subsection (b) as subsection 
                (c); and
                  (B) by inserting after subsection (a) the following 
                new subsection:
  ``(b) Geographic Representation.--The members of the committee shall 
be a representative group of individuals from the State's counties, 
cities, towns, and Indian tribes, and shall represent the needs of 
rural as well as urban areas of the State, as the case may be.''.
  (f) Ensuring Protection of Computerized Statewide Voter Registration 
List.--Section 303(a)(3) of such Act (52 U.S.C. 21083(a)(3)) is amended 
by striking the period at the end and inserting ``, as well as other 
measures to prevent and deter cybersecurity incidents, as identified by 
the Commission, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and the Technical 
Guidelines Development Committee.''.

SEC. 3003. INCORPORATION OF DEFINITIONS.

  (a) In General.--Section 901 of the Help America Vote Act of 2002 (52 
U.S.C. 21141) is amended to read as follows:

``SEC. 901. DEFINITIONS.

  ``In this Act, the following definitions apply:
          ``(1) The term `cybersecurity incident' has the meaning given 
        the term `incident' in section 227 of the Homeland Security Act 
        of 2002 (6 U.S.C. 148).
          ``(2) The term `election infrastructure' has the meaning 
        given such term in section 3501 of the Election Security Act.
          ``(3) The term `State' means each of the several States, the 
        District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, 
        American Samoa, the United States Virgin Islands, and the 
        Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.''.
  (b) Clerical Amendment.--The table of contents of such Act is amended 
by amending the item relating to section 901 to read as follows:

``Sec. 901. Definitions.''.

    PART 2--GRANTS FOR RISK-LIMITING AUDITS OF RESULTS OF ELECTIONS

SEC. 3011. GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONDUCTING RISK-LIMITING AUDITS OF 
                    RESULTS OF ELECTIONS.

  (a) Availability of Grants.--Subtitle D of title II of the Help 
America Vote Act of 2002 (52 U.S.C. 21001 et seq.), as amended by 
sections 1906(a) and 3001(a), is amended by adding at the end the 
following new part:

  ``PART 9--GRANTS FOR CONDUCTING RISK-LIMITING AUDITS OF RESULTS OF 
                               ELECTIONS

``SEC. 299. GRANTS FOR CONDUCTING RISK-LIMITING AUDITS OF RESULTS OF 
                    ELECTIONS.

  ``(a) Availability of Grants.--The Commission shall make a grant to 
each eligible State to conduct risk-limiting audits as described in 
subsection (b) with respect to the regularly scheduled general 
elections for Federal office held in November 2020 and each succeeding 
election for Federal office.
  ``(b) Risk-limiting Audits Described.--In this part, a `risk-limiting 
audit' is a post-election process--
          ``(1) which is conducted in accordance with rules and 
        procedures established by the chief State election official of 
        the State which meet the requirements of subsection (c); and
          ``(2) under which, if the reported outcome of the election is 
        incorrect, there is at least a predetermined percentage chance 
        that the audit will replace the incorrect outcome with the 
        correct outcome as determined by a full, hand-to-eye tabulation 
        of all votes validly cast in that election that ascertains 
        voter intent manually and directly from voter-verifiable paper 
        records.
  ``(c) Requirements for Rules and Procedures.--The rules and 
procedures established for conducting a risk-limiting audit shall 
include the following elements:
          ``(1) Rules for ensuring the security of ballots and 
        documenting that prescribed procedures were followed.
          ``(2) Rules and procedures for ensuring the accuracy of 
        ballot manifests produced by election agencies.
          ``(3) Rules and procedures for governing the format of ballot 
        manifests, cast vote records, and other data involved in the 
        audit.
          ``(4) Methods to ensure that any cast vote records used in 
        the audit are those used by the voting system to tally the 
        election results sent to the chief State election official and 
        made public.
          ``(5) Procedures for the random selection of ballots to be 
        inspected manually during each audit.
          ``(6) Rules for the calculations and other methods to be used 
        in the audit and to determine whether and when the audit of an 
        election is complete.
          ``(7) Procedures and requirements for testing any software 
        used to conduct risk-limiting audits.
  ``(d) Definitions.--In this part, the following definitions apply:
          ``(1) The term `ballot manifest' means a record maintained by 
        each election agency that meets each of the following 
        requirements:
                  ``(A) The record is created without reliance on any 
                part of the voting system used to tabulate votes.
                  ``(B) The record functions as a sampling frame for 
                conducting a risk-limiting audit.
                  ``(C) The record contains the following information 
                with respect to the ballots cast and counted in the 
                election:
                          ``(i) The total number of ballots cast and 
                        counted by the agency (including undervotes, 
                        overvotes, and other invalid votes).
                          ``(ii) The total number of ballots cast in 
                        each election administered by the agency 
                        (including undervotes, overvotes, and other 
                        invalid votes).
                          ``(iii) A precise description of the manner 
                        in which the ballots are physically stored, 
                        including the total number of physical groups 
                        of ballots, the numbering system for each 
                        group, a unique label for each group, and the 
                        number of ballots in each such group.
          ``(2) The term `incorrect outcome' means an outcome that 
        differs from the outcome that would be determined by a full 
        tabulation of all votes validly cast in the election, 
        determining voter intent manually, directly from voter-
        verifiable paper records.
          ``(3) The term `outcome' means the winner of an election, 
        whether a candidate or a position.
          ``(4) The term `reported outcome' means the outcome of an 
        election which is determined according to the canvass and which 
        will become the official, certified outcome unless it is 
        revised by an audit, recount, or other legal process.

``SEC. 299A. ELIGIBILITY OF STATES.

  ``A State is eligible to receive a grant under this part if the State 
submits to the Commission, at such time and in such form as the 
Commission may require, an application containing--
          ``(1) a certification that, not later than 5 years after 
        receiving the grant, the State will conduct risk-limiting 
        audits of the results of elections for Federal office held in 
        the State as described in section 299;
          ``(2) a certification that, not later than one year after the 
        date of the enactment of this section, the chief State election 
        official of the State has established or will establish the 
        rules and procedures for conducting the audits which meet the 
        requirements of section 299(c);
          ``(3) a certification that the audit shall be completed not 
        later than the date on which the State certifies the results of 
        the election;
          ``(4) a certification that, after completing the audit, the 
        State shall publish a report on the results of the audit, 
        together with such information as necessary to confirm that the 
        audit was conducted properly;
          ``(5) a certification that, if a risk-limiting audit 
        conducted under this part leads to a full manual tally of an 
        election, State law requires that the State or election agency 
        shall use the results of the full manual tally as the official 
        results of the election; and
          ``(6) such other information and assurances as the Commission 
        may require.

``SEC. 299B. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

  ``There are authorized to be appropriated for grants under this part 
$20,000,000 for fiscal year 2019, to remain available until 
expended.''.
  (b) Clerical Amendment.--The table of contents of such Act, as 
amended by sections 1906(b) and 3001(b), is further amended by adding 
at the end of the items relating to subtitle D of title II the 
following:

  ``Part 9--Grants for Conducting Risk-Limiting Audits of Results of 
                               Elections

        ``Sec. 299. Grants for conducting risk-limiting audits of 
                        results of elections.
        ``Sec. 299A. Eligibility of States.
        ``Sec. 299B. Authorization of appropriations.

SEC. 3012. GAO ANALYSIS OF EFFECTS OF AUDITS.

  (a) Analysis.--Not later than 6 months after the first election for 
Federal office is held after grants are first awarded to States for 
conducting risk-limiting under part 9 of subtitle D of title II of the 
Help America Vote Act of 2002 (as added by section 3011) for conducting 
risk-limiting audits of elections for Federal office, the Comptroller 
General of the United States shall conduct an analysis of the extent to 
which such audits have improved the administration of such elections 
and the security of election infrastructure in the States receiving 
such grants.
  (b) Report.--The Comptroller General of the United States shall 
submit a report on the analysis conducted under subsection (a) to the 
appropriate congressional committees.

                           PART 3--[RESERVED]

                     Subtitle B--Security Measures

SEC. 3101. ELECTION INFRASTRUCTURE DESIGNATION.

  Subparagraph (J) of section 2001(3) of the Homeland Security Act of 
2002 (6 U.S.C. 601(3)) is amended by inserting ``, including election 
infrastructure'' before the period at the end.

SEC. 3102. TIMELY THREAT INFORMATION.

  Subsection (d) of section 201 of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (6 
U.S.C. 121) is amended by adding at the end the following new 
paragraph:
          ``(24) To provide timely threat information regarding 
        election infrastructure to the chief State election official of 
        the State with respect to which such information pertains.''.

SEC. 3103. SECURITY CLEARANCE ASSISTANCE FOR ELECTION OFFICIALS.

  In order to promote the timely sharing of information on threats to 
election infrastructure, the Secretary may--
          (1) help expedite a security clearance for the chief State 
        election official and other appropriate State personnel 
        involved in the administration of elections, as designated by 
        the chief State election official;
          (2) sponsor a security clearance for the chief State election 
        official and other appropriate State personnel involved in the 
        administration of elections, as designated by the chief State 
        election official; and
          (3) facilitate the issuance of a temporary clearance to the 
        chief State election official and other appropriate State 
        personnel involved in the administration of elections, as 
        designated by the chief State election official, if the 
        Secretary determines classified information to be timely and 
        relevant to the election infrastructure of the State at issue.

SEC. 3104. SECURITY RISK AND VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENTS.

  (a) In General.--Paragraph (6) of section 2209(c) of the Homeland 
Security Act of 2002 (6 U.S.C. 659(c)) is amended by inserting 
``(including by carrying out a security risk and vulnerability 
assessment)'' after ``risk management support''.
  (b) Prioritization to Enhance Election Security.--
          (1) In general.--Not later than 90 days after receiving a 
        written request from a chief State election official, the 
        Secretary shall, to the extent practicable, commence a security 
        risk and vulnerability assessment (pursuant to paragraph (6) of 
        section 227(c) of the Homeland Security Act of 2002, as amended 
        by subsection (a)) on election infrastructure in the State at 
        issue.
          (2) Notification.--If the Secretary, upon receipt of a 
        request described in paragraph (1), determines that a security 
        risk and vulnerability assessment cannot be commenced within 90 
        days, the Secretary shall expeditiously notify the chief State 
        election official who submitted such request.

SEC. 3105. ANNUAL REPORTS.

  (a) Reports on Assistance and Assessments.--Not later than one year 
after the date of the enactment of this Act and annually thereafter 
through 2026, the Secretary shall submit to the appropriate 
congressional committees--
          (1) efforts to carry out section 203 during the prior year, 
        including specific information on which States were helped, how 
        many officials have been helped in each State, how many 
        security clearances have been sponsored in each State, and how 
        many temporary clearances have been issued in each State; and
          (2) efforts to carry out section 205 during the prior year, 
        including specific information on which States were helped, the 
        dates on which the Secretary received a request for a security 
        risk and vulnerability assessment pursuant to such section, the 
        dates on which the Secretary commenced each such request, and 
        the dates on which the Secretary transmitted a notification in 
        accordance with subsection (b)(2) of such section.
  (b) Reports on Foreign Threats.--Not later than 90 days after the end 
of each fiscal year (beginning with fiscal year 2019), the Secretary 
and the Director of National Intelligence, in coordination with the 
heads of appropriate offices of the Federal government, shall submit a 
joint report to the appropriate congressional committees on foreign 
threats to elections in the United States, including physical and 
cybersecurity threats.
  (c) Information From States.--For purposes of preparing the reports 
required under this section, the Secretary shall solicit and consider 
information and comments from States and election agencies, except that 
the provision of such information and comments by a State or election 
agency shall be voluntary and at the discretion of the State or agency.

    Subtitle C--Enhancing Protections for United States Democratic 
                              Institutions

SEC. 3201. NATIONAL STRATEGY TO PROTECT UNITED STATES DEMOCRATIC 
                    INSTITUTIONS.

  (a) In General.--Not later than one year after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, the President, acting through the Secretary, in 
consultation with the Chairman, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary 
of State, the Attorney General, the Secretary of Education, the 
Director of National Intelligence, the Chairman of the Federal Election 
Commission, and the heads of any other appropriate Federal agencies, 
shall issue a national strategy to protect against cyber attacks, 
influence operations, disinformation campaigns, and other activities 
that could undermine the security and integrity of United States 
democratic institutions.
  (b) Considerations.--The national strategy required under subsection 
(a) shall include consideration of the following:
          (1) The threat of a foreign state actor, foreign terrorist 
        organization (as designated pursuant to section 219 of the 
        Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1189)), or a domestic 
        actor carrying out a cyber attack, influence operation, 
        disinformation campaign, or other activity aimed at undermining 
        the security and integrity of United States democratic 
        institutions.
          (2) The extent to which United States democratic institutions 
        are vulnerable to a cyber attack, influence operation, 
        disinformation campaign, or other activity aimed at undermining 
        the security and integrity of such democratic institutions.
          (3) Potential consequences, such as an erosion of public 
        trust or an undermining of the rule of law, that could result 
        from a successful cyber attack, influence operation, 
        disinformation campaign, or other activity aimed at undermining 
        the security and integrity of United States democratic 
        institutions.
          (4) Lessons learned from other Western governments the 
        institutions of which were subject to a cyber attack, influence 
        operation, disinformation campaign, or other activity aimed at 
        undermining the security and integrity of such institutions, as 
        well as actions that could be taken by the United States 
        Government to bolster collaboration with foreign partners to 
        detect, deter, prevent, and counter such activities.
          (5) Potential impacts such as an erosion of public trust in 
        democratic institutions as could be associated with a 
        successful cyber breach or other activity negatively-affecting 
        election infrastructure.
          (6) Roles and responsibilities of the Secretary, the 
        Chairman, and the heads of other Federal entities and non-
        Federal entities, including chief State election officials and 
        representatives of multi-state information sharing and analysis 
        center.
          (7) Any findings, conclusions, and recommendations to 
        strengthen protections for United States democratic 
        institutions that have been agreed to by a majority of 
        Commission members on the National Commission to Protect United 
        States Democratic Institutions, authorized pursuant to section 
        32002.
  (c) Implementation Plan.--Not later than 90 days after the issuance 
of the national strategy required under subsection (a), the President, 
acting through the Secretary, in coordination with the Chairman, shall 
issue an implementation plan for Federal efforts to implement such 
strategy that includes the following:
          (1) Strategic objectives and corresponding tasks.
          (2) Projected timelines and costs for the tasks referred to 
        in paragraph (1).
          (3) Metrics to evaluate performance of such tasks.
  (d) Classification.--The national strategy required under subsection 
(a) shall be in unclassified form but may contain a classified annex.

SEC. 3202. NATIONAL COMMISSION TO PROTECT UNITED STATES DEMOCRATIC 
                    INSTITUTIONS.

  (a) Establishment.--There is established within the legislative 
branch the National Commission to Protect United States Democratic 
Institutions (hereafter in this section referred to as the 
``Commission'').
  (b) Purpose.--The purpose of the Commission is to counter efforts to 
undermine democratic institutions within the United States.
  (c) Composition.--
          (1) Membership.--The Commission shall be composed of 10 
        members appointed for the life of the Commission as follows:
                  (A) One member shall be appointed by the Secretary.
                  (B) One member shall be appointed by the Chairman.
                  (C) 2 members shall be appointed by the majority 
                leader of the Senate, in consultation with the Chairman 
                of the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental 
                Affairs, the Chairman of the Committee on the 
                Judiciary, and the Chairman of the Committee on Rules 
                and Administration.
                  (D) 2 members shall be appointed by the minority 
                leader of the Senate, in consultation with the ranking 
                minority member of the Committee on Homeland Security 
                and Governmental Affairs, the ranking minority member 
                of the Committee on the Judiciary, and the ranking 
                minority member of the Committee on Rules and 
                Administration.
                  (E) 2 members shall be appointed by the Speaker of 
                the House of Representatives, in consultation with the 
                Chairman of the Committee on Homeland Security, the 
                Chairman of the Committee on House Administration, and 
                the Chairman of the Committee on the Judiciary.
                  (F) 2 members shall be appointed by the minority 
                leader of the House of Representatives, in consultation 
                with the ranking minority member of the Committee on 
                Homeland Security, the ranking minority member of the 
                Committee on the Judiciary, and the ranking minority 
                member of the Committee on House Administration.
          (2) Qualifications.--Individuals shall be selected for 
        appointment to the Commission solely on the basis of their 
        professional qualifications, achievements, public stature, 
        experience, and expertise in relevant fields, including, but 
        not limited to cybersecurity, national security, and the 
        Constitution of the United States.
          (3) No compensation for service.--Members shall not receive 
        compensation for service on the Commission, but shall receive 
        travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, in 
        accordance with chapter 57 of title 5, United States Code.
          (4) Deadline for appointment.--All members of the Commission 
        shall be appointed no later than 60 days after the date of the 
        enactment of this Act.
          (5) Vacancies.--A vacancy on the Commission shall not affect 
        its powers and shall be filled in the manner in which the 
        original appointment was made. The appointment of the 
        replacement member shall be made not later than 60 days after 
        the date on which the vacancy occurs.
  (d) Chair and Vice Chair.--The Commission shall elect a Chair and 
Vice Chair from among its members.
  (e) Quorum and Meetings.--
          (1) Quorum.--The Commission shall meet and begin the 
        operations of the Commission not later than 30 days after the 
        date on which all members have been appointed or, if such 
        meeting cannot be mutually agreed upon, on a date designated by 
        the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the President 
        pro Tempore of the Senate. Each subsequent meeting shall occur 
        upon the call of the Chair or a majority of its members. A 
        majority of the members of the Commission shall constitute a 
        quorum, but a lesser number may hold meetings.
          (2) Authority of individuals to act for commission.--Any 
        member of the Commission may, if authorized by the Commission, 
        take any action that the Commission is authorized to take under 
        this section.
  (f) Powers.--
          (1) Hearings and evidence.--The Commission (or, on the 
        authority of the Commission, any subcommittee or member 
        thereof) may, for the purpose of carrying out this section, 
        hold hearings and sit and act at such times and places, take 
        such testimony, receive such evidence, and administer such 
        oaths as the Commission considers advisable to carry out its 
        duties.
          (2) Contracting.--The Commission may, to such extent and in 
        such amounts as are provided in appropriation Acts, enter into 
        contracts to enable the Commission to discharge its duties 
        under this section.
  (g) Assistance From Federal Agencies.--
          (1) General services administration.--The Administrator of 
        General Services shall provide to the Commission on a 
        reimbursable basis administrative support and other services 
        for the performance of the Commission's functions.
          (2) Other departments and agencies.--In addition to the 
        assistance provided under paragraph (1), the Department of 
        Homeland Security, the Election Assistance Commission, and 
        other appropriate departments and agencies of the United States 
        shall provide to the Commission such services, funds, 
        facilities, and staff as they may determine advisable and as 
        may be authorized by law.
  (h) Public Meetings.--Any public meetings of the Commission shall be 
conducted in a manner consistent with the protection of information 
provided to or developed for or by the Commission as required by any 
applicable statute, regulation, or Executive order.
  (i) Security Clearances.--
          (1) In general.--The heads of appropriate departments and 
        agencies of the executive branch shall cooperate with the 
        Commission to expeditiously provide Commission members and 
        staff with appropriate security clearances to the extent 
        possible under applicable procedures and requirements.
          (2) Preferences.--In appointing staff, obtaining detailees, 
        and entering into contracts for the provision of services for 
        the Commission, the Commission shall give preference to 
        individuals otherwise who have active security clearances.
  (j) Reports.--
          (1) Interim reports.--At any time prior to the submission of 
        the final report under paragraph (2), the Commission may submit 
        interim reports to the President and Congress such findings, 
        conclusions, and recommendations to strengthen protections for 
        democratic institutions in the United States as have been 
        agreed to by a majority of the members of the Commission.
          (2) Final report.--Not later than 18 months after the date of 
        the first meeting of the Commission, the Commission shall 
        submit to the President and Congress a final report containing 
        such findings, conclusions, and recommendations to strengthen 
        protections for democratic institutions in the United States as 
        have been agreed to by a majority of the members of the 
        Commission.
  (k) Termination.--
          (1) In general.--The Commission shall terminate upon the 
        expiration of the 60-day period which begins on the date on 
        which the Commission submits the final report required under 
        subsection (j)(2).
          (2) Administrative activities prior to termination.--During 
        the 60-day period described in paragraph (2), the Commission 
        may carry out such administrative activities as may be required 
        to conclude its work, including providing testimony to 
        committees of Congress concerning the final report and 
        disseminating the final report.

 Subtitle D--Promoting Cybersecurity Through Improvements in Election 
                             Administration

SEC. 3301. TESTING OF EXISTING VOTING SYSTEMS TO ENSURE COMPLIANCE WITH 
                    ELECTION CYBERSECURITY GUIDELINES AND OTHER 
                    GUIDELINES.

  (a) Requiring Testing of Existing Voting Systems.--
          (1) In general.--Section 231(a) of the Help America Vote Act 
        of 2002 (52 U.S.C. 20971(a)) is amended by adding at the end 
        the following new paragraph:
          ``(3) Testing to ensure compliance with guidelines.--
                  ``(A) Testing.--Not later than 9 months before the 
                date of each regularly scheduled general election for 
                Federal office, the Commission shall provide for the 
                testing by accredited laboratories under this section 
                of the voting system hardware and software which was 
                certified for use in the most recent such election, on 
                the basis of the most recent voting system guidelines 
                applicable to such hardware or software (including 
                election cybersecurity guidelines) issued under this 
                Act.
                  ``(B) Decertification of hardware or software failing 
                to meet guidelines.--If, on the basis of the testing 
                described in subparagraph (A), the Commission 
                determines that any voting system hardware or software 
                does not meet the most recent guidelines applicable to 
                such hardware or software issued under this Act, the 
                Commission shall decertify such hardware or 
                software.''.
          (2) Effective date.--The amendment made by paragraph (1) 
        shall apply with respect to the regularly scheduled general 
        election for Federal office held in November 2020 and each 
        succeeding regularly scheduled general election for Federal 
        office.
  (b) Issuance of Cybersecurity Guidelines by Technical Guidelines 
Development Committee.--Section 221(b) of the Help America Vote Act of 
2002 (52 U.S.C. 20961(b)) is amended by adding at the end the following 
new paragraph:
          ``(3) Election cybersecurity guidelines.--Not later than 6 
        months after the date of the enactment of this paragraph, the 
        Development Committee shall issue election cybersecurity 
        guidelines, including standards and best practices for 
        procuring, maintaining, testing, operating, and updating 
        election systems to prevent and deter cybersecurity 
        incidents.''.

SEC. 3302. TREATMENT OF ELECTRONIC POLL BOOKS AS PART OF VOTING 
                    SYSTEMS.

  (a) Inclusion in Definition of Voting System.--Section 301(b) of the 
Help America Vote Act of 2002 (52 U.S.C. 21081(b)) is amended--
          (1) in the matter preceding paragraph (1), by striking ``this 
        section'' and inserting ``this Act'';
          (2) by striking ``and'' at the end of paragraph (1);
          (3) by redesignating paragraph (2) as paragraph (3); and
          (4) by inserting after paragraph (1) the following new 
        paragraph:
          ``(2) any electronic poll book used with respect to the 
        election; and''.
  (b) Definition.--Section 301 of such Act (52 U.S.C. 21081) is 
amended--
          (1) by redesignating subsections (c) and (d) as subsections 
        (d) and (e); and
          (2) by inserting after subsection (b) the following new 
        subsection:
  ``(c) Electronic Poll Book Defined.--In this Act, the term 
`electronic poll book' means the total combination of mechanical, 
electromechanical, or electronic equipment (including the software, 
firmware, and documentation required to program, control, and support 
the equipment) that is used--
          ``(1) to retain the list of registered voters at a polling 
        location, or vote center, or other location at which voters 
        cast votes in an election for Federal office; and
          ``(2) to identify registered voters who are eligible to vote 
        in an election.''.
  (c) Effective Date.--Section 301(e) of such Act (52 U.S.C. 21081(e)), 
as redesignated by subsection (b), is amended by striking the period at 
the end and inserting the following: ``, or, with respect to any 
requirements relating to electronic poll books, on and after January 1, 
2020.''.

SEC. 3303. PRE-ELECTION REPORTS ON VOTING SYSTEM USAGE.

  (a) Requiring States to Submit Reports.--Title III of the Help 
America Vote Act of 2002 (52 U.S.C. 21081 et seq.) is amended by 
inserting after section 301 the following new section:

``SEC. 301A. PRE-ELECTION REPORTS ON VOTING SYSTEM USAGE.

  ``(a) Requiring States to Submit Reports.--Not later than 120 days 
before the date of each regularly scheduled general election for 
Federal office, the chief State election official of a State shall 
submit a report to the Commission containing a detailed voting system 
usage plan for each jurisdiction in the State which will administer the 
election, including a detailed plan for the usage of electronic poll 
books and other equipment and components of such system.
  ``(b) Effective Date.--Subsection (a) shall apply with respect to the 
regularly scheduled general election for Federal office held in 
November 2020 and each succeeding regularly scheduled general election 
for Federal office.''.
  (b) Clerical Amendment.--The table of contents of such Act is amended 
by inserting after the item relating to section 301 the following new 
item:

``Sec. 301A. Pre-election reports on voting system usage.''.

SEC. 3304. STREAMLINING COLLECTION OF ELECTION INFORMATION.

  Section 202 of the Help America Vote Act of 2002 (52 U.S.C. 20922) is 
amended--
          (1) by striking ``The Commission'' and inserting ``(a) In 
        General.--The Commission''; and
          (2) by adding at the end the following new subsection:
  ``(b) Waiver of Certain Requirements.--Subchapter I of chapter 35 of 
title 44, United States Code, shall not apply to the collection of 
information for purposes of maintaining the clearinghouse described in 
paragraph (1) of subsection (a).''.

                Subtitle E--Preventing Election Hacking

SEC. 3401. SHORT TITLE.

  This subtitle may be cited as the ``Prevent Election Hacking Act of 
2019''.

SEC. 3402. ELECTION SECURITY BUG BOUNTY PROGRAM.

  (a) Establishment.--Not later than 1 year after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall establish a program to be 
known as the ``Election Security Bug Bounty Program'' (hereafter in 
this subtitle referred to as the ``Program'') to improve the 
cybersecurity of the systems used to administer elections for Federal 
office by facilitating and encouraging assessments by independent 
technical experts, in cooperation with State and local election 
officials and election service providers, to identify and report 
election cybersecurity vulnerabilities.
  (b) Voluntary Participation by Election Officials and Election 
Service Providers.--
          (1) No requirement to participate in program.--Participation 
        in the Program shall be entirely voluntary for State and local 
        election officials and election service providers.
          (2) Encouraging participation and input from election 
        officials.--In developing the Program, the Secretary shall 
        solicit input from, and encourage participation by, State and 
        local election officials.
  (c) Activities Funded.--In establishing and carrying out the Program, 
the Secretary shall--
          (1) establish a process for State and local election 
        officials and election service providers to voluntarily 
        participate in the Program;
          (2) designate appropriate information systems to be included 
        in the Program;
          (3) provide compensation to eligible individuals, 
        organizations, and companies for reports of previously 
        unidentified security vulnerabilities within the information 
        systems designated under subparagraph (A) and establish 
        criteria for individuals, organizations, and companies to be 
        considered eligible for such compensation in compliance with 
        Federal laws;
          (4) consult with the Attorney General on how to ensure that 
        approved individuals, organizations, or companies that comply 
        with the requirements of the Program are protected from 
        prosecution under section 1030 of title 18, United States Code, 
        and similar provisions of law, and from liability under civil 
        actions for specific activities authorized under the Program;
          (5) consult with the Secretary of Defense and the heads of 
        other departments and agencies that have implemented programs 
        to provide compensation for reports of previously undisclosed 
        vulnerabilities in information systems, regarding lessons that 
        may be applied from such programs;
          (6) develop an expeditious process by which an individual, 
        organization, or company can register with the Department, 
        submit to a background check as determined by the Department, 
        and receive a determination as to eligibility for participation 
        in the Program; and
          (7) engage qualified interested persons, including 
        representatives of private entities, about the structure of the 
        Program and, to the extent practicable, establish a recurring 
        competition for independent technical experts to assess 
        election systems for the purpose of identifying and reporting 
        election cybersecurity vulnerabilities;
  (d) Use of Service Providers.--The Secretary may award competitive 
contracts as necessary to manage the Program.

SEC. 3403. DEFINITIONS.

  In this subtitle, the following definitions apply:
          (1) The terms ``election'' and ``Federal office'' have the 
        meanings given such terms in section 301 of the Federal 
        Election Campaign Act of 1971 (52 U.S.C. 30101).
          (2) The term ``election cybersecurity vulnerability'' means 
        any security vulnerability (as defined in section 102 of the 
        Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act of 2015 (6 U.S.C. 1501)) 
        that affects an election system.
          (3) The term ``election service provider'' means any person 
        providing, supporting, or maintaining an election system on 
        behalf of a State or local election official, such as a 
        contractor or vendor.
          (4) The term ``election system'' means any information system 
        (as defined in section 3502 of title 44, United States Code) 
        which is part of an election infrastructure.
          (5) The term ``Secretary'' means the Secretary of Homeland 
        Security, or, upon designation by the Secretary of Homeland 
        Security, the Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security, the 
        Director of Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security of the 
        Department of Homeland Security, or a Senate-confirmed official 
        that reports to the Director.
          (6) The term ``State'' means each of the several States, the 
        District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, 
        American Samoa, the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, 
        and the United States Virgin Islands.
          (7) The term ``voting system'' has the meaning given such 
        term in section 301(b) of the Help America Vote Act of 2002 (52 
        U.S.C. 21081(b)).

                  Subtitle F--Miscellaneous Provisions

SEC. 3501. DEFINITIONS.

  Except as provided in section 3404, in this title, the following 
definitions apply:
          (1) The term ``Chairman'' means the chair of the Election 
        Assistance Commission.
          (2) The term ``appropriate congressional committees'' means 
        the Committees on Homeland Security and House Administration of 
        the House of Representatives and the Committees on Homeland 
        Security and Governmental Affairs and Rules and Administration 
        of the Senate.
          (3) The term ``chief State election official'' means, with 
        respect to a State, the individual designated by the State 
        under section 10 of the National Voter Registration Act of 1993 
        (52 U.S.C. 20509) to be responsible for coordination of the 
        State's responsibilities under such Act.
          (4) The term ``Commission'' means the Election Assistance 
        Commission.
          (5) The term ``democratic institutions'' means the diverse 
        range of institutions that are essential to ensuring an 
        independent judiciary, free and fair elections, and rule of 
        law.
          (6) The term ``election agency'' means any component of a 
        State, or any component of a unit of local government in a 
        State, which is responsible for the administration of elections 
        for Federal office in the State.
          (7) The term ``election infrastructure'' means storage 
        facilities, polling places, and centralized vote tabulation 
        locations used to support the administration of elections for 
        public office, as well as related information and 
        communications technology, including voter registration 
        databases, voting machines, electronic mail and other 
        communications systems (including electronic mail and other 
        systems of vendors who have entered into contracts with 
        election agencies to support the administration of elections, 
        manage the election process, and report and display election 
        results), and other systems used to manage the election process 
        and to report and display election results on behalf of an 
        election agency.
          (8) The term ``Secretary'' means the Secretary of Homeland 
        Security.
          (9) The term ``State'' has the meaning given such term in 
        section 901 of the Help America Vote Act of 2002 (52 U.S.C. 
        21141).

SEC. 3502. INITIAL REPORT ON ADEQUACY OF RESOURCES AVAILABLE FOR 
                    IMPLEMENTATION.

  Not later than 120 days after enactment of this Act, the Chairman and 
the Secretary shall submit a report to the appropriate committees of 
Congress, including the Committees on Homeland Security and House 
Administration of the House of Representatives and the Committee on 
Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate, analyzing the 
adequacy of the funding, resources, and personnel available to carry 
out this title and the amendments made by this title.

                        Subtitle G--Severability

SEC. 3601. SEVERABILITY.

  If any provision of this title or amendment made by this title, or 
the application of a provision or amendment to any person or 
circumstance, is held to be unconstitutional, the remainder of this 
title and amendments made by this title, and the application of the 
provisions and amendment to any person or circumstance, shall not be 
affected by the holding.

                      DIVISION B--CAMPAIGN FINANCE

                TITLE IV--CAMPAIGN FINANCE TRANSPARENCY

    Subtitle A--Findings Relating to Illicit Money Undermining Our 
                               Democracy

Sec. 4001. Findings relating to illicit money undermining our 
democracy.

                        Subtitle B--DISCLOSE Act

Sec. 4100. Short title.

            Part 1--Regulation of Certain Political Spending

Sec. 4101. Application of ban on contributions and expenditures by 
foreign nationals to domestic corporations, limited liability 
corporations, and partnerships that are foreign-controlled, foreign-
influenced, and foreign-owned.
Sec. 4102. Clarification of application of foreign money ban to certain 
disbursements and activities.

          Part 2--Reporting of Campaign-Related Disbursements

Sec. 4111. Reporting of campaign-related disbursements.
Sec. 4112. Application of foreign money ban to disbursements for 
campaign-related disbursements consisting of covered transfers.
Sec. 4113. Effective date.

                  Part 3--Other Administrative Reforms

Sec. 4121. Petition for certiorari.
Sec. 4122. Judicial review of actions related to campaign finance laws.

                         Subtitle C--Honest Ads

Sec. 4201. Short title.
Sec. 4202. Purpose.
Sec. 4203. Findings.
Sec. 4204. Sense of Congress.
Sec. 4205. Expansion of definition of public communication.
Sec. 4206. Expansion of definition of electioneering communication.
Sec. 4207. Application of disclaimer statements to online 
communications.
Sec. 4208. Political record requirements for online platforms.
Sec. 4209. Preventing contributions, expenditures, independent 
expenditures, and disbursements for electioneering communications by 
foreign nationals in the form of online advertising.

                     Subtitle D--Stand By Every Ad

Sec. 4301. Short title.
Sec. 4302. Stand By Every Ad.
Sec. 4303. Disclaimer requirements for communications made through 
prerecorded telephone calls.
Sec. 4304. No expansion of persons subject to disclaimer requirements 
on Internet communications.
Sec. 4305. Effective date.

                         Subtitle E--[Reserved]

                         Subtitle F--[Reserved]

                         Subtitle G--[Reserved]

  Subtitle H--Limitation and Disclosure Requirements for Presidential 
                          Inaugural Committees

Sec. 4701. Short title.
Sec. 4702. Limitations and disclosure of certain donations to, and 
disbursements by, Inaugural Committees.

                        Subtitle I--Severability

Sec. 4801. Severability.

    Subtitle A--Findings Relating to Illicit Money Undermining Our 
                               Democracy

SEC. 4001. FINDINGS RELATING TO ILLICIT MONEY UNDERMINING OUR 
                    DEMOCRACY.

  Congress finds the following:
          (1) Criminals, terrorists, and corrupt government officials 
        frequently abuse anonymously held Limited Liability Companies 
        (LLCs), also known as ``shell companies,'' to hide, move, and 
        launder the dirty money derived from illicit activities such as 
        trafficking, bribery, exploitation, and embezzlement. Ownership 
        and control of the finances that run through shell companies 
        are obscured to regulators and law enforcement because little 
        information is required and collected when establishing these 
        entities.
          (2) The public release of the ``Panama Papers'' in 2016 and 
        the ``Paradise Papers'' in 2017 revealed that these shell 
        companies often purchase and sell United States real estate. 
        United States anti-money laundering laws do not apply to cash 
        transactions involving real estate effectively concealing the 
        beneficiaries and transactions from regulators and law 
        enforcement.
          (3) Congress should curb the use of anonymous shell companies 
        for illicit purposes by requiring United States companies to 
        disclose their beneficial owners, strengthening anti-money 
        laundering and counter-terrorism finance laws.
          (4) Congress should examine the money laundering and 
        terrorist financing risks in the real estate market, including 
        the role of anonymous parties, and review legislation to 
        address any vulnerabilities identified in this sector.
          (5) Congress should examine the methods by which corruption 
        flourishes and the means to detect and deter the financial 
        misconduct that fuels this driver of global instability. 
        Congress should monitor government efforts to enforce United 
        States anti-corruption laws and regulations.

                        Subtitle B--DISCLOSE Act

SEC. 4100. SHORT TITLE.

  This subtitle may be cited as the ``Democracy Is Strengthened by 
Casting Light On Spending in Elections Act of 2019'' or the ``DISCLOSE 
Act of 2019''.

            PART 1--REGULATION OF CERTAIN POLITICAL SPENDING

SEC. 4101. APPLICATION OF BAN ON CONTRIBUTIONS AND EXPENDITURES BY 
                    FOREIGN NATIONALS TO DOMESTIC CORPORATIONS, LIMITED 
                    LIABILITY CORPORATIONS, AND PARTNERSHIPS THAT ARE 
                    FOREIGN-CONTROLLED, FOREIGN-INFLUENCED, AND 
                    FOREIGN-OWNED.

  (a) Application of Ban.--
          (1) In general.--Section 319(b) of the Federal Election 
        Campaign Act of 1971 (52 U.S.C. 30121(b)) is amended--
                  (A) by striking ``or'' at the end of paragraph (1);
                  (B) by striking the period at the end of paragraph 
                (2) and inserting ``; or''; and
                  (C) by adding at the end the following new paragraph:
          ``(3) except as provided under subsection (c), any 
        corporation, limited liability corporation, or partnership 
        which is not a foreign national described in paragraph (1) 
        and--
                  ``(A) in which a foreign national described in 
                paragraph (1) or (2) directly or indirectly owns or 
                controls--
                          ``(i) 5 percent or more of the voting shares, 
                        if the foreign national is a foreign country, a 
                        foreign government official, or a corporation 
                        principally owned or controlled by a foreign 
                        country or foreign government official; or
                          ``(ii) 20 percent or more of the voting 
                        shares, if the foreign national is not 
                        described in clause (i);
                  ``(B) in which two or more foreign nationals 
                described in paragraph (1) or (2), each of whom owns or 
                controls at least 5 percent of the voting shares, 
                directly or indirectly own or control 50 percent or 
                more of the voting shares;
                  ``(C) over which one or more foreign nationals 
                described in paragraph (1) or (2) has the power to 
                direct, dictate, or control the decisionmaking process 
                of the corporation, limited liability corporation, or 
                partnership with respect to its interests in the United 
                States; or
                  ``(D) over which one or more foreign nationals 
                described in paragraph (1) or (2) has the power to 
                direct, dictate, or control the decisionmaking process 
                of the corporation, limited liability corporation, or 
                partnership with respect to activities in connection 
                with a Federal, State, or local election, including--
                          ``(i) the making of a contribution, donation, 
                        expenditure, independent expenditure, or 
                        disbursement for an electioneering 
                        communication (within the meaning of section 
                        304(f)(3)); or
                          ``(ii) the administration of a political 
                        committee established or maintained by the 
                        corporation.''.
          (2) Activities of corporate pacs of domestic subsidiaries.--
        Section 319 of such Act (52 U.S.C. 30121) is amended by adding 
        at the end the following new subsection:
  ``(c) Activities of Corporate PACs of Domestic Subsidiaries.--
Notwithstanding subsection (a), a foreign national described in 
subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of subsection (b)(3) which is a domestic 
corporation whose principal place of business is within the United 
States may establish, administer and solicit contributions to a 
separate segregated fund pursuant to section 316(b)(2)(C) so long as--
          ``(1) the foreign national parent corporation of such 
        domestic corporation does not directly or indirectly finance 
        the establishment, administration, or solicitation activities 
        of the fund; and
          ``(2) the fund is in compliance with complies with the 
        requirements of section 316(b)(8).''.
  (b) Certification of Compliance.--Section 319 of such Act (52 U.S.C. 
30121), as amended by subsection (a)(2), is further amended by adding 
at the end the following new subsection:
  ``(d) Certification of Compliance Required Prior To Carrying Out 
Activity.--Prior to the making in connection with an election for 
Federal office of any contribution, donation, expenditure, independent 
expenditure, or disbursement for an electioneering communication by a 
corporation, limited liability corporation, or partnership during a 
year, the chief executive officer of the corporation, limited liability 
corporation, or partnership (or, if the corporation, limited liability 
corporation, or partnership does not have a chief executive officer, 
the highest ranking official of the corporation, limited liability 
corporation, or partnership), shall file a certification with the 
Commission, under penalty of perjury, that the corporation, limited 
liability corporation, or partnership is not prohibited from carrying 
out such activity under subsection (b)(3), unless the chief executive 
officer has previously filed such a certification during that calendar 
year.''.
  (c) Effective Date.--The amendments made by this section shall take 
effect upon the expiration of the 180-day period which begins on the 
date of the enactment of this Act, and shall take effect without regard 
to whether or not the Federal Election Commission has promulgated 
regulations to carry out such amendments.

SEC. 4102. CLARIFICATION OF APPLICATION OF FOREIGN MONEY BAN TO CERTAIN 
                    DISBURSEMENTS AND ACTIVITIES.

  (a) Application to Disbursements to Super PACs.--Section 319(a)(1)(A) 
of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 (52 U.S.C. 30121(a)(1)(A)) 
is amended by striking the semicolon and inserting the following: ``, 
including any disbursement to a political committee which accepts 
donations or contributions that do not comply with the limitations, 
prohibitions, and reporting requirements of this Act (or any 
disbursement to or on behalf of any account of a political committee 
which is established for the purpose of accepting such donations or 
contributions);''.
  (b) Conditions Under Which Corporate PACs May Make Contributions and 
Expenditures.--Section 316(b) of such Act (52 U.S.C. 30118(b)) is 
amended by adding at the end the following new paragraph:
  ``(8) A separate segregated fund established by a corporation may not 
make a contribution or expenditure during a year unless the fund has 
certified to the Commission the following during the year:
          ``(A) Each individual who manages the fund, and who is 
        responsible for exercising decisionmaking authority for the 
        fund, is a citizen of the United States or is lawfully admitted 
        for permanent residence in the United States.
          ``(B) No foreign national under section 319 participates in 
        any way in the decisionmaking processes of the fund with regard 
        to contributions or expenditures under this Act.
          ``(C) The fund does not solicit or accept recommendations 
        from any foreign national under section 319 with respect to the 
        contributions or expenditures made by the fund.
          ``(D) Any member of the board of directors of the corporation 
        who is a foreign national under section 319 abstains from 
        voting on matters concerning the fund or its activities.''.

          PART 2--REPORTING OF CAMPAIGN-RELATED DISBURSEMENTS

SEC. 4111. REPORTING OF CAMPAIGN-RELATED DISBURSEMENTS.

  (a) Disclosure Requirements for Corporations, Labor Organizations, 
and Certain Other Entities.--
          (1) In general.--Section 324 of the Federal Election Campaign 
        Act of 1971 (52 U.S.C. 30126) is amended to read as follows:

``SEC. 324. DISCLOSURE OF CAMPAIGN-RELATED DISBURSEMENTS BY COVERED 
                    ORGANIZATIONS.

  ``(a) Disclosure Statement.--
          ``(1) In general.--Any covered organization that makes 
        campaign-related disbursements aggregating more than $10,000 in 
        an election reporting cycle shall, not later than 24 hours 
        after each disclosure date, file a statement with the 
        Commission made under penalty of perjury that contains the 
        information described in paragraph (2)--
                  ``(A) in the case of the first statement filed under 
                this subsection, for the period beginning on the first 
                day of the election reporting cycle (or, if earlier, 
                the period beginning one year before the first such 
                disclosure date) and ending on the first such 
                disclosure date; and
                  ``(B) in the case of any subsequent statement filed 
                under this subsection, for the period beginning on the 
                previous disclosure date and ending on such disclosure 
                date.
          ``(2) Information described.--The information described in 
        this paragraph is as follows:
                  ``(A) The name of the covered organization and the 
                principal place of business of such organization and, 
                in the case of a covered organization that is a 
                corporation (other than a business concern that is an 
                issuer of a class of securities registered under 
                section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 
                U.S.C. 78l) or that is required to file reports under 
                section 15(d) of that Act (15 U.S.C. 78o(d))) or an 
                entity described in subsection (e)(2), a list of the 
                beneficial owners (as defined in paragraph (4)(A)) of 
                the entity that--
                          ``(i) identifies each beneficial owner by 
                        name and current residential or business street 
                        address; and
                          ``(ii) if any beneficial owner exercises 
                        control over the entity through another legal 
                        entity, such as a corporation, partnership, 
                        limited liability company, or trust, identifies 
                        each such other legal entity and each such 
                        beneficial owner who will use that other entity 
                        to exercise control over the entity.
                  ``(B) The amount of each campaign-related 
                disbursement made by such organization during the 
                period covered by the statement of more than $1,000, 
                and the name and address of the person to whom the 
                disbursement was made.
                  ``(C) In the case of a campaign-related disbursement 
                that is not a covered transfer, the election to which 
                the campaign-related disbursement pertains and if the 
                disbursement is made for a public communication, the 
                name of any candidate identified in such communication 
                and whether such communication is in support of or in 
                opposition to a candidate.
                  ``(D) A certification by the chief executive officer 
                or person who is the head of the covered organization 
                that the campaign-related disbursement is not made in 
                cooperation, consultation, or concert with or at the 
                request or suggestion of a candidate, authorized 
                committee, or agent of a candidate, political party, or 
                agent of a political party.
                  ``(E)(i) If the covered organization makes campaign-
                related disbursements using exclusively funds in a 
                segregated bank account consisting of funds that were 
                paid directly to such account by persons other than the 
                covered organization that controls the account, for 
                each such payment to the account--
                                  ``(I) the name and address of each 
                                person who made such payment during the 
                                period covered by the statement;
                                  ``(II) the date and amount of such 
                                payment; and
                                  ``(III) the aggregate amount of all 
                                such payments made by the person during 
                                the period beginning on the first day 
                                of the election reporting cycle (or, if 
                                earlier, the period beginning one year 
                                before the disclosure date) and ending 
                                on the disclosure date,
                but only if such payment was made by a person who made 
                payments to the account in an aggregate amount of 
                $10,000 or more during the period beginning on the 
                first day of the election reporting cycle (or, if 
                earlier, the period beginning one year before the 
                disclosure date) and ending on the disclosure date.
                  ``(ii) In any calendar year after 2020, section 
                315(c)(1)(B) shall apply to the amount described in 
                clause (i) in the same manner as such section applies 
                to the limitations established under subsections 
                (a)(1)(A), (a)(1)(B), (a)(3), and (h) of such section, 
                except that for purposes of applying such section to 
                the amounts described in subsection (b), the `base 
                period' shall be 2020.
                  ``(F)(i) If the covered organization makes campaign-
                related disbursements using funds other than funds in a 
                segregated bank account described in subparagraph (E), 
                for each payment to the covered organization--
                                  ``(I) the name and address of each 
                                person who made such payment during the 
                                period covered by the statement;
                                  ``(II) the date and amount of such 
                                payment; and
                                  ``(III) the aggregate amount of all 
                                such payments made by the person during 
                                the period beginning on the first day 
                                of the election reporting cycle (or, if 
                                earlier, the period beginning one year 
                                before the disclosure date) and ending 
                                on the disclosure date,
                but only if such payment was made by a person who made 
                payments to the covered organization in an aggregate 
                amount of $10,000 or more during the period beginning 
                on the first day of the election reporting cycle (or, 
                if earlier, the period beginning one year before the 
                disclosure date) and ending on the disclosure date.
                  ``(ii) In any calendar year after 2020, section 
                315(c)(1)(B) shall apply to the amount described in 
                clause (i) in the same manner as such section applies 
                to the limitations established under subsections 
                (a)(1)(A), (a)(1)(B), (a)(3), and (h) of such section, 
                except that for purposes of applying such section to 
                the amounts described in subsection (b), the `base 
                period' shall be 2020.
                  ``(G) Such other information as required in rules 
                established by the Commission to promote the purposes 
                of this section.
          ``(3) Exceptions.--
                  ``(A) Amounts received in ordinary course of 
                business.--The requirement to include in a statement 
                filed under paragraph (1) the information described in 
                paragraph (2) shall not apply to amounts received by 
                the covered organization in commercial transactions in 
                the ordinary course of any trade or business conducted 
                by the covered organization or in the form of 
                investments (other than investments by the principal 
                shareholder in a limited liability corporation) in the 
                covered organization. For purposes of this 
                subparagraph, amounts received by a covered 
                organization as remittances from an employee to the 
                employee's collective bargaining representative shall 
                be treated as amounts received in commercial 
                transactions in the ordinary course of the business 
                conducted by the covered organization.
                  ``(B) Donor restriction on use of funds.--The 
                requirement to include in a statement submitted under 
                paragraph (1) the information described in subparagraph 
                (F) of paragraph (2) shall not apply if--
                          ``(i) the person described in such 
                        subparagraph prohibited, in writing, the use of 
                        the payment made by such person for campaign-
                        related disbursements; and
                          ``(ii) the covered organization agreed to 
                        follow the prohibition and deposited the 
                        payment in an account which is segregated from 
                        any account used to make campaign-related 
                        disbursements.
                  ``(C) Threat of harassment or reprisal.--The 
                requirement to include any information relating to the 
                name or address of any person (other than a candidate) 
                in a statement submitted under paragraph (1) shall not 
                apply if the inclusion of the information would subject 
                the person to serious threats, harassment, or 
                reprisals.
          ``(4) Other definitions.--For purposes of this section:
                  ``(A) Beneficial owner defined.--
                          ``(i) In general.--Except as provided in 
                        clause (ii), the term `beneficial owner' means, 
                        with respect to any entity, a natural person 
                        who, directly or indirectly--
                                  ``(I) exercises substantial control 
                                over an entity through ownership, 
                                voting rights, agreement, or otherwise; 
                                or
                                  ``(II) has a substantial interest in 
                                or receives substantial economic 
                                benefits from the assets of an entity.
                          ``(ii) Exceptions.--The term `beneficial 
                        owner' shall not include--
                                  ``(I) a minor child;
                                  ``(II) a person acting as a nominee, 
                                intermediary, custodian, or agent on 
                                behalf of another person;
                                  ``(III) a person acting solely as an 
                                employee of an entity and whose control 
                                over or economic benefits from the 
                                entity derives solely from the 
                                employment status of the person;
                                  ``(IV) a person whose only interest 
                                in an entity is through a right of 
                                inheritance, unless the person also 
                                meets the requirements of clause (i); 
                                or
                                  ``(V) a creditor of an entity, unless 
                                the creditor also meets the 
                                requirements of clause (i).
                          ``(iii) Anti-abuse rule.--The exceptions 
                        under clause (ii) shall not apply if used for 
                        the purpose of evading, circumventing, or 
                        abusing the provisions of clause (i) or 
                        paragraph (2)(A).
                  ``(B) Disclosure date.--The term `disclosure date' 
                means--
                          ``(i) the first date during any election 
                        reporting cycle by which a person has made 
                        campaign-related disbursements aggregating more 
                        than $10,000; and
                          ``(ii) any other date during such election 
                        reporting cycle by which a person has made 
                        campaign-related disbursements aggregating more 
                        than $10,000 since the most recent disclosure 
                        date for such election reporting cycle.
                  ``(C) Election reporting cycle.--The term `election 
                reporting cycle' means the 2-year period beginning on 
                the date of the most recent general election for 
                Federal office.
                  ``(D) Payment.--The term `payment' includes any 
                contribution, donation, transfer, payment of dues, or 
                other payment.
  ``(b) Coordination With Other Provisions.--
          ``(1) Other reports filed with the commission.--Information 
        included in a statement filed under this section may be 
        excluded from statements and reports filed under section 304.
          ``(2) Treatment as separate segregated fund.--A segregated 
        bank account referred to in subsection (a)(2)(E) may be treated 
        as a separate segregated fund for purposes of section 527(f)(3) 
        of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.
  ``(c) Filing.--Statements required to be filed under subsection (a) 
shall be subject to the requirements of section 304(d) to the same 
extent and in the same manner as if such reports had been required 
under subsection (c) or (g) of section 304.
  ``(d) Campaign-Related Disbursement Defined.--
          ``(1) In general.--In this section, the term `campaign-
        related disbursement' means a disbursement by a covered 
        organization for any of the following:
                  ``(A) An independent expenditure which expressly 
                advocates the election or defeat of a clearly 
                identified candidate for election for Federal office, 
                or is the functional equivalent of express advocacy 
                because, when taken as a whole, it can be interpreted 
                by a reasonable person only as advocating the election 
                or defeat of a candidate for election for Federal 
                office.
                  ``(B) Any public communication which refers to a 
                clearly identified candidate for election for Federal 
                office and which promotes or supports the election of a 
                candidate for that office, or attacks or opposes the 
                election of a candidate for that office, without regard 
                to whether the communication expressly advocates a vote 
                for or against a candidate for that office.
                  ``(C) An electioneering communication, as defined in 
                section 304(f)(3).
                  ``(D) A covered transfer.
          ``(2) Intent not required.--A disbursement for an item 
        described in subparagraph (A), (B), (C), or (D) of paragraph 
        (1) shall be treated as a campaign-related disbursement 
        regardless of the intent of the person making the disbursement.
  ``(e) Covered Organization Defined.--In this section, the term 
`covered organization' means any of the following:
          ``(1) A corporation (other than an organization described in 
        section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986).
          ``(2) A limited liability corporation that is not otherwise 
        treated as a corporation for purposes of this Act (other than 
        an organization described in section 501(c)(3) of the Internal 
        Revenue Code of 1986).
          ``(3) An organization described in section 501(c) of such 
        Code and exempt from taxation under section 501(a) of such Code 
        (other than an organization described in section 501(c)(3) of 
        such Code).
          ``(4) A labor organization (as defined in section 316(b)).
          ``(5) Any political organization under section 527 of the 
        Internal Revenue Code of 1986, other than a political committee 
        under this Act (except as provided in paragraph (6)).
          ``(6) A political committee with an account that accepts 
        donations or contributions that do not comply with the 
        contribution limits or source prohibitions under this Act, but 
        only with respect to such accounts.
  ``(f) Covered Transfer Defined.--
          ``(1) In general.--In this section, the term `covered 
        transfer' means any transfer or payment of funds by a covered 
        organization to another person if the covered organization--
                  ``(A) designates, requests, or suggests that the 
                amounts be used for--
                          ``(i) campaign-related disbursements (other 
                        than covered transfers); or
                          ``(ii) making a transfer to another person 
                        for the purpose of making or paying for such 
                        campaign-related disbursements;
                  ``(B) made such transfer or payment in response to a 
                solicitation or other request for a donation or payment 
                for--
                          ``(i) the making of or paying for campaign-
                        related disbursements (other than covered 
                        transfers); or
                          ``(ii) making a transfer to another person 
                        for the purpose of making or paying for such 
                        campaign-related disbursements;
                  ``(C) engaged in discussions with the recipient of 
                the transfer or payment regarding--
                          ``(i) the making of or paying for campaign-
                        related disbursements (other than covered 
                        transfers); or
                          ``(ii) donating or transferring any amount of 
                        such transfer or payment to another person for 
                        the purpose of making or paying for such 
                        campaign-related disbursements;
                  ``(D) made campaign-related disbursements (other than 
                a covered transfer) in an aggregate amount of $50,000 
                or more during the 2-year period ending on the date of 
                the transfer or payment, or knew or had reason to know 
                that the person receiving the transfer or payment made 
                such disbursements in such an aggregate amount during 
                that 2-year period; or
                  ``(E) knew or had reason to know that the person 
                receiving the transfer or payment would make campaign-
                related disbursements in an aggregate amount of $50,000 
                or more during the 2-year period beginning on the date 
                of the transfer or payment.
          ``(2) Exclusions.--The term `covered transfer' does not 
        include any of the following:
                  ``(A) A disbursement made by a covered organization 
                in a commercial transaction in the ordinary course of 
                any trade or business conducted by the covered 
                organization or in the form of investments made by the 
                covered organization.
                  ``(B) A disbursement made by a covered organization 
                if--
                          ``(i) the covered organization prohibited, in 
                        writing, the use of such disbursement for 
                        campaign-related disbursements; and
                          ``(ii) the recipient of the disbursement 
                        agreed to follow the prohibition and deposited 
                        the disbursement in an account which is 
                        segregated from any account used to make 
                        campaign-related disbursements.
          ``(3) Special rule regarding transfers among affiliates.--
                  ``(A) Special rule.--A transfer of an amount by one 
                covered organization to another covered organization 
                which is treated as a transfer between affiliates under 
                subparagraph (C) shall be considered a covered transfer 
                by the covered organization which transfers the amount 
                only if the aggregate amount transferred during the 
                year by such covered organization to that same covered 
                organization is equal to or greater than $50,000.
                  ``(B) Determination of amount of certain payments 
                among affiliates.--In determining the amount of a 
                transfer between affiliates for purposes of 
                subparagraph (A), to the extent that the transfer 
                consists of funds attributable to dues, fees, or 
                assessments which are paid by individuals on a regular, 
                periodic basis in accordance with a per-individual 
                calculation which is made on a regular basis, the 
                transfer shall be attributed to the individuals paying 
                the dues, fees, or assessments and shall not be 
                attributed to the covered organization.
                  ``(C) Description of transfers between affiliates.--A 
                transfer of amounts from one covered organization to 
                another covered organization shall be treated as a 
                transfer between affiliates if--
                          ``(i) one of the organizations is an 
                        affiliate of the other organization; or
                          ``(ii) each of the organizations is an 
                        affiliate of the same organization,
                except that the transfer shall not be treated as a 
                transfer between affiliates if one of the organizations 
                is established for the purpose of making campaign-
                related disbursements.
                  ``(D) Determination of affiliate status.--For 
                purposes of subparagraph (C), a covered organization is 
                an affiliate of another covered organization if--
                          ``(i) the governing instrument of the 
                        organization requires it to be bound by 
                        decisions of the other organization;
                          ``(ii) the governing board of the 
                        organization includes persons who are 
                        specifically designated representatives of the 
                        other organization or are members of the 
                        governing board, officers, or paid executive 
                        staff members of the other organization, or 
                        whose service on the governing board is 
                        contingent upon the approval of the other 
                        organization; or
                          ``(iii) the organization is chartered by the 
                        other organization.
                  ``(E) Coverage of transfers to affiliated section 
                501(c)(3) organizations.--This paragraph shall apply 
                with respect to an amount transferred by a covered 
                organization to an organization described in paragraph 
                (3) of section 501(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 
                1986 and exempt from tax under section 501(a) of such 
                Code in the same manner as this paragraph applies to an 
                amount transferred by a covered organization to another 
                covered organization.
  ``(g) No Effect on Other Reporting Requirements.--Nothing in this 
section shall be construed to waive or otherwise affect any other 
requirement of this Act which relates to the reporting of campaign-
related disbursements.''.
          (2) Conforming amendment.--Section 304(f)(6) of such Act (52 
        U.S.C. 30104) is amended by striking ``Any requirement'' and 
        inserting ``Except as provided in section 324(b), any 
        requirement''.
  (b) Coordination With FinCEN.--
          (1) In general.--The Director of the Financial Crimes 
        Enforcement Network of the Department of the Treasury shall 
        provide the Federal Election Commission with such information 
        as necessary to assist in administering and enforcing section 
        324 of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971, as added by 
        this section.
          (2) Report.--Not later than 6 months after the date of the 
        enactment of this Act, the Chairman of the Federal Election 
        Commission, in consultation with the Director of the Financial 
        Crimes Enforcement Network of the Department of the Treasury, 
        shall submit to Congress a report with recommendations for 
        providing further legislative authority to assist in the 
        administration and enforcement of such section 324.

SEC. 4112. APPLICATION OF FOREIGN MONEY BAN TO DISBURSEMENTS FOR 
                    CAMPAIGN-RELATED DISBURSEMENTS CONSISTING OF 
                    COVERED TRANSFERS.

  Section 319(a)(1)(A) of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 (52 
U.S.C. 30121(a)(1)(A)), as amended by section 4102, is amended by 
striking the semicolon and inserting the following: ``, and any 
disbursement, other than an disbursement described in section 
324(a)(3)(A), to another person who made a campaign-related 
disbursement consisting of a covered transfer (as described in section 
324) during the 2-year period ending on the date of the 
disbursement;''.

SEC. 4113. EFFECTIVE DATE.

  The amendments made by this part shall apply with respect to 
disbursements made on or after January 1, 2020, and shall take effect 
without regard to whether or not the Federal Election Commission has 
promulgated regulations to carry out such amendments.

                  PART 3--OTHER ADMINISTRATIVE REFORMS

SEC. 4121. PETITION FOR CERTIORARI.

  Section 307(a)(6) of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 (52 
U.S.C. 30107(a)(6)) is amended by inserting ``(including a proceeding 
before the Supreme Court on certiorari)'' after ``appeal''.

SEC. 4122. JUDICIAL REVIEW OF ACTIONS RELATED TO CAMPAIGN FINANCE LAWS.

  (a) In General.--Title IV of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 
1971 (52 U.S.C. 30141 et seq.) is amended by inserting after section 
406 the following new section:

``SEC. 407. JUDICIAL REVIEW.

  ``(a) In General.--Notwithstanding section 373(f), if any action is 
brought for declaratory or injunctive relief to challenge the 
constitutionality of any provision of this Act or of chapter 95 or 96 
of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or is brought to with respect to 
any action of the Commission under chapter 95 or 96 of the Internal 
Revenue Code of 1986, the following rules shall apply:
          ``(1) The action shall be filed in the United States District 
        Court for the District of Columbia and an appeal from the 
        decision of the district court may be taken to the Court of 
        Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.
          ``(2) In the case of an action relating to declaratory or 
        injunctive relief to challenge the constitutionality of a 
        provision--
                  ``(A) a copy of the complaint shall be delivered 
                promptly to the Clerk of the House of Representatives 
                and the Secretary of the Senate; and
                  ``(B) it shall be the duty of the United States 
                District Court for the District of Columbia, the Court 
                of Appeals for the District of Columbia, and the 
                Supreme Court of the United States to advance on the 
                docket and to expedite to the greatest possible extent 
                the disposition of the action and appeal.
  ``(b) Intervention by Members of Congress.--In any action in which 
the constitutionality of any provision of this Act or chapter 95 or 96 
of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is raised, any Member of the House 
of Representatives (including a Delegate or Resident Commissioner to 
the Congress) or Senate shall have the right to intervene either in 
support of or opposition to the position of a party to the case 
regarding the constitutionality of the provision. To avoid duplication 
of efforts and reduce the burdens placed on the parties to the action, 
the court in any such action may make such orders as it considers 
necessary, including orders to require interveners taking similar 
positions to file joint papers or to be represented by a single 
attorney at oral argument.
  ``(c) Challenge by Members of Congress.--Any Member of Congress may 
bring an action, subject to the special rules described in subsection 
(a), for declaratory or injunctive relief to challenge the 
constitutionality of any provision of this Act or chapter 95 or 96 of 
the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.''.
  (b) Conforming Amendments.--
          (1) In general.--
                  (A) Section 9011 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 
                is amended to read as follows:

``SEC. 9011. JUDICIAL REVIEW.

  ``For provisions relating to judicial review of certifications, 
determinations, and actions by the Commission under this chapter, see 
section 407 of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971.''.
                  (B) Section 9041 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 
                is amended to read as follows:

``SEC. 9041. JUDICIAL REVIEW.

  ``For provisions relating to judicial review of actions by the 
Commission under this chapter, see section 407 of the Federal Election 
Campaign Act of 1971.''.
                  (C) Section 403 of the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act 
                of 2002 (52 U.S.C. 30110 note) is repealed.
  (c) Effective Date.--The amendments made by this section shall apply 
to actions brought on or after January 1, 2019.

                         Subtitle C--Honest Ads

SEC. 4201. SHORT TITLE.

  This subtitle may be cited as the ``Honest Ads Act''.

SEC. 4202. PURPOSE.

  The purpose of this subtitle is to enhance the integrity of American 
democracy and national security by improving disclosure requirements 
for online political advertisements in order to uphold the Supreme 
Court's well-established standard that the electorate bears the right 
to be fully informed.

SEC. 4203. FINDINGS.

  Congress makes the following findings:
          (1) On January 6, 2017, the Office of the Director of 
        National Intelligence published a report titled ``Assessing 
        Russian Activities and Intentions in Recent U.S. Elections'', 
        noting that ``Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered an 
        influence campaign in 2016 aimed at the US presidential 
        election . . .''. Moscow's influence campaign followed a 
        Russian messaging strategy that blends covert intelligence 
        operation--such as cyber activity--with overt efforts by 
        Russian Government agencies, state-funded media, third-party 
        intermediaries, and paid social media users or ``trolls''.
          (2) On November 24, 2016, The Washington Post reported 
        findings from 2 teams of independent researchers that concluded 
        Russians ``exploited American-made technology platforms to 
        attack U.S. democracy at a particularly vulnerable moment . . . 
        as part of a broadly effective strategy of sowing distrust in 
        U.S. democracy and its leaders.''.
          (3) Findings from a 2017 study on the manipulation of public 
        opinion through social media conducted by the Computational 
        Propaganda Research Project at the Oxford Internet Institute 
        found that the Kremlin is using pro-Russian bots to manipulate 
        public discourse to a highly targeted audience. With a sample 
        of nearly 1,300,000 tweets, researchers found that in the 2016 
        election's 3 decisive States, propaganda constituted 40 percent 
        of the sampled election-related tweets that went to 
        Pennsylvanians, 34 percent to Michigan voters, and 30 percent 
        to those in Wisconsin. In other swing States, the figure 
        reached 42 percent in Missouri, 41 percent in Florida, 40 
        percent in North Carolina, 38 percent in Colorado, and 35 
        percent in Ohio.
          (4) On September 6, 2017, the nation's largest social media 
        platform disclosed that between June 2015 and May 2017, Russian 
        entities purchased $100,000 in political advertisements, 
        publishing roughly 3,000 ads linked to fake accounts associated 
        with the Internet Research Agency, a pro-Kremlin organization. 
        According to the company, the ads purchased focused ``on 
        amplifying divisive social and political messages . . .''.
          (5) In 2002, the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act became law, 
        establishing disclosure requirements for political 
        advertisements distributed from a television or radio broadcast 
        station or provider of cable or satellite television. In 2003, 
        the Supreme Court upheld regulations on electioneering 
        communications established under the Act, noting that such 
        requirements ``provide the electorate with information and 
        insure that the voters are fully informed about the person or 
        group who is speaking.''.
          (6) According to a study from Borrell Associates, in 2016, 
        $1,415,000,000 was spent on online advertising, more than 
        quadruple the amount in 2012.
          (7) The reach of a few large internet platforms--larger than 
        any broadcast, satellite, or cable provider--has greatly 
        facilitated the scope and effectiveness of disinformation 
        campaigns. For instance, the largest platform has over 
        210,000,000 Americans users--over 160,000,000 of them on a 
        daily basis. By contrast, the largest cable television provider 
        has 22,430,000 subscribers, while the largest satellite 
        television provider has 21,000,000 subscribers. And the most-
        watched television broadcast in United States history had 
        118,000,000 viewers.
          (8) The public nature of broadcast television, radio, and 
        satellite ensures a level of publicity for any political 
        advertisement. These communications are accessible to the 
        press, fact-checkers, and political opponents; this creates 
        strong disincentives for a candidate to disseminate materially 
        false, inflammatory, or contradictory messages to the public. 
        Social media platforms, in contrast, can target portions of the 
        electorate with direct, ephemeral advertisements often on the 
        basis of private information the platform has on individuals, 
        enabling political advertisements that are contradictory, 
        racially or socially inflammatory, or materially false.
          (9) According to comScore, 2 companies own 8 of the 10 most 
        popular smartphone applications as of June 2017, including the 
        most popular social media and email services--which deliver 
        information and news to users without requiring proactivity by 
        the user. Those same 2 companies accounted for 99 percent of 
        revenue growth from digital advertising in 2016, including 77 
        percent of gross spending. 79 percent of online Americans--
        representing 68 percent of all Americans--use the single 
        largest social network, while 66 percent of these users are 
        most likely to get their news from that site.
          (10) In its 2006 rulemaking, the Federal Election Commission 
        noted that only 18 percent of all Americans cited the internet 
        as their leading source of news about the 2004 Presidential 
        election; by contrast, the Pew Research Center found that 65 
        percent of Americans identified an internet-based source as 
        their leading source of information for the 2016 election.
          (11) The Federal Election Commission, the independent Federal 
        agency charged with protecting the integrity of the Federal 
        campaign finance process by providing transparency and 
        administering campaign finance laws, has failed to take action 
        to address online political advertisements.
          (12) In testimony before the Senate Select Committee on 
        Intelligence titled, ``Disinformation: A Primer in Russian 
        Active Measures and Influence Campaigns'', multiple expert 
        witnesses testified that while the disinformation tactics of 
        foreign adversaries have not necessarily changed, social media 
        services now provide ``platform[s] practically purpose-built 
        for active measures[.]'' Similarly, as Gen. Keith B. Alexander 
        (RET.), the former Director of the National Security Agency, 
        testified, during the Cold War ``if the Soviet Union sought to 
        manipulate information flow, it would have to do so principally 
        through its own propaganda outlets or through active measures 
        that would generate specific news: planting of leaflets, 
        inciting of violence, creation of other false materials and 
        narratives. But the news itself was hard to manipulate because 
        it would have required actual control of the organs of media, 
        which took long-term efforts to penetrate. Today, however, 
        because the clear majority of the information on social media 
        sites is uncurated and there is a rapid proliferation of 
        information sources and other sites that can reinforce 
        information, there is an increasing likelihood that the 
        information available to average consumers may be inaccurate 
        (whether intentionally or otherwise) and may be more easily 
        manipulable than in prior eras.''.
          (13) Current regulations on political advertisements do not 
        provide sufficient transparency to uphold the public's right to 
        be fully informed about political advertisements made online.

SEC. 4204. SENSE OF CONGRESS.

  It is the sense of Congress that--
          (1) the dramatic increase in digital political 
        advertisements, and the growing centrality of online platforms 
        in the lives of Americans, requires the Congress and the 
        Federal Election Commission to take meaningful action to ensure 
        that laws and regulations provide the accountability and 
        transparency that is fundamental to our democracy;.
          (2) free and fair elections require both transparency and 
        accountability which give the public a right to know the true 
        sources of funding for political advertisements in order to 
        make informed political choices and hold elected officials 
        accountable; and
          (3) transparency of funding for political advertisements is 
        essential to enforce other campaign finance laws, including the 
        prohibition on campaign spending by foreign nationals.

SEC. 4205. EXPANSION OF DEFINITION OF PUBLIC COMMUNICATION.

  (a) In General.--Paragraph (22) of section 301 of the Federal 
Election Campaign Act of 1971 (52 U.S.C. 30101(22)) is amended by 
striking ``or satellite communication'' and inserting ``satellite, paid 
internet, or paid digital communication''.
  (b) Treatment of Contributions and Expenditures.--Section 301 of such 
Act (52 U.S.C. 30101) is amended--
          (1) in paragraph (8)(B)--
                  (A) in clause (v), by striking ``on broadcasting 
                stations, or in newspapers, magazines, or similar types 
                of general public political advertising'' and inserting 
                ``in any public communication'';
                  (B) in clause (ix), by striking ``broadcasting, 
                newspaper, magazine, billboard, direct mail, or similar 
                type of general public communication or political 
                advertising'' and inserting ``public communication''; 
                and
                  (C) in clause (x), by striking ``but not including 
                the use of broadcasting, newspapers, magazines, 
                billboards, direct mail, or similar types of general 
                public communication or political advertising'' and 
                inserting ``but not including use in any public 
                communication''; and
          (2) in paragraph (9)(B)--
                  (A) by amending clause (i) to read as follows:
                          ``(i) any news story, commentary, or 
                        editorial distributed through the facilities of 
                        any broadcasting station or any print, online, 
                        or digital newspaper, magazine, blog, 
                        publication, or periodical, unless such 
                        broadcasting, print, online, or digital 
                        facilities are owned or controlled by any 
                        political party, political committee, or 
                        candidate;''; and
                  (B) in clause (iv), by striking ``on broadcasting 
                stations, or in newspapers, magazines, or similar types 
                of general public political advertising'' and inserting 
                ``in any public communication''.
  (c) Disclosure and Disclaimer Statements.--Subsection (a) of section 
318 of such Act (52 U.S.C. 30120) is amended--
          (1) by striking ``financing any communication through any 
        broadcasting station, newspaper, magazine, outdoor advertising 
        facility, mailing, or any other type of general public 
        political advertising'' and inserting ``financing any public 
        communication''; and
          (2) by striking ``solicits any contribution through any 
        broadcasting station, newspaper, magazine, outdoor advertising 
        facility, mailing, or any other type of general public 
        political advertising'' and inserting ``solicits any 
        contribution through any public communication''.

SEC. 4206. EXPANSION OF DEFINITION OF ELECTIONEERING COMMUNICATION.

  (a) Expansion to Online Communications.--
          (1) Application to qualified internet and digital 
        communications.--
                  (A) In general.--Subparagraph (A) of section 
                304(f)(3) of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 
                (52 U.S.C. 30104(f)(3)(A)) is amended by striking ``or 
                satellite communication'' each place it appears in 
                clauses (i) and (ii) and inserting ``satellite, or 
                qualified internet or digital communication''.
                  (B) Qualified internet or digital communication.--
                Paragraph (3) of section 304(f) of such Act (52 U.S.C. 
                30104(f)) is amended by adding at the end the following 
                new subparagraph:
                  ``(D) Qualified internet or digital communication.--
                The term `qualified internet or digital communication' 
                means any communication which is placed or promoted for 
                a fee on an online platform (as defined in subsection 
                (j)(3)).''.
          (2) Nonapplication of relevant electorate to online 
        communications.--Section 304(f)(3)(A)(i)(III) of such Act (52 
        U.S.C. 30104(f)(3)(A)(i)(III)) is amended by inserting ``any 
        broadcast, cable, or satellite'' before ``communication''.
          (3) News exemption.--Section 304(f)(3)(B)(i) of such Act (52 
        U.S.C. 30104(f)(3)(B)(i)) is amended to read as follows:
                          ``(i) a communication appearing in a news 
                        story, commentary, or editorial distributed 
                        through the facilities of any broadcasting 
                        station or any online or digital newspaper, 
                        magazine, blog, publication, or periodical, 
                        unless such broadcasting, online, or digital 
                        facilities are owned or controlled by any 
                        political party, political committee, or 
                        candidate;''.
  (b) Effective Date.--The amendments made by this section shall apply 
with respect to communications made on or after January 1, 2020.

SEC. 4207. APPLICATION OF DISCLAIMER STATEMENTS TO ONLINE 
                    COMMUNICATIONS.

  (a) Clear and Conspicuous Manner Requirement.--Subsection (a) of 
section 318 of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 (52 U.S.C. 
30120(a)) is amended--
          (1) by striking ``shall clearly state'' each place it appears 
        in paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) and inserting ``shall state in 
        a clear and conspicuous manner''; and
          (2) by adding at the end the following flush sentence: ``For 
        purposes of this section, a communication does not make a 
        statement in a clear and conspicuous manner if it is difficult 
        to read or hear or if the placement is easily overlooked.''.
  (b) Special Rules for Qualified Internet or Digital Communications.--
          (1) In general.--Section 318 of such Act (52 U.S.C. 30120) is 
        amended by adding at the end the following new subsection:
  ``(e) Special Rules for Qualified Internet or Digital 
Communications.--
          ``(1) Special rules with respect to statements.--In the case 
        of any qualified internet or digital communication (as defined 
        in section 304(f)(3)(D)) which is disseminated through a medium 
        in which the provision of all of the information specified in 
        this section is not possible, the communication shall, in a 
        clear and conspicuous manner--
                  ``(A) state the name of the person who paid for the 
                communication; and
                  ``(B) provide a means for the recipient of the 
                communication to obtain the remainder of the 
                information required under this section with minimal 
                effort and without receiving or viewing any additional 
                material other than such required information.
          ``(2) Safe harbor for determining clear and conspicuous 
        manner.--A statement in qualified internet or digital 
        communication (as defined in section 304(f)(3)(D)) shall be 
        considered to be made in a clear and conspicuous manner as 
        provided in subsection (a) if the communication meets the 
        following requirements:
                  ``(A) Text or graphic communications.--In the case of 
                a text or graphic communication, the statement--
                          ``(i) appears in letters at least as large as 
                        the majority of the text in the communication; 
                        and
                          ``(ii) meets the requirements of paragraphs 
                        (2) and (3) of subsection (c).
                  ``(B) Audio communications.--In the case of an audio 
                communication, the statement is spoken in a clearly 
                audible and intelligible manner at the beginning or end 
                of the communication and lasts at least 3 seconds.
                  ``(C) Video communications.--In the case of a video 
                communication which also includes audio, the 
                statement--
                          ``(i) is included at either the beginning or 
                        the end of the communication; and
                          ``(ii) is made both in--
                                  ``(I) a written format that meets the 
                                requirements of subparagraph (A) and 
                                appears for at least 4 seconds; and
                                  ``(II) an audible format that meets 
                                the requirements of subparagraph (B).
                  ``(D) Other communications.--In the case of any other 
                type of communication, the statement is at least as 
                clear and conspicuous as the statement specified in 
                subparagraph (A), (B), or (C).''.
          (2) Nonapplication of certain exceptions.--The exceptions 
        provided in section 110.11(f)(1)(i) and (ii) of title 11, Code 
        of Federal Regulations, or any successor to such rules, shall 
        have no application to qualified internet or digital 
        communications (as defined in section 304(f)(3)(D) of the 
        Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971).
  (c) Modification of Additional Requirements for Certain 
Communications.--Section 318(d) of such Act (52 U.S.C. 30120(d)) is 
amended--
          (1) in paragraph (1)(A)--
                  (A) by striking ``which is transmitted through 
                radio'' and inserting ``which is in an audio format''; 
                and
                  (B) by striking ``By radio'' in the heading and 
                inserting ``Audio format'';
          (2) in paragraph (1)(B)--
                  (A) by striking ``which is transmitted through 
                television'' and inserting ``which is in video 
                format''; and
                  (B) by striking ``By television'' in the heading and 
                inserting ``Video format''; and
          (3) in paragraph (2)--
                  (A) by striking ``transmitted through radio or 
                television'' and inserting ``made in audio or video 
                format''; and
                  (B) by striking ``through television'' in the second 
                sentence and inserting ``in video format''.

SEC. 4208. POLITICAL RECORD REQUIREMENTS FOR ONLINE PLATFORMS.

  (a) In General.--Section 304 of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 
1971 (52 U.S.C. 30104) is amended by adding at the end the following 
new subsection:
  ``(j) Disclosure of Certain Online Advertisements.--
          ``(1) In general.--
                  ``(A) Requirements for online platforms.--An online 
                platform shall maintain, and make available for online 
                public inspection in machine readable format, a 
                complete record of any request to purchase on such 
                online platform a qualified political advertisement 
                which is made by a person whose aggregate requests to 
                purchase qualified political advertisements on such 
                online platform during the calendar year exceeds $500.
                  ``(B) Requirements for advertisers.--Any person who 
                requests to purchase a qualified political 
                advertisement on an online platform shall provide the 
                online platform with such information as is necessary 
                for the online platform to comply with the requirements 
                of subparagraph (A).
          ``(2) Contents of record.--A record maintained under 
        paragraph (1)(A) shall contain--
                  ``(A) a digital copy of the qualified political 
                advertisement;
                  ``(B) a description of the audience targeted by the 
                advertisement, the number of views generated from the 
                advertisement, and the date and time that the 
                advertisement is first displayed and last displayed; 
                and
                  ``(C) information regarding--
                          ``(i) the average rate charged for the 
                        advertisement;
                          ``(ii) the name of the candidate to which the 
                        advertisement refers and the office to which 
                        the candidate is seeking election, the election 
                        to which the advertisement refers, or the 
                        national legislative issue to which the 
                        advertisement refers (as applicable);
                          ``(iii) in the case of a request made by, or 
                        on behalf of, a candidate, the name of the 
                        candidate, the authorized committee of the 
                        candidate, and the treasurer of such committee; 
                        and
                          ``(iv) in the case of any request not 
                        described in clause (iii), the name of the 
                        person purchasing the advertisement, the name 
                        and address of a contact person for such 
                        person, and a list of the chief executive 
                        officers or members of the executive committee 
                        or of the board of directors of such person.
          ``(3) Online platform.--For purposes of this subsection, the 
        term `online platform' means any public-facing website, web 
        application, or digital application (including a social 
        network, ad network, or search engine) which--
                  ``(A) sells qualified political advertisements; and
                  ``(B) has 50,000,000 or more unique monthly United 
                States visitors or users for a majority of months 
                during the preceding 12 months.
          ``(4) Qualified political advertisement.--For purposes of 
        this subsection, the term `qualified political advertisement' 
        means any advertisement (including search engine marketing, 
        display advertisements, video advertisements, native 
        advertisements, and sponsorships) that--
                  ``(A) is made by or on behalf of a candidate; or
                  ``(B) communicates a message relating to any 
                political matter of national importance, including--
                          ``(i) a candidate;
                          ``(ii) any election to Federal office; or
                          ``(iii) a national legislative issue of 
                        public importance.
          ``(5) Time to maintain file.--The information required under 
        this subsection shall be made available as soon as possible and 
        shall be retained by the online platform for a period of not 
        less than 4 years.
          ``(6) Safe harbor for platforms making best efforts to 
        identify requests which are subject to record maintenance 
        requirements.--In accordance with rules established by the 
        Commission, if an online platform shows that the platform used 
        best efforts to determine whether or not a request to purchase 
        a qualified political advertisement was subject to the 
        requirements of this subsection, the online platform shall not 
        be considered to be in violation of such requirements.
          ``(7) Penalties.--For penalties for failure by online 
        platforms, and persons requesting to purchase a qualified 
        political advertisement on online platforms, to comply with the 
        requirements of this subsection, see section 309.''.
  (b) Rulemaking.--Not later than 120 days after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, the Federal Election Commission shall establish 
rules--
          (1) requiring common data formats for the record required to 
        be maintained under section 304(j) of the Federal Election 
        Campaign Act of 1971 (as added by subsection (a)) so that all 
        online platforms submit and maintain data online in a common, 
        machine-readable and publicly accessible format; and
          (2) establishing search interface requirements relating to 
        such record, including searches by candidate name, issue, 
        purchaser, and date; and
          (3) establishing the criteria for the safe harbor exception 
        provided under paragraph (6) of section 304(j) of such Act (as 
        added by subsection (a)).
  (c) Reporting.--Not later than 2 years after the date of the 
enactment of this Act, and biannually thereafter, the Chairman of the 
Federal Election Commission shall submit a report to Congress on--
          (1) matters relating to compliance with and the enforcement 
        of the requirements of section 304(j) of the Federal Election 
        Campaign Act of 1971, as added by subsection (a);
          (2) recommendations for any modifications to such section to 
        assist in carrying out its purposes; and
          (3) identifying ways to bring transparency and accountability 
        to political advertisements distributed online for free.

SEC. 4209. PREVENTING CONTRIBUTIONS, EXPENDITURES, INDEPENDENT 
                    EXPENDITURES, AND DISBURSEMENTS FOR ELECTIONEERING 
                    COMMUNICATIONS BY FOREIGN NATIONALS IN THE FORM OF 
                    ONLINE ADVERTISING.

  Section 319 of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 (52 U.S.C. 
30121), as amended by section 4101(a)(2) and section 4101(b), is 
further amended by adding at the end the following new subsection:
  ``(e) Responsibilities of Broadcast Stations, Providers of Cable and 
Satellite Television, and Online Platforms.--Each television or radio 
broadcast station, provider of cable or satellite television, or online 
platform (as defined in section 304(j)(3)) shall make reasonable 
efforts to ensure that communications described in section 318(a) and 
made available by such station, provider, or platform are not purchased 
by a foreign national, directly or indirectly.''.

                     Subtitle D--Stand By Every Ad

SEC. 4301. SHORT TITLE.

  This Act may be cited as the ``Stand By Every Ad Act''.

SEC. 4302. STAND BY EVERY AD.

  (a) Expanded Disclaimer Requirements for Certain Communications.--
Section 318 of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 (52 U.S.C. 
30120), as amended by section 4207(b)(1), is further amended--
          (1) by redesignating subsection (e) as subsection (f); and
          (2) by inserting after subsection (d) the following new 
        subsection:
  ``(e) Expanded Disclaimer Requirements for Communications Not 
Authorized by Candidates or Committees.--
          ``(1) In general.--Except as provided in paragraph (6), any 
        communication described in paragraph (3) of subsection (a) 
        which is transmitted in an audio or video format (including an 
        Internet or digital communication), or which is an Internet or 
        digital communication transmitted in a text or graphic format, 
        shall include, in addition to the requirements of paragraph (3) 
        of subsection (a), the following:
                  ``(A) The individual disclosure statement described 
                in paragraph (2)(A) (if the person paying for the 
                communication is an individual) or the organizational 
                disclosure statement described in paragraph (2)(B) (if 
                the person paying for the communication is not an 
                individual).
                  ``(B) If the communication is transmitted in a video 
                format, or is an Internet or digital communication 
                which is transmitted in a text or graphic format, and 
                is paid for in whole or in part with a payment which is 
                treated as a campaign-related disbursement under 
                section 324--
                          ``(i) the Top Five Funders list (if 
                        applicable); or
                          ``(ii) in the case of a communication which, 
                        as determined on the basis of criteria 
                        established in regulations issued by the 
                        Commission, is of such short duration that 
                        including the Top Five Funders list in the 
                        communication would constitute a hardship to 
                        the person paying for the communication by 
                        requiring a disproportionate amount of the 
                        content of the communication to consist of the 
                        Top Five Funders list, the name of a website 
                        which contains the Top Five Funders list (if 
                        applicable) or, in the case of an Internet or 
                        digital communication, a hyperlink to such 
                        website.
                  ``(C) If the communication is transmitted in an audio 
                format and is paid for in whole or in part with a 
                payment which is treated as a campaign-related 
                disbursement under section 324--
                          ``(i) the Top Two Funders list (if 
                        applicable); or
                          ``(ii) in the case of a communication which, 
                        as determined on the basis of criteria 
                        established in regulations issued by the 
                        Commission, is of such short duration that 
                        including the Top Two Funders list in the 
                        communication would constitute a hardship to 
                        the person paying for the communication by 
                        requiring a disproportionate amount of the 
                        content of the communication to consist of the 
                        Top Two Funders list, the name of a website 
                        which contains the Top Two Funders list (if 
                        applicable).
          ``(2) Disclosure statements described.--
                  ``(A) Individual disclosure statements.--The 
                individual disclosure statement described in this 
                subparagraph is the following: `I am ________, and I 
                approve this message.', with the blank filled in with 
                the name of the applicable individual.
                  ``(B) Organizational disclosure statements.--The 
                organizational disclosure statement described in this 
                subparagraph is the following: `I am ________, the 
                ________ of ________, and ________ approves this 
                message.', with--
                          ``(i) the first blank to be filled in with 
                        the name of the applicable individual;
                          ``(ii) the second blank to be filled in with 
                        the title of the applicable individual; and
                          ``(iii) the third and fourth blank each to be 
                        filled in with the name of the organization or 
                        other person paying for the communication.
          ``(3) Method of conveyance of statement.--
                  ``(A) Communications in text or graphic format.--In 
                the case of a communication to which this subsection 
                applies which is transmitted in a text or graphic 
                format, the disclosure statements required under 
                paragraph (1) shall appear in letters at least as large 
                as the majority of the text in the communication.
                  ``(B) Communications transmitted in audio format.--In 
                the case of a communication to which this subsection 
                applies which is transmitted in an audio format, the 
                disclosure statements required under paragraph (1) 
                shall be made by audio by the applicable individual in 
                a clear and conspicuous manner.
                  ``(C) Communications transmitted in video format.--In 
                the case of a communication to which this subsection 
                applies which is transmitted in a video format, the 
                information required under paragraph (1)--
                          ``(i) shall appear in writing at the end of 
                        the communication or in a crawl along the 
                        bottom of the communication in a clear and 
                        conspicuous manner, with a reasonable degree of 
                        color contrast between the background and the 
                        printed statement, for a period of at least 6 
                        seconds; and
                          ``(ii) shall also be conveyed by an 
                        unobscured, full-screen view of the applicable 
                        individual or by the applicable individual 
                        making the statement in voice-over accompanied 
                        by a clearly identifiable photograph or similar 
                        image of the individual, except in the case of 
                        a Top Five Funders list.
          ``(4) Applicable individual defined.--The term `applicable 
        individual' means, with respect to a communication to which 
        this subsection applies--
                  ``(A) if the communication is paid for by an 
                individual, the individual involved;
                  ``(B) if the communication is paid for by a 
                corporation, the chief executive officer of the 
                corporation (or, if the corporation does not have a 
                chief executive officer, the highest ranking official 
                of the corporation);
                  ``(C) if the communication is paid for by a labor 
                organization, the highest ranking officer of the labor 
                organization; and
                  ``(D) if the communication is paid for by any other 
                person, the highest ranking official of such person.
          ``(5) Top five funders list and top two funders list 
        defined.--
                  ``(A) Top five funders list.--The term `Top Five 
                Funders list' means, with respect to a communication 
                which is paid for in whole or in part with a campaign-
                related disbursement (as defined in section 324), a 
                list of the five persons who, during the 12-month 
                period ending on the date of the disbursement, provided 
                the largest payments of any type in an aggregate amount 
                equal to or exceeding $10,000 to the person who is 
                paying for the communication and the amount of the 
                payments each such person provided. If two or more 
                people provided the fifth largest of such payments, the 
                person paying for the communication shall select one of 
                those persons to be included on the Top Five Funders 
                list.
                  ``(B) Top two funders list.--The term `Top Two 
                Funders list' means, with respect to a communication 
                which is paid for in whole or in part with a campaign-
                related disbursement (as defined in section 324), a 
                list of the persons who, during the 12-month period 
                ending on the date of the disbursement, provided the 
                largest and the second largest payments of any type in 
                an aggregate amount equal to or exceeding $10,000 to 
                the person who is paying for the communication and the 
                amount of the payments each such person provided. If 
                two or more persons provided the second largest of such 
                payments, the person paying for the communication shall 
                select one of those persons to be included on the Top 
                Two Funders list.
                  ``(C) Exclusion of certain payments.--For purposes of 
                subparagraphs (A) and (B), in determining the amount of 
                payments made by a person to a person paying for a 
                communication, there shall be excluded the following:
                          ``(i) Any amounts provided in the ordinary 
                        course of any trade or business conducted by 
                        the person paying for the communication or in 
                        the form of investments in the person paying 
                        for the communication.
                          ``(ii) Any payment which the person 
                        prohibited, in writing, from being used for 
                        campaign-related disbursements, but only if the 
                        person paying for the communication agreed to 
                        follow the prohibition and deposited the 
                        payment in an account which is segregated from 
                        any account used to make campaign-related 
                        disbursements.
          ``(6) Special rules for certain communications.--
                  ``(A) Exception for communications paid for by 
                political parties and certain political committees.--
                This subsection does not apply to any communication to 
                which subsection (d)(2) applies.
                  ``(B) Treatment of video communications lasting 10 
                seconds or less.--In the case of a communication to 
                which this subsection applies which is transmitted in a 
                video format, or is an Internet or digital 
                communication which is transmitted in a text or graphic 
                format, the communication shall meet the following 
                requirements:
                          ``(i) The communication shall include the 
                        individual disclosure statement described in 
                        paragraph (2)(A) (if the person paying for the 
                        communication is an individual) or the 
                        organizational disclosure statement described 
                        in paragraph (2)(B) (if the person paying for 
                        the communication is not an individual).
                          ``(ii) The statement described in clause (i) 
                        shall appear in writing at the end of the 
                        communication, or in a crawl along the bottom 
                        of the communication, in a clear and 
                        conspicuous manner, with a reasonable degree of 
                        color contrast between the background and the 
                        printed statement, for a period of at least 4 
                        seconds.
                          ``(iii) The communication shall include, in a 
                        clear and conspicuous manner, a website address 
                        with a landing page which will provide all of 
                        the information described in paragraph (1) with 
                        respect to the communication. Such address 
                        shall appear for the full duration of the 
                        communication.
                          ``(iv) To the extent that the format in which 
                        the communication is made permits the use of a 
                        hyperlink, the communication shall include a 
                        hyperlink to the website address described in 
                        clause (iii).''.
  (b) Application of Expanded Requirements to Public Communications 
Consisting of Campaign-Related Disbursements.--Section 318(a) of such 
Act (52 U.S.C. 30120(a)) is amended by striking ``for the purpose of 
financing communications expressly advocating the election or defeat of 
a clearly identified candidate'' and inserting ``for a campaign-related 
disbursement, as defined in section 324, consisting of a public 
communication''.
  (c) Exception for Communications Paid for by Political Parties and 
Certain Political Committees.--Section 318(d)(2) of such Act (52 U.S.C. 
30120(d)(2)) is amended--
          (1) in the heading, by striking ``others'' and inserting 
        ``certain political committees'';
          (2) by striking ``Any communication'' and inserting ``(A) Any 
        communication'';
          (3) by inserting ``which (except to the extent provided in 
        subparagraph (B)) is paid for by a political committee 
        (including a political committee of a political party) and'' 
        after ``subsection (a)'';
          (4) by striking ``or other person'' each place it appears; 
        and
          (5) by adding at the end the following new subparagraph:
          ``(B)(i) This paragraph does not apply to a communication 
        paid for in whole or in part during a calendar year with a 
        campaign-related disbursement, but only if the covered 
        organization making the campaign-related disbursement made 
        campaign-related disbursements (as defined in section 324) 
        aggregating more than $10,000 during such calendar year.
          ``(ii) For purposes of clause (i), in determining the amount 
        of campaign-related disbursements made by a covered 
        organization during a year, there shall be excluded the 
        following:
                  ``(I) Any amounts received by the covered 
                organization in the ordinary course of any trade or 
                business conducted by the covered organization or in 
                the form of investments in the covered organization.
                  ``(II) Any amounts received by the covered 
                organization from a person who prohibited, in writing, 
                the organization from using such amounts for campaign-
                related disbursements, but only if the covered 
                organization agreed to follow the prohibition and 
                deposited the amounts in an account which is segregated 
                from any account used to make campaign-related 
                disbursements.''.

SEC. 4303. DISCLAIMER REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMUNICATIONS MADE THROUGH 
                    PRERECORDED TELEPHONE CALLS.

  (a) Application of Requirements.--
          (1) In general.--Section 318(a) of the Federal Election 
        Campaign Act of 1971 (52 U.S.C. 30120(a)), as amended by 
        section 4205(c), is amended by inserting after ``public 
        communication'' each place it appears the following: 
        ``(including a telephone call consisting in substantial part of 
        a prerecorded audio message)''.
          (2) Application to communications subject to expanded 
        disclaimer requirements.--Section 318(e)(1) of such Act (52 
        U.S.C. 30120(e)(1)), as added by section 4302(a), is amended in 
        the matter preceding subparagraph (A) by striking ``which is 
        transmitted in an audio or video format'' and inserting ``which 
        is transmitted in an audio or video format or which consists of 
        a telephone call consisting in substantial part of a 
        prerecorded audio message''.
  (b) Treatment as Communication Transmitted in Audio Format.--
          (1) Communications by candidates or authorized persons.--
        Section 318(d) of such Act (52 U.S.C. 30120(d)) is amended by 
        adding at the end the following new paragraph:
          ``(3) Prerecorded telephone calls.--Any communication 
        described in paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of subsection (a) 
        (other than a communication which is subject to subsection (e)) 
        which is a telephone call consisting in substantial part of a 
        prerecorded audio message shall include, in addition to the 
        requirements of such paragraph, the audio statement required 
        under subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1) or the audio statement 
        required under paragraph (2) (whichever is applicable), except 
        that the statement shall be made at the beginning of the 
        telephone call.''.
          (2) Communications subject to expanded disclaimer 
        requirements.--Section 318(e)(3) of such Act (52 U.S.C. 
        30120(e)(3)), as added by section 4302(a), is amended by adding 
        at the end the following new subparagraph:
                  ``(D) Prerecorded telephone calls.--In the case of a 
                communication to which this subsection applies which is 
                a telephone call consisting in substantial part of a 
                prerecorded audio message, the communication shall be 
                considered to be transmitted in an audio format.''.

SEC. 4304. NO EXPANSION OF PERSONS SUBJECT TO DISCLAIMER REQUIREMENTS 
                    ON INTERNET COMMUNICATIONS.

  Nothing in this subtitle or the amendments made by this subtitle may 
be construed to require any person who is not required under section 
318 of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 (as provided under 
section 110.11 of title 11 of the Code of Federal Regulations) to 
include a disclaimer on communications made by the person through the 
internet to include any disclaimer on any such communications.

SEC. 4305. EFFECTIVE DATE.

  The amendments made by this subtitle shall apply with respect to 
communications made on or after January 1, 2020, and shall take effect 
without regard to whether or not the Federal Election Commission has 
promulgated regulations to carry out such amendments.

                         Subtitle E--[Reserved]

                         Subtitle F--[Reserved]

                         Subtitle G--[Reserved]

  Subtitle H--Limitation and Disclosure Requirements for Presidential 
                          Inaugural Committees

SEC. 4701. SHORT TITLE.

  This subtitle may be cited as the ``Presidential Inaugural Committee 
Oversight Act''.

SEC. 4702. LIMITATIONS AND DISCLOSURE OF CERTAIN DONATIONS TO, AND 
                    DISBURSEMENTS BY, INAUGURAL COMMITTEES.

  (a) Requirements for Inaugural Committees.--Title III of the Federal 
Election Campaign Act of 1971 (52 U.S.C. 30101 et seq.) is amended by 
adding at the end the following new section:

``SEC. 325. INAUGURAL COMMITTEES.

  ``(a) Prohibited Donations.--
          ``(1) In general.--It shall be unlawful--
                  ``(A) for an Inaugural Committee--
                          ``(i) to solicit, accept, or receive a 
                        donation from a person that is not an 
                        individual; or
                          ``(ii) to solicit, accept, or receive a 
                        donation from a foreign national;
                  ``(B) for a person--
                          ``(i) to make a donation to an Inaugural 
                        Committee in the name of another person, or to 
                        knowingly authorize his or her name to be used 
                        to effect such a donation;
                          ``(ii) to knowingly accept a donation to an 
                        Inaugural Committee made by a person in the 
                        name of another person; or
                          ``(iii) to convert a donation to an Inaugural 
                        Committee to personal use as described in 
                        paragraph (2); and
                  ``(C) for a foreign national to, directly or 
                indirectly, make a donation, or make an express or 
                implied promise to make a donation, to an Inaugural 
                Committee.
          ``(2) Conversion of donation to personal use.--For purposes 
        of paragraph (1)(B)(iii), a donation shall be considered to be 
        converted to personal use if any part of the donated amount is 
        used to fulfill a commitment, obligation, or expense of a 
        person that would exist irrespective of the responsibilities of 
        the Inaugural Committee under chapter 5 of title 36, United 
        States Code.
          ``(3) No effect on disbursement of unused funds to nonprofit 
        organizations.--Nothing in this subsection may be construed to 
        prohibit an Inaugural Committee from disbursing unused funds to 
        an organization which is described in section 501(c)(3) of the 
        Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and is exempt from taxation under 
        section 501(a) of such Code.
  ``(b) Limitation on Donations.--
          ``(1) In general.--It shall be unlawful for an individual to 
        make donations to an Inaugural Committee which, in the 
        aggregate, exceed $50,000.
          ``(2) Indexing.--At the beginning of each Presidential 
        election year (beginning with 2024), the amount described in 
        paragraph (1) shall be increased by the cumulative percent 
        difference determined in section 315(c)(1)(A) since the 
        previous Presidential election year. If any amount after such 
        increase is not a multiple of $1,000, such amount shall be 
        rounded to the nearest multiple of $1,000.
  ``(c) Disclosure of Certain Donations and Disbursements.--
          ``(1) Donations over $1,000.--
                  ``(A) In general.--An Inaugural Committee shall file 
                with the Commission a report disclosing any donation by 
                an individual to the committee in an amount of $1,000 
                or more not later than 24 hours after the receipt of 
                such donation.
                  ``(B) Contents of report.--A report filed under 
                subparagraph (A) shall contain--
                          ``(i) the amount of the donation;
                          ``(ii) the date the donation is received; and
                          ``(iii) the name and address of the 
                        individual making the donation.
          ``(2) Final report.--Not later than the date that is 90 days 
        after the date of the Presidential inaugural ceremony, the 
        Inaugural Committee shall file with the Commission a report 
        containing the following information:
                  ``(A) For each donation of money or anything of value 
                made to the committee in an aggregate amount equal to 
                or greater than $200--
                          ``(i) the amount of the donation;
                          ``(ii) the date the donation is received; and
                          ``(iii) the name and address of the 
                        individual making the donation.
                  ``(B) The total amount of all disbursements, and all 
                disbursements in the following categories:
                          ``(i) Disbursements made to meet committee 
                        operating expenses.
                          ``(ii) Repayment of all loans.
                          ``(iii) Donation refunds and other offsets to 
                        donations.
                          ``(iv) Any other disbursements.
                  ``(C) The name and address of each person--
                          ``(i) to whom a disbursement in an aggregate 
                        amount or value in excess of $200 is made by 
                        the committee to meet a committee operating 
                        expense, together with date, amount, and 
                        purpose of such operating expense;
                          ``(ii) who receives a loan repayment from the 
                        committee, together with the date and amount of 
                        such loan repayment;
                          ``(iii) who receives a donation refund or 
                        other offset to donations from the committee, 
                        together with the date and amount of such 
                        disbursement; and
                          ``(iv) to whom any other disbursement in an 
                        aggregate amount or value in excess of $200 is 
                        made by the committee, together with the date 
                        and amount of such disbursement.
  ``(d) Definitions.--For purposes of this section:
          ``(1)(A) The term `donation' includes--
                          ``(i) any gift, subscription, loan, advance, 
                        or deposit of money or anything of value made 
                        by any person to the committee; or
                          ``(ii) the payment by any person of 
                        compensation for the personal services of 
                        another person which are rendered to the 
                        committee without charge for any purpose.
                  ``(B) The term `donation' does not include the value 
                of services provided without compensation by any 
                individual who volunteers on behalf of the committee.
          ``(2) The term `foreign national' has the meaning given that 
        term by section 319(b).
          ``(3) The term `Inaugural Committee' has the meaning given 
        that term by section 501 of title 36, United States Code.''.
  (b) Confirming Amendment Related to Reporting Requirements.--Section 
304 of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 (52 U.S.C. 30104) is 
amended--
          (1) by striking subsection (h); and
          (2) by redesignating subsection (i) as subsection (h).
  (c) Conforming Amendment Related to Status of Committee.--Section 510 
of title 36, United States Code, is amended to read as follows:

``Sec. 510. Disclosure of and prohibition on certain donations

  ``A committee shall not be considered to be the Inaugural Committee 
for purposes of this chapter unless the committee agrees to, and meets, 
the requirements of section 325 of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 
1971.''.
  (d) Effective Date.--The amendments made by this Act shall apply with 
respect to Inaugural Committees established under chapter 5 of title 
36, United States Code, for inaugurations held in 2021 and any 
succeeding year.

                        Subtitle I--Severability

SEC. 4801. SEVERABILITY.

  If any provision of this title or amendment made by this title, or 
the application of a provision or amendment to any person or 
circumstance, is held to be unconstitutional, the remainder of this 
title and amendments made by this title, and the application of the 
provisions and amendment to any person or circumstance, shall not be 
affected by the holding.

                 TITLE V--CAMPAIGN FINANCE EMPOWERMENT

       Subtitle A--Findings Relating to Citizens United Decision

Sec. 5001. Findings relating to Citizens United decision.

                  Subtitle B--Congressional Elections

Sec. 5100. Short title.

                 Part 1--My Voice Voucher Pilot Program

Sec. 5101. Establishment of pilot program.
Sec. 5102. Voucher program described.
Sec. 5103. Reports.
Sec. 5104. Definitions.

   Part 2--Small Dollar Financing of Congressional Election Campaigns

Sec. 5111. Benefits and eligibility requirements for candidates.

 ``TITLE V--SMALL DOLLAR FINANCING OF CONGRESSIONAL ELECTION CAMPAIGNS

                         ``Subtitle A--Benefits

        ``Sec. 501. Benefits for participating candidates.
        ``Sec. 502. Procedures for making payments.
        ``Sec. 503. Use of funds.
        ``Sec. 504. Qualified small dollar contributions described.

              ``Subtitle B--Eligibility and Certification

        ``Sec. 511. Eligibility.
        ``Sec. 512. Qualifying requirements.
        ``Sec. 513. Certification.

 ``Subtitle C--Requirements for Candidates Certified as Participating 
                               Candidates

        ``Sec. 521. Contribution and expenditure requirements.
        ``Sec. 522. Administration of campaign.
        ``Sec. 523. Preventing unnecessary spending of public funds.
        ``Sec. 524. Remitting unspent funds after election.

                  ``Subtitle D--Enhanced Match Support

        ``Sec. 531. Enhanced support for general election.
        ``Sec. 532. Eligibility.
        ``Sec. 533. Amount.
        ``Sec. 534. Waiver of authority to retain portion of unspent 
                        funds after election.

                ``Subtitle E--Administrative Provisions

        ``Sec. 541. Freedom From Influence Fund.
        ``Sec. 542. Reviews and reports by Government Accountability 
                        Office.
        ``Sec. 543. Administration by Commission.
        ``Sec. 544. Violations and penalties.
        ``Sec. 545. Appeals process.
        ``Sec. 546. Indexing of amounts.
        ``Sec. 547. Election cycle defined.
Sec. 5112. Contributions and expenditures by multicandidate and 
political party committees on behalf of participating candidates.
Sec. 5113. Prohibiting use of contributions by participating candidates 
for purposes other than campaign for election.
Sec. 5114. Effective date.

                   Subtitle C--Presidential Elections

Sec. 5200. Short title.

                       Part 1--Primary Elections

Sec. 5201. Increase in and modifications to matching payments.
Sec. 5202. Eligibility requirements for matching payments.
Sec. 5203. Repeal of expenditure limitations.
Sec. 5204. Period of availability of matching payments.
Sec. 5205. Examination and audits of matchable contributions.
Sec. 5206. Modification to limitation on contributions for Presidential 
primary candidates.
Sec. 5207. Use of Freedom From Influence Fund as source of payments.

                       Part 2--General Elections

Sec. 5211. Modification of eligibility requirements for public 
financing.
Sec. 5212. Repeal of expenditure limitations and use of qualified 
campaign contributions.
Sec. 5213. Matching payments and other modifications to payment 
amounts.
Sec. 5214. Increase in limit on coordinated party expenditures.
Sec. 5215. Establishment of uniform date for release of payments.
Sec. 5216. Amounts in Presidential Election Campaign Fund.
Sec. 5217. Use of general election payments for general election legal 
and accounting compliance.
Sec. 5218. Use of Freedom From Influence Fund as source of payments.

                         Part 3--Effective Date

Sec. 5221. Effective date.

 Subtitle D--Personal Use Services as Authorized Campaign Expenditures

Sec. 5301. Short title; findings; purpose.
Sec. 5302. Treatment of payments for child care and other personal use 
services as authorized campaign expenditure.

                        Subtitle E--Severability

Sec. 5401. Severability.

   Subtitle A--Findings Relating to Citizens United 
                                Decision

SEC. 5001. FINDINGS RELATING TO CITIZENS UNITED 
                    DECISION.

  Congress finds the following:
          (1) The American Republic was founded on the principle that 
        all people are created equal, with rights and responsibilities 
        as citizens to vote, be represented, speak, debate, and 
        participate in self-government on equal terms regardless of 
        wealth. To secure these rights and responsibilities, our 
        Constitution not only protects the equal rights of all 
        Americans but also provides checks and balances to prevent 
        corruption and prevent concentrated power and wealth from 
        undermining effective self-government.
          (2) The Supreme Court's decisions in Citizens United v. 
        Federal Election Commission, 558 U.S. 310 (2010) and McCutcheon 
        v. FEC, 572 U.S. 185 (2014), as well as other court decisions, 
        erroneously invalidated even-handed rules about the spending of 
        money in local, State, and Federal elections. These flawed 
        decisions have empowered large corporations, extremely wealthy 
        individuals, and special interests to dominate election 
        spending, corrupt our politics, and degrade our democracy 
        through tidal waves of unlimited and anonymous spending. These 
        decisions also stand in contrast to a long history of efforts 
        by Congress and the States to regulate money in politics to 
        protect democracy, and they illustrate a troubling deregulatory 
        trend in campaign finance-related court decisions. 
        Additionally, an unknown amount of foreign money continues to 
        be spent in our political system as subsidiaries of foreign-
        based corporations and hostile foreign actors sometimes 
        connected to nation-States work to influence our elections.
          (3) The Supreme Court's misinterpretation of the Constitution 
        to empower monied interests at the expense of the American 
        people in elections has seriously eroded over 100 years of 
        congressional action to promote fairness and protect elections 
        from the toxic influence of money.
          (4) In 1907, Congress passed the Tillman Act in response to 
        the concentration of corporate power in the post-Civil War 
        Gilded Age. The Act prohibited corporations from making 
        contributions in connection with Federal elections, aiming 
        ``not merely to prevent the subversion of the integrity of the 
        electoral process [but] . . . to sustain the active, alert 
        responsibility of the individual citizen in a democracy for the 
        wise conduct of government''.
          (5) By 1910, Congress began passing disclosure requirements 
        and campaign expenditure limits, and dozens of States passed 
        corrupt practices Acts to prohibit corporate spending in 
        elections. States also enacted campaign spending limits, and 
        some States limited the amount that people could contribute to 
        campaigns.
          (6) In 1947, the Taft-Hartley Act prohibited corporations and 
        unions from making campaign contributions or other expenditures 
        to influence elections. In 1962, a Presidential commission on 
        election spending recommended spending limits and incentives to 
        increase small contributions from more people.
          (7) The Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 (FECA), as 
        amended in 1974, required disclosure of contributions and 
        expenditures, imposed contribution and expenditure limits for 
        individuals and groups, set spending limits for campaigns, 
        candidates, and groups, implemented a public funding system for 
        Presidential campaigns, and created the Federal Election 
        Commission to oversee and enforce the new rules.
          (8) In the wake of Citizens United and other damaging Federal 
        court decisions, Americans have witnessed an explosion of 
        outside spending in elections. Outside spending increased 
        nearly 900 percent between the 2008 and 2016 Presidential 
        election years. Indeed, the 2018 elections once again made 
        clear the overwhelming political power of wealthy special 
        interests, to the tune of over $5,000,000,000. And as political 
        entities adapt to a post- Citizens United, post-McCutcheon 
        landscape, these trends are getting worse, as evidenced by the 
        experience in the 2018 midterm congressional elections, where 
        outside spending more than doubled from the previous midterm 
        cycle.
          (9) The torrent of money flowing into our political system 
        has a profound effect on the democratic process for everyday 
        Americans, whose voices and policy preferences are increasingly 
        being drowned out by those of wealthy special interests. The 
        more campaign cash from wealthy special interests can flood our 
        elections, the more policies that favor those interests are 
        reflected in the national political agenda. When it comes to 
        policy preferences, our Nation's wealthiest tend to have 
        fundamentally different views than do average Americans when it 
        comes to issues ranging from unemployment benefits to the 
        minimum wage to health care coverage.
          (10) The Court has tied the hands of Congress and the States, 
        severely restricting them from setting reasonable limits on 
        campaign spending. For example, the Court has held that only 
        the Government's interest in preventing quid pro quo 
        corruption, like bribery, or the appearance of such corruption, 
        can justify limits on campaign contributions. More broadly, the 
        Court has severely curtailed attempts to reduce the ability of 
        the Nation's wealthiest and most powerful to skew our democracy 
        in their favor by buying outsized influence in our elections. 
        Because this distortion of the Constitution has prevented truly 
        meaningful regulation or reform of the way we finance elections 
        in America, a constitutional amendment is needed to achieve a 
        democracy for all the people.
          (11) Since the landmark Citizens United decision, 19 States 
        and nearly 800 municipalities, including large cities like New 
        York, Los Angeles, Chicago, and Philadelphia, have gone on 
        record supporting a constitutional amendment. Transcending 
        political leanings and geographic location, voters in States 
        and municipalities across the country that have placed 
        amendment questions on the ballot have routinely supported 
        these initiatives by considerably large margins.
          (12) At the same time millions of Americans have signed 
        petitions, marched, called their Members of Congress, written 
        letters to the editor, and otherwise demonstrated their public 
        support for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens 
        United that will allow Congress to reign in the outsized 
        influence of unchecked money in politics. Dozens of 
        organizations, representing tens of millions of individuals, 
        have come together in a shared strategy of supporting such an 
        amendment.
          (13) In order to protect the integrity of democracy and the 
        electoral process and to ensure political equality for all, the 
        Constitution should be amended so that Congress and the States 
        may regulate and set limits on the raising and spending of 
        money to influence elections and may distinguish between 
        natural persons and artificial entities, like corporations, 
        that are created by law, including by prohibiting such 
        artificial entities from spending money to influence elections.

                  Subtitle B--Congressional Elections

SEC. 5100. SHORT TITLE.

  This subtitle may be cited as the ``Government By the People Act of 
2019''.

                 PART 1--MY VOICE VOUCHER PILOT PROGRAM

SEC. 5101. ESTABLISHMENT OF PILOT PROGRAM.

  (a) Establishment.--The Federal Election Commission (hereafter in 
this part referred to as the ``Commission'') shall establish a pilot 
program under which the Commission shall select 3 eligible States to 
operate a voucher pilot program which is described in section 5102 
during the program operation period.
  (b) Eligibility of States.--A State is eligible to be selected to 
operate a voucher pilot program under this part if, not later than 180 
days after the beginning of the program application period, the State 
submits to the Commission an application containing--
          (1) information and assurances that the State will operate a 
        voucher program which contains the elements described in 
        section 5102(a);
          (2) information and assurances that the State will establish 
        fraud prevention mechanisms described in section 5102(b);
          (3) information and assurances that the State will establish 
        a commission to oversee and implement the program as described 
        in section 5102(c);
          (4) information and assurances that the State will carry out 
        a public information campaign as described in section 5102(d);
          (5) information and assurances that the State will submit 
        reports as required under section 5103; and
          (6) such other information and assurances as the Commission 
        may require.
  (c) Selection of Participating States.--
          (1) In general.--Not later than 1 year after the beginning of 
        the program application period, the Commission shall select the 
        3 States which will operate voucher pilot programs under this 
        part.
          (2) Criteria.--In selecting States for the operation of the 
        voucher pilot programs under this part, the Commission shall 
        apply such criteria and metrics as the Commission considers 
        appropriate to determine the ability of a State to operate the 
        program successfully, and shall attempt to select States in a 
        variety of geographic regions and with a variety of political 
        party preferences.
          (3) No supermajority required for selection.--The selection 
        of States by the Commission under this subsection shall require 
        the approval of only half of the Members of the Commission.
  (d) Duties of States During Program Preparation Period.--During the 
program preparation period, each State selected to operate a voucher 
pilot program under this part shall take such actions as may be 
necessary to ensure that the State will be ready to operate the program 
during the program operation period, and shall complete such actions 
not later than 90 days before the beginning of the program operation 
period.
  (e) Termination.--Each voucher pilot program under this part shall 
terminate as of the first day after the program operation period.
  (f) Reimbursement of Costs.--
          (1) Reimbursement.--Upon receiving the report submitted by a 
        State under section 5103(a) with respect to an election cycle, 
        the Commission shall transmit a payment to the State in an 
        amount equal to the reasonable costs incurred by the State in 
        operating the voucher pilot program under this part during the 
        cycle.
          (2) Source of funds.--Payments to States under the program 
        shall be made using amounts in the Freedom From Influence Fund 
        under section 541 of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 
        (as added by section 5111), hereafter referred to as the 
        ``Fund''.
          (3) Mandatory reduction of payments in case of insufficient 
        amounts in freedom from influence fund.--
                  (A) Advance audits by commission.--Not later than 90 
                days before the first day of each program operation 
                period, the Commission shall--
                          (i) audit the Fund to determine whether, 
                        after first making payments to participating 
                        candidates under title V of the Federal 
                        Election Campaign Act of 1971 (as added by 
                        section 5111), the amounts remaining in the 
                        Fund will be sufficient to make payments to 
                        States under this part in the amounts provided 
                        under this subsection; and
                          (ii) submit a report to Congress describing 
                        the results of the audit.
                  (B) Reductions in amount of payments.--
                          (i) Automatic reduction on pro rata basis.--
                        If, on the basis of the audit described in 
                        subparagraph (A), the Commission determines 
                        that the amount anticipated to be available in 
                        the Fund with respect to an election cycle 
                        involved is not, or may not be, sufficient to 
                        make payments to States under this part in the 
                        full amount provided under this subsection, the 
                        Commission shall reduce each amount which would 
                        otherwise be paid to a State under this 
                        subsection by such pro rata amount as may be 
                        necessary to ensure that the aggregate amount 
                        of payments anticipated to be made with respect 
                        to the cycle will not exceed the amount 
                        anticipated to be available for such payments 
                        in the Fund with respect to such cycle.
                          (ii) Restoration of reductions in case of 
                        availability of sufficient funds during 
                        election cycle.--If, after reducing the amounts 
                        paid to States with respect to an election 
                        cycle under clause (i), the Commission 
                        determines that there are sufficient amounts in 
                        the Fund to restore the amount by which such 
                        payments were reduced (or any portion thereof), 
                        to the extent that such amounts are available, 
                        the Commission may make a payment on a pro rata 
                        basis to each such State with respect to the 
                        cycle in the amount by which such State's 
                        payments were reduced under clause (i) (or any 
                        portion thereof, as the case may be).
                          (iii) No use of amounts from other sources.--
                        In any case in which the Commission determines 
                        that there are insufficient moneys in the Fund 
                        to make payments to States under this part, 
                        moneys shall not be made available from any 
                        other source for the purpose of making such 
                        payments.
          (3) Cap on amount of payment.--The aggregate amount of 
        payments made to any State with respect to any program 
        operation period may not exceed $10,000,000. If the State 
        determines that the maximum payment amount under this paragraph 
        with respect to the program operation period involved is not, 
        or may not be, sufficient to cover the reasonable costs 
        incurred by the State in operating the program under this part 
        for such period, the State shall reduce the amount of the 
        voucher provided to each qualified individual by such pro rata 
        amount as may be necessary to ensure that the reasonable costs 
        incurred by the State in operating the program will not exceed 
        the amount paid to the State with respect to such period.

SEC. 5102. VOUCHER PROGRAM DESCRIBED.

  (a) General Elements of Program.--
          (1) Elements described.--The elements of a voucher pilot 
        program operated by a State under this part are as follows:
                  (A) The State shall provide each qualified individual 
                upon the individual's request with a voucher worth $25 
                to be known as a ``My Voice Voucher'' during the 
                election cycle which will be assigned a routing number 
                and which at the option of the individual will be 
                provided in either paper or electronic form.
                  (B) Using the routing number assigned to the My Voice 
                Voucher, the individual may submit the My Voice Voucher 
                in either electronic or paper form to qualified 
                candidates for election for the office of 
                Representative in, or Delegate or Resident Commissioner 
                to, the Congress and allocate such portion of the value 
                of the My Voice Voucher in increments of $5 as the 
                individual may select to any such candidate.
                  (C) If the candidate transmits the My Voice Voucher 
                to the Commission, the Commission shall pay the 
                candidate the portion of the value of the My Voice 
                Voucher that the individual allocated to the candidate, 
                which shall be considered a contribution by the 
                individual to the candidate for purposes of the Federal 
                Election Campaign Act of 1971.
          (2) Designation of qualified individuals.--For purposes of 
        paragraph (1)(A), a ``qualified individual'' with respect to a 
        State means an individual--
                  (A) who is a resident of the State;
                  (B) who will be of voting age as of the date of the 
                election for the candidate to whom the individual 
                submits a My Voice Voucher; and
                  (C) who is not prohibited under Federal law from 
                making contributions to candidates for election for 
                Federal office.
          (3) Treatment as contribution to candidate.--For purposes of 
        the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971, the submission of a 
        My Voice Voucher to a candidate by an individual shall be 
        treated as a contribution to the candidate by the individual in 
        the amount of the portion of the value of the Voucher that the 
        individual allocated to the candidate.
  (b) Fraud Prevention Mechanism.--In addition to the elements 
described in subsection (a), a State operating a voucher pilot program 
under this part shall permit an individual to revoke a My Voice Voucher 
not later than 2 days after submitting the My Voice Voucher to a 
candidate.
  (c) Oversight Commission.--In addition to the elements described in 
subsection (a), a State operating a voucher pilot program under this 
part shall establish a commission or designate an existing entity to 
oversee and implement the program in the State, except that no such 
commission or entity may be comprised of elected officials.
  (d) Public Information Campaign.--In addition to the elements 
described in subsection (a), a State operating a voucher pilot program 
under this part shall carry out a public information campaign to 
disseminate awareness of the program among qualified individuals.

SEC. 5103. REPORTS.

  (a) Preliminary Report.--Not later than 6 months after the first 
election cycle of the program operation period, a State which operates 
a voucher pilot program under this part shall submit a report to the 
Commission analyzing the operation and effectiveness of the program 
during the cycle and including such other information as the Commission 
may require.
  (b) Final Report.--Not later than 6 months after the end of the 
program operation period, the State shall submit a final report to the 
Commission analyzing the operation and effectiveness of the program and 
including such other information as the Commission may require.
  (c) Report by Commission.--Not later than the end of the first 
election cycle which begins after the program operation period, the 
Commission shall submit a report to Congress which summarizes and 
analyzes the results of the voucher pilot program, and shall include in 
the report such recommendations as the Commission considers appropriate 
regarding the expansion of the pilot program to all States and 
territories, along with such other recommendations and other 
information as the Commission considers appropriate.

SEC. 5104. DEFINITIONS.

  (a) Election Cycle.--In this part, the term ``election cycle'' means 
the period beginning on the day after the date of the most recent 
regularly scheduled general election for Federal office and ending on 
the date of the next regularly scheduled general election for Federal 
office.
  (b) Definitions Relating to Periods.--In this part, the following 
definitions apply:
          (1) Program application period.--The term ``program 
        application period'' means the first election cycle which 
        begins after the date of the enactment of this Act.
          (2) Program preparation period.--The term ``program 
        preparation period'' means the first election cycle which 
        begins after the program application period.
          (3) Program operation period.--The term ``program operation 
        period'' means the first 2 election cycles which begin after 
        the program preparation period.

   PART 2--SMALL DOLLAR FINANCING OF CONGRESSIONAL ELECTION CAMPAIGNS

SEC. 5111. BENEFITS AND ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR CANDIDATES.

  The Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 (52 U.S.C. 30101 et seq.) 
is amended by adding at the end the following:

 ``TITLE V--SMALL DOLLAR FINANCING OF CONGRESSIONAL ELECTION CAMPAIGNS

                         ``Subtitle A--Benefits

``SEC. 501. BENEFITS FOR PARTICIPATING CANDIDATES.

  ``(a) In General.--If a candidate for election to the office of 
Representative in, or Delegate or Resident Commissioner to, the 
Congress is certified as a participating candidate under this title 
with respect to an election for such office, the candidate shall be 
entitled to payments as provided under this title.
  ``(b) Amount of Payment.--The amount of a payment made under this 
title shall be equal to 600 percent of the amount of qualified small 
dollar contributions received by the candidate since the most recent 
payment made to the candidate under this title during the election 
cycle, without regard to whether or not the candidate received any of 
the contributions before, during, or after the Small Dollar Democracy 
qualifying period applicable to the candidate under section 511(c).
  ``(c) Limit on Aggregate Amount of Payments.--The aggregate amount of 
payments made to a participating candidate with respect to an election 
cycle under this title may not exceed 50 percent of the average of the 
20 greatest amounts of disbursements made by the authorized committees 
of any winning candidate for the office of Representative in, or 
Delegate or Resident Commissioner to, the Congress during the most 
recent election cycle, rounded to the nearest $100,000.

``SEC. 502. PROCEDURES FOR MAKING PAYMENTS.

  ``(a) In General.--The Commission shall make a payment under section 
501 to a candidate who is certified as a participating candidate upon 
receipt from the candidate of a request for a payment which includes--
          ``(1) a statement of the number and amount of qualified small 
        dollar contributions received by the candidate since the most 
        recent payment made to the candidate under this title during 
        the election cycle;
          ``(2) a statement of the amount of the payment the candidate 
        anticipates receiving with respect to the request;
          ``(3) a statement of the total amount of payments the 
        candidate has received under this title as of the date of the 
        statement; and
          ``(4) such other information and assurances as the Commission 
        may require.
  ``(b) Restrictions on Submission of Requests.--A candidate may not 
submit a request under subsection (a) unless each of the following 
applies:
          ``(1) The amount of the qualified small dollar contributions 
        in the statement referred to in subsection (a)(1) is equal to 
        or greater than $5,000, unless the request is submitted during 
        the 30-day period which ends on the date of a general election.
          ``(2) The candidate did not receive a payment under this 
        title during the 7-day period which ends on the date the 
        candidate submits the request.
  ``(c) Time of Payment.--The Commission shall, in coordination with 
the Secretary of the Treasury, take such steps as may be necessary to 
ensure that the Secretary is able to make payments under this section 
from the Treasury not later than 2 business days after the receipt of a 
request submitted under subsection (a).

``SEC. 503. USE OF FUNDS.

  ``(a) Use of Funds for Authorized Campaign Expenditures.--A candidate 
shall use payments made under this title, including payments provided 
with respect to a previous election cycle which are withheld from 
remittance to the Commission in accordance with section 524(a)(2), only 
for making direct payments for the receipt of goods and services which 
constitute authorized expenditures (as determined in accordance with 
title III) in connection with the election cycle involved.
  ``(b) Prohibiting Use of Funds for Legal Expenses, Fines, or 
Penalties.--Notwithstanding title III, a candidate may not use payments 
made under this title for the payment of expenses incurred in 
connection with any action, claim, or other matter before the 
Commission or before any court, hearing officer, arbitrator, or other 
dispute resolution entity, or for the payment of any fine or civil 
monetary penalty.

``SEC. 504. QUALIFIED SMALL DOLLAR CONTRIBUTIONS DESCRIBED.

  ``(a) In General.--In this title, the term `qualified small dollar 
contribution' means, with respect to a candidate and the authorized 
committees of a candidate, a contribution that meets the following 
requirements:
          ``(1) The contribution is in an amount that is--
                  ``(A) not less than $1; and
                  ``(B) not more than $200.
          ``(2)(A) The contribution is made directly by an individual 
        to the candidate or an authorized committee of the candidate 
        and is not--
                  ``(i) forwarded from the individual making the 
                contribution to the candidate or committee by another 
                person; or
                  ``(ii) received by the candidate or committee with 
                the knowledge that the contribution was made at the 
                request, suggestion, or recommendation of another 
                person.
          ``(B) In this paragraph--
                  ``(i) the term `person' does not include an 
                individual (other than an individual described in 
                section 304(i)(7) of the Federal Election Campaign Act 
                of 1971), a political committee of a political party, 
                or any political committee which is not a separate 
                segregated fund described in section 316(b) of the 
                Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 and which does 
                not make contributions or independent expenditures, 
                does not engage in lobbying activity under the Lobbying 
                Disclosure Act of 1995 (2 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.), and is 
                not established by, controlled by, or affiliated with a 
                registered lobbyist under such Act, an agent of a 
                registered lobbyist under such Act, or an organization 
                which retains or employs a registered lobbyist under 
                such Act; and
                  ``(ii) a contribution is not `made at the request, 
                suggestion, or recommendation of another person' solely 
                on the grounds that the contribution is made in 
                response to information provided to the individual 
                making the contribution by any person, so long as the 
                candidate or authorized committee does not know the 
                identity of the person who provided the information to 
                such individual.
          ``(3) The individual who makes the contribution does not make 
        contributions to the candidate or the authorized committees of 
        the candidate with respect to the election involved in an 
        aggregate amount that exceeds the amount described in paragraph 
        (1)(B), or any contribution to the candidate or the authorized 
        committees of the candidate with respect to the election 
        involved that otherwise is not a qualified small dollar 
        contribution.
  ``(b) Treatment of My Voice Vouchers.--Any payment received by a 
candidate and the authorized committees of a candidate which consists 
of a My Voice Voucher under the Government By the People Act of 2019 
shall be considered a qualified small dollar contribution for purposes 
of this title, so long as the individual making the payment meets the 
requirements of paragraphs (2) and (3) of subsection (a).
  ``(c) Restriction on Subsequent Contributions.--
          ``(1) Prohibiting donor from making subsequent nonqualified 
        contributions during election cycle.--
                  ``(A) In general.--An individual who makes a 
                qualified small dollar contribution to a candidate or 
                the authorized committees of a candidate with respect 
                to an election may not make any subsequent contribution 
                to such candidate or the authorized committees of such 
                candidate with respect to the election cycle which is 
                not a qualified small dollar contribution.
                  ``(B) Exception for contributions to candidates who 
                voluntarily withdraw from participation during 
                qualifying period.--Subparagraph (A) does not apply 
                with respect to a contribution made to a candidate who, 
                during the Small Dollar Democracy qualifying period 
                described in section 511(c), submits a statement to the 
                Commission under section 513(c) to voluntarily withdraw 
                from participating in the program under this title.
          ``(2) Treatment of subsequent nonqualified contributions.--
        If, notwithstanding the prohibition described in paragraph (1), 
        an individual who makes a qualified small dollar contribution 
        to a candidate or the authorized committees of a candidate with 
        respect to an election makes a subsequent contribution to such 
        candidate or the authorized committees of such candidate with 
        respect to the election which is prohibited under paragraph (1) 
        because it is not a qualified small dollar contribution, the 
        candidate may take one of the following actions:
                  ``(A) Not later than 2 weeks after receiving the 
                contribution, the candidate may return the subsequent 
                contribution to the individual. In the case of a 
                subsequent contribution which is not a qualified small 
                dollar contribution because the contribution fails to 
                meet the requirements of paragraph (3) of subsection 
                (a) (relating to the aggregate amount of contributions 
                made to the candidate or the authorized committees of 
                the candidate by the individual making the 
                contribution), the candidate may return an amount equal 
                to the difference between the amount of the subsequent 
                contribution and the amount described in paragraph 
                (1)(B) of subsection (a).
                  ``(B) The candidate may retain the subsequent 
                contribution, so long as not later than 2 weeks after 
                receiving the subsequent contribution, the candidate 
                remits to the Commission for deposit in the Freedom 
                From Influence Fund under section 541 an amount equal 
                to any payments received by the candidate under this 
                title which are attributable to the qualified small 
                dollar contribution made by the individual involved.
          ``(3) No effect on ability to make multiple contributions.--
        Nothing in this section may be construed to prohibit an 
        individual from making multiple qualified small dollar 
        contributions to any candidate or any number of candidates, so 
        long as each contribution meets each of the requirements of 
        paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of subsection (a).
  ``(d) Notification Requirements for Candidates.--
          ``(1) Notification.--Each authorized committee of a candidate 
        who seeks to be a participating candidate under this title 
        shall provide the following information in any materials for 
        the solicitation of contributions, including any internet site 
        through which individuals may make contributions to the 
        committee:
                  ``(A) A statement that if the candidate is certified 
                as a participating candidate under this title, the 
                candidate will receive matching payments in an amount 
                which is based on the total amount of qualified small 
                dollar contributions received.
                  ``(B) A statement that a contribution which meets the 
                requirements set forth in subsection (a) shall be 
                treated as a qualified small dollar contribution under 
                this title.
                  ``(C) A statement that if a contribution is treated 
                as qualified small dollar contribution under this 
                title, the individual who makes the contribution may 
                not make any contribution to the candidate or the 
                authorized committees of the candidate during the 
                election cycle which is not a qualified small dollar 
                contribution.
          ``(2) Alternative methods of meeting requirements.--An 
        authorized committee may meet the requirements of paragraph 
        (1)--
                  ``(A) by including the information described in 
                paragraph (1) in the receipt provided under section 
                512(b)(3) to a person making a qualified small dollar 
                contribution; or
                  ``(B) by modifying the information it provides to 
                persons making contributions which is otherwise 
                required under title III (including information it 
                provides through the internet).

              ``Subtitle B--Eligibility and Certification

``SEC. 511. ELIGIBILITY.

  ``(a) In General.--A candidate for the office of Representative in, 
or Delegate or Resident Commissioner to, the Congress is eligible to be 
certified as a participating candidate under this title with respect to 
an election if the candidate meets the following requirements:
          ``(1) The candidate files with the Commission a statement of 
        intent to seek certification as a participating candidate.
          ``(2) The candidate meets the qualifying requirements of 
        section 512.
          ``(3) The candidate files with the Commission a statement 
        certifying that the authorized committees of the candidate meet 
        the requirements of section 504(d).
          ``(4) Not later than the last day of the Small Dollar 
        Democracy qualifying period, the candidate files with the 
        Commission an affidavit signed by the candidate and the 
        treasurer of the candidate's principal campaign committee 
        declaring that the candidate--
                  ``(A) has complied and, if certified, will comply 
                with the contribution and expenditure requirements of 
                section 521;
                  ``(B) if certified, will run only as a participating 
                candidate for all elections for the office that such 
                candidate is seeking during that election cycle; and
                  ``(C) has either qualified or will take steps to 
                qualify under State law to be on the ballot.
  ``(b) General Election.--Notwithstanding subsection (a), a candidate 
shall not be eligible to be certified as a participating candidate 
under this title for a general election or a general runoff election 
unless the candidate's party nominated the candidate to be placed on 
the ballot for the general election or the candidate is otherwise 
qualified to be on the ballot under State law.
  ``(c) Small Dollar Democracy Qualifying Period Defined.--The term 
`Small Dollar Democracy qualifying period' means, with respect to any 
candidate for an office, the 180-day period (during the election cycle 
for such office) which begins on the date on which the candidate files 
a statement of intent under section 511(a)(1), except that such period 
may not continue after the date that is 30 days before the date of the 
general election for the office.

``SEC. 512. QUALIFYING REQUIREMENTS.

  ``(a) Receipt of Qualified Small Dollar Contributions.--A candidate 
for the office of Representative in, or Delegate or Resident 
Commissioner to, the Congress meets the requirement of this section if, 
during the Small Dollar Democracy qualifying period described in 
section 511(c), each of the following occurs:
          ``(1) Not fewer than 1,000 individuals make a qualified small 
        dollar contribution to the candidate.
          ``(2) The candidate obtains a total dollar amount of 
        qualified small dollar contributions which is equal to or 
        greater than $50,000.
  ``(b) Requirements Relating to Receipt of Qualified Small Dollar 
Contribution.--Each qualified small dollar contribution--
          ``(1) may be made by means of a personal check, money order, 
        debit card, credit card, electronic payment account, or any 
        other method deemed appropriate by the Commission;
          ``(2) shall be accompanied by a signed statement (or, in the 
        case of a contribution made online or through other electronic 
        means, an electronic equivalent) containing the contributor's 
        name and address; and
          ``(3) shall be acknowledged by a receipt that is sent to the 
        contributor with a copy (in paper or electronic form) kept by 
        the candidate for the Commission.
  ``(c) Verification of Contributions.--The Commission shall establish 
procedures for the auditing and verification of the contributions 
received and expenditures made by participating candidates under this 
title, including procedures for random audits, to ensure that such 
contributions and expenditures meet the requirements of this title.

``SEC. 513. CERTIFICATION.

  ``(a) Deadline and Notification.--
          ``(1) In general.--Not later than 5 business days after a 
        candidate files an affidavit under section 511(a)(4), the 
        Commission shall--
                  ``(A) determine whether or not the candidate meets 
                the requirements for certification as a participating 
                candidate;
                  ``(B) if the Commission determines that the candidate 
                meets such requirements, certify the candidate as a 
                participating candidate; and
                  ``(C) notify the candidate of the Commission's 
                determination.
          ``(2) Deemed certification for all elections in election 
        cycle.--If the Commission certifies a candidate as a 
        participating candidate with respect to the first election of 
        the election cycle involved, the Commission shall be deemed to 
        have certified the candidate as a participating candidate with 
        respect to all subsequent elections of the election cycle.
  ``(b) Revocation of Certification.--
          ``(1) In general.--The Commission shall revoke a 
        certification under subsection (a) if--
                  ``(A) a candidate fails to qualify to appear on the 
                ballot at any time after the date of certification 
                (other than a candidate certified as a participating 
                candidate with respect to a primary election who fails 
                to qualify to appear on the ballot for a subsequent 
                election in that election cycle);
                  ``(B) a candidate ceases to be a candidate for the 
                office involved, as determined on the basis of an 
                official announcement by an authorized committee of the 
                candidate or on the basis of a reasonable determination 
                by the Commission; or
                  ``(C) a candidate otherwise fails to comply with the 
                requirements of this title, including any regulatory 
                requirements prescribed by the Commission.
          ``(2) Existence of criminal sanction.--The Commission shall 
        revoke a certification under subsection (a) if a penalty is 
        assessed against the candidate under section 309(d) with 
        respect to the election.
          ``(3) Effect of revocation.--If a candidate's certification 
        is revoked under this subsection--
                  ``(A) the candidate may not receive payments under 
                this title during the remainder of the election cycle 
                involved; and
                  ``(B) in the case of a candidate whose certification 
                is revoked pursuant to subparagraph (A) or subparagraph 
                (C) of paragraph (1)--
                          ``(i) the candidate shall repay to the 
                        Freedom From Influence Fund established under 
                        section 541 an amount equal to the payments 
                        received under this title with respect to the 
                        election cycle involved plus interest (at a 
                        rate determined by the Commission on the basis 
                        of an appropriate annual percentage rate for 
                        the month involved) on any such amount 
                        received; and
                          ``(ii) the candidate may not be certified as 
                        a participating candidate under this title with 
                        respect to the next election cycle.
          ``(4) Prohibiting participation in future elections for 
        candidates with multiple revocations.--If the Commission 
        revokes the certification of an individual as a participating 
        candidate under this title pursuant to subparagraph (A) or 
        subparagraph (C) of paragraph (1) a total of 3 times, the 
        individual may not be certified as a participating candidate 
        under this title with respect to any subsequent election.
  ``(c) Voluntary Withdrawal From Participating During Qualifying 
Period.--At any time during the Small Dollar Democracy qualifying 
period described in section 511(c), a candidate may withdraw from 
participation in the program under this title by submitting to the 
Commission a statement of withdrawal (without regard to whether or not 
the Commission has certified the candidate as a participating candidate 
under this title as of the time the candidate submits such statement), 
so long as the candidate has not submitted a request for payment under 
section 502.
  ``(d) Participating Candidate Defined.--In this title, a 
`participating candidate' means a candidate for the office of 
Representative in, or Delegate or Resident Commissioner to, the 
Congress who is certified under this section as eligible to receive 
benefits under this title.

 ``Subtitle C--Requirements for Candidates Certified as Participating 
                               Candidates

``SEC. 521. CONTRIBUTION AND EXPENDITURE REQUIREMENTS.

  ``(a) Permitted Sources of Contributions and Expenditures.--Except as 
provided in subsection (c), a participating candidate with respect to 
an election shall, with respect to all elections occurring during the 
election cycle for the office involved, accept no contributions from 
any source and make no expenditures from any amounts, other than the 
following:
          ``(1) Qualified small dollar contributions.
          ``(2) Payments under this title.
          ``(3) Contributions from political committees established and 
        maintained by a national or State political party, subject to 
        the applicable limitations of section 315.
          ``(4) Subject to subsection (b), personal funds of the 
        candidate or of any immediate family member of the candidate 
        (other than funds received through qualified small dollar 
        contributions).
          ``(5) Contributions from individuals who are otherwise 
        permitted to make contributions under this Act, subject to the 
        applicable limitations of section 315, except that the 
        aggregate amount of contributions a participating candidate may 
        accept from any individual with respect to any election during 
        the election cycle may not exceed $1,000.
          ``(6) Contributions from multicandidate political committees, 
        subject to the applicable limitations of section 315.
  ``(b) Special Rules for Personal Funds.--
          ``(1) Limit on amount.--A candidate who is certified as a 
        participating candidate may use personal funds (including 
        personal funds of any immediate family member of the candidate) 
        so long as--
                  ``(A) the aggregate amount used with respect to the 
                election cycle (including any period of the cycle 
                occurring prior to the candidate's certification as a 
                participating candidate) does not exceed $50,000; and
                  ``(B) the funds are used only for making direct 
                payments for the receipt of goods and services which 
                constitute authorized expenditures in connection with 
                the election cycle involved.
          ``(2) Immediate family member defined.--In this subsection, 
        the term `immediate family member' means, with respect to a 
        candidate--
                  ``(A) the candidate's spouse;
                  ``(B) a child, stepchild, parent, grandparent, 
                brother, half-brother, sister, or half-sister of the 
                candidate or the candidate's spouse; and
                  ``(C) the spouse of any person described in 
                subparagraph (B).
  ``(c) Exceptions.--
          ``(1) Exception for contributions received prior to filing of 
        statement of intent.--A candidate who has accepted 
        contributions that are not described in subsection (a) is not 
        in violation of subsection (a), but only if all such 
        contributions are--
                  ``(A) returned to the contributor;
                  ``(B) submitted to the Commission for deposit in the 
                Freedom From Influence Fund established under section 
                541; or
                  ``(C) spent in accordance with paragraph (2).
          ``(2) Exception for expenditures made prior to filing of 
        statement of intent.--If a candidate has made expenditures 
        prior to the date the candidate files a statement of intent 
        under section 511(a)(1) that the candidate is prohibited from 
        making under subsection (a) or subsection (b), the candidate is 
        not in violation of such subsection if the aggregate amount of 
        the prohibited expenditures is less than the amount referred to 
        in section 512(a)(2) (relating to the total dollar amount of 
        qualified small dollar contributions which the candidate is 
        required to obtain) which is applicable to the candidate.
          ``(3) Exception for campaign surpluses from a previous 
        election.--Notwithstanding paragraph (1), unexpended 
        contributions received by the candidate or an authorized 
        committee of the candidate with respect to a previous election 
        may be retained, but only if the candidate places the funds in 
        escrow and refrains from raising additional funds for or 
        spending funds from that account during the election cycle in 
        which a candidate is a participating candidate.
          ``(4) Exception for contributions received before the 
        effective date of this title.--Contributions received and 
        expenditures made by the candidate or an authorized committee 
        of the candidate prior to the effective date of this title 
        shall not constitute a violation of subsection (a) or (b). 
        Unexpended contributions shall be treated the same as campaign 
        surpluses under paragraph (3), and expenditures made shall 
        count against the limit in paragraph (2).
  ``(d) Special Rule for Coordinated Party Expenditures.--For purposes 
of this section, a payment made by a political party in coordination 
with a participating candidate shall not be treated as a contribution 
to or as an expenditure made by the participating candidate.
  ``(e) Prohibition on Joint Fundraising Committees.--
          ``(1) Prohibition.--An authorized committee of a candidate 
        who is certified as a participating candidate under this title 
        with respect to an election may not establish a joint 
        fundraising committee with a political committee other than 
        another authorized committee of the candidate.
          ``(2) Status of existing committees for prior elections.--If 
        a candidate established a joint fundraising committee described 
        in paragraph (1) with respect to a prior election for which the 
        candidate was not certified as a participating candidate under 
        this title and the candidate does not terminate the committee, 
        the candidate shall not be considered to be in violation of 
        paragraph (1) so long as that joint fundraising committee does 
        not receive any contributions or make any disbursements during 
        the election cycle for which the candidate is certified as a 
        participating candidate under this title.
  ``(f) Prohibition on Leadership PACs.--
          ``(1) Prohibition.--A candidate who is certified as a 
        participating candidate under this title with respect to an 
        election may not associate with, establish, finance, maintain, 
        or control a leadership PAC.
          ``(2) Status of existing leadership pacs.--If a candidate 
        established, financed, maintained, or controlled a leadership 
        PAC prior to being certified as a participating candidate under 
        this title and the candidate does not terminate the leadership 
        PAC, the candidate shall not be considered to be in violation 
        of paragraph (1) so long as the leadership PAC does not receive 
        any contributions or make any disbursements during the election 
        cycle for which the candidate is certified as a participating 
        candidate under this title.
          ``(3) Leadership pac defined.--In this subsection, the term 
        `leadership PAC' has the meaning given such term in section 
        304(i)(8)(B).

``SEC. 522. ADMINISTRATION OF CAMPAIGN.

  ``(a) Separate Accounting for Various Permitted Contributions.--Each 
authorized committee of a candidate certified as a participating 
candidate under this title--
          ``(1) shall provide for separate accounting of each type of 
        contribution described in section 521(a) which is received by 
        the committee; and
          ``(2) shall provide for separate accounting for the payments 
        received under this title.
  ``(b) Enhanced Disclosure of Information on Donors.--
          ``(1) Mandatory identification of individuals making 
        qualified small dollar contributions.--Each authorized 
        committee of a participating candidate under this title shall 
        elect, in accordance with section 304(b)(3)(A), to include in 
        the reports the committee submits under section 304 the 
        identification of each person who makes a qualified small 
        dollar contribution to the committee.
          ``(2) Mandatory disclosure through internet.--Each authorized 
        committee of a participating candidate under this title shall 
        ensure that all information reported to the Commission under 
        this Act with respect to contributions and expenditures of the 
        committee is available to the public on the internet (whether 
        through a site established for purposes of this subsection, a 
        hyperlink on another public site of the committee, or a 
        hyperlink on a report filed electronically with the Commission) 
        in a searchable, sortable, and downloadable manner.

``SEC. 523. PREVENTING UNNECESSARY SPENDING OF PUBLIC FUNDS.

  ``(a) Mandatory Spending of Available Private Funds.--An authorized 
committee of a candidate certified as a participating candidate under 
this title may not make any expenditure of any payments received under 
this title in any amount unless the committee has made an expenditure 
in an equivalent amount of funds received by the committee which are 
described in paragraphs (1), (3), (4), (5), and (6) of section 521(a).
  ``(b) Limitation.--Subsection (a) applies to an authorized committee 
only to the extent that the funds referred to in such subsection are 
available to the committee at the time the committee makes an 
expenditure of a payment received under this title.

``SEC. 524. REMITTING UNSPENT FUNDS AFTER ELECTION.

  ``(a) Remittance Required.--Not later than the date that is 180 days 
after the last election for which a candidate certified as a 
participating candidate qualifies to be on the ballot during the 
election cycle involved, such participating candidate shall remit to 
the Commission for deposit in the Freedom From Influence Fund 
established under section 541 an amount equal to the balance of the 
payments received under this title by the authorized committees of the 
candidate which remain unexpended as of such date.
  ``(b) Permitting Candidates Participating in Next Election Cycle to 
Retain Portion of Unspent Funds.--Notwithstanding subsection (a), a 
participating candidate may withhold not more than $100,000 from the 
amount required to be remitted under subsection (a) if the candidate 
files a signed affidavit with the Commission that the candidate will 
seek certification as a participating candidate with respect to the 
next election cycle, except that the candidate may not use any portion 
of the amount withheld until the candidate is certified as a 
participating candidate with respect to that next election cycle. If 
the candidate fails to seek certification as a participating candidate 
prior to the last day of the Small Dollar Democracy qualifying period 
for the next election cycle (as described in section 511), or if the 
Commission notifies the candidate of the Commission's determination 
does not meet the requirements for certification as a participating 
candidate with respect to such cycle, the candidate shall immediately 
remit to the Commission the amount withheld.

                  ``Subtitle D--Enhanced Match Support

``SEC. 531. ENHANCED SUPPORT FOR GENERAL ELECTION.

  ``(a) Availability of Enhanced Support.--In addition to the payments 
made under subtitle A, the Commission shall make an additional payment 
to an eligible candidate under this subtitle.
  ``(b) Use of Funds.--A candidate shall use the additional payment 
under this subtitle only for authorized expenditures in connection with 
the election involved.

``SEC. 532. ELIGIBILITY.

  ``(a) In General.--A candidate is eligible to receive an additional 
payment under this subtitle if the candidate meets each of the 
following requirements:
          ``(1) The candidate is on the ballot for the general election 
        for the office the candidate seeks.
          ``(2) The candidate is certified as a participating candidate 
        under this title with respect to the election.
          ``(3) During the enhanced support qualifying period, the 
        candidate receives qualified small dollar contributions in a 
        total amount of not less than $50,000.
          ``(4) During the enhanced support qualifying period, the 
        candidate submits to the Commission a request for the payment 
        which includes--
                  ``(A) a statement of the number and amount of 
                qualified small dollar contributions received by the 
                candidate during the enhanced support qualifying 
                period;
                  ``(B) a statement of the amount of the payment the 
                candidate anticipates receiving with respect to the 
                request; and
                  ``(C) such other information and assurances as the 
                Commission may require.
          ``(5) After submitting a request for the additional payment 
        under paragraph (4), the candidate does not submit any other 
        application for an additional payment under this subtitle.
  ``(b) Enhanced Support Qualifying Period Described.--In this 
subtitle, the term `enhanced support qualifying period' means, with 
respect to a general election, the period which begins 60 days before 
the date of the election and ends 14 days before the date of the 
election.

``SEC. 533. AMOUNT.

  ``(a) In General.--Subject to subsection (b), the amount of the 
additional payment made to an eligible candidate under this subtitle 
shall be an amount equal to 50 percent of--
          ``(1) the amount of the payment made to the candidate under 
        section 501(b) with respect to the qualified small dollar 
        contributions which are received by the candidate during the 
        enhanced support qualifying period (as included in the request 
        submitted by the candidate under section 532(a)(4)); or
          ``(2) in the case of a candidate who is not eligible to 
        receive a payment under section 501(b) with respect to such 
        qualified small dollar contributions because the candidate has 
        reached the limit on the aggregate amount of payments under 
        subtitle A for the election cycle under section 501(c), the 
        amount of the payment which would have been made to the 
        candidate under section 501(b) with respect to such qualified 
        small dollar contributions if the candidate had not reached 
        such limit.
  ``(b) Limit.--The amount of the additional payment determined under 
subsection (a) with respect to a candidate may not exceed $500,000.
  ``(c) No Effect on Aggregate Limit.--The amount of the additional 
payment made to a candidate under this subtitle shall not be included 
in determining the aggregate amount of payments made to a participating 
candidate with respect to an election cycle under section 501(c).

``SEC. 534. WAIVER OF AUTHORITY TO RETAIN PORTION OF UNSPENT FUNDS 
                    AFTER ELECTION.

  ``Notwithstanding section 524(a)(2), a candidate who receives an 
additional payment under this subtitle with respect to an election is 
not permitted to withhold any portion from the amount of unspent funds 
the candidate is required to remit to the Commission under section 
524(a)(1).

                ``Subtitle E--Administrative Provisions

``SEC. 541. FREEDOM FROM INFLUENCE FUND.

  ``(a) Establishment.--There is established in the Treasury a fund to 
be known as the `Freedom From Influence Fund'.
  ``(b) Amounts Held by Fund.--The Fund shall consist of the following 
amounts:
          ``(1) Deposits.--Amounts deposited into the Fund under--
                  ``(A) section 521(c)(1)(B) (relating to exceptions to 
                contribution requirements);
                  ``(B) section 523 (relating to remittance of unused 
                payments from the Fund); and
                  ``(C) section 544 (relating to violations).
          ``(2) Investment returns.--Interest on, and the proceeds 
        from, the sale or redemption of any obligations held by the 
        Fund under subsection (c).
  ``(c) Investment.--The Commission shall invest portions of the Fund 
in obligations of the United States in the same manner as provided 
under section 9602(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.
  ``(d) Use of Fund to Make Payments to Participating Candidates.--
          ``(1) Payments to participating candidates.--Amounts in the 
        Fund shall be available without further appropriation or fiscal 
        year limitation to make payments to participating candidates as 
        provided in this title.
          ``(2) Mandatory reduction of payments in case of insufficient 
        amounts in fund.--
                  ``(A) Advance audits by commission.--Not later than 
                90 days before the first day of each election cycle 
                (beginning with the first election cycle that begins 
                after the date of the enactment of this title), the 
                Commission shall--
                          ``(i) audit the Fund to determine whether the 
                        amounts in the Fund will be sufficient to make 
                        payments to participating candidates in the 
                        amounts provided in this title during such 
                        election cycle; and
                          ``(ii) submit a report to Congress describing 
                        the results of the audit.
                  ``(B) Reductions in amount of payments.--
                          ``(i) Automatic reduction on pro rata 
                        basis.--If, on the basis of the audit described 
                        in subparagraph (A), the Commission determines 
                        that the amount anticipated to be available in 
                        the Fund with respect to the election cycle 
                        involved is not, or may not be, sufficient to 
                        satisfy the full entitlements of participating 
                        candidates to payments under this title for 
                        such election cycle, the Commission shall 
                        reduce each amount which would otherwise be 
                        paid to a participating candidate under this 
                        title by such pro rata amount as may be 
                        necessary to ensure that the aggregate amount 
                        of payments anticipated to be made with respect 
                        to the election cycle will not exceed the 
                        amount anticipated to be available for such 
                        payments in the Fund with respect to such 
                        election cycle.
                          ``(ii) Restoration of reductions in case of 
                        availability of sufficient funds during 
                        election cycle.--If, after reducing the amounts 
                        paid to participating candidates with respect 
                        to an election cycle under clause (i), the 
                        Commission determines that there are sufficient 
                        amounts in the Fund to restore the amount by 
                        which such payments were reduced (or any 
                        portion thereof), to the extent that such 
                        amounts are available, the Commission may make 
                        a payment on a pro rata basis to each such 
                        participating candidate with respect to the 
                        election cycle in the amount by which such 
                        candidate's payments were reduced under clause 
                        (i) (or any portion thereof, as the case may 
                        be).
                          ``(iii) No use of amounts from other 
                        sources.--In any case in which the Commission 
                        determines that there are insufficient moneys 
                        in the Fund to make payments to participating 
                        candidates under this title, moneys shall not 
                        be made available from any other source for the 
                        purpose of making such payments.
  ``(e) Use of Fund to Make Other Payments.--In addition to the use 
described in subsection (d), amounts in the Fund shall be available 
without further appropriation or fiscal year limitation--
          ``(1) to make payments to States under the My Voice Voucher 
        Program under the Government By the People Act of 2019, subject 
        to reductions under section 5101(f)(3) of such Act;
          ``(2) to make payments to candidates under chapter 95 of 
        subtitle H of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, subject to 
        reductions under section 9013(b) of such Code; and
          ``(3) to make payments to candidates under chapter 96 of 
        subtitle H of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, subject to 
        reductions under section 9043(b) of such Code.
  ``(f) Effective Date.--This section shall take effect on the date of 
the enactment of this title.

``SEC. 542. REVIEWS AND REPORTS BY GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE.

  ``(a) Review of Small Dollar Financing.--
          ``(1) In general.--After each regularly scheduled general 
        election for Federal office, the Comptroller General of the 
        United States shall conduct a comprehensive review of the Small 
        Dollar financing program under this title, including--
                  ``(A) the maximum and minimum dollar amounts of 
                qualified small dollar contributions under section 504;
                  ``(B) the number and value of qualified small dollar 
                contributions a candidate is required to obtain under 
                section 512(a) to be eligible for certification as a 
                participating candidate;
                  ``(C) the maximum amount of payments a candidate may 
                receive under this title;
                  ``(D) the overall satisfaction of participating 
                candidates and the American public with the program; 
                and
                  ``(E) such other matters relating to financing of 
                campaigns as the Comptroller General determines are 
                appropriate.
          ``(2) Criteria for review.--In conducting the review under 
        subparagraph (A), the Comptroller General shall consider the 
        following:
                  ``(A) Qualified small dollar contributions.--Whether 
                the number and dollar amounts of qualified small dollar 
                contributions required strikes an appropriate balance 
                regarding the importance of voter involvement, the need 
                to assure adequate incentives for participating, and 
                fiscal responsibility, taking into consideration the 
                number of primary and general election participating 
                candidates, the electoral performance of those 
                candidates, program cost, and any other information the 
                Comptroller General determines is appropriate.
                  ``(B) Review of payment levels.--Whether the totality 
                of the amount of funds allowed to be raised by 
                participating candidates (including through qualified 
                small dollar contributions) and payments under this 
                title are sufficient for voters in each State to learn 
                about the candidates to cast an informed vote, taking 
                into account the historic amount of spending by winning 
                candidates, media costs, primary election dates, and 
                any other information the Comptroller General 
                determines is appropriate.
          ``(3) Recommendations for adjustment of amounts.--Based on 
        the review conducted under subparagraph (A), the Comptroller 
        General may recommend to Congress adjustments of the following 
        amounts:
                  ``(A) The number and value of qualified small dollar 
                contributions a candidate is required to obtain under 
                section 512(a) to be eligible for certification as a 
                participating candidate.
                  ``(B) The maximum amount of payments a candidate may 
                receive under this title.
  ``(b) Reports.--Not later than each June 1 which follows a regularly 
scheduled general election for Federal office for which payments were 
made under this title, the Comptroller General shall submit to the 
Committee on House Administration of the House of Representatives a 
report--
          ``(1) containing an analysis of the review conducted under 
        subsection (a), including a detailed statement of Comptroller 
        General's findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on 
        such review, including any recommendations for adjustments of 
        amounts described in subsection (a)(3); and
          ``(2) documenting, evaluating, and making recommendations 
        relating to the administrative implementation and enforcement 
        of the provisions of this title.
  ``(c) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out the purposes of 
this section.

``SEC. 543. ADMINISTRATION BY COMMISSION.

  ``The Commission shall prescribe regulations to carry out the 
purposes of this title, including regulations to establish procedures 
for--
          ``(1) verifying the amount of qualified small dollar 
        contributions with respect to a candidate;
          ``(2) effectively and efficiently monitoring and enforcing 
        the limits on the raising of qualified small dollar 
        contributions;
          ``(3) effectively and efficiently monitoring and enforcing 
        the limits on the use of personal funds by participating 
        candidates; and
          ``(4) monitoring the use of allocations from the Freedom From 
        Influence Fund established under section 541 and matching 
        contributions under this title through audits of not fewer than 
        \1/10\ (or, in the case of the first 3 election cycles during 
        which the program under this title is in effect, not fewer than 
        \1/3\) of all participating candidates or other mechanisms.

``SEC. 544. VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES.

  ``(a) Civil Penalty for Violation of Contribution and Expenditure 
Requirements.--If a candidate who has been certified as a participating 
candidate accepts a contribution or makes an expenditure that is 
prohibited under section 521, the Commission may assess a civil penalty 
against the candidate in an amount that is not more than 3 times the 
amount of the contribution or expenditure. Any amounts collected under 
this subsection shall be deposited into the Freedom From Influence Fund 
established under section 541.
  ``(b) Repayment for Improper Use of Freedom From Influence Fund.--
          ``(1) In general.--If the Commission determines that any 
        payment made to a participating candidate was not used as 
        provided for in this title or that a participating candidate 
        has violated any of the dates for remission of funds contained 
        in this title, the Commission shall so notify the candidate and 
        the candidate shall pay to the Fund an amount equal to--
                  ``(A) the amount of payments so used or not remitted, 
                as appropriate; and
                  ``(B) interest on any such amounts (at a rate 
                determined by the Commission).
          ``(2) Other action not precluded.--Any action by the 
        Commission in accordance with this subsection shall not 
        preclude enforcement proceedings by the Commission in 
        accordance with section 309(a), including a referral by the 
        Commission to the Attorney General in the case of an apparent 
        knowing and willful violation of this title.
  ``(c) Prohibiting Candidates Subject to Criminal Penalty From 
Qualifying as Participating Candidates.--A candidate is not eligible to 
be certified as a participating candidate under this title with respect 
to an election if a penalty has been assessed against the candidate 
under section 309(d) with respect to any previous election.

``SEC. 545. APPEALS PROCESS.

  ``(a) Review of Actions.--Any action by the Commission in carrying 
out this title shall be subject to review by the United States Court of 
Appeals for the District of Columbia upon petition filed in the Court 
not later than 30 days after the Commission takes the action for which 
the review is sought.
  ``(b) Procedures.--The provisions of chapter 7 of title 5, United 
States Code, apply to judicial review under this section.

``SEC. 546. INDEXING OF AMOUNTS.

  ``(a) Indexing.--In any calendar year after 2024, section 
315(c)(1)(B) shall apply to each amount described in subsection (b) in 
the same manner as such section applies to the limitations established 
under subsections (a)(1)(A), (a)(1)(B), (a)(3), and (h) of such 
section, except that for purposes of applying such section to the 
amounts described in subsection (b), the `base period' shall be 2024.
  ``(b) Amounts Described.--The amounts described in this subsection 
are as follows:
          ``(1) The amount referred to in section 502(b)(1) (relating 
        to the minimum amount of qualified small dollar contributions 
        included in a request for payment).
          ``(2) The amounts referred to in section 504(a)(1) (relating 
        to the amount of a qualified small dollar contribution).
          ``(3) The amount referred to in section 512(a)(2) (relating 
        to the total dollar amount of qualified small dollar 
        contributions).
          ``(4) The amount referred to in section 521(a)(5) (relating 
        to the aggregate amount of contributions a participating 
        candidate may accept from any individual with respect to an 
        election).
          ``(5) The amount referred to in section 521(b)(1)(A) 
        (relating to the amount of personal funds that may be used by a 
        candidate who is certified as a participating candidate).
          ``(6) The amounts referred to in section 524(a)(2) (relating 
        to the amount of unspent funds a candidate may retain for use 
        in the next election cycle).
          ``(7) The amount referred to in section 532(a)(3) (relating 
        to the total dollar amount of qualified small dollar 
        contributions for a candidate seeking an additional payment 
        under subtitle D).
          ``(8) The amount referred to in section 533(b) (relating to 
        the limit on the amount of an additional payment made to a 
        candidate under subtitle D).

``SEC. 547. ELECTION CYCLE DEFINED.

  ``In this title, the term `election cycle' means, with respect to an 
election for an office, the period beginning on the day after the date 
of the most recent general election for that office (or, if the general 
election resulted in a runoff election, the date of the runoff 
election) and ending on the date of the next general election for that 
office (or, if the general election resulted in a runoff election, the 
date of the runoff election).''.

SEC. 5112. CONTRIBUTIONS AND EXPENDITURES BY MULTICANDIDATE AND 
                    POLITICAL PARTY COMMITTEES ON BEHALF OF 
                    PARTICIPATING CANDIDATES.

  (a) Authorizing Contributions Only From Separate Accounts Consisting 
of Qualified Small Dollar Contributions.--Section 315(a) of the Federal 
Election Campaign Act of 1971 (52 U.S.C. 30116(a)) is amended by adding 
at the end the following new paragraph:
  ``(10) In the case of a multicandidate political committee or any 
political committee of a political party, the committee may make a 
contribution to a candidate who is a participating candidate under 
title V with respect to an election only if the contribution is paid 
from a separate, segregated account of the committee which consists 
solely of contributions which meet the following requirements:
          ``(A) Each such contribution is in an amount which meets the 
        requirements for the amount of a qualified small dollar 
        contribution under section 504(a)(1) with respect to the 
        election involved.
          ``(B) Each such contribution is made by an individual who is 
        not otherwise prohibited from making a contribution under this 
        Act.
          ``(C) The individual who makes the contribution does not make 
        contributions to the committee during the year in an aggregate 
        amount that exceeds the limit described in section 
        504(a)(1).''.
  (b) Permitting Unlimited Coordinated Expenditures From Small Dollar 
Sources by Political Parties.--Section 315(d) of such Act (52 U.S.C. 
30116(d)) is amended--
          (1) in paragraph (3), by striking ``The national committee'' 
        and inserting ``Except as provided in paragraph (5), the 
        national committee''; and
          (2) by adding at the end the following new paragraph:
  ``(5) The limits described in paragraph (3) do not apply in the case 
of expenditures in connection with the general election campaign of a 
candidate for the office of Representative in, or Delegate or Resident 
Commissioner to, the Congress who is a participating candidate under 
title V with respect to the election, but only if--
          ``(A) the expenditures are paid from a separate, segregated 
        account of the committee which is described in subsection 
        (a)(9); and
          ``(B) the expenditures are the sole source of funding 
        provided by the committee to the candidate.''.

SEC. 5113. PROHIBITING USE OF CONTRIBUTIONS BY PARTICIPATING CANDIDATES 
                    FOR PURPOSES OTHER THAN CAMPAIGN FOR ELECTION.

  Section 313 of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 (52 U.S.C. 
30114) is amended by adding at the end the following new subsection:
  ``(d) Restrictions on Permitted Uses of Funds by Candidates Receiving 
Small Dollar Financing.--Notwithstanding paragraph (2), (3), or (4) of 
subsection (a), if a candidate for election for the office of 
Representative in, or Delegate or Resident Commissioner to, the 
Congress is certified as a participating candidate under title V with 
respect to the election, any contribution which the candidate is 
permitted to accept under such title may be used only for authorized 
expenditures in connection with the candidate's campaign for such 
office, subject to section 503(b).''.

SEC. 5114. EFFECTIVE DATE.

  (a) In General.--Except as may otherwise be provided in this part and 
in the amendments made by this part, this part and the amendments made 
by this part shall apply with respect to elections occurring during 
2026 or any succeeding year, without regard to whether or not the 
Federal Election Commission has promulgated the final regulations 
necessary to carry out this part and the amendments made by this part 
by the deadline set forth in subsection (b).
  (b) Deadline for Regulations.--Not later than June 30, 2024, the 
Federal Election Commission shall promulgate such regulations as may be 
necessary to carry out this part and the amendments made by this part.

                   Subtitle C--Presidential Elections

SEC. 5200. SHORT TITLE.

  This subtitle may be cited as the ``Empower Act of 2019''.

                       PART 1--PRIMARY ELECTIONS

SEC. 5201. INCREASE IN AND MODIFICATIONS TO MATCHING PAYMENTS.

  (a) Increase and Modification.--
          (1) In general.--The first sentence of section 9034(a) of the 
        Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is amended--
                  (A) by striking ``an amount equal to the amount of 
                each contribution'' and inserting ``an amount equal to 
                600 percent of the amount of each matchable 
                contribution (disregarding any amount of contributions 
                from any person to the extent that the total of the 
                amounts contributed by such person for the election 
                exceeds $200)''; and
                  (B) by striking ``authorized committees'' and all 
                that follows through ``$250'' and inserting 
                ``authorized committees''.
          (2) Matchable contributions.--Section 9034 of such Code is 
        amended--
                  (A) by striking the last sentence of subsection (a); 
                and
                  (B) by adding at the end the following new 
                subsection:
  ``(c) Matchable Contribution Defined.--For purposes of this section 
and section 9033(b)--
          ``(1) Matchable contribution.--The term `matchable 
        contribution' means, with respect to the nomination for 
        election to the office of President of the United States, a 
        contribution by an individual to a candidate or an authorized 
        committee of a candidate with respect to which the candidate 
        has certified in writing that--
                  ``(A) the individual making such contribution has not 
                made aggregate contributions (including such matchable 
                contribution) to such candidate and the authorized 
                committees of such candidate in excess of $1,000 for 
                the election;
                  ``(B) such candidate and the authorized committees of 
                such candidate will not accept contributions from such 
                individual (including such matchable contribution) 
                aggregating more than the amount described in 
                subparagraph (A); and
                  ``(C) such contribution was a direct contribution.
          ``(2) Contribution.--For purposes of this subsection, the 
        term `contribution' means a gift of money made by a written 
        instrument which identifies the individual making the 
        contribution by full name and mailing address, but does not 
        include a subscription, loan, advance, or deposit of money, or 
        anything of value or anything described in subparagraph (B), 
        (C), or (D) of section 9032(4).
          ``(3) Direct contribution.--
                  ``(A) In general.--For purposes of this subsection, 
                the term `direct contribution' means, with respect to a 
                candidate, a contribution which is made directly by an 
                individual to the candidate or an authorized committee 
                of the candidate and is not--
                          ``(i) forwarded from the individual making 
                        the contribution to the candidate or committee 
                        by another person; or
                          ``(ii) received by the candidate or committee 
                        with the knowledge that the contribution was 
                        made at the request, suggestion, or 
                        recommendation of another person.
                  ``(B) Other definitions.--In subparagraph (A)--
                          ``(i) the term `person' does not include an 
                        individual (other than an individual described 
                        in section 304(i)(7) of the Federal Election 
                        Campaign Act of 1971), a political committee of 
                        a political party, or any political committee 
                        which is not a separate segregated fund 
                        described in section 316(b) of the Federal 
                        Election Campaign Act of 1971 and which does 
                        not make contributions or independent 
                        expenditures, does not engage in lobbying 
                        activity under the Lobbying Disclosure Act of 
                        1995 (2 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.), and is not 
                        established by, controlled by, or affiliated 
                        with a registered lobbyist under such Act, an 
                        agent of a registered lobbyist under such Act, 
                        or an organization which retains or employs a 
                        registered lobbyist under such Act; and
                          ``(ii) a contribution is not `made at the 
                        request, suggestion, or recommendation of 
                        another person' solely on the grounds that the 
                        contribution is made in response to information 
                        provided to the individual making the 
                        contribution by any person, so long as the 
                        candidate or authorized committee does not know 
                        the identity of the person who provided the 
                        information to such individual.''.
          (3) Conforming amendments.--
                  (A) Section 9032(4) of such Code is amended by 
                striking ``section 9034(a)'' and inserting ``section 
                9034''.
                  (B) Section 9033(b)(3) of such Code is amended by 
                striking ``matching contributions'' and inserting 
                ``matchable contributions''.
  (b) Modification of Payment Limitation.--Section 9034(a) of such Code 
is amended--
          (1) by striking ``Every'' and inserting the following:
          ``(1) In general.--Every'';
          (2) by striking ``shall not exceed'' and all that follows and 
        inserting ``shall not exceed $250,000,000.'', and
          (3) by adding at the end the following new paragraph:
          ``(2) Inflation adjustment.--
                  ``(A) In general.--In the case of any applicable 
                period beginning after 2029, the dollar amount in 
                paragraph (1) shall be increased by an amount equal 
                to--
                          ``(i) such dollar amount, multiplied by
                          ``(ii) the cost-of-living adjustment 
                        determined under section 1(f)(3) for the 
                        calendar year following the year which such 
                        applicable period begins, determined by 
                        substituting `calendar year 2028' for `calendar 
                        year 1992' in subparagraph (B) thereof.
                  ``(B) Applicable period.--For purposes of this 
                paragraph, the term `applicable period' means the 4-
                year period beginning with the first day following the 
                date of the general election for the office of 
                President and ending on the date of the next such 
                general election.
                  ``(C) Rounding.--If any amount as adjusted under 
                subparagraph (1) is not a multiple of $10,000, such 
                amount shall be rounded to the nearest multiple of 
                $10,000.''.

SEC. 5202. ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR MATCHING PAYMENTS.

  (a) Amount of Aggregate Contributions Per State; Disregarding of 
Amounts Contributed in Excess of $200.--Section 9033(b)(3) of the 
Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is amended--
          (1) by striking ``$5,000'' and inserting ``$25,000''; and
          (2) by striking ``20 States'' and inserting the following: 
        ``20 States (disregarding any amount of contributions from any 
        such resident to the extent that the total of the amounts 
        contributed by such resident for the election exceeds $200)''.
  (b) Contribution Limit.--
          (1) In general.--Paragraph (4) of section 9033(b) of such 
        Code is amended to read as follows:
          ``(4) the candidate and the authorized committees of the 
        candidate will not accept aggregate contributions from any 
        person with respect to the nomination for election to the 
        office of President of the United States in excess of $1,000 
        for the election.''.
          (2) Conforming amendments.--
                  (A) Section 9033(b) of such Code is amended by adding 
                at the end the following new flush sentence:
``For purposes of paragraph (4), the term `contribution' has the 
meaning given such term in section 301(8) of the Federal Election 
Campaign Act of 1971.''.
                  (B) Section 9032(4) of such Code, as amended by 
                section 5201(a)(3)(A), is amended by inserting ``or 
                9033(b)'' after ``9034''.
  (c) Participation in System for Payments for General Election.--
Section 9033(b) of such Code is amended--
          (1) by striking ``and'' at the end of paragraph (3);
          (2) by striking the period at the end of paragraph (4) and 
        inserting ``, and''; and
          (3) by inserting after paragraph (4) the following new 
        paragraph:
          ``(5) if the candidate is nominated by a political party for 
        election to the office of President, the candidate will apply 
        for and accept payments with respect to the general election 
        for such office in accordance with chapter 95.''.
  (d) Prohibition on Joint Fundraising Committees.--Section 9033(b) of 
such Code, as amended by subsection (c), is amended--
          (1) by striking ``and'' at the end of paragraph (4);
          (2) by striking the period at the end of paragraph (5) and 
        inserting ``; and''; and
          (3) by inserting after paragraph (5) the following new 
        paragraph:
          ``(6) the candidate will not establish a joint fundraising 
        committee with a political committee other than another 
        authorized committee of the candidate, except that candidate 
        established a joint fundraising committee with respect to a 
        prior election for which the candidate was not eligible to 
        receive payments under section 9037 and the candidate does not 
        terminate the committee, the candidate shall not be considered 
        to be in violation of this paragraph so long as that joint 
        fundraising committee does not receive any contributions or 
        make any disbursements during the election cycle for which the 
        candidate is eligible to receive payments under such 
        section.''.

SEC. 5203. REPEAL OF EXPENDITURE LIMITATIONS.

  (a) In General.--Subsection (a) of section 9035 of the Internal 
Revenue Code of 1986 is amended to read as follows:
  ``(a) Personal Expenditure Limitation.--No candidate shall knowingly 
make expenditures from his personal funds, or the personal funds of his 
immediate family, in connection with his campaign for nomination for 
election to the office of President in excess of, in the aggregate, 
$50,000.''.
  (b) Conforming Amendment.--Paragraph (1) of section 9033(b) of the 
Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is amended to read as follows:
          ``(1) the candidate will comply with the personal expenditure 
        limitation under section 9035,''.

SEC. 5204. PERIOD OF AVAILABILITY OF MATCHING PAYMENTS.

  Section 9032(6) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is amended by 
striking ``the beginning of the calendar year in which a general 
election for the office of President of the United States will be 
held'' and inserting ``the date that is 6 months prior to the date of 
the earliest State primary election''.

SEC. 5205. EXAMINATION AND AUDITS OF MATCHABLE CONTRIBUTIONS.

  Section 9038(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is amended by 
inserting ``and matchable contributions accepted by'' after ``qualified 
campaign expenses of''.

SEC. 5206. MODIFICATION TO LIMITATION ON CONTRIBUTIONS FOR PRESIDENTIAL 
                    PRIMARY CANDIDATES.

  Section 315(a)(6) of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 (52 
U.S.C. 30116(a)(6)) is amended by striking ``calendar year'' and 
inserting ``four-year election cycle''.

SEC. 5207. USE OF FREEDOM FROM INFLUENCE FUND AS SOURCE OF PAYMENTS.

  (a) In General.--Chapter 96 of subtitle H of the Internal Revenue 
Code of 1986 is amended by adding at the end the following new section:

``SEC. 9043. USE OF FREEDOM FROM INFLUENCE FUND AS SOURCE OF PAYMENTS.

  ``(a) In General.--Notwithstanding any other provision of this 
chapter, effective with respect to the Presidential election held in 
2028 and each succeeding Presidential election, all payments made to 
candidates under this chapter shall be made from the Freedom From 
Influence Fund established under section 541 of the Federal Election 
Campaign Act of 1971 (hereafter in this section referred to as the 
`Fund').
  ``(b) Mandatory Reduction of Payments in Case of Insufficient Amounts 
in Fund.--
          ``(1) Advance audits by commission.--Not later than 90 days 
        before the first day of each Presidential election cycle 
        (beginning with the cycle for the election held in 2028), the 
        Commission shall--
                  ``(A) audit the Fund to determine whether, after 
                first making payments to participating candidates under 
                title V of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 
                and then making payments to States under the My Voice 
                Voucher Program under the Government By the People Act 
                of 2019, the amounts remaining in the Fund will be 
                sufficient to make payments to candidates under this 
                chapter in the amounts provided under this chapter 
                during such election cycle; and
                  ``(B) submit a report to Congress describing the 
                results of the audit.
          ``(2) Reductions in amount of payments.--
                  ``(A) Automatic reduction on pro rata basis.--If, on 
                the basis of the audit described in paragraph (1), the 
                Commission determines that the amount anticipated to be 
                available in the Fund with respect to the Presidential 
                election cycle involved is not, or may not be, 
                sufficient to satisfy the full entitlements of 
                candidates to payments under this chapter for such 
                cycle, the Commission shall reduce each amount which 
                would otherwise be paid to a candidate under this 
                chapter by such pro rata amount as may be necessary to 
                ensure that the aggregate amount of payments 
                anticipated to be made with respect to the cycle will 
                not exceed the amount anticipated to be available for 
                such payments in the Fund with respect to such cycle.
                  ``(B) Restoration of reductions in case of 
                availability of sufficient funds during election 
                cycle.--If, after reducing the amounts paid to 
                candidates with respect to an election cycle under 
                subparagraph (A), the Commission determines that there 
                are sufficient amounts in the Fund to restore the 
                amount by which such payments were reduced (or any 
                portion thereof), to the extent that such amounts are 
                available, the Commission may make a payment on a pro 
                rata basis to each such candidate with respect to the 
                election cycle in the amount by which such candidate's 
                payments were reduced under subparagraph (A) (or any 
                portion thereof, as the case may be).
                  ``(C) No use of amounts from other sources.--In any 
                case in which the Commission determines that there are 
                insufficient moneys in the Fund to make payments to 
                candidates under this chapter, moneys shall not be made 
                available from any other source for the purpose of 
                making such payments.
          ``(3) No effect on amounts transferred for pediatric research 
        initiative.--This section does not apply to the transfer of 
        funds under section 9008(i).
          ``(4) Presidential election cycle defined.--In this section, 
        the term `Presidential election cycle' means, with respect to a 
        Presidential election, the period beginning on the day after 
        the date of the previous Presidential general election and 
        ending on the date of the Presidential election.''.
  (b) Clerical Amendment.--The table of sections for chapter 96 of 
subtitle H of such Code is amended by adding at the end the following 
new item:

``Sec. 9043. Use of Freedom From Influence Fund as source of 
payments.''.

                       PART 2--GENERAL ELECTIONS

SEC. 5211. MODIFICATION OF ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR PUBLIC 
                    FINANCING.

  Subsection (a) of section 9003 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 
is amended to read as follows:
  ``(a) In General.--In order to be eligible to receive any payments 
under section 9006, the candidates of a political party in a 
Presidential election shall meet the following requirements:
          ``(1) Participation in primary payment system.--The candidate 
        for President received payments under chapter 96 for the 
        campaign for nomination for election to be President.
          ``(2) Agreements with commission.--The candidates, in 
        writing--
                  ``(A) agree to obtain and furnish to the Commission 
                such evidence as it may request of the qualified 
                campaign expenses of such candidates,
                  ``(B) agree to keep and furnish to the Commission 
                such records, books, and other information as it may 
                request, and
                  ``(C) agree to an audit and examination by the 
                Commission under section 9007 and to pay any amounts 
                required to be paid under such section.
          ``(3) Prohibition on joint fundraising committees.--
                  ``(A) Prohibition.--The candidates certifies in 
                writing that the candidates will not establish a joint 
                fundraising committee with a political committee other 
                than another authorized committee of the candidate.
                  ``(B) Status of existing committees for prior 
                elections.--If a candidate established a joint 
                fundraising committee described in subparagraph (A) 
                with respect to a prior election for which the 
                candidate was not eligible to receive payments under 
                section 9006 and the candidate does not terminate the 
                committee, the candidate shall not be considered to be 
                in violation of subparagraph (A) so long as that joint 
                fundraising committee does not receive any 
                contributions or make any disbursements with respect to 
                the election for which the candidate is eligible to 
                receive payments under section 9006.''.

SEC. 5212. REPEAL OF EXPENDITURE LIMITATIONS AND USE OF QUALIFIED 
                    CAMPAIGN CONTRIBUTIONS.

  (a) Use of Qualified Campaign Contributions Without Expenditure 
Limits; Application of Same Requirements for Major, Minor, and New 
Parties.--Section 9003 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is amended 
by striking subsections (b) and (c) and inserting the following:
  ``(b) Use of Qualified Campaign Contributions To Defray Expenses.--
          ``(1) In general.--In order to be eligible to receive any 
        payments under section 9006, the candidates of a party in a 
        Presidential election shall certify to the Commission, under 
        penalty of perjury, that--
                  ``(A) such candidates and their authorized committees 
                have not and will not accept any contributions to 
                defray qualified campaign expenses other than--
                          ``(i) qualified campaign contributions, and
                          ``(ii) contributions to the extent necessary 
                        to make up any deficiency payments received out 
                        of the fund on account of the application of 
                        section 9006(c), and
                  ``(B) such candidates and their authorized committees 
                have not and will not accept any contribution to defray 
                expenses which would be qualified campaign expenses but 
                for subparagraph (C) of section 9002(11).
          ``(2) Timing of certification.--The candidate shall make the 
        certification required under this subsection at the same time 
        the candidate makes the certification required under subsection 
        (a)(3).''.
  (b) Definition of Qualified Campaign Contribution.--Section 9002 of 
such Code is amended by adding at the end the following new paragraph:
          ``(13) Qualified campaign contribution.--The term `qualified 
        campaign contribution' means, with respect to any election for 
        the office of President of the United States, a contribution 
        from an individual to a candidate or an authorized committee of 
        a candidate which--
                  ``(A) does not exceed $1,000 for the election; and
                  ``(B) with respect to which the candidate has 
                certified in writing that--
                          ``(i) the individual making such contribution 
                        has not made aggregate contributions (including 
                        such qualified contribution) to such candidate 
                        and the authorized committees of such candidate 
                        in excess of the amount described in 
                        subparagraph (A), and
                          ``(ii) such candidate and the authorized 
                        committees of such candidate will not accept 
                        contributions from such individual (including 
                        such qualified contribution) aggregating more 
                        than the amount described in subparagraph (A) 
                        with respect to such election.''.
  (c) Conforming Amendments.--
          (1) Repeal of expenditure limits.--
                  (A) In general.--Section 315 of the Federal Election 
                Campaign Act of 1971 (52 U.S.C. 30116) is amended by 
                striking subsection (b).
                  (B) Conforming amendments.--Section 315(c) of such 
                Act (52 U.S.C. 30116(c)) is amended--
                          (i) in paragraph (1)(B)(i), by striking ``, 
                        (b)''; and
                          (ii) in paragraph (2)(B)(i), by striking 
                        ``subsections (b) and (d)'' and inserting 
                        ``subsection (d)''.
          (2) Repeal of repayment requirement.--
                  (A) In general.--Section 9007(b) of the Internal 
                Revenue Code of 1986 is amended by striking paragraph 
                (2) and redesignating paragraphs (3), (4), and (5) as 
                paragraphs (2), (3), and (4), respectively.
                  (B) Conforming amendment.--Paragraph (2) of section 
                9007(b) of such Code, as redesignated by subparagraph 
                (A), is amended--
                          (i) by striking ``a major party'' and 
                        inserting ``a party'';
                          (ii) by inserting ``qualified contributions 
                        and'' after ``contributions (other than''; and
                          (iii) by striking ``(other than qualified 
                        campaign expenses with respect to which payment 
                        is required under paragraph (2))''.
          (3) Criminal penalties.--
                  (A) Repeal of penalty for excess expenses.--Section 
                9012 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is amended by 
                striking subsection (a).
                  (B) Penalty for acceptance of disallowed 
                contributions; application of same penalty for 
                candidates of major, minor, and new parties.--
                Subsection (b) of section 9012 of such Code is amended 
                to read as follows:
  ``(b) Contributions.--
          ``(1) Acceptance of disallowed contributions.--It shall be 
        unlawful for an eligible candidate of a party in a Presidential 
        election or any of his authorized committees knowingly and 
        willfully to accept--
                  ``(A) any contribution other than a qualified 
                campaign contribution to defray qualified campaign 
                expenses, except to the extent necessary to make up any 
                deficiency in payments received out of the fund on 
                account of the application of section 9006(c); or
                  ``(B) any contribution to defray expenses which would 
                be qualified campaign expenses but for subparagraph (C) 
                of section 9002(11).
          ``(2) Penalty.--Any person who violates paragraph (1) shall 
        be fined not more than $5,000, or imprisoned not more than one 
        year, or both. In the case of a violation by an authorized 
        committee, any officer or member of such committee who 
        knowingly and willfully consents to such violation shall be 
        fined not more than $5,000, or imprisoned not more than one 
        year, or both.''.

SEC. 5213. MATCHING PAYMENTS AND OTHER MODIFICATIONS TO PAYMENT 
                    AMOUNTS.

  (a) In General.--
          (1) Amount of payments; application of same amount for 
        candidates of major, minor, and new parties.--Subsection (a) of 
        section 9004 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is amended to 
        read as follows:
  ``(a) In General.--Subject to the provisions of this chapter, the 
eligible candidates of a party in a Presidential election shall be 
entitled to equal payment under section 9006 in an amount equal to 600 
percent of the amount of each matchable contribution received by such 
candidate or by the candidate's authorized committees (disregarding any 
amount of contributions from any person to the extent that the total of 
the amounts contributed by such person for the election exceeds $200), 
except that total amount to which a candidate is entitled under this 
paragraph shall not exceed $250,000,000.''.
          (2) Repeal of separate limitations for candidates of minor 
        and new parties; inflation adjustment.--Subsection (b) of 
        section 9004 of such Code is amended to read as follows:
  ``(b) Inflation Adjustment.--
          ``(1) In general.--In the case of any applicable period 
        beginning after 2029, the $250,000,000 dollar amount in 
        subsection (a) shall be increased by an amount equal to--
                  ``(A) such dollar amount; multiplied by
                  ``(B) the cost-of-living adjustment determined under 
                section 1(f)(3) for the calendar year following the 
                year which such applicable period begins, determined by 
                substituting `calendar year 2028' for `calendar year 
                1992' in subparagraph (B) thereof.
          ``(2) Applicable period.--For purposes of this subsection, 
        the term `applicable period' means the 4-year period beginning 
        with the first day following the date of the general election 
        for the office of President and ending on the date of the next 
        such general election.
          ``(3) Rounding.--If any amount as adjusted under paragraph 
        (1) is not a multiple of $10,000, such amount shall be rounded 
        to the nearest multiple of $10,000.''.
          (3) Conforming amendment.--Section 9005(a) of such Code is 
        amended by adding at the end the following new sentence: ``The 
        Commission shall make such additional certifications as may be 
        necessary to receive payments under section 9004.''.
  (b) Matchable Contribution.--Section 9002 of such Code, as amended by 
section 5212(b), is amended by adding at the end the following new 
paragraph:
          ``(14) Matchable contribution.--The term `matchable 
        contribution' means, with respect to the election to the office 
        of President of the United States, a contribution by an 
        individual to a candidate or an authorized committee of a 
        candidate with respect to which the candidate has certified in 
        writing that--
                  ``(A) the individual making such contribution has not 
                made aggregate contributions (including such matchable 
                contribution) to such candidate and the authorized 
                committees of such candidate in excess of $1,000 for 
                the election;
                  ``(B) such candidate and the authorized committees of 
                such candidate will not accept contributions from such 
                individual (including such matchable contribution) 
                aggregating more than the amount described in 
                subparagraph (A) with respect to such election; and
                  ``(C) such contribution was a direct contribution (as 
                defined in section 9034(c)(3)).''.

SEC. 5214. INCREASE IN LIMIT ON COORDINATED PARTY EXPENDITURES.

  (a) In General.--Section 315(d)(2) of the Federal Election Campaign 
Act of 1971 (52 U.S.C. 30116(d)(2)) is amended to read as follows:
  ``(2)(A) The national committee of a political party may not make any 
expenditure in connection with the general election campaign of any 
candidate for President of the United States who is affiliated with 
such party which exceeds $100,000,000.
  ``(B) For purposes of this paragraph--
          ``(i) any expenditure made by or on behalf of a national 
        committee of a political party and in connection with a 
        Presidential election shall be considered to be made in 
        connection with the general election campaign of a candidate 
        for President of the United States who is affiliated with such 
        party; and
          ``(ii) any communication made by or on behalf of such party 
        shall be considered to be made in connection with the general 
        election campaign of a candidate for President of the United 
        States who is affiliated with such party if any portion of the 
        communication is in connection with such election.
  ``(C) Any expenditure under this paragraph shall be in addition to 
any expenditure by a national committee of a political party serving as 
the principal campaign committee of a candidate for the office of 
President of the United States.''.
  (b) Conforming Amendments Relating to Timing of Cost-of-Living 
Adjustment.--
          (1) In general.--Section 315(c)(1) of such Act (52 U.S.C. 
        30116(c)(1)) is amended--
                  (A) in subparagraph (B), by striking ``(d)'' and 
                inserting ``(d)(2)''; and
                  (B) by adding at the end the following new 
                subparagraph:
  ``(D) In any calendar year after 2028--
          ``(i) the dollar amount in subsection (d)(2) shall be 
        increased by the percent difference determined under 
        subparagraph (A);
          ``(ii) the amount so increased shall remain in effect for the 
        calendar year; and
          ``(iii) if the amount after adjustment under clause (i) is 
        not a multiple of $100, such amount shall be rounded to the 
        nearest multiple of $100.''.
          (2) Base year.--Section 315(c)(2)(B) of such Act (52 U.S.C. 
        30116(c)(2)(B)) is amended--
                  (A) in clause (i)--
                          (i) by striking ``(d)'' and inserting 
                        ``(d)(3)''; and
                          (ii) by striking ``and'' at the end;
                  (B) in clause (ii), by striking the period at the end 
                and inserting ``; and''; and
                  (C) by adding at the end the following new clause:
                  ``(iii) for purposes of subsection (d)(2), calendar 
                year 2027.''.

SEC. 5215. ESTABLISHMENT OF UNIFORM DATE FOR RELEASE OF PAYMENTS.

  (a) Date for Payments.--
          (1) In general.--Section 9006(b) of the Internal Revenue Code 
        of 1986 is amended to read as follows:
  ``(b) Payments From the Fund.--If the Secretary of the Treasury 
receives a certification from the Commission under section 9005 for 
payment to the eligible candidates of a political party, the Secretary 
shall pay to such candidates out of the fund the amount certified by 
the Commission on the later of--
          ``(1) the last Friday occurring before the first Monday in 
        September; or
          ``(2) 24 hours after receiving the certifications for the 
        eligible candidates of all major political parties.
Amounts paid to any such candidates shall be under the control of such 
candidates.''.
          (2) Conforming amendment.--The first sentence of section 
        9006(c) of such Code is amended by striking ``the time of a 
        certification by the Commission under section 9005 for 
        payment'' and inserting ``the time of making a payment under 
        subsection (b)''.
  (b) Time for Certification.--Section 9005(a) of the Internal Revenue 
Code of 1986 is amended by striking ``10 days'' and inserting ``24 
hours''.

SEC. 5216. AMOUNTS IN PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND.

  Section 9006(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is amended by 
adding at the end the following new sentence: ``In making a 
determination of whether there are insufficient moneys in the fund for 
purposes of the previous sentence, the Secretary shall take into 
account in determining the balance of the fund for a Presidential 
election year the Secretary's best estimate of the amount of moneys 
which will be deposited into the fund during the year, except that the 
amount of the estimate may not exceed the average of the annual amounts 
deposited in the fund during the previous 3 years.''.

SEC. 5217. USE OF GENERAL ELECTION PAYMENTS FOR GENERAL ELECTION LEGAL 
                    AND ACCOUNTING COMPLIANCE.

  Section 9002(11) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is amended by 
adding at the end the following new sentence: ``For purposes of 
subparagraph (A), an expense incurred by a candidate or authorized 
committee for general election legal and accounting compliance purposes 
shall be considered to be an expense to further the election of such 
candidate.''.

SEC. 5218. USE OF FREEDOM FROM INFLUENCE FUND AS SOURCE OF PAYMENTS.

  (a) In General.--Chapter 95 of subtitle H of the Internal Revenue 
Code of 1986 is amended by adding at the end the following new section:

``SEC. 9013. USE OF FREEDOM FROM INFLUENCE FUND AS SOURCE OF PAYMENTS.

  ``(a) In General.--Notwithstanding any other provision of this 
chapter, effective with respect to the Presidential election held in 
2028 and each succeeding Presidential election, all payments made under 
this chapter shall be made from the Freedom From Influence Fund 
established under section 541 of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 
1971.
  ``(b) Mandatory Reduction of Payments in Case of Insufficient Amounts 
in Fund.--
          ``(1) Advance audits by commission.--Not later than 90 days 
        before the first day of each Presidential election cycle 
        (beginning with the cycle for the election held in 2028), the 
        Commission shall--
                  ``(A) audit the Fund to determine whether, after 
                first making payments to participating candidates under 
                title V of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 
                and then making payments to States under the My Voice 
                Voucher Program under the Government By the People Act 
                of 2019 and then making payments to candidates under 
                chapter 96, the amounts remaining in the Fund will be 
                sufficient to make payments to candidates under this 
                chapter in the amounts provided under this chapter 
                during such election cycle; and
                  ``(B) submit a report to Congress describing the 
                results of the audit.
          ``(2) Reductions in amount of payments.--
                  ``(A) Automatic reduction on pro rata basis.--If, on 
                the basis of the audit described in paragraph (1), the 
                Commission determines that the amount anticipated to be 
                available in the Fund with respect to the Presidential 
                election cycle involved is not, or may not be, 
                sufficient to satisfy the full entitlements of 
                candidates to payments under this chapter for such 
                cycle, the Commission shall reduce each amount which 
                would otherwise be paid to a candidate under this 
                chapter by such pro rata amount as may be necessary to 
                ensure that the aggregate amount of payments 
                anticipated to be made with respect to the cycle will 
                not exceed the amount anticipated to be available for 
                such payments in the Fund with respect to such cycle.
                  ``(B) Restoration of reductions in case of 
                availability of sufficient funds during election 
                cycle.--If, after reducing the amounts paid to 
                candidates with respect to an election cycle under 
                subparagraph (A), the Commission determines that there 
                are sufficient amounts in the Fund to restore the 
                amount by which such payments were reduced (or any 
                portion thereof), to the extent that such amounts are 
                available, the Commission may make a payment on a pro 
                rata basis to each such candidate with respect to the 
                election cycle in the amount by which such candidate's 
                payments were reduced under subparagraph (A) (or any 
                portion thereof, as the case may be).
                  ``(C) No use of amounts from other sources.--In any 
                case in which the Commission determines that there are 
                insufficient moneys in the Fund to make payments to 
                candidates under this chapter, moneys shall not be made 
                available from any other source for the purpose of 
                making such payments.
          ``(3) No effect on amounts transferred for pediatric research 
        initiative.--This section does not apply to the transfer of 
        funds under section 9008(i).
          ``(4) Presidential election cycle defined.--In this section, 
        the term `Presidential election cycle' means, with respect to a 
        Presidential election, the period beginning on the day after 
        the date of the previous Presidential general election and 
        ending on the date of the Presidential election.''.
  (b) Clerical Amendment.--The table of sections for chapter 95 of 
subtitle H of such Code is amended by adding at the end the following 
new item:

``Sec. 9013. Use of Freedom From Influence Fund as source of 
payments.''.

                         PART 3--EFFECTIVE DATE

SEC. 5221. EFFECTIVE DATE.

  (a) In General.--Except as otherwise provided, this subtitle and the 
amendments made by this subtitle shall apply with respect to the 
Presidential election held in 2028 and each succeeding Presidential 
election, without regard to whether or not the Federal Election 
Commission has promulgated the final regulations necessary to carry out 
this part and the amendments made by this part by the deadline set 
forth in subsection (b).
  (b) Deadline for Regulations.--Not later than June 30, 2026, the 
Federal Election Commission shall promulgate such regulations as may be 
necessary to carry out this part and the amendments made by this part.

 Subtitle D--Personal Use Services as Authorized Campaign Expenditures

SEC. 5301. SHORT TITLE; FINDINGS; PURPOSE.

  (a) Short Title.--This subtitle may be cited as the ``Help America 
Run Act''.
  (b) Findings.--Congress finds the following:
          (1) Everyday Americans experience barriers to entry before 
        they can consider running for office to serve their 
        communities.
          (2) Current law states that campaign funds cannot be spent on 
        everyday expenses that would exist whether or not a candidate 
        were running for office, like childcare and food. While the law 
        seems neutral, its actual effect is to privilege the 
        independently wealthy who want to run, because given the 
        demands of running for office, candidates who must work to pay 
        for childcare or to afford health insurance are effectively 
        being left out of the process, even if they have sufficient 
        support to mount a viable campaign.
          (3) Thus current practice favors those prospective candidates 
        who do not need to rely on a regular paycheck to make ends 
        meet. The consequence is that everyday Americans who have 
        firsthand knowledge of the importance of stable childcare, a 
        safety net, or great public schools are less likely to get a 
        seat at the table. This governance by the few is antithetical 
        to the democratic experiment, but most importantly, when 
        lawmakers do not share the concerns of everyday Americans, 
        their policies reflect that.
          (4) These circumstances have contributed to a Congress that 
        does not always reflect everyday Americans. The New York Times 
        reported in 2019 that fewer than 5 percent of representatives 
        cite blue-collar or service jobs in their biographies. A 2015 
        survey by the Center for Responsive Politics showed that the 
        median net worth of lawmakers was just over $1 million in 2013, 
        or 18 times the wealth of the typical American household.
          (5) These circumstances have also contributed to a governing 
        body that does not reflect the nation it serves. For instance, 
        women are 51% of the American population. Yet even with a 
        record number of women serving in the One Hundred Sixteenth 
        Congress, the Pew Research Center notes that more than three 
        out of four Members of this Congress are male. The Center for 
        American Women And Politics found that one third of women 
        legislators surveyed had been actively discouraged from running 
        for office, often by political professionals. This type of 
        discouragement, combined with the prohibitions on using 
        campaign funds for domestic needs like childcare, burdens that 
        still fall disproportionately on American women, particularly 
        disadvantages working mothers. These barriers may explain why 
        only 10 women in history have given birth while serving in 
        Congress, in spite of the prevalence of working parents in 
        other professions. Yet working mothers and fathers are best 
        positioned to create policy that reflects the lived experience 
        of most Americans.
  (c) Purpose.--It is the purpose of this subtitle to ensure that all 
Americans who are otherwise qualified to serve this Nation are able to 
run for office, regardless of their economic status. By expanding 
permissible uses of campaign funds and providing modest assurance that 
testing a run for office will not cost one's livelihood, the Help 
America Run Act will facilitate the candidacy of representatives who 
more accurately reflect the experiences, challenges, and ideals of 
everyday Americans.

SEC. 5302. TREATMENT OF PAYMENTS FOR CHILD CARE AND OTHER PERSONAL USE 
                    SERVICES AS AUTHORIZED CAMPAIGN EXPENDITURE.

  (a) Personal Use Services as Authorized Campaign Expenditures.--
Section 313 of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 (52 U.S.C. 
30114), as amended by section 5113, is amended by adding at the end the 
following new subsection:
  ``(e) Treatment of Payments for Child Care and Other Personal Use 
Services as Authorized Campaign Expenditure.--
          ``(1) Authorized expenditures.--For purposes of subsection 
        (a), the payment by an authorized committee of a candidate for 
        any of the personal use services described in paragraph (3) 
        shall be treated as an authorized expenditure if the services 
        are necessary to enable the participation of the candidate in 
        campaign-connected activities.
          ``(2) Limitations.--
                  ``(A) Limit on total amount of payments.--The total 
                amount of payments made by an authorized committee of a 
                candidate for personal use services described in 
                paragraph (3) may not exceed the limit which is 
                applicable under any law, rule, or regulation on the 
                amount of payments which may be made by the committee 
                for the salary of the candidate (without regard to 
                whether or not the committee makes payments to the 
                candidate for that purpose).
                  ``(B) Corresponding reduction in amount of salary 
                paid to candidate.--To the extent that an authorized 
                committee of a candidate makes payments for the salary 
                of the candidate, any limit on the amount of such 
                payments which is applicable under any law, rule, or 
                regulation shall be reduced by the amount of any 
                payments made to or on behalf of the candidate for 
                personal use services described in paragraph (3), other 
                than personal use services described in subparagraph 
                (E) of such paragraph.
                  ``(C) Exclusion of candidates who are 
                officeholders.--Paragraph (1) does not apply with 
                respect to an authorized committee of a candidate who 
                is a holder of Federal office.
          ``(3) Personal use services described.--The personal use 
        services described in this paragraph are as follows:
                  ``(A) Child care services.
                  ``(B) Elder care services.
                  ``(C) Services similar to the services described in 
                subparagraph (A) or subparagraph (B) which are provided 
                on behalf of any dependent who is a qualifying relative 
                under section 152 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.
                  ``(D) Dues, fees, and other expenses required to 
                maintain an license or similar requirement related to 
                an individual's profession.
                  ``(E) Costs associated with health insurance 
                coverage.''.
  (b) Effective Date.--The amendments made by this section shall take 
effect on the date of the enactment of this Act.

                        Subtitle E--Severability

SEC. 5401. SEVERABILITY.

  If any provision of this title or amendment made by this title, or 
the application of a provision or amendment to any person or 
circumstance, is held to be unconstitutional, the remainder of this 
title and amendments made by this title, and the application of the 
provisions and amendment to any person or circumstance, shall not be 
affected by the holding.

                  TITLE VI--CAMPAIGN FINANCE OVERSIGHT

         Subtitle A--Restoring Integrity to America's Elections

Sec. 6001. Short title.
Sec. 6002. Membership of Federal Election Commission.
Sec. 6003. Assignment of powers to Chair of Federal Election 
Commission.
Sec. 6004. Revision to enforcement process.
Sec. 6005. Permitting appearance at hearings on requests for advisory 
opinions by persons opposing the requests.
Sec. 6006. Permanent extension of administrative penalty authority.
Sec. 6007. Restrictions on ex parte communications.
Sec. 6008. Effective date; transition.

         Subtitle B--Stopping Super PAC-Candidate Coordination

Sec. 6101. Short title.
Sec. 6102. Clarification of treatment of coordinated expenditures as 
contributions to candidates.
Sec. 6103. Clarification of ban on fundraising for super PACs by 
Federal candidates and officeholders.

                        Subtitle C--Severability

Sec. 6201. Severability.

         Subtitle A--Restoring Integrity to America's Elections

SEC. 6001. SHORT TITLE.

  This subtitle may be cited as the ``Restoring Integrity to America's 
Elections Act''.

SEC. 6002. MEMBERSHIP OF FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION.

  (a) Reduction in Number of Members; Removal of Secretary of Senate 
and Clerk of House as Ex Officio Members.--
          (1) In general; quorum.--Section 306(a)(1) of the Federal 
        Election Campaign Act of 1971 (52 U.S.C. 30106(a)(1)) is 
        amended by striking the second and third sentences and 
        inserting the following: ``The Commission is composed of 5 
        members appointed by the President by and with the advice and 
        consent of the Senate, of whom no more than 2 may be affiliated 
        with the same political party. A member shall by treated as 
        affiliated with a political party if the member was affiliated, 
        including as a registered voter, employee, consultant, donor, 
        officer, or attorney, with such political party or any of its 
        candidates or elected public officials at any time during the 
        5-year period ending on the date on which such individual is 
        nominated to be a member of the Commission. A majority of the 
        number of members of the Commission who are serving at the time 
        shall constitute a quorum, except that 3 members shall 
        constitute a quorum if there are 4 members serving at the 
        time.''.
          (2) Conforming amendments relating to reduction in number of 
        members.--(A) The second sentence of section 306(c) of such Act 
        (52 U.S.C. 30106(c)) is amended by striking ``affirmative vote 
        of 4 members of the Commission'' and inserting ``affirmative 
        vote of a majority of the members of the Commission who are 
        serving at the time''.
          (B) Such Act is further amended by striking ``affirmative 
        vote of 4 of its members'' and inserting ``affirmative vote of 
        a majority of the members of the Commission who are serving at 
        the time'' each place it appears in the following sections:
                  (i) Section 309(a)(2) (52 U.S.C. 30109(a)(2)).
                  (ii) Section 309(a)(4)(A)(i) (52 U.S.C. 
                30109(a)(4)(A)(i)).
                  (iii) Section 309(a)(5)(C) (52 U.S.C. 
                30109(a)(5)(C)).
                  (iv) Section 309(a)(6)(A) (52 U.S.C. 30109(a)(6)(A)).
                  (v) Section 311(b) (52 U.S.C. 30111(b)).
          (3) Conforming amendment relating to removal of ex officio 
        members.--Section 306(a) of such Act (52 U.S.C. 30106(a)) is 
        amended by striking ``(other than the Secretary of the Senate 
        and the Clerk of the House of Representatives)'' each place it 
        appears in paragraphs (4) and (5).
  (b) Terms of Service.--Section 306(a)(2) of such Act (52 U.S.C. 
30106(a)(2)) is amended to read as follows:
          ``(2) Terms of service.--
                  ``(A) In general.--Each member of the Commission 
                shall serve for a single term of 6 years.
                  ``(B) Special rule for initial appointments.--Of the 
                members first appointed to serve terms that begin in 
                January 2022, the President shall designate 2 to serve 
                for a 3-year term.
                  ``(C) No reappointment permitted.--An individual who 
                served a term as a member of the Commission may not 
                serve for an additional term, except that--
                          ``(i) an individual who served a 3-year term 
                        under subparagraph (B) may also be appointed to 
                        serve a 6-year term under subparagraph (A); and
                          ``(ii) for purposes of this subparagraph, an 
                        individual who is appointed to fill a vacancy 
                        under subparagraph (D) shall not be considered 
                        to have served a term if the portion of the 
                        unexpired term the individual fills is less 
                        than 50 percent of the period of the term.
                  ``(D) Vacancies.--Any vacancy occurring in the 
                membership of the Commission shall be filled in the 
                same manner as in the case of the original appointment. 
                Except as provided in subparagraph (C), an individual 
                appointed to fill a vacancy occurring other than by the 
                expiration of a term of office shall be appointed only 
                for the unexpired term of the member he or she 
                succeeds.
                  ``(E) Limitation on service after expiration of 
                term.--A member of the Commission may continue to serve 
                on the Commission after the expiration of the member's 
                term for an additional period, but only until the 
                earlier of--
                          ``(i) the date on which the member's 
                        successor has taken office as a member of the 
                        Commission; or
                          ``(ii) the expiration of the 1-year period 
                        that begins on the last day of the member's 
                        term.''.
  (c) Qualifications.--Section 306(a)(3) of such Act (52 U.S.C. 
30106(a)(3)) is amended to read as follows:
          ``(3) Qualifications.--
                  ``(A) In general.--The President may select an 
                individual for service as a member of the Commission if 
                the individual has experience in election law and has a 
                demonstrated record of integrity, impartiality, and 
                good judgment.
                  ``(B) Assistance of blue ribbon advisory panel.--
                          ``(i) In general.--Prior to the regularly 
                        scheduled expiration of the term of a member of 
                        the Commission and upon the occurrence of a 
                        vacancy in the membership of the Commission 
                        prior to the expiration of a term, the 
                        President shall convene a Blue Ribbon Advisory 
                        Panel, consisting of an odd number of 
                        individuals selected by the President from 
                        retired Federal judges, former law enforcement 
                        officials, or individuals with experience in 
                        election law, except that the President may not 
                        select any individual to serve on the panel who 
                        holds any public office at the time of 
                        selection.
                          ``(ii) Recommendations.--With respect to each 
                        member of the Commission whose term is expiring 
                        or each vacancy in the membership of the 
                        Commission (as the case may be), the Blue 
                        Ribbon Advisory Panel shall recommend to the 
                        President at least one but not more than 3 
                        individuals for nomination for appointment as a 
                        member of the Commission.
                          ``(iii) Publication.--At the time the 
                        President submits to the Senate the nominations 
                        for individuals to be appointed as members of 
                        the Commission, the President shall publish the 
                        Blue Ribbon Advisory Panel's recommendations 
                        for such nominations.
                          ``(iv) Exemption from federal advisory 
                        committee act.--The Federal Advisory Committee 
                        Act (5 U.S.C. App.) does not apply to a Blue 
                        Ribbon Advisory Panel convened under this 
                        subparagraph.
                  ``(C) Prohibiting engagement with other business or 
                employment during service.--A member of the Commission 
                shall not engage in any other business, vocation, or 
                employment. Any individual who is engaging in any other 
                business, vocation, or employment at the time of his or 
                her appointment to the Commission shall terminate or 
                liquidate such activity no later than 90 days after 
                such appointment.''.

SEC. 6003. ASSIGNMENT OF POWERS TO CHAIR OF FEDERAL ELECTION 
                    COMMISSION.

  (a) Appointment of Chair by President.--
          (1) In general.--Section 306(a)(5) of the Federal Election 
        Campaign Act of 1971 (52 U.S.C. 30106(a)(5)) is amended to read 
        as follows:
          ``(5) Chair.--
                  ``(A) Initial appointment.--Of the members first 
                appointed to serve terms that begin in January 2022, 
                one such member (as designated by the President at the 
                time the President submits nominations to the Senate) 
                shall serve as Chair of the Commission.
                  ``(B) Subsequent appointments.--Any individual who is 
                appointed to succeed the member who serves as Chair of 
                the Commission for the term beginning in January 2022 
                (as well as any individual who is appointed to fill a 
                vacancy if such member does not serve a full term as 
                Chair) shall serve as Chair of the Commission.
                  ``(C) Vice chair.--The Commission shall select, by 
                majority vote of its members, one of its members to 
                serve as Vice Chair, who shall act as Chair in the 
                absence or disability of the Chair or in the event of a 
                vacancy in the position of Chair.''.
          (2) Conforming amendment.--Section 309(a)(2) of such Act (52 
        U.S.C. 30109(a)(2)) is amended by striking ``through its 
        chairman or vice chairman'' and inserting ``through the 
        Chair''.
  (b) Powers.--
          (1) Assignment of certain powers to chair.--Section 307(a) of 
        such Act (52 U.S.C. 30107(a)) is amended to read as follows:
  ``(a) Distribution of Powers Between Chair and Commission.--
          ``(1) Powers assigned to chair.--
                  ``(A) Administrative powers.--The Chair of the 
                Commission shall be the chief administrative officer of 
                the Commission and shall have the authority to 
                administer the Commission and its staff, and (in 
                consultation with the other members of the Commission) 
                shall have the power--
                          ``(i) to appoint and remove the staff 
                        director of the Commission;
                          ``(ii) to request the assistance (including 
                        personnel and facilities) of other agencies and 
                        departments of the United States, whose heads 
                        may make such assistance available to the 
                        Commission with or without reimbursement; and
                          ``(iii) to prepare and establish the budget 
                        of the Commission and to make budget requests 
                        to the President, the Director of the Office of 
                        Management and Budget, and Congress.
                  ``(B) Other powers.--The Chair of the Commission 
                shall have the power--
                          ``(i) to appoint and remove the general 
                        counsel of the Commission with the concurrence 
                        of at least 2 other members of the Commission;
                          ``(ii) to require by special or general 
                        orders, any person to submit, under oath, such 
                        written reports and answers to questions as the 
                        Chair may prescribe;
                          ``(iii) to administer oaths or affirmations;
                          ``(iv) to require by subpoena, signed by the 
                        Chair, the attendance and testimony of 
                        witnesses and the production of all documentary 
                        evidence relating to the execution of its 
                        duties;
                          ``(v) in any proceeding or investigation, to 
                        order testimony to be taken by deposition 
                        before any person who is designated by the 
                        Chair, and shall have the power to administer 
                        oaths and, in such instances, to compel 
                        testimony and the production of evidence in the 
                        same manner as authorized under clause (iv); 
                        and
                          ``(vi) to pay witnesses the same fees and 
                        mileage as are paid in like circumstances in 
                        the courts of the United States.
          ``(2) Powers assigned to commission.--The Commission shall 
        have the power--
                  ``(A) to initiate (through civil actions for 
                injunctive, declaratory, or other appropriate relief), 
                defend (in the case of any civil action brought under 
                section 309(a)(8) of this Act) or appeal (including a 
                proceeding before the Supreme Court on certiorari) any 
                civil action in the name of the Commission to enforce 
                the provisions of this Act and chapter 95 and chapter 
                96 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, through its 
                general counsel;
                  ``(B) to render advisory opinions under section 308 
                of this Act;
                  ``(C) to develop such prescribed forms and to make, 
                amend, and repeal such rules, pursuant to the 
                provisions of chapter 5 of title 5, United States Code, 
                as are necessary to carry out the provisions of this 
                Act and chapter 95 and chapter 96 of the Internal 
                Revenue Code of 1986;
                  ``(D) to conduct investigations and hearings 
                expeditiously, to encourage voluntary compliance, and 
                to report apparent violations to the appropriate law 
                enforcement authorities; and
                  ``(E) to transmit to the President and Congress not 
                later than June 1 of each year a report which states in 
                detail the activities of the Commission in carrying out 
                its duties under this Act, and which includes any 
                recommendations for any legislative or other action the 
                Commission considers appropriate.
          ``(3) Permitting commission to exercise other powers of 
        chair.--With respect to any investigation, action, or 
        proceeding, the Commission, by an affirmative vote of a 
        majority of the members who are serving at the time, may 
        exercise any of the powers of the Chair described in paragraph 
        (1)(B).''.
          (2) Conforming amendments relating to personnel authority.--
        Section 306(f) of such Act (52 U.S.C. 30106(f)) is amended--
                  (A) by amending the first sentence of paragraph (1) 
                to read as follows: ``The Commission shall have a staff 
                director who shall be appointed by the Chair of the 
                Commission in consultation with the other members and a 
                general counsel who shall be appointed by the Chair 
                with the concurrence of at least two other members.'';
                  (B) in paragraph (2), by striking ``With the approval 
                of the Commission'' and inserting ``With the approval 
                of the Chair of the Commission''; and
                  (C) by striking paragraph (3).
          (3) Conforming amendment relating to budget submission.--
        Section 307(d)(1) of such Act (52 U.S.C. 30107(d)(1)) is 
        amended by striking ``the Commission submits any budget'' and 
        inserting ``the Chair (or, pursuant to subsection (a)(3), the 
        Commission) submits any budget''.
          (4) Other conforming amendments.--Section 306(c) of such Act 
        (52 U.S.C. 30106(c)) is amended by striking ``All decisions'' 
        and inserting ``Subject to section 307(a), all decisions''.
          (5) Technical amendment.--The heading of section 307 of such 
        Act (52 U.S.C. 30107) is amended by striking ``the commission'' 
        and inserting ``the chair and the commission''.

SEC. 6004. REVISION TO ENFORCEMENT PROCESS.

  (a) Standard for Initiating Investigations and Determining Whether 
Violations Have Occurred.--
          (1) Revision of standards.--Section 309(a) of the Federal 
        Election Campaign Act of 1971 (52 U.S.C. 30109(a)) is amended 
        by striking paragraphs (2) and (3) and inserting the following:
  ``(2)(A) The general counsel, upon receiving a complaint filed with 
the Commission under paragraph (1) or upon the basis of information 
ascertained by the Commission in the normal course of carrying out its 
supervisory responsibilities, shall make a determination as to whether 
or not there is reason to believe that a person has committed, or is 
about to commit, a violation of this Act or chapter 95 or chapter 96 of 
the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, and as to whether or not the 
Commission should either initiate an investigation of the matter or 
that the complaint should be dismissed. The general counsel shall 
promptly provide notification to the Commission of such determination 
and the reasons therefore, together with any written response submitted 
under paragraph (1) by the person alleged to have committed the 
violation. Upon the expiration of the 30-day period which begins on the 
date the general counsel provides such notification, the general 
counsel's determination shall take effect, unless during such 30-day 
period the Commission, by vote of a majority of the members of the 
Commission who are serving at the time, overrules the general counsel's 
determination. If the determination by the general counsel that the 
Commission should investigate the matter takes effect, or if the 
determination by the general counsel that the complaint should be 
dismissed is overruled as provided under the previous sentence, the 
general counsel shall initiate an investigation of the matter on behalf 
of the Commission.
  ``(B) If the Commission initiates an investigation pursuant to 
subparagraph (A), the Commission, through the Chair, shall notify the 
subject of the investigation of the alleged violation. Such 
notification shall set forth the factual basis for such alleged 
violation. The Commission shall make an investigation of such alleged 
violation, which may include a field investigation or audit, in 
accordance with the provisions of this section. The general counsel 
shall provide notification to the Commission of any intent to issue a 
subpoena or conduct any other form of discovery pursuant to the 
investigation. Upon the expiration of the 15-day period which begins on 
the date the general counsel provides such notification, the general 
counsel may issue the subpoena or conduct the discovery, unless during 
such 15-day period the Commission, by vote of a majority of the members 
of the Commission who are serving at the time, prohibits the general 
counsel from issuing the subpoena or conducting the discovery.
  ``(3)(A) Upon completion of an investigation under paragraph (2), the 
general counsel shall promptly submit to the Commission the general 
counsel's recommendation that the Commission find either that there is 
probable cause or that there is not probable cause to believe that a 
person has committed, or is about to commit, a violation of this Act or 
chapter 95 or chapter 96 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, and 
shall include with the recommendation a brief stating the position of 
the general counsel on the legal and factual issues of the case.
  ``(B) At the time the general counsel submits to the Commission the 
recommendation under subparagraph (A), the general counsel shall 
simultaneously notify the respondent of such recommendation and the 
reasons therefore, shall provide the respondent with an opportunity to 
submit a brief within 30 days stating the position of the respondent on 
the legal and factual issues of the case and replying to the brief of 
the general counsel. The general counsel and shall promptly submit such 
brief to the Commission upon receipt.
  ``(C) Not later than 30 days after the general counsel submits the 
recommendation to the Commission under subparagraph (A) (or, if the 
respondent submits a brief under subparagraph (B), not later than 30 
days after the general counsel submits the respondent's brief to the 
Commission under such subparagraph), the Commission shall approve or 
disapprove the recommendation by vote of a majority of the members of 
the Commission who are serving at the time.''.
          (2) Conforming amendment relating to initial response to 
        filing of complaint.--Section 309(a)(1) of such Act (52 U.S.C. 
        30109(a)(1)) is amended--
                  (A) in the third sentence, by striking ``the 
                Commission'' and inserting ``the general counsel''; and
                  (B) by amending the fourth sentence to read as 
                follows: ``Not later than 15 days after receiving 
                notice from the general counsel under the previous 
                sentence, the person may provide the general counsel 
                with a written response that no action should be taken 
                against such person on the basis of the complaint.''.
  (b) Revision of Standard for Review of Dismissal of Complaints.--
          (1) In general.--Section 309(a)(8) of such Act (52 U.S.C. 
        30109(a)(8)) is amended to read as follows:
  ``(8)(A)(i) Any party aggrieved by an order of the Commission 
dismissing a complaint filed by such party after finding either no 
reason to believe a violation has occurred or no probable cause a 
violation has occurred may file a petition with the United States 
District Court for the District of Columbia. Any petition under this 
subparagraph shall be filed within 60 days after the date on which the 
party received notice of the dismissal of the complaint.
  ``(ii) In any proceeding under this subparagraph, the court shall 
determine by de novo review whether the agency's dismissal of the 
complaint is contrary to law. In any matter in which the penalty for 
the alleged violation is greater than $50,000, the court should 
disregard any claim or defense by the Commission of prosecutorial 
discretion as a basis for dismissing the complaint.
  ``(B)(i) Any party who has filed a complaint with the Commission and 
who is aggrieved by a failure of the Commission, within one year after 
the filing of the complaint, to either dismiss the complaint or to find 
reason to believe a violation has occurred or is about to occur, may 
file a petition with the United States District Court for the District 
of Columbia.
  ``(ii) In any proceeding under this subparagraph, the court shall 
treat the failure to act on the complaint as a dismissal of the 
complaint, and shall determine by de novo review whether the agency's 
failure to act on the complaint is contrary to law.
  ``(C) In any proceeding under this paragraph the court may declare 
that the dismissal of the complaint or the failure to act is contrary 
to law, and may direct the Commission to conform with such declaration 
within 30 days, failing which the complainant may bring, in the name of 
such complainant, a civil action to remedy the violation involved in 
the original complaint.''.
          (2) Effective date.--The amendments made by paragraph (1) 
        shall apply--
                  (A) in the case of complaints which are dismissed by 
                the Federal Election Commission, with respect to 
                complaints which are dismissed on or after the date of 
                the enactment of this Act; and
                  (B) in the case of complaints upon which the Federal 
                Election Commission failed to act, with respect to 
                complaints which were filed on or after the date of the 
                enactment of this Act.

SEC. 6005. PERMITTING APPEARANCE AT HEARINGS ON REQUESTS FOR ADVISORY 
                    OPINIONS BY PERSONS OPPOSING THE REQUESTS.

  (a) In General.--Section 308 of such Act (52 U.S.C. 30108) is amended 
by adding at the end the following new subsection:
  ``(e) To the extent that the Commission provides an opportunity for a 
person requesting an advisory opinion under this section (or counsel 
for such person) to appear before the Commission to present testimony 
in support of the request, and the person (or counsel) accepts such 
opportunity, the Commission shall provide a reasonable opportunity for 
an interested party who submitted written comments under subsection (d) 
in response to the request (or counsel for such interested party) to 
appear before the Commission to present testimony in response to the 
request.''.
  (b) Effective Date.--The amendment made by subsection (a) shall apply 
with respect to requests for advisory opinions under section 308 of the 
Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 which are made on or after the 
date of the enactment of this Act.

SEC. 6006. PERMANENT EXTENSION OF ADMINISTRATIVE PENALTY AUTHORITY.

  (a) Extension of Authority.--Section 309(a)(4)(C)(v) of the Federal 
Election Campaign Act of 1971 (52 U.S.C. 30109(a)(4)(C)(v)) is amended 
by striking ``, and that end on or before December 31, 2023''.
  (b) Effective Date.--The amendment made by subsection (a) shall take 
effect on December 31, 2018.

SEC. 6007. RESTRICTIONS ON EX PARTE COMMUNICATIONS.

  Section 306(e) of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 (52 
U.S.C. 30106(e)) is amended--
          (1) by striking ``(e) The Commission'' and inserting ``(e)(1) 
        The Commission''; and
          (2) by adding at the end the following new paragraph:
  ``(2) Members and employees of the Commission shall be subject to 
limitations on ex parte communications, as provided in the regulations 
promulgated by the Commission regarding such communications which are 
in effect on the date of the enactment of this paragraph.''.

SEC. 6008. EFFECTIVE DATE; TRANSITION.

  (a) In General.--Except as otherwise provided, the amendments made by 
this subtitle shall apply beginning January 1, 2022.
  (b) Transition.--
          (1) Termination of service of current members.--
        Notwithstanding any provision of the Federal Election Campaign 
        Act of 1971, the term of any individual serving as a member of 
        the Federal Election Commission as of December 31, 2021, shall 
        expire on that date.
          (2) No effect on existing cases or proceedings.--Nothing in 
        this subtitle or in any amendment made by this subtitle shall 
        affect any of the powers exercised by the Federal Election 
        Commission prior to December 31, 2021, including any 
        investigation initiated by the Commission prior to such date or 
        any proceeding (including any enforcement action) pending as of 
        such date.

         Subtitle B--Stopping Super PAC-Candidate Coordination

SEC. 6101. SHORT TITLE.

  This subtitle may be cited as the ``Stop Super PAC-Candidate 
Coordination Act''.

SEC. 6102. CLARIFICATION OF TREATMENT OF COORDINATED EXPENDITURES AS 
                    CONTRIBUTIONS TO CANDIDATES.

  (a) Treatment as Contribution to Candidate.--Section 301(8)(A) of the 
Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 (52 U.S.C. 30101(8)(A)) is 
amended--
          (1) by striking ``or'' at the end of clause (i);
          (2) by striking the period at the end of clause (ii) and 
        inserting ``; or''; and
          (3) by adding at the end the following new clause:
                  ``(iii) any payment made by any person (other than a 
                candidate, an authorized committee of a candidate, or a 
                political committee of a political party) for a 
                coordinated expenditure (as such term is defined in 
                section 326) which is not otherwise treated as a 
                contribution under clause (i) or clause (ii).''.
  (b) Definitions.--Title III of such Act (52 U.S.C. 30101 et seq.), as 
amended by section 4702(a), is amended by adding at the end the 
following new section:

``SEC. 326. PAYMENTS FOR COORDINATED EXPENDITURES.

  ``(a) Coordinated Expenditures.--
          ``(1) In general.--For purposes of section 301(8)(A)(iii), 
        the term `coordinated expenditure' means--
                  ``(A) any expenditure, or any payment for a covered 
                communication described in subsection (d), which is 
                made in cooperation, consultation, or concert with, or 
                at the request or suggestion of, a candidate, an 
                authorized committee of a candidate, a political 
                committee of a political party, or agents of the 
                candidate or committee, as defined in subsection (b); 
                or
                  ``(B) any payment for any communication which 
                republishes, disseminates, or distributes, in whole or 
                in part, any video or broadcast or any written, 
                graphic, or other form of campaign material prepared by 
                the candidate or committee or by agents of the 
                candidate or committee (including any excerpt or use of 
                any video from any such broadcast or written, graphic, 
                or other form of campaign material).
          ``(2) Exception for payments for certain communications.--A 
        payment for a communication (including a covered communication 
        described in subsection (d)) shall not be treated as a 
        coordinated expenditure under this subsection if--
                  ``(A) the communication appears in a news story, 
                commentary, or editorial distributed through the 
                facilities of any broadcasting station, newspaper, 
                magazine, or other periodical publication, unless such 
                facilities are owned or controlled by any political 
                party, political committee, or candidate; or
                  ``(B) the communication constitutes a candidate 
                debate or forum conducted pursuant to regulations 
                adopted by the Commission pursuant to section 
                304(f)(3)(B)(iii), or which solely promotes such a 
                debate or forum and is made by or on behalf of the 
                person sponsoring the debate or forum.
  ``(b) Coordination Described.--
          ``(1) In general.--For purposes of this section, a payment is 
        made `in cooperation, consultation, or concert with, or at the 
        request or suggestion of,' a candidate, an authorized committee 
        of a candidate, a political committee of a political party, or 
        agents of the candidate or committee, if the payment, or any 
        communication for which the payment is made, is not made 
        entirely independently of the candidate, committee, or agents. 
        For purposes of the previous sentence, a payment or 
        communication not made entirely independently of the candidate 
        or committee includes any payment or communication made 
        pursuant to any general or particular understanding with, or 
        pursuant to any communication with, the candidate, committee, 
        or agents about the payment or communication.
          ``(2) No finding of coordination based solely on sharing of 
        information regarding legislative or policy position.--For 
        purposes of this section, a payment shall not be considered to 
        be made by a person in cooperation, consultation, or concert 
        with, or at the request or suggestion of, a candidate or 
        committee, solely on the grounds that the person or the 
        person's agent engaged in discussions with the candidate or 
        committee, or with any agent of the candidate or committee, 
        regarding that person's position on a legislative or policy 
        matter (including urging the candidate or committee to adopt 
        that person's position), so long as there is no communication 
        between the person and the candidate or committee, or any agent 
        of the candidate or committee, regarding the candidate's or 
        committee's campaign advertising, message, strategy, policy, 
        polling, allocation of resources, fundraising, or other 
        campaign activities.
          ``(3) No effect on party coordination standard.--Nothing in 
        this section shall be construed to affect the determination of 
        coordination between a candidate and a political committee of a 
        political party for purposes of section 315(d).
          ``(4) No safe harbor for use of firewall.--A person shall be 
        determined to have made a payment in cooperation, consultation, 
        or concert with, or at the request or suggestion of, a 
        candidate or committee, in accordance with this section without 
        regard to whether or not the person established and used a 
        firewall or similar procedures to restrict the sharing of 
        information between individuals who are employed by or who are 
        serving as agents for the person making the payment.
  ``(c) Payments by Coordinated Spenders for Covered Communications.--
          ``(1) Payments made in cooperation, consultation, or concert 
        with candidates.--For purposes of subsection (a)(1)(A), if the 
        person who makes a payment for a covered communication, as 
        defined in subsection (d), is a coordinated spender under 
        paragraph (2) with respect to the candidate as described in 
        subsection (d)(1), the payment for the covered communication is 
        made in cooperation, consultation, or concert with the 
        candidate.
          ``(2) Coordinated spender defined.--For purposes of this 
        subsection, the term `coordinated spender' means, with respect 
        to a candidate or an authorized committee of a candidate, a 
        person (other than a political committee of a political party) 
        for which any of the following applies:
                  ``(A) During the 4-year period ending on the date on 
                which the person makes the payment, the person was 
                directly or indirectly formed or established by or at 
                the request or suggestion of, or with the encouragement 
                of, the candidate (including an individual who later 
                becomes a candidate) or committee or agents of the 
                candidate or committee, including with the approval of 
                the candidate or committee or agents of the candidate 
                or committee.
                  ``(B) The candidate or committee or any agent of the 
                candidate or committee solicits funds, appears at a 
                fundraising event, or engages in other fundraising 
                activity on the person's behalf during the election 
                cycle involved, including by providing the person with 
                names of potential donors or other lists to be used by 
                the person in engaging in fundraising activity, 
                regardless of whether the person pays fair market value 
                for the names or lists provided. For purposes of this 
                subparagraph, the term `election cycle' means, with 
                respect to an election for Federal office, the period 
                beginning on the day after the date of the most recent 
                general election for that office (or, if the general 
                election resulted in a runoff election, the date of the 
                runoff election) and ending on the date of the next 
                general election for that office (or, if the general 
                election resulted in a runoff election, the date of the 
                runoff election).
                  ``(C) The person is established, directed, or managed 
                by the candidate or committee or by any person who, 
                during the 4-year period ending on the date on which 
                the person makes the payment, has been employed or 
                retained as a political, campaign media, or fundraising 
                adviser or consultant for the candidate or committee or 
                for any other entity directly or indirectly controlled 
                by the candidate or committee, or has held a formal 
                position with the candidate or committee (including a 
                position as an employee of the office of the candidate 
                at any time the candidate held any Federal, State, or 
                local public office during the 4-year period).
                  ``(D) The person has retained the professional 
                services of any person who, during the 2-year period 
                ending on the date on which the person makes the 
                payment, has provided or is providing professional 
                services relating to the campaign to the candidate or 
                committee, without regard to whether the person 
                providing the professional services used a firewall. 
                For purposes of this subparagraph, the term 
                `professional services' includes any services in 
                support of the candidate's or committee's campaign 
                activities, including advertising, message, strategy, 
                policy, polling, allocation of resources, fundraising, 
                and campaign operations, but does not include 
                accounting or legal services.
                  ``(E) The person is established, directed, or managed 
                by a member of the immediate family of the candidate, 
                or the person or any officer or agent of the person has 
                had more than incidental discussions about the 
                candidate's campaign with a member of the immediate 
                family of the candidate. For purposes of this 
                subparagraph, the term `immediate family' has the 
                meaning given such term in section 9004(e) of the 
                Internal Revenue Code of 1986.
  ``(d) Covered Communication Defined.--
          ``(1) In general.--For purposes of this section, the term 
        `covered communication' means, with respect to a candidate or 
        an authorized committee of a candidate, a public communication 
        (as defined in section 301(22)) which--
                  ``(A) expressly advocates the election of the 
                candidate or the defeat of an opponent of the candidate 
                (or contains the functional equivalent of express 
                advocacy);
                  ``(B) promotes or supports the election of the 
                candidate, or attacks or opposes the election of an 
                opponent of the candidate (regardless of whether the 
                communication expressly advocates the election or 
                defeat of a candidate or contains the functional 
                equivalent of express advocacy); or
                  ``(C) refers to the candidate or an opponent of the 
                candidate but is not described in subparagraph (A) or 
                subparagraph (B), but only if the communication is 
                disseminated during the applicable election period.
          ``(2) Applicable election period.--In paragraph (1)(C), the 
        `applicable election period' with respect to a communication 
        means--
                  ``(A) in the case of a communication which refers to 
                a candidate in a general, special, or runoff election, 
                the 120-day period which ends on the date of the 
                election; or
                  ``(B) in the case of a communication which refers to 
                a candidate in a primary or preference election, or 
                convention or caucus of a political party that has 
                authority to nominate a candidate, the 60-day period 
                which ends on the date of the election or convention or 
                caucus.
          ``(3) Special rules for communications involving 
        congressional candidates.--For purposes of this subsection, a 
        public communication shall not be considered to be a covered 
        communication with respect to a candidate for election for an 
        office other than the office of President or Vice President 
        unless it is publicly disseminated or distributed in the 
        jurisdiction of the office the candidate is seeking.
  ``(e) Penalty.--
          ``(1) Determination of amount.--Any person who knowingly and 
        willfully commits a violation of this Act by making a 
        contribution which consists of a payment for a coordinated 
        expenditure shall be fined an amount equal to the greater of--
                  ``(A) in the case of a person who makes a 
                contribution which consists of a payment for a 
                coordinated expenditure in an amount exceeding the 
                applicable contribution limit under this Act, 300 
                percent of the amount by which the amount of the 
                payment made by the person exceeds such applicable 
                contribution limit; or
                  ``(B) in the case of a person who is prohibited under 
                this Act from making a contribution in any amount, 300 
                percent of the amount of the payment made by the person 
                for the coordinated expenditure.
          ``(2) Joint and several liability.--Any director, manager, or 
        officer of a person who is subject to a penalty under paragraph 
        (1) shall be jointly and severally liable for any amount of 
        such penalty that is not paid by the person prior to the 
        expiration of the 1-year period which begins on the date the 
        Commission imposes the penalty or the 1-year period which 
        begins on the date of the final judgment following any judicial 
        review of the Commission's action, whichever is later.''.
  (c) Effective Date.--
          (1) Repeal of existing regulations on coordination.--
        Effective upon the expiration of the 90-day period which begins 
        on the date of the enactment of this Act--
                  (A) the regulations on coordinated communications 
                adopted by the Federal Election Commission which are in 
                effect on the date of the enactment of this Act (as set 
                forth in 11 CFR Part 109, Subpart C, under the heading 
                ``Coordination'') are repealed; and
                  (B) the Federal Election Commission shall promulgate 
                new regulations on coordinated communications which 
                reflect the amendments made by this Act.
          (2) Effective date.--The amendments made by this section 
        shall apply with respect to payments made on or after the 
        expiration of the 120-day period which begins on the date of 
        the enactment of this Act, without regard to whether or not the 
        Federal Election Commission has promulgated regulations in 
        accordance with paragraph (1)(B) as of the expiration of such 
        period.

SEC. 6103. CLARIFICATION OF BAN ON FUNDRAISING FOR SUPER PACS BY 
                    FEDERAL CANDIDATES AND OFFICEHOLDERS.

  (a) In General.--Section 323(e)(1) of the Federal Election Campaign 
Act of 1971 (52 U.S.C. 30125(e)(1)) is amended--
          (1) by striking ``or'' at the end of subparagraph (A);
          (2) by striking the period at the end of subparagraph (B) and 
        inserting ``; or''; and
          (3) by adding at the end the following new subparagraph:
                  ``(C) solicit, receive, direct, or transfer funds to 
                or on behalf of any political committee which accepts 
                donations or contributions that do not comply with the 
                limitations, prohibitions, and reporting requirements 
                of this Act (or to or on behalf of any account of a 
                political committee which is established for the 
                purpose of accepting such donations or contributions), 
                or to or on behalf of any political organization under 
                section 527 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 which 
                accepts such donations or contributions (other than a 
                committee of a State or local political party or a 
                candidate for election for State or local office).''.
  (b) Effective Date.--The amendment made by subsection (a) shall apply 
with respect to elections occurring after January 1, 2020.

                        Subtitle C--Severability

SEC. 6201. SEVERABILITY.

  If any provision of this title or amendment made by this title, or 
the application of a provision or amendment to any person or 
circumstance, is held to be unconstitutional, the remainder of this 
title and amendments made by this title, and the application of the 
provisions and amendment to any person or circumstance, shall not be 
affected by the holding.

                           DIVISION C--ETHICS

                         TITLE VII--[RESERVED]

                         TITLE VIII--[RESERVED]

                 TITLE IX--CONGRESSIONAL ETHICS REFORM

  Subtitle A--Requiring Members of Congress to Reimburse Treasury for 
      Amounts Paid as Settlements and Awards Under Congressional 
                       Accountability Act of 1995

Sec. 9001. Requiring Members of Congress to reimburse Treasury for 
amounts paid as settlements and awards under Congressional 
Accountability Act of 1995 in all cases of employment discrimination 
acts by Members.

                   Subtitle B--Conflicts of Interests

Sec. 9101. [Reserved].
Sec. 9102. Conflict of interest rules for Members of Congress and 
congressional staff.
Sec. 9103. Exercise of rulemaking powers.

          Subtitle C--Campaign Finance and Lobbying Disclosure

Sec. 9201. Short title.
Sec. 9202. Requiring disclosure in certain reports filed with Federal 
Election Commission of persons who are registered lobbyists.
Sec. 9203. Effective date.

         Subtitle D--Access to Congressionally Mandated Reports

Sec. 9301. Short title.
Sec. 9302. Definitions.
Sec. 9303. Establishment of online portal for congressionally mandated 
reports.
Sec. 9304. Federal agency responsibilities.
Sec. 9305. Removing and altering reports.
Sec. 9306. Relationship to the Freedom of Information Act.
Sec. 9307. Implementation.

                        Subtitle E--Severability

Sec. 9401. Severability.

  Subtitle A--Requiring Members of Congress to Reimburse Treasury for 
      Amounts Paid as Settlements and Awards Under Congressional 
                       Accountability Act of 1995

SEC. 9001. REQUIRING MEMBERS OF CONGRESS TO REIMBURSE TREASURY FOR 
                    AMOUNTS PAID AS SETTLEMENTS AND AWARDS UNDER 
                    CONGRESSIONAL ACCOUNTABILITY ACT OF 1995 IN ALL 
                    CASES OF EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION ACTS BY MEMBERS.

  (a) Requiring Reimbursement.--Clause (i) of section 415(d)(1)(C) of 
the Congressional Accountability Act of 1995 (2 U.S.C. 1415(d)(1)(C)), 
as amended by section 111(a) of the Congressional Accountability Act of 
1995 Reform Act, is amended to read as follows:
                          ``(i) a violation of section 201(a) or 
                        section 206(a); or''.
  (b) Conforming Amendment Relating to Notification of Possibility of 
Reimbursement.--Clause (i) of section 402(b)(2)(B) of the Congressional 
Accountability Act of 1995 (2 U.S.C. 1402(b)(2)(B)), as amended by 
section 102(a) of the Congressional Accountability Act of 1995 Reform 
Act, is amended to read as follows:
                          ``(i) a violation of section 201(a) or 
                        section 206(a); or''.
  (c) Effective Date.--The amendments made by this section shall take 
effect as if included in the enactment of the Congressional 
Accountability Act of 1995 Reform Act.

                   Subtitle B--Conflicts of Interests

SEC. 9101. [RESERVED].

SEC. 9102. CONFLICT OF INTEREST RULES FOR MEMBERS OF CONGRESS AND 
                    CONGRESSIONAL STAFF.

  No Member, officer, or employee of a committee or Member of either 
House of Congress may knowingly use his or her official position to 
introduce or aid the progress or passage of legislation, a principal 
purpose of which is to further only his or her pecuniary interest, only 
the pecuniary interest of his or her immediate family, or only the 
pecuniary interest of a limited class of persons or enterprises, when 
he or she, or his or her immediate family, or enterprises controlled by 
them, are members of the affected class.

SEC. 9103. EXERCISE OF RULEMAKING POWERS.

  The provisions of this subtitle are enacted by the Congress--
          (1) as an exercise of the rulemaking power of the House of 
        Representatives and the Senate, respectively, and as such they 
        shall be considered as part of the rules of each House, 
        respectively, or of that House to which they specifically 
        apply, and such rules shall supersede other rules only to the 
        extent that they are inconsistent therewith; and
          (2) with full recognition of the constitutional right of 
        either House to change such rules (so far as relating to such 
        House) at any time, in the same manner, and to the same extent 
        as in the case of any other rule of such House.

          Subtitle C--Campaign Finance and Lobbying Disclosure

SEC. 9201. SHORT TITLE.

  This subtitle may be cited as the ``Connecting Lobbyists and Electeds 
for Accountability and Reform Act'' or the ``CLEAR Act''.

SEC. 9202. REQUIRING DISCLOSURE IN CERTAIN REPORTS FILED WITH FEDERAL 
                    ELECTION COMMISSION OF PERSONS WHO ARE REGISTERED 
                    LOBBYISTS.

  (a) Reports Filed by Political Committees.--Section 304(b) of the 
Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 (52 U.S.C. 30104(b)) is amended--
          (1) by striking ``and'' at the end of paragraph (7);
          (2) by striking the period at the end of paragraph (8) and 
        inserting ``; and''; and
          (3) by adding at the end the following new paragraph:
          ``(9) if any person identified in subparagraph (A), (E), (F), 
        or (G) of paragraph (3) is a registered lobbyist under the 
        Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995, a separate statement that such 
        person is a registered lobbyist under such Act.''.
  (b) Reports Filed by Persons Making Independent Expenditures.--
Section 304(c)(2) of such Act (52 U.S.C. 30104(c)(2)) is amended--
          (1) by striking ``and'' at the end of subparagraph (B);
          (2) by striking the period at the end of subparagraph (C) and 
        inserting ``; and''; and
          (3) by adding at the end the following new subparagraph:
          ``(D) if the person filing the statement, or a person whose 
        identification is required to be disclosed under subparagraph 
        (C), is a registered lobbyist under the Lobbying Disclosure Act 
        of 1995, a separate statement that such person is a registered 
        lobbyist under such Act.''.
  (c) Reports Filed by Persons Making Disbursements for Electioneering 
Communications.--Section 304(f)(2) of such Act (52 U.S.C. 30104(f)(2)) 
is amended by adding at the end the following new subparagraph:
                  ``(G) If the person making the disbursement, or a 
                contributor described in subparagraph (E) or (F), is a 
                registered lobbyist under the Lobbying Disclosure Act 
                of 1995, a separate statement that such person or 
                contributor is a registered lobbyist under such Act.''.
  (d) Requiring Commission to Establish Link to Websites of Clerk of 
House and Secretary of Senate.--Section 304 of such Act (52 U.S.C. 
30104), as amended by section 4308(a), is amended by adding at the end 
the following new subsection:
  ``(k) Requiring Information on Registered Lobbyists to Be Linked to 
Websites of Clerk of House and Secretary of Senate.--
          ``(1) Links to websites.--The Commission shall ensure that 
        the Commission's public database containing information 
        described in paragraph (2) is linked electronically to the 
        websites maintained by the Secretary of the Senate and the 
        Clerk of the House of Representatives containing information 
        filed pursuant to the Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995.
          ``(2) Information described.--The information described in 
        this paragraph is each of the following:
                  ``(A) Information disclosed under paragraph (9) of 
                subsection (b).
                  ``(B) Information disclosed under subparagraph (D) of 
                subsection (c)(2).
                  ``(C) Information disclosed under subparagraph (G) of 
                subsection (f)(2).''.

SEC. 9203. EFFECTIVE DATE.

  The amendments made by this subtitle shall apply with respect to 
reports required to be filed under the Federal Election Campaign Act of 
1971 on or after the expiration of the 90-day period which begins on 
the date of the enactment of this Act.

         Subtitle D--Access to Congressionally Mandated Reports

SEC. 9301. SHORT TITLE.

  This subtitle may be cited as the ``Access to Congressionally 
Mandated Reports Act''.

SEC. 9302. DEFINITIONS.

  In this subtitle:
          (1) Congressionally mandated report.--The term 
        ``congressionally mandated report''--
                  (A) means a report that is required to be submitted 
                to either House of Congress or any committee of 
                Congress, or subcommittee thereof, by a statute, 
                resolution, or conference report that accompanies 
                legislation enacted into law; and
                  (B) does not include a report required under part B 
                of subtitle II of title 36, United States Code.
          (2) Director.--The term ``Director'' means the Director of 
        the Government Publishing Office.
          (3) Federal agency.--The term ``Federal agency'' has the 
        meaning given that term under section 102 of title 40, United 
        States Code, but does not include the Government Accountability 
        Office.
          (4) Open format.--The term ``open format'' means a file 
        format for storing digital data based on an underlying open 
        standard that--
                  (A) is not encumbered by any restrictions that would 
                impede reuse; and
                  (B) is based on an underlying open data standard that 
                is maintained by a standards organization.
          (5) Reports online portal.--The term ``reports online 
        portal'' means the online portal established under section 
        (3)(a).

SEC. 9303. ESTABLISHMENT OF ONLINE PORTAL FOR CONGRESSIONALLY MANDATED 
                    REPORTS.

  (a) Requirement To Establish Online Portal.--
          (1) In general.--Not later than 1 year after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the Director shall establish and 
        maintain an online portal accessible by the public that allows 
        the public to obtain electronic copies of all congressionally 
        mandated reports in one place. The Director may publish other 
        reports on the online portal.
          (2) Existing functionality.--To the extent possible, the 
        Director shall meet the requirements under paragraph (1) by 
        using existing online portals and functionality under the 
        authority of the Director.
          (3) Consultation.--In carrying out this subtitle, the 
        Director shall consult with the Clerk of the House of 
        Representatives, the Secretary of the Senate, and the Librarian 
        of Congress regarding the requirements for and maintenance of 
        congressionally mandated reports on the reports online portal.
  (b) Content and Function.--The Director shall ensure that the reports 
online portal includes the following:
          (1) Subject to subsection (c), with respect to each 
        congressionally mandated report, each of the following:
                  (A) A citation to the statute, conference report, or 
                resolution requiring the report.
                  (B) An electronic copy of the report, including any 
                transmittal letter associated with the report, in an 
                open format that is platform independent and that is 
                available to the public without restrictions, including 
                restrictions that would impede the re-use of the 
                information in the report.
                  (C) The ability to retrieve a report, to the extent 
                practicable, through searches based on each, and any 
                combination, of the following:
                          (i) The title of the report.
                          (ii) The reporting Federal agency.
                          (iii) The date of publication.
                          (iv) Each congressional committee receiving 
                        the report, if applicable.
                          (v) The statute, resolution, or conference 
                        report requiring the report.
                          (vi) Subject tags.
                          (vii) A unique alphanumeric identifier for 
                        the report that is consistent across report 
                        editions.
                          (viii) The serial number, Superintendent of 
                        Documents number, or other identification 
                        number for the report, if applicable.
                          (ix) Key words.
                          (x) Full text search.
                          (xi) Any other relevant information specified 
                        by the Director.
                  (D) The date on which the report was required to be 
                submitted, and on which the report was submitted, to 
                the reports online portal.
                  (E) Access to the report not later than 30 calendar 
                days after its submission to Congress.
                  (F) To the extent practicable, a permanent means of 
                accessing the report electronically.
          (2) A means for bulk download of all congressionally mandated 
        reports.
          (3) A means for downloading individual reports as the result 
        of a search.
          (4) An electronic means for the head of each Federal agency 
        to submit to the reports online portal each congressionally 
        mandated report of the agency, as required by section 4.
          (5) In tabular form, a list of all congressionally mandated 
        reports that can be searched, sorted, and downloaded by--
                  (A) reports submitted within the required time;
                  (B) reports submitted after the date on which such 
                reports were required to be submitted; and
                  (C) reports not submitted.
  (c) Noncompliance by Federal Agencies.--
          (1) Reports not submitted.--If a Federal agency does not 
        submit a congressionally mandated report to the Director, the 
        Director shall to the extent practicable--
                  (A) include on the reports online portal--
                          (i) the information required under clauses 
                        (i), (ii), (iv), and (v) of subsection 
                        (b)(1)(C); and
                          (ii) the date on which the report was 
                        required to be submitted; and
                  (B) include the congressionally mandated report on 
                the list described in subsection (b)(5)(C).
          (2) Reports not in open format.--If a Federal agency submits 
        a congressionally mandated report that is not in an open 
        format, the Director shall include the congressionally mandated 
        report in another format on the reports online portal.
  (d) Free Access.--The Director may not charge a fee, require 
registration, or impose any other limitation in exchange for access to 
the reports online portal.
  (e) Upgrade Capability.--The reports online portal shall be enhanced 
and updated as necessary to carry out the purposes of this subtitle.

SEC. 9304. FEDERAL AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES.

  (a) Submission of Electronic Copies of Reports.--Concurrently with 
the submission to Congress of each congressionally mandated report, the 
head of the Federal agency submitting the congressionally mandated 
report shall submit to the Director the information required under 
subparagraphs (A) through (D) of section 3(b)(1) with respect to the 
congressionally mandated report. Nothing in this subtitle shall relieve 
a Federal agency of any other requirement to publish the 
congressionally mandated report on the online portal of the Federal 
agency or otherwise submit the congressionally mandated report to 
Congress or specific committees of Congress, or subcommittees thereof.
  (b) Guidance.--Not later than 240 days after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, in 
consultation with the Director, shall issue guidance to agencies on the 
implementation of this Act.
  (c) Structure of Submitted Report Data.--The head of each Federal 
agency shall ensure that each congressionally mandated report submitted 
to the Director complies with the open format criteria established by 
the Director in the guidance issued under subsection (b).
  (d) Point of Contact.--The head of each Federal agency shall 
designate a point of contact for congressionally mandated report.
  (e) List of Reports.--As soon as practicable each calendar year (but 
not later than April 1), and on a rolling basis during the year if 
feasible, the Librarian of Congress shall submit to the Director a list 
of congressionally mandated reports from the previous calendar year, in 
consultation with the Clerk of the House of Representatives, which 
shall--
          (1) be provided in an open format;
          (2) include the information required under clauses (i), (ii), 
        (iv), (v) of section 3(b)(1)(C) for each report;
          (3) include the frequency of the report;
          (4) include a unique alphanumeric identifier for the report 
        that is consistent across report editions;
          (5) include the date on which each report is required to be 
        submitted; and
          (6) be updated and provided to the Director, as necessary.

SEC. 9305. REMOVING AND ALTERING REPORTS.

  A report submitted to be published to the reports online portal may 
only be changed or removed, with the exception of technical changes, by 
the head of the Federal agency concerned if--
          (1) the head of the Federal agency consults with each 
        congressional committee to which the report is submitted; and
          (2) Congress enacts a joint resolution authorizing the 
        changing or removal of the report.

SEC. 9306. RELATIONSHIP TO THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT.

  (a) In General.--Nothing in this subtitle shall be construed to--
          (1) require the disclosure of information or records that are 
        exempt from public disclosure under section 552 of title 5, 
        United States Code; or
          (2) to impose any affirmative duty on the Director to review 
        congressionally mandated reports submitted for publication to 
        the reports online portal for the purpose of identifying and 
        redacting such information or records.
  (b) Redaction of Information.--The head of a Federal agency may 
redact information required to be disclosed under this Act if the 
information would be properly withheld from disclosure under section 
552 of title 5, United States Code, and shall--
          (1) redact information required to be disclosed under this 
        subtitle if disclosure of such information is prohibited by 
        law;
          (2) redact information being withheld under this subsection 
        prior to submitting the information to the Director;
          (3) redact only such information properly withheld under this 
        subsection from the submission of information or from any 
        congressionally mandated report submitted under this subtitle;
          (4) identify where any such redaction is made in the 
        submission or report; and
          (5) identify the exemption under which each such redaction is 
        made.

SEC. 9307. IMPLEMENTATION.

  Except as provided in section 9304(b), this subtitle shall be 
implemented not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this 
Act and shall apply with respect to congressionally mandated reports 
submitted to Congress on or after the date that is 1 year after such 
date of enactment.

                        Subtitle E--Severability

SEC. 9401. SEVERABILITY.

  If any provision of this title or amendment made by this title, or 
the application of a provision or amendment to any person or 
circumstance, is held to be unconstitutional, the remainder of this 
title and amendments made by this title, and the application of the 
provisions and amendment to any person or circumstance, shall not be 
affected by the holding.

                          TITLE X--[RESERVED]

                          Purpose and Summary

    H.R. 1, the For the People Act, is innovative legislation 
to advance the democratic promise of responsive, representative 
government.
    It will lower barriers to voting for all eligible 
Americans, save costs, and bolster the integrity of election 
administration. For example, it will modernize voter 
registration systems by enabling automatic voter registration 
and same-day voter registration. It will disclose dark, secret 
money that influences campaigns and subsequent policy debates 
and protect everyone's right to know who is influencing their 
votes and their views. It will provide an alternative, 
voluntary system for candidates to finance their campaigns and 
empower small donors. This will reduce candidates' reliance on 
major dollar donors and wealthy special interests, while 
opening up the political process so that more people can run 
competitive campaigns and represent their communities in 
Congress. It will also strengthen high ethical standards for 
Members of Congress. These reforms in H.R. 1 will boost 
confidence in self-government.
    Alexander Hamilton or James Madison, the author of 
Federalist No. 57, wrote: ``Who are to be the electors of the 
federal representatives? Not the rich, more than the poor; not 
the learned, more than the ignorant; not the haughty heirs of 
distinguished names, more than the humble sons of obscurity and 
unpropitious fortune. The electors are to be the great body of 
the people of the United States.''
    H.R. 1 furthers this bedrock principle of American 
democratic self-governance. It is legislation for the people to 
hold government accountable and give people a voice in the 
decisions that affect their lives and their families.

                  Background and Need for Legislation


Trust in Government and Participation in the Electoral Process

    Trust in government has plummeted to near record lows. At 
the end of 2017, only 18% of Americans said ``they can trust 
the government in Washington do what is right `just about 
always' (3%) or `most of the time (15%),''' according to the 
Pew Research Center.\1\ Without trust, the legitimacy of our 
representative system of government suffers. People no longer 
perceive themselves as having a say in the decisions of 
government that affect their lives.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\Pew Research Center, ``Public Trust in Government: 1958-2017,'' 
http://www.people-press.org/2017/12/14/public-trust-in-government-1958-
2017/ (last visited Feb. 11, 2019).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Only about half of the voting-eligible population voted in 
the 2018 midterm elections.\2\ Although this was the highest 
turnout in 50 years, the fact remains that roughly half of the 
eligible public did not vote. For a country that holds itself 
out as the gold standard of participatory democracy, a turnout 
rate where nearly half of eligible voters do not vote belies 
the United States' aspirations.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \2\Camila Domonoske, ``A Boatload of Ballots: Midterm Voter Turnout 
Hit 50-Year High,'' NPR, Nov. 8, 2018, https://www.npr.org/2018/11/08/
665197690/a-boatload-of-ballots-midterm-voter-turnout-hit-50-year-high.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Too many Americans view themselves as shut out from our 
representative system. Others cannot participate in our 
electoral process because of arbitrary election administration 
procedures that fail to account for how Americans live and work 
in the 21st century. Some of these barriers to participation 
are designed to make it harder for certain populations, 
including communities of color and other underrepresented 
groups, to vote.

Election Access--Online Voter Registration; Automatic Voter 
        Registration; Same Day Voter Registration

    Among major democracies throughout the globe, the United 
States is alone in requiring ``individuals to shoulder the onus 
of registering to vote (and re-register[] when they move).''\3\ 
A 2001 commission that former Presidents Ford and Carter 
chaired found that ``[t]he registration laws in the United 
States are among the most demanding in the democratic world . . 
. [and are] one reason why voter turnout in the United States 
is near the bottom of the developed world.''\4\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \3\Written Testimony of Wendy R. Weiser, Director, Democracy 
Program at the Brennan Center for Justice at NYU School of Law, 
Hearing: ``For the People: Our American Democracy,'' Feb. 14, 2019, at 
3.
    \4\John Mark Hansen, ``To Assure Pride and Confidence in the 
Electoral Process, Task Force Reports to Accompany the Report of the 
National Commission on Election Reform, Task Force on the Federal 
Election System, Voter Registration,'' at 1-3 (2001), http://
web1.millercenter.org/commissions/comm_2001_taskforce.pdf.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Voter registration barriers are a contributing factor to 
voter turnout and citizen participation in our democracy. Every 
election, millions of Americans encounter problems when they 
try to cast ballots.\5\ One in 4 eligible Americans is not 
registered to vote.\6\ In the November 2016 elections, nearly 1 
in 5 (18 percent) of eligible people cited problems with voter 
registration as their main reason for not casting a ballot, 
including not meeting registration deadlines and not knowing 
the processes to register.\7\ One in 4 Americans believe 
incorrectly that the U.S. Postal Services' change-of-addresses 
processes will automatically update their addresses for 
purposes of voter registration.\8\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \5\Weiser, supra note 4, at 3.
    \6\Id. at 2-3 (citing Pew Center on the States, Inaccurate, Costly, 
and Inefficient: Evidence that America's Voter Registration Systems 
Needs an Upgrade, 2012, 1); see also U.S. Census Bureau, Voting and 
Registration in the Election of 2016, Tbl. 1, https://www.census.gov/
data/tables/time-series/demo/voting-and-registration/p20-580.html.
    \7\Written Testimony of Chiraag Bains, Director of Legal 
Strategies, Demos, Hearing: ``For the People: Our American Democracy,'' 
Feb. 14, 2019, at 8 (citing Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 
November 2016 Voting and Registration Supplement).
    \8\Weiser, supra note 4 (citing Pew Center on the States, 
Inaccurate, Costly, and Inefficient: Evidence that America's Voter 
Registration Systems Needs an Upgrade, 2012, 7).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Barriers to voting, especially for communities of color and 
underrepresented groups, have become pronounced after the 
Supreme Court struck down the preclearance formula of the 
Voting Rights Act in Shelby County v. Holder.\9\ Since that 
2013 decision, states have required overly ``strict forms of 
voter ID, purged voter rolls, reduced polling locations, 
required documentary proof of citizenship to register to vote, 
and cut early voting, among other contested voting changes 
that, on the specific facts . . . operate to denigrate minority 
voting access in ways that would have violated preclearance 
requirements if they were still in effect. Data indicate that 
these voting procedure changes disproportionately limit 
minority citizens' ability to vote,'' according to the United 
States Commission on Civil Rights.\10\ The Commission found in 
2018 that ``at least 23 states have enacted newly restrictive 
statewide voter laws since the Shelby County decision.''\11\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \9\Shelby County, Alabama v. Holder, 570 U.S. 529 (2013).
    \10\U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, ``An Assessment of Minority 
Voting Rights Access in the United States (2018),'' p. 9, https://
www.usccr.gov/pubs/2018/Minority_Voting_Access_2018.pdf.
    \11\Id. at 82.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    H.R. 1 addresses elements of these endemic problems. The 
legislative solutions are cost-effective and will improve 
access to the franchise for all eligible Americans to exercise 
their constitutional right to vote.
            Online Voter Registration
    H.R. 1 will require states to offer voter registration 
services online. Online voter registration is offered by at 
least 37 states plus the District of Columbia as of October 
2018, according to the National Conference on State 
Legislatures.\12\ As Americans use the internet to accomplish 
basic tasks, from banking, to facilitating transit, to 
accessing healthcare, they should also be able to register (and 
update) their voter registration records as well.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \12\Online Voter Registration, Overview, http://www.ncsl.org/
research/elections-and-campaigns/electronic-or-online-voter-
registration.aspx.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    In addition to improving convenience for eligible voters, 
online voter registration saves costs. A 2010 study funded by 
the Pew Center on the States found that paper registration cost 
Arizona $0.83 per voter to process, whereas online voter 
registration cost only $0.03.\13\ In Washington State, 
officials ``reported savings of 25 cents with each online 
registration (for a total of $176,000 in savings) in the first 
two years of the program, and its local officials save between 
50 cents and two dollars per online transaction,'' according to 
a Brennan Center analysis of the data.\14\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \13\Washington Institute of the Study of Ethnicity and Race 
(University of Washington, Seattle) and the Election Administration 
Research Center (University of California, Berkeley), ``Online Voter 
Registration (OLVR) Systems in Arizona and Washington: Evaluating 
Usage, Public Confidence and Implementation Process (2010)'' at 93, 
https://www.pewtrusts.org/-/media/legacy/uploadedfiles/pcs_assets/2010/
onlinevoterregpdf.pdf.
    \14\See Weiser, supra note 4, at 7.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
            Automatic Voter Registration
    Another critical policy is automatic voter registration 
(``AVR''). Like online voter registration, automatic voter 
registration saves jurisdictions money, improves the accuracy 
of voter registration lists, and helps to streamline the voter 
registration process to reduce unnecessary barriers to 
accessing the ballot. AVR significantly decreases the necessity 
of paper and takes advantage of electronic, automated systems 
to add eligible Americans to the rolls. Voter lists are more 
accurate, jurisdictions save money by not relying on staff to 
process paper registration forms, and fewer eligible voters who 
show up to vote will have to vote a provisional ballot.\15\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \15\See id. at 6.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Rather than place the burden to register to vote on 
prospective voters--which, as discussed above, leads to 
confusion and keeps large swaths of Americans off the rolls--
AVR is rooted in an ``opt-out'' model of voter registration. 
Unless a prospective voter declines, they will be added to the 
rolls when they provide information to the government to obtain 
certain services (including public services, Social Security 
benefits, driver's licenses, and when individuals become 
naturalized citizens).\16\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \16\See id. at 4.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    There is also data that show AVR may lead to higher 
turnout. In Oregon, the first state to adopt and implement AVR, 
turnout increased by 4 percent--2.5 percent higher than the 
national average.\17\ This increase in turnout happened when 
there were zero competitive statewide races on the ballot.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \17\Id. at 5.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    AVR, as included in H.R. 1, is designed to ensure that 
agencies facilitating voter registration do not add ineligible 
voters to the rolls. Agencies that are designated to 
participate in AVR collect citizenship information. If an 
individual affirms citizenship, the agency will inform the 
person of the qualifications necessary to register to vote, 
consequences for false registration, and an opportunity to 
decline voter registration. There are also safeguards in place 
for the unlikely situation that any ineligible person is 
inadvertently registered.
    Fifteen states, plus the District of Columbia, have adopted 
AVR; of those jurisdictions, nine states plus the District of 
Columbia have implemented the policy.\18\ The data show that 
AVR can accomplish its goals of adding eligible voters to the 
rolls. The results have been exceptionally strong. According to 
the Brennan Center for Justice at NYU School of Law:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \18\See Weiser, supra note 4, at 4-5.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    In Oregon, registration rates quadrupled at DMV offices. In 
Vermont, registrations jumped 62 percent in the six months 
after AVR was put in place compared to the same period in the 
previous year. One state, California, experienced minor 
glitches at first, because of a computer programming design 
flaw. But that error was quickly caught and contained, and 
according to the state's motor vehicle office has since been 
fixed. . . . AVR has dramatically increased registration rates 
in nearly every state.\19\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \19\Id.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
            Same Day Voter Registration
    Same day voter registration is another important reform 
included in H.R. 1 to modernize our elections. It ensures that 
a voter registration deadline does not deny any eligible voter 
of their right to vote. Voters are offered an opportunity to 
register to vote on election day, including during early 
voting. Particularly when combined with automatic voter 
registration, same day voter registration boosts turnout. It 
has been shown to increase turnout by upwards of 10 percentage 
points.\20\ Seventeen states and the District of Columbia offer 
some form of same day voter registration.\21\ Some states have 
had it since the 1970s.\22\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \20\See Bains, supra note 8, at 8.
    \21\See Weiser, supra note 4, at 7.
    \22\See id.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Together as a whole, H.R. 1 sets an important nationwide 
standard of online voter registration, automatic voter 
registration, and same day voter registration that will reduce 
unjustified and unnecessary barriers to voting. These reforms 
will make our elections freer and fairer for all eligible 
voters to make their voices heard.

Election Access--Promoting Convenience and Access to the Ballot

            Challenges and Problems
    In the wake of Shelby County v. Holder, some jurisdictions 
implemented changes to their election administration and voting 
laws that had a disparate impact on communities of color or 
were enacted with a discriminatory intent to make it harder for 
communities of color to vote. Cuts to early voting, strict 
voter identification laws, and other changes to the rules have 
pushed people away from participating in our democracy.
    The legislature of North Carolina, for example, enacted an 
omnibus voter suppression bill in 2013, several months after 
the Supreme Court struck down the Voting Rights Act's 
preclearance formula.\23\ Among other things, the bill imposed 
a strict photo identification requirement on voters; cut a week 
of early voting; eliminated same-day voter registration; 
eliminated the counting of out-of-precinct provisional ballots 
for voters who voted in the correct county but incorrect 
precinct; and eliminated preregistration of 16- and 17-year 
olds.\24\ The United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth 
Circuit ruled that North Carolina's law ``target[ed] African 
Americans with almost surgical precision,'' for, among other 
things, requiring ``in-person voters to show certain photo IDs, 
beginning in 2016, which African Americans disproportionately 
lacked, and eliminat[ing] or reduc[ing] registration and voting 
access tools that African Americans disproportionally 
used.''\25\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \23\North Carolina State Conference of the NAACP v. McCrory, 831 
F.3d 204 (2016).
    \24\See id.
    \25\See id. at 215, 216.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Texas, too, implemented one of the strictest photo ID laws 
in the United States soon after Shelby County.\26\ The United 
States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit ruled that the 
Texas law discriminated against Black and Latino voters.\27\ 
Subsequent litigation and legislative action led to significant 
changes in the law.\28\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \26\Matt Vasilogambros, ``That Was Quick: Texas Moves Forward With 
Voter ID Law After Supreme Court Ruling,'' The Atlantic, June 25, 2013, 
https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2013/06/that-was-quick-
texas-moves-forward-with-voter-id-law-after-supreme-court-ruling/
438108/.
    \27\Veasey v. Abbott, No. 14-41127 (5th Cir. 2016).
    \28\Advisory Memorandum, Texas Advisory Committee to the U.S. 
Commission on Civil Rights, pg. 10, July 2018, https://www.usccr.gov/
pubs/2018/07-23-TX-Voting-Rights.pdf.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Mass purges of eligible voters from the rolls have also 
become a major problem with election administration. According 
to the Brennan Center for Justice:

          Almost 4 million more names were purged from the 
        rolls between 2014 and 2016 than between 2006 and 2008. 
        Purge activity has increased at a substantially greater 
        rate in states that were subject to federal oversight 
        under the Voting Rights Act prior to the Supreme 
        Court's decision in Shelby County v. Holder. Georgia, 
        for example, purged 1.5 million voters between the 2012 
        and 2016 elections--double its rate between 2008 and 
        2012. Texas purged 363,000 more voters between 2012 and 
        2014 than it did between 2008 and 2010. [The Brennan 
        Center] found that 2 million fewer voters would have 
        been purged between 2012 and 2016 if jurisdictions 
        previously subject to pre-clearance had purged at the 
        same rate as other jurisdictions.\29\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \29\Weiser, supra note 4, at 8.

    The Supreme Court's decision last year in Husted v. A. 
Philip Randolph Institute opened the door to even more 
aggressive voter purges.\30\ The Court upheld Ohio's ``use it 
or lose it'' purge law, which used non-voting as a reason to 
initiate purge processes. The Court held that this practice did 
not violate the National Voter Registration Act, which governs 
list-maintenance programs and prohibits activities that 
``result in the removal of the name of any person'' from the 
rolls ``by reason of the person's failure to vote.''\31\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \30\Husted v. A Philip Randolph Institute, 138 S. Ct. 1833 (2018).
    \31\See id.; 52 U.S.C. Sec. 20507(b)(2); Bains, supra note 8, at 5.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    There are many reasons why someone may miss voting in an 
election. This should not result in their removal from voter 
registration rolls for subsequent elections. Purges can also 
affect underrepresented populations disproportionately, which 
has a deleterious effect on representative democracy. As Demos 
has explained:
    [B]arriers to voting such as transportation issues, 
inflexible work schedules, care-giving responsibilities, 
illnesses, inaccessible polling locations, and language access 
problems can disproportionately prevent persons of color, 
housing-insecure individuals, persons with disabilities, low-
income individuals, older voters, and persons with limited 
English proficiency from making to the polls to vote. Using a 
person's failure to vote to initiate a removal process will 
therefore disproportionately target such groups and result in 
their subsequent removal from the registration rolls.\32\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \32\Bains, supra note 8, at 5.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    There are many other populations, too, for whom more 
convenient access to the ballot is essential. First responders, 
individuals with disabilities, military personnel, healthcare 
providers, minimum wage workers, the elderly, students, and 
many other populations require flexibility in the time, place, 
and manner of voting. Some current practices, such as holding 
Election Day on a Tuesday in November, unjustifiably restrict 
access to the ballot to those who are available to stand in 
line and show up in person at their polling place on that 
specific day. H.R. 1 addresses these challenges, including the 
solutions below.
            Solutions--Early Voting
    The legislation sets a nationwide standard for early voting 
for at least 15 days prior to Election Day. Early voting is an 
important policy to provide voters with free and fair access to 
the ballot. Many states have adopted it as a policy. Thirty-
nine states allow voters to vote early in person before 
Election Day including more than a dozen states that provide an 
early voting period ``comparable to or greater than'' the 15-
day standard set by H.R. 1.\33\ Beyond convenience for voters 
who decide to vote early, the policy can reduce long lines at 
the polls on Election Day and give election administrators more 
time to troubleshoot issues with registration databases or 
voting machines before they could cause bigger slowdowns or 
problems.\34\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \33\See Weiser, supra note 4, at 12.
    \34\See id.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
            Addressing Voter Identification Laws That Restrict Voting
    As for suppressive voter identification tactics, H.R. 1 
would allow voters to submit sworn written statements in lieu 
of other forms of voter identification that would otherwise be 
required to cast a ballot. Strict voter identification laws 
have been one of the most unjustified barriers to participation 
for underrepresented communities. Approximately 11% of the 
American population lacks the specific form of photo 
identification that more than a dozen states require to vote, 
disproportionately voters of color, senior citizens, and low-
income citizens.\35\ Providing this sworn statement alternative 
is an important safeguard for those that these identification 
laws would otherwise block from voting.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \35\See Baines, supra note 8, at 3.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
            Protections Against Purges for Failure to Vote
    To respond to the Supreme Court's decision in Husted, H.R. 
1 amends the National Voter Registration Act of 1993 to 
prohibit a registrant's failure to vote as objective and 
reliable evidence that a voter is ineligible. It also limits 
the authority of states to remove registrants from the official 
list of eligible voters on the basis of interstate voter 
registration cross-checks.
            Access to Voting for Individuals with Disabilities
    H.R. 1 requires states to promote access to voter 
registration and voting for individuals with disabilities. 
Specifically, it mandates the availability of absentee ballots 
for individuals with disabilities, and allows such individuals 
to request and receive, by mail or electronically, registration 
forms and absentee ballots. States must accept and process 
these voter registration and absentee ballot applications if 
received within the deadline. It also requires states to 
establish a state office that will be responsible for providing 
voting-related information to individuals with disabilities.
            Other Reforms to Bolster Election Administration and the 
                    Right to Vote
    There are many other policies in H.R. 1 that promote 
election administration procedures that improve access to the 
franchise. The legislation prohibits states from putting 
restrictions on the ability for voters to vote by mail and 
requires absentee ballots to be sent at least 45 days before an 
election. Absentee ballots would be carried free of charge to 
individual voters.
    H.R. 1 would also require election officials to count each 
vote on provisional ballots for any elections in which an 
individual is registered to vote, notwithstanding whether they 
cast their ballot in an incorrect precinct within a state 
jurisdiction.
    The bill awards grants to states to develop training 
programs for poll worker recruitment and training and 
nonpartisan poll workers.
    It will bolster integrity and confidence in election 
administration by prohibiting campaign activities by state 
chief election administration officials. This provision 
provides an exception when the official or immediate family 
member is a candidate, so long as the official recuses from 
official responsibilities for the administration of the 
election.
    The bill also empowers young people to participate in our 
democracy by designating institutions of higher education as 
voter registration agencies.
    H.R. 1 requires the Attorney General to develop a state-
based hotline to provide nonpartisan information about the 
voting process, including voter registration, location, and 
hours of polling places, in consultation with civil rights and 
voting rights organizations.
    Taken together, these reforms improve access to voting by 
making it convenient and open for more eligible Americans to 
participate.

Bolstering the Resilience of Election Infrastructure

    There are serious challenges with aging election equipment 
and the machinery of democracy. Ineffective, aging voting 
equipment can cause lengthy lines at polling places, discourage 
participation, and chip away at confidence in election 
outcomes. A 2014 report by the bipartisan Presidential 
Commission on Election Administration found that aging systems 
purchased with federal money pursuant to the Help America Vote 
Act in 2002 were ``reaching the end of their operational 
life.''\36\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \36\Presidential Commission on Election Administration, ``The 
American Voting Experience: Report and Recommendations of the 
Presidential Commission on Election Administration (2014),'' at 11, 
https://www.eac.gov/assets/1/6/Amer-Voting-Exper-final-draft-01-09-14-
508.pdf.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Foreign threats to interfere in American elections are also 
of paramount concern, including the threats that cyberattacks 
pose to voting systems. The Department of Homeland Security 
confirmed that ``election-related networks, including websites, 
in 21 states were potentially targeted by Russian government 
cyber actors'' during the 2016 election.\37\ Nonstate and state 
actors alike have targeted voter registration systems and 
Election Night reporting websites.\38\ These tactics could sow 
confusion and undermine confidence in election outcomes should 
they occur again on a larger scale due to the vulnerabilities 
in our systems.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \37\Testimony of Jeanette Manfra, Acting Deputy Under Secretary for 
Cybersecurity and Communications, National Protection and Programs 
Directorate, U.S. Department of Homeland Security and Dr. Samuel Liles, 
Acting Director, Cyber Division, Office of Intelligence and Analysis, 
U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Before the Select Commission on 
Intelligence, United States Senate, Washington, D.C., Addressing 
Threats to Election Infrastructure, June 21, 2017, https://
www.intelligence.senate.gov/sites/default/files/documents/os-jmanfra-
062117.PDF.
    \38\Weiser, supra note 4, at 33.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    There is a need to bolster the resilience of the machinery 
of democracy that H.R. 1 fulfills. Thirteen states use voting 
machines that do not have paper back-ups, for example, 
including five that use them statewide.\39\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \39\Lawrence Norden and Wilfred U. Codrington III, Brennan Center 
for Justice, ``America's Voting Machines at Risk,'' Mar. 8, 2018, 
https://www.brennancenter.org/analysis/americas-voting-machines-risk-
an-update.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
            Paper Ballots and Grants for Improved Election Systems
    H.R. 1 amends the Help America Vote Act of 2002 to require 
voting systems in federal elections to use individual, durable, 
voter-verified paper ballots. This would replace all paperless 
voting machines now in use for these elections.
    Paper ballots are an important protection against hacking 
and cyberattack. They provide a durable record of each vote 
that can be hand-counted and audited, where necessary, without 
depending on software or hardware.
    H.R. 1 also authorizes the Election Assistance Commission 
to, among other things, issue grants to states to improve and 
maintain their election systems (including enhanced 
cybersecurity improvements), transition to voter-verified paper 
ballot systems, conduct risk-limiting audits, and further 
election-infrastructure innovation.
            Promoting Cybersecurity Through Improvements in Election 
                    Administration
    Given the threat of interference in our elections from 
state and nonstate actors alike, H.R. 1 provides guardrails to 
further reinforce cybersecurity. It requires, for example, 
voting systems (including electronic pollbooks) to be tested 
nine months before general Federal elections. The Election 
Assistance Commission would be required to issue election 
cybersecurity guidelines, including standards and best 
practices for procuring, maintaining, testing, operating, and 
updating election systems to prevent and deter cybersecurity 
incidents.
    Another innovative element of the bill is the establishment 
of an Election Security Bug Bounty program to encourage 
independent assessments of election systems by technical 
experts.

Campaign Finance--Transparency, Disclosure, and Everyone's Right to 
        Know

    Americans are concerned with the real and perceived power 
of wealthy special interests in campaigns and the decisions of 
government. Citizens United, decided more than 9 years ago, 
remains deeply unpopular among Americans of all political 
stripes. The decision recognized a corporation's First 
Amendment right to spend unlimited sums out of its general 
treasury funds to influence elections. A 2015 Bloomberg poll 
found that Citizens United ``was viewed unfavorably by 78% of 
respondents, who said that decision was so bad it should be 
overturned.''\40\ This is consistent with more recent polling, 
including last year, that found similar numbers of Americans in 
favor of a constitutional amendment to reverse Citizens 
United.\41\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \40\Greg Stohr, ``Bloomberg Poll: Americans Want Supreme Court to 
Turn Off Political Spending Spigot,'' Chicago Tribune, Sept. 28, 2015, 
https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/sns-tns-bc-scotus-citizensunited-
poll-20150928-story.html.
    \41\Ashley Balcerzak, ``Liberals Want to Overturn Citizens United. 
A New Study Shows Conservatives Do Too,'' Time, May 10, 2018, http://
time.com/5272988/citizens-united-campaign-finance-constitution/.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Citizens United has become in some ways synonymous with 
Americans' dissatisfaction with the influence, real and 
perceived, of money in the political process. According to the 
analysis of a poll last summer by PRRI/The Atlantic, ``roughly 
two-thirds of the public say that participation of too few 
voters (67%) and the disproportionate influence of wealthy 
individuals and corporations (66%) are major problems with the 
current election system.''\42\ According to a Gallup poll last 
month, only 20% of Americans said they are satisfied with our 
campaign finance laws.\43\ Among the 22 issues surveyed, this 
was the issue Americans were least satisfied about.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \42\Alex Vandermaas-Peeler et al., ``American Democracy in Crisis: 
The Challenges of Voter Knowledge, Participation, and Polarization,'' 
PRRI in partnership with The Atlantic, July 17, 2018, https://
www.prri.org/research/American-democracy-in-crisis-voters-midterms-
trump-election-2018/.
    \43\Megan Brenan, ``Americans Most Satisfied With Nation's 
Military, Security,'' Gallup, Jan. 28, 2019, https://news.gallup.com/
poll/246254/americans-satisfied-nation-military-security.aspx.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Deeply troubling is the appearance that campaign spenders 
have more influence over public servants and public policy than 
non-contributors. According to a recent survey by the Pew 
Research Center, ``overall, 37% of Americans say that they feel 
it is at least somewhat likely their representative would help 
them with a problem if they contacted her or him. However, 
about half (53%) of those who have given money to a political 
candidate or group in the last year believe their 
representative would help. Belief that one's Member of Congress 
will help them with a problem is highest (63%) among the subset 
of donors who have given more than $250 to a candidate or 
campaign in the past year.''\44\ For decades, of course, the 
Supreme Court recognized the government's interest in deterring 
``the reality or appearance of improper influence stemming from 
the dependence of candidates on large campaign contributions,'' 
and upheld many campaign finance regulations accordingly.\45\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \44\Bradley Jones, ``Most Americans Want to Limit Campaign 
Spending, Say Big Donors Have Greater Political Influence,'' Pew 
Research Center, May 8, 2018, http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/
2018/05/08/most-americans-want-to-limit-campaign-spending-say-big-
donors-have-greater-political-influence/.
    \45\Buckley v. Valeo, 424 U.S. 1, 58 (1976) (per curiam).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Money from undisclosed sources have flooded our elections 
in record amounts since Citizens United.\46\ Moreover, a 
gridlocked and dysfunctional Federal Election Commission has 
left many major violations unaddressed, and has failed to keep 
its regulations on pace with the changing nature of campaigns. 
HR 1 includes key reforms to shine a light on dark money in 
politics, empower small dollar donors, and reform the Federal 
Election Commission to improve the enforcement of our campaign 
finance laws.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \46\Center for Responsive Politics, ``Outside Spending by Non-
disclosing Groups, Cycle Totals, Excluding Party Committees,'' https://
www.opensecrets.org/outsidespending/disclosure.php (last visited Feb. 
11, 2019).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Transparency Former Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis 
said that ``sunlight is said to be the best of 
disinfectants.''\47\ H.R. 1 reforms disclosure laws to 
vindicate every American's right to know who is spending money 
to influence elections.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \47\Louis Brandeis, ``What Publicity Can Do,'' Harper's Weekly, 
Dec. 20, 1913.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Since the Supreme Court's 2010 decision in Citizens United 
opened the floodgates to unlimited campaign spending by 
corporations and other artificial entities, special interests 
and others have spent more than $950 million to influence 
federal elections without disclosing the source of the 
money.\48\ Dark, secret, unlimited money in elections 
undermines the integrity of the democratic process. It makes it 
harder for the public to follow the money and hold elected 
officials and major donors accountable. Money can be laundered 
through a variety of artificial entities to influence 
elections, which can lead to circumvention of other campaign 
finance prohibitions, such as the ban on foreign money in 
American political campaigns. Polls show that Americans 
overwhelmingly favor disclosure of donors who are financing 
major campaign expenditures, including through outside 
groups.\49\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \48\Center for Responsive Politics, Outside Spending by Disclosure, 
Excluding Party Committees, https://www.opensecrets.org/
outsidespending/disclosure.php.
    \49\Written Testimony of Fred Wertheimer, President, Democracy 21, 
Hearing: ``For the People: Our American Democracy,'' Feb. 14, 2019, at 
9.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The Supreme Court has repeatedly affirmed the 
constitutionality of disclosure laws. In a section of Citizens 
United that had the support of eight Supreme Court justices, 
Justice Kennedy wrote that with the ``advent of the Internet, 
prompt disclosure of expenditures can provide shareholders and 
citizens with the information needed to hold corporations and 
elected officials accountable for their positions and 
supporters. . . . [C]itizens can see whether elected officials 
are ```in the pocket' of so-called moneyed interests.''\50\ In 
the landmark case Buckley v. Valeo, the Court held that 
``disclosure requirements deter actual corruption and avoid the 
appearance of corruption by exposing large contributions and 
expenditures to the light of publicity. The exposure may 
discourage those who would use money for improper purposes 
either before or after the election. A public armed with 
information about a candidate's most generous supporters is 
better able to detect any post-election special favors that may 
be given in return.''\51\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \50\Citizens United v. FEC, 558 U.S. 310, 370 (2010).
    \51\Buckley v. Valeo, 424 U.S. 1, 67 (1976).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Disclosure does not silence speech. The Court held in 
Buckley that disclosure requirements ``impose no ceiling on 
campaign-related activities,''\52\ and ``do not prevent anyone 
from speaking'' in McConnell v. FEC.\53\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \52\See id. at 64;
    \53\McConnell v. FEC, 540 U.S. 93, 201 (2003).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
            DISCLOSE Act
    H.R. 1 closes gaping loopholes in our campaign finance 
system's disclosure laws left open since Citizens United. The 
DISCLOSE Act requires covered organizations--corporations, non-
profit organizations, section 527 organizations, and others--to 
report their campaign-related spending if they spend more than 
$10,000 in an election cycle. Such organizations spending money 
to influence elections must also disclose their donors who give 
$10,000 during an election cycle. Campaign-related spending is 
defined to include independent expenditures, electioneering 
communications, and advertisements that promote, attack, 
support, or oppose the election of candidates.\54\ Covered 
organizations have a choice of setting up a separate account to 
be used for making campaign-related expenditures. If they use 
the separate account, only donors of $10,000 or more to that 
account are disclosed. If they do not use a separate account, 
all donors of $10,000 or more to the covered organization are 
disclosed.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \54\The Supreme Court upheld the PASO test in McConnell v. FEC, 540 
U.S. 93 (2003).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    There are three exceptions for disclosure. First, amounts 
from commercial transactions received in the ordinary course of 
any trade or business conducted by the covered organization. 
Second, amounts that a donor prohibits from being used for 
campaign-related spending, provided that the covered 
organization agrees to follow the prohibition and deposits the 
payment in an account which is segregated from any account used 
to make campaign-related disbursements. Third, the requirement 
to include information relating to the name or address of any 
donor shall not apply if the inclusion of the information would 
subject the person to serious threats, harassment, or 
reprisals.
    The DISCLOSE Act also addresses the problem of money that 
is laundered through various front groups or shell entities to 
hide the original source of campaign-related spending. The bill 
requires disclosure of transfers between covered organizations 
when those transfers are made for the purpose of campaign-
related expenditures or are deemed to be made for campaign-
related expenditures.
    Finally, the DISCLOSE Act closes loopholes that allow 
foreign money to influence federal elections, particularly 
through dark money vehicles. It amends the definition of 
foreign national for purposes of the ban on foreign national 
campaign spending to add any corporation or limited liability 
corporation which is 5 percent or more owned or controlled by a 
foreign country of foreign government official, or which is 20 
percent or more owned by any other foreign national, or over 
which one or more foreign nationals has the power to control 
the decision-making of the corporation. It requires 
certification of compliance with the ban on foreign national 
spending by chief executive officers before corporations make 
contributions, donations, or expenditures in connection with 
elections.
            Honest Ads Act
    Digital political advertising continues to skyrocket. 
According to the Center for Responsive Politics, spending on 
digital ads in the 2018 midterms was expected to cost $1.9 
billion, or approximately 22 percent of overall political 
advertising.\55\ Digital advertising is a relatively 
inexpensive and effective medium to spread a message quickly 
and efficiently.\56\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \55\Megan Janetsky, ``Low Transparency, Low Regulation Online 
Political Ads Skyrocket,'' Center for Responsive Politics, Mar. 7, 
2018, https://www.opensecrets.org/news/2018/03/low-transparency-low-
regulation-online-political-ads-skyrocket/.
    \56\See Weiser, supra note 4, at 23.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    It also opens up our system to vulnerabilities due in part 
to the failure of campaign finance laws to keep pace with 
technology.\57\ Russia's efforts to sow division and distrust 
in democracy during the 2016 election included ``overt efforts 
by Russian Government agencies, state-funded media, third-party 
intermediaries, and paid social media users or trolls.'''\58\ 
Facebook disclosed that it ``identified more than $100,000 
worth of divisive ads on hot-button issues purchased by a 
shadowy Russian company linked to the Kremlin.''\59\ The 
Washington Post reported that ``two teams of independent 
researchers found that the Russians exploited American-made 
technology platforms to attack U.S. democracy at a particularly 
vulnerable moment . . . as part of a broadly effective strategy 
of sowing distrust in U.S. democracy and its leaders.''\60\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \57\See generally Hamsini Sridharan and Ann M. Ravel, 
``Illuminating Dark Digital Politics: Campaign Finance Disclosure for 
the 21st Century,'' October 2017 (finding that the ``lack of a 21st 
century disclosure system is all the more stark when considering the 
pace with which communication is moving online.'').
    \58\Office of the Director of National Intelligence, ``Assessing 
Russian Activities and Intentions in Recent US Elections,'' Jan. 6, 
2017, at ii, https://www.dni.gov/files/documents/ICA_2017_01.pdf.
    \59\Scott Shane and Vindu Goel, ``Fake Russian Facebook Accounts 
Bought $100,000 in Political Ads,'' N.Y. Times, Sept. 6, 2017, https://
www.nytimes.com/2017/09/06/technology/facebook-russian-political-
ads.html.
    \60\Craig Timberg, ``Russian Propaganda Effort Helped Spread `Fake 
News' During Election, Experts Say,'' Wash. Post, Nov. 24, 2016, 
https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/economy/russian-propaganda-
effort-helped-spread-fake-news-during-election-experts-say/2016/11/24/
793903b6-8a40-4ca9-b712-716af66098fe_story.html?ut _term=.24841509a330.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The Honest Ads Act updates the rules that apply to online 
political advertising by incorporating disclosure and 
disclaimer concepts that apply to traditional media, while 
providing regulatory flexibility for new forms of digital 
advertising. This will help ensure that voters make informed 
decisions at the ballot box and to know who is spending money 
on digital political advertisements that they view.
    It also expands the definition of public communication to 
include paid internet or paid digital communications, and 
amends the definition of electioneering communication to 
include certain digital or internet communications placed or 
promoted for a fee online.
    Finally, the bill requires that large online platforms 
(defined to include those with 50,000,000 or more unique 
monthly United States visitors) maintain public databases of 
political ad purchases. This is a concept that already applies 
to broadcasters, who must maintain public files of political 
advertisements. The online databases maintained by the 
platforms will provide the public with information about the 
purchasers of online political ads, including how the audience 
is targeted. Political advertisements are defined to include 
those that communicate messages relating to political matters 
of national importance, including about candidates, elections, 
and national legislative issues of public importance.
    Finally, the Honest Ads Act requires all broadcasters, 
cable or satellite television and online platforms to take 
reasonable efforts to ensure that political advertising is not 
purchased by foreign nationals, directly or indirectly.
            Stand By Every Ad Act
    H.R. 1 also includes the Stand By Every Ad Act. Currently, 
only candidates are required to ``stand by'' their 
advertisements to indicate that they have approved certain 
political messages. The Stand By Every Ad Act applies this 
requirement to election-related advertisements purchased by 
outside entities such as corporations, 527 organizations and 
nonprofit organizations. It would also require such 
advertisements to include a list of the Top Five funders of the 
entity (in video advertisements) or the Top Two funders of the 
entity (for audio advertisements). These provisions improve 
transparency and accountability in campaign spending and are in 
keeping with the need for better disclosure provisions, 
particularly with the steep increase in outside group spending 
after Citizens United.

Campaign Finance--Empowering Every Voice in Our Democracy

    Money plays an outsized role in determining who runs for 
office, who wins office, and in setting policy priorities in 
Washington. The total costs of elections continue to rise 
exponentially. The total cost of Congressional elections in 
2008, for example, was $2.5 billion.\61\ A decade later, the 
2018 midterms cost more than $5.7 billion.\62\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \61\Cost of Elections, Center for Responsive Politics, https://
www.opensecrets.org/overview/cost.php/.
    \62\See id.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The eye-popping sums themselves do not tell the whole 
story. Important, too, is the source of the money. American 
political campaigns are funded by a tiny, wealthy, and highly 
unrepresentative segment of the population. In the 2018 
midterms, only 0.47% of the population gave $200 or more to 
political campaigns.\63\ This slice of America contributed 71% 
of the money that went to federal candidates, PACs, parties, 
and outside groups.\64\ This class of donors is not 
representative of the public at large. It is largely white, 
wealthy, and male.\65\ According to Demos:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \63\Donor Demographics, Center for Responsive Politics, https://
www.opensecrets.org/overview/donordemographics.php (last visited Feb. 
19, 2019).
    \64\See id.
    \65\See Bains, supra note 8, at 12.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Ninety-two percent of federal election donors in 2014 and 
91 percent of donors in 2012 were white. The numbers are even 
more skewed among large donors. Ninety-four percent of those 
giving more than $5,000 in 2014 and 93 percent in 2012 were 
white. Men make up slightly less than half of the population, 
but comprised 63 percent of federal election donors in 2012 and 
66 percent of donors in 2014. The pool of donors who give more 
than $1,000 has less gender diversity, with men making up 65 
percent of donors giving more than $5,000.\66\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \66\Id.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    This pales in comparison to the rich diversity of our 
country and undermines principles of equal representation.
    When it comes to so-called ``independent'' spending--
campaign spending by Super PACs, corporations, and other 
nonprofit organizations--the financial muscle of the donor 
class is even more stark. Since the Supreme Court's decision in 
Citizens United, Super PACs alone have raised more than $4.88 
billion.\67\ In the 2018 midterms, just 100 donors contributed 
more than $1 billion to Super PACs--an average of $100 million 
per donor.\68\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \67\Outside Spending by Super PAC, Center for Responsive Politics, 
https://www.opensecrets.org/outsidespending/summ.php?chrt=V&type=S 
(last visited Feb. 19, 2019).
    \68\Super PACs: How Many Donors Give, Center for Responsive 
Politics, https://www.opensecrets.org/outside-spending/donor-stats 
(last visited Feb. 19, 2019).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    A direct threat to a responsive democracy is how money sets 
policy priorities--or even appears to set policy priorities. As 
the Supreme Court reasoned in Buckley, when it upheld 
contribution limits, ``[of] almost equal concern as the danger 
of actual quid pro quo corruption is the impact of the 
appearance of corruption stemming from public awareness of the 
opportunities for abuse inherent in a regime of large 
individual financial contributions.''\69\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \69\Buckley, 424 U.S. at 27.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Numerous studies have demonstrated that major campaign 
donors have more influence than voters over policy, and often 
the policy objectives take a divergent path from that preferred 
by voters.\70\ This lack of responsiveness, real and perceived, 
is counter to the ideals of democratic self-government.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \70\See Weiser, supra note 4, at 17 (citing Chris Tausanovitch, 
``Income, Ideology and Representation,'' Russell Sage Foundation 
Journal of the Social Sciences 2 (2016): 33, 49; Martin Gilens and 
Benjamin I. Page, ``Testing Theories of American Politics: Elites, 
Interest Groups, and American Citizens,'' Perspectives on Politics 12 
(2014): 564, 575; Christopher Ellis, ``Social Context and Economic 
Biases in Representation,'' Journal of Politics 75 (2013): 773, 779; 
Martin Gilens, Affluence and Influence: Economic Inequality and 
Political Power in America (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 
2012), 84; Larry Bartels, Unequal Democracy: The Political Economic of 
the New Gilded Age (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010), 285).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Candidates for office today face the difficult challenge of 
having to raise significant amounts of funds and to do so 
quickly if they want to be considered viable. Few can manage 
this without relying heavily on a network of donors and 
organized interests. It is true that the Internet can be a 
revolutionary tool to empower small dollar donors. Still, small 
dollar donors of $200 or less contributed only 30 percent of 
the money raised in the 2018 midterms.\71\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \71\Donor Demographics, Center for Responsive Politics, https://
www.opensecrets.org/overview/donordemographics.php (last visited Feb. 
19, 2019).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
            Small Dollar Financing of Congressional Election Campaigns
    H.R. 1 provides a voluntary, alternative method to raise 
funds for Congressional elections. It will allow candidates to 
run for office without depending on deep pocketed donors or 
special interest funders.\72\ It will empower ordinary 
Americans to make their small contributions matter as greatly 
as large contributions to candidates.\73\ It will free up 
candidates to run competitive races solely on small dollar 
donors.\74\ And it will open up the political process to new 
and diverse candidates to run competitive campaigns.\75\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \72\See Wertheimer, supra note 50, at 3.
    \73\See id.
    \74\See id.
    \75\See id.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Such voluntary public funding systems have been created in 
recent years in Berkeley, CA; Portland, OR; Denver, CO; 
Baltimore, MD; Montgomery County, MD; Howard County, MD; Prince 
George's County, MD; Suffolk County, NY; and Seattle, WA.\76\ 
Existing public financing systems have been updated recently in 
New York City, Los Angeles, CA, Maine, and Connecticut.\77\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \76\See id.
    \77\Id.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    One of the most successful public funding programs is in 
New York City, which matches donations up to $175 and where the 
vast majority of candidates participate.\78\ A Brennan Center 
study found that ``participating city candidates raised money 
from 90 percent of the city's census blocs, as compared to 
roughly 30 percent for state assembly candidates (who do not 
receive public matching dollars) running in the same 
areas.''\79\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \78\See Weiser, supra note 4, at 20.
    \79\Id.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    As established in H.R. 1, the small dollar financing of 
Congressional campaigns will provide a 6-to-1 match of 
contributions of $200 or less for participating candidates. It 
would cap the total amount of matching funds for a candidate to 
half of the average of the 20 most expensive winning campaigns 
in the previous cycle. To qualify for participation, candidates 
must raise at least $50,000 in small dollar contributions from 
at least 1,000 individuals during the qualifying period. 
Participating candidates agree to only raise funds from 
qualified small dollar contributions, matching funds, 
nonqualified contributions of up to $1,000 (which are not 
subject to the match), personal funds, and certain political 
committees. Multicandidate committees and party committees may 
contribute to participating candidates, but only if the 
contributions come from segregated accounts that only raise 
funds pursuant to the requirements for small dollar 
contributions.
    H.R. 1 will also revise and modernize the presidential 
public financing system. For decades, presidential candidates 
of both major political parties used the system to fund their 
political campaigns. The system fell into disrepair and has not 
kept pace with changes in how campaigns raise money, 
particularly with the rise in ``soft money'' in the 1990s and 
with the explosive growth of Super PACs after Citizens United. 
H.R. 1 will provide a matching system for primary presidential 
campaigns and increases the grant amount that is made available 
during the general election.
    All matching funds for the small dollar financing programs 
will come from the Freedom From Influence Fund. No appropriated 
funds will be used for the Freedom From Influence Fund. 
Matching fund payments are subject to a mandatory reduction in 
case of insufficient amounts in the Freedom From Influence 
Fund.
    The Supreme Court has upheld the constitutionality of 
voluntary public financing programs. In Buckley v. Valeo, it 
held that such alternative ways of financing campaigns ``reduce 
the deleterious influence of large campaign contributions on 
our political process'' and ``facilitate communication by 
candidates with the electorate.''\80\ It went on to describe 
public funding programs as ``a congressional effort, not to 
abridge, restrict, or censor speech, but rather . . . to 
facilitate and enlarge public discussion and participation in 
the electoral process, goals vital to a self-governing 
people.''\81\ In 2011, the Court held that ``governments may 
engage in public financing of election campaigns and that doing 
so can further significant government interest[s], such as the 
state interest in preventing corruption.''\82\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \80\Buckley, 424 U.S. at 91.
    \81\Id. at 92-93.
    \82\Arizona Free Enterprise Club's Freedom PAC v. Bennett, 546 U.S. 
721 (2011).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
            Help America Run Act
    In addition to the small dollar empowerment programs, H.R. 
1 includes the Help America Run Act, which is designed to 
promote the ability of more people, including those of modest 
means, to run for office. Current regulations allow candidates 
to pay themselves salaries, although this is not a feasible 
option for some candidates, particularly first-time candidates. 
This provision of H.R. 1 will allow nonincumbent candidates to 
cover specific expenses such as childcare, elder care, health 
insurance, and other necessities. It is essential that new 
pathways be opened to candidates for political office so that 
our Congress can reflect the people that it represents.
    In sum, these programs reduce opportunity for corruption, 
increase electoral competition, and expand citizen 
participation so that government works for and is accountable 
to the people.

Campaign Finance--Independent Spending and Coordination

    As discussed above, the Supreme Court held in Buckley that 
contribution limits are justified by a constitutional interest 
in curbing corruption and the appearance of corruption. At the 
same time, the Court has struck down limits on ``independent'' 
spending, most recently in Citizens United, on the theory that 
independent spending is attenuated from candidates and does not 
pose the same danger of corruption or its appearance.
    Still, due to a patchwork of laws and nonenforcement by the 
Federal Election Commission, new types of Super PACs have 
sprung up in recent years that essentially operate as close 
arms of candidate campaigns while claiming to be independent. 
Such single-candidate Super PACs raised more than $176 million 
in the midterm 2018 alone, and more than $834 million in the 
2016 presidential election.\83\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \83\2018 Outside Spending by Single-Candidate Super PACs, https://
www.opensecrets.org/outsidespending/summ.php?chrt=V&type=C.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    According to the nonpartisan Center for Responsive 
Politics, these types of Super PACs:

          focus almost exclusively on one candidate, either by 
        advertising in support of that candidate or attacking 
        his or her opponents. Like other Super PACs, they can 
        raise and spend unlimited amounts of money, so they 
        provide a convenient way for wealthy supporters to 
        contribute large sums to bolster their favored 
        candidates. Though Super PACs are supposed to operate 
        independently and refrain from coordinating their 
        strategy with someone running for office, these groups 
        are often created and run by individuals with very 
        close ties to the candidates they support.\84\

    \84\Id.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The ultimate concern here is that single-candidate Super 
PACs, and other unregulated coordinated spending, can be used 
to circumvent and eviscerate candidate contribution limits that 
would otherwise apply. If spending by outside groups and 
candidates is not actually independent--and it is coordinated--
then expenditures are treated as in-kind contributions to 
candidates under federal law.\85\ Such contributions are 
subject to source prohibitions and contribution limits. This is 
in keeping with the Supreme Court's decision in Buckley, which 
found that campaign expenditures coordinated with candidates 
can be treated as contributions to the candidate, because the 
``ultimate effect is the same as if the [spender] had 
contributed the dollar amount [of the expenditure] to the 
candidate.''\86\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \85\11 C.F.R. Sec. 109.20; 109.21.
    \86\Buckley, 424 U.S. at 36-37.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    To be clear, the Supreme Court has said that independent 
spending must be done ``totally independently;''\87\ ``not 
pursuant to any general or particular understanding with a 
candidate,''\88\ ``without any candidate's approval (or wink or 
nod),''\89\ and must be ``truly independent.''\90\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \87\Buckley, 424 U.S. at 47.
    \88\Colorado Republican Federal Campaign Committee v. FEC, 518 U.S. 
604, 614 (1996).
    \89\FEC v. Colorado Republican Federal Campaign Committee, 533 U.S. 
431, 442 (2001).
    \90\Id. at 465.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    H.R. 1 uses these Court decisions to establish updated 
coordination standards to address the rise of single-candidate 
Super PACs and other types of coordinated spending. Its purpose 
is to ensure spending is truly independent, including by 
establishing new standards for ``coordinated spenders'' that 
are based on relationships between outside spenders and 
candidates. Revising coordination rules, as provided in the 
bill, furthers the government's interest in curbing corruption 
and the appearance of corruption.
    Importantly, there are express protections in place to 
ensure that advocacy and lobbying activities are unaffected by 
updated coordination rules. For example, H.R. 1 makes clear 
that there can be no finding of coordination based solely on 
sharing of information regarding legislative or policy 
positions.

Reforming the Federal Election Commission

    The mission of the Federal Election Commission is to 
administer and enforce federal campaign finance law. It plays a 
critical role in ensuring that the public has access to data 
about the raising and spending of money to influence federal 
elections, and it provides advice and guidance to candidates 
and others seeking to comply with federal campaign finance law.
    Unfortunately, the Commission has not been fulfilling its 
mission. Former FEC Chair Ann Ravel told the New York Times in 
2015 that ``the likelihood of the laws being enforced is slim. 
. . . People think the F.E.C. is dysfunctional. It's worse than 
dysfunctional.''\91\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \91\Eric Lichtblau, ``FEC Can't Curb 2016 Election Abuse, 
Commission Chief Says,'' N.Y. Times, May 2, 2015, https://
www.nytimes.com/2015/05/03/us/politics/fec-cant-curb-2016-election-
abuse-commission-chief-says.html.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    An analysis by former Commissioner Ravel's office found 
that the Commission--made up of 6 members, no more than three 
of whom can be from the same political party--has dramatically 
increased in the number of deadlocked substantive votes between 
2006 and 2016.\92\ Whereas in 2006, only 4.2% of enforcement 
cases had at least one deadlocked vote, in 2016, 37.5% of all 
enforcement cases had a deadlocked vote. Fines dramatically 
reduced in the intervening year, and the Commission has failed 
to enact new regulations post-Citizens United to address the 
rise of secret, dark money in elections.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \92\Office of Commissioner Ann M. Ravel, ``Dysfunction and 
Deadlock: The Enforcement Crisis at the Federal Election Commission and 
the Unlikelihood of Draining the Swamp,'' February 2017, https://
classic.fec.gov/members/ravel/ravelreport_feb2017.pdf.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The Commission has been encumbered by numerous management 
challenges as well, including multiyear vacancies on the 
Commission itself and in key offices. The Commission has not 
had a permanent General Counsel in more than 5 years, for 
example.
    The result has been a lack of clear enforcement and 
guidance concerning campaign finance law.
    H.R. 1 reforms the FEC to fulfill its mission, while 
guarding against arbitrary and partisan enforcement of campaign 
finance law. It reduces the Commission from six to five 
commissioners, of whom no more than two can be affiliated with 
the same political party. An odd number of commissioners will 
avoid the inaction and dysfunction that comes with the current 
partisan split, as well as provide for an independent or minor 
party commissioner to break partisan ties. It also provides for 
a ``blue-ribbon'' advisory panel to suggest potential nominees 
to the President that are made public. This provides some 
accountability to the appointment process.
    Each commissioner, including the Chair, would be appointed 
to a single six-year term and would be ineligible for holdover 
status for more than one year. Currently, every member of the 
current Commission is sitting in holdover status on expired 
terms until the Senate confirms their successor. All of the 
currently-seated commissioners were appointed during the Bush 
Administration and none have been replaced during the 
subsequent two presidencies.
    H.R. 1 also reforms the enforcement process to empower the 
General Counsel's office to make initial findings and 
recommendations, subject to Commission override. It is designed 
to reduce the growing backlog of enforcement cases, which 
numbered at 326 in February 2019.\93\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \93\Tweet by FEC Chair Ellen L. Weintraub, Feb. 7, 2019, https://
twitter.com/EllenLWeintraub/status/1093534694828883969.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Strengthening High Ethical Standards in Congress

    Americans have witnessed an unprecedented torrent of 
ethical scandals emanating from Washington and the Trump 
Administration. From nepotism and influence peddling, to misuse 
of public funds, to self-enrichment, President Trump, his 
Administration, and other elected officials have stress-tested 
our ethics laws and exposed new loopholes that H.R. 1 will 
close. Cabinet and other senior officials have faced dozens of 
ethics and conflict-of-interest investigations that have led to 
their resignation and cast a cloud over their tenure.\94\ The 
``revolving door'' continues to spin between private industry 
and public service, all while the Office of Government Ethics 
lacks key tools to best uphold the public interest in high 
ethical standards.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \94\Bloomberg, ``Trump Team's Conflicts and Scandals: An 
Interactive Guide,'' Jan. 25, 2019, https://www.bloomberg.com/graphics/
trump-administration-conflicts/.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Ultimately, the cynicism emanating from these scandals 
threatens to undermine confidence in all levels of government, 
including Congress. According to Gallup, Americans' job 
approval rating for Congress stands at approximately 20 
percent.\95\ About half of the public said it had ``very 
little'' confidence in the institution.\96\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \95\Gallup, ``Congress and the Public,'' Jan. 2019, https://
news.gallup.com/poll/1600/congress-public.aspx.
    \96\Gallup, ``Confidence in Institutions (2018),'' https://
news.gallup.com/poll/1597/confidence-institutions.aspx.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Americans run for Congress to make a difference in their 
communities and to steward the public interest. Bolstering high 
ethical standards will improve trust in the institution. 
Ultimately, reforms to ethics and transparency rules that apply 
to Congress improve democratic accountability.
    H.R. 1 enacts new congressional ethics reforms as part of 
this process. First, it requires Members of Congress to 
reimburse Treasury for amounts paid as settlements and awards 
under the Congressional Accountability Act of 1995 in all cases 
of employment discrimination acts by Members.
    It also codifies the conflict of interest rules for Members 
of Congress and Congressional staff. It prohibits Members, 
House officers, and other employees of the House from using 
their position to introduce or help pass legislation for 
pecuniary gain.
    It will shine a light on influence-seeking by requiring FEC 
campaign finance reports to be linked with Lobbying Disclosure 
Act reports. This will help voters hold elected officials and 
special interests accountable to the public interest and follow 
how levers of influence are linked.
    Finally, the bill will require all reports from federal 
agencies mandated by Congress to be published online in a 
searchable and downloadable database. This strengthens the 
public's access to information.

                                Hearings

    On February 14, 2019, the Committee held a hearing titled 
``For the People: Our American Democracy'' to consider many of 
the concerns addressed by H.R. 1. The following witnesses 
testified: Chiraag Bains, Director of Legal Strategies, Demos; 
Wendy Weiser, Director, Democracy Program, Brennan Center for 
Justice at NYU School of Law; Fred Wertheimer, President, 
Democracy 21; The Honorable Kim Wyman Secretary of State, State 
of Washington; Alejandro Rangel-Lopez Senior at Dodge City High 
School, Dodge City, Kansas, and plaintiff in LULAC & Rangel-
Lopez v. Cox; Peter Earle, Wisconsin Civil Rights Trial Lawyer; 
Brandon A. Jessup, Data Science and Information Systems 
Professional; Executive Director, Michigan Forward; and David 
Keating, President, Institute for Free Speech.

                        Committee Consideration

    On Tuesday, February 26, 2019, the Committee met in open 
session and ordered the bill, H.R. 1, as amended, favorably 
reported to the House by a rollcall vote of 6 to 3, a quorum 
being present.

                            Committee Votes

    In compliance with clause 3(b) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, the Committee advises that the 
following rollcall votes occurred during the Committee's 
consideration of H.R. 1:
     1. Motion to report H.R. 1, as amended, favorably was 
agreed to by a rollcall vote of 6 to 3. The vote was as 
follows:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Representative             Yea      Nay     Present      Representative      Yea      Nay     Present
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ms. Lofgren......................       X   .......  .........  Mr. Davis (IL).....  .......       X   .........
Mr. Raskin.......................       X   .......  .........  Mr. Walker.........  .......       X   .........
Ms. Davis (CA)...................       X   .......  .........  Mr. Loudermilk.....  .......       X   .........
Mr. Butterfield..................       X   .......  .........
Ms. Fudge........................       X   .......  .........
Mr. Aguilar......................       X   .......  .........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     2. The Lofgren amendment in the nature of a substitute as 
amended to H.R. 1 was agreed to by a rollcall vote of 6 to 3. 
The vote was as follows:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Representative             Yea      Nay     Present      Representative      Yea      Nay     Present
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ms. Lofgren......................       X   .......  .........  Mr. Davis (IL).....  .......       X   .........
Mr. Raskin.......................       X   .......  .........  Mr. Walker.........  .......       X   .........
Ms. Davis (CA)...................       X   .......  .........  Mr. Loudermilk.....  .......       X   .........
Mr. Butterfield..................       X   .......  .........
Ms. Fudge........................       X   .......  .........
Mr. Aguilar......................       X   .......  .........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     3. An amendment offered by Mr. Davis of Illinois to strike 
section 1001 was defeated by a rollcall vote of 2 to 5. The 
vote was as follows:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Representative             Yea      Nay     Present      Representative      Yea      Nay     Present
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ms. Lofgren......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Davis (IL).....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Raskin.......................  .......  .......  .........  Mr. Walker.........       X   .......  .........
Ms. Davis (CA)...................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Loudermilk.....  .......  .......  .........
Mr. Butterfield..................  .......       X   .........
Ms. Fudge........................  .......       X   .........
Mr. Aguilar......................  .......       X   .........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     4. An amendment offered by Mr. Davis of Illinois to strike 
section 1012(d) was defeated by a rollcall vote of 2 to 5. The 
vote was as follows:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Representative             Yea      Nay     Present      Representative      Yea      Nay     Present
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ms. Lofgren......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Davis (IL).....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Raskin.......................  .......  .......  .........  Mr. Walker.........       X   .......  .........
Ms. Davis (CA)...................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Loudermilk.....  .......  .......  .........
Mr. Butterfield..................  .......       X   .........
Ms. Fudge........................  .......       X   .........
Mr. Aguilar......................  .......       X   .........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     5. An amendment offered by Mr. Davis of Illinois to strike 
section 1013 was defeated by a rollcall vote of 2 to 5. The 
vote was as follows:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Representative             Yea      Nay     Present      Representative      Yea      Nay     Present
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ms. Lofgren......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Davis (IL).....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Raskin.......................  .......  .......  .........  Mr. Walker.........       X   .......  .........
Ms. Davis (CA)...................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Loudermilk.....  .......  .......  .........
Mr. Butterfield..................  .......       X   .........
Ms. Fudge........................  .......       X   .........
Mr. Aguilar......................  .......       X   .........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     6. An amendment offered by Mr. Davis of Illinois to strike 
section 1014 was defeated by a rollcall vote of 3 to 5. The 
vote was as follows:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Representative             Yea      Nay     Present      Representative      Yea      Nay     Present
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ms. Lofgren......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Davis (IL).....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Raskin.......................  .......  .......  .........  Mr. Walker.........       X   .......  .........
Ms. Davis (CA)...................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Loudermilk.....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Butterfield..................  .......       X   .........
Ms. Fudge........................  .......       X   .........
Mr. Aguilar......................  .......       X   .........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     7. An amendment offered by Mr. Walker to strike section 
1015(a)(2) was defeated by a rollcall vote of 3 to 4. The vote 
was as follows:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Representative             Yea      Nay     Present      Representative      Yea      Nay     Present
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ms. Lofgren......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Davis (IL).....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Raskin.......................  .......  .......  .........  Mr. Walker.........       X   .......  .........
Ms. Davis (CA)...................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Loudermilk.....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Butterfield..................  .......       X   .........
Ms. Fudge........................  .......       X   .........
Mr. Aguilar......................  .......  .......  .........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     8. An amendment offered by Mr. Davis of Illinois to strike 
section 1017 was defeated by a rollcall vote of 2 to 4. The 
vote was as follows:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Representative             Yea      Nay     Present      Representative      Yea      Nay     Present
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ms. Lofgren......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Davis (IL).....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Raskin.......................  .......  .......  .........  Mr. Walker.........  .......  .......  .........
Ms. Davis (CA)...................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Loudermilk.....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Butterfield..................  .......       X   .........
Ms. Fudge........................  .......       X   .........
Mr. Aguilar......................  .......  .......  .........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    9. An amendment offered by Mr. Davis of Illinois to strike 
section 1019(b) was defeated by a rollcall vote of 2 to 5. The 
vote was as follows:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Representative             Yea      Nay     Present      Representative      Yea      Nay     Present
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ms. Lofgren......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Davis (IL).....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Raskin.......................  .......  .......  .........  Mr. Walker.........  .......  .......  .........
Ms. Davis (CA)...................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Loudermilk.....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Butterfield..................  .......       X   .........
Ms. Fudge........................  .......       X   .........
Mr. Aguilar......................  .......       X   .........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     10. An amendment offered by Mr. Loudermilk to strike 
section 1019(e) was defeated by a rollcall vote of 2 to 4. The 
vote was as follows:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Representative             Yea      Nay     Present      Representative      Yea      Nay     Present
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ms. Lofgren......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Davis (IL).....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Raskin.......................  .......  .......  .........  Mr. Walker.........  .......  .......  .........
Ms. Davis (CA)...................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Loudermilk.....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Butterfield..................  .......       X   .........
Ms. Fudge........................  .......  .......  .........
Mr. Aguilar......................  .......       X   .........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     11. An amendment offered by Mr. Davis of Illinois to 
strike section 1031 was defeated by a rollcall vote of 2 to 4. 
The vote was as follows:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Representative             Yea      Nay     Present      Representative      Yea      Nay     Present
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ms. Lofgren......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Davis (IL).....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Raskin.......................  .......  .......  .........  Mr. Walker.........  .......  .......  .........
Ms. Davis (CA)...................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Loudermilk.....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Butterfield..................  .......       X   .........
Ms. Fudge........................  .......  .......  .........
Mr. Aguilar......................  .......       X   .........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     12. An amendment offered by Mr. Loudermilk to strike 
section 1041 was defeated by a rollcall vote of 2 to 4. The 
vote was as follows:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Representative             Yea      Nay     Present      Representative      Yea      Nay     Present
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ms. Lofgren......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Davis (IL).....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Raskin.......................  .......  .......  .........  Mr. Walker.........  .......  .......  .........
Ms. Davis (CA)...................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Loudermilk.....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Butterfield..................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Ms. Fudge........................  .......  .......  .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Mr. Aguilar......................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    13. An amendment offered by Mr. Davis of Illinois to strike 
section 1502 was defeated by a rollcall vote of 2 to 4. The 
vote was as follows:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Representative             Yea      Nay     Present      Representative      Yea      Nay     Present
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ms. Lofgren......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Davis (IL).....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Raskin.......................  .......  .......  .........  Mr. Walker.........  .......  .......  .........
Ms. Davis (CA)...................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Loudermilk.....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Butterfield..................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Ms. Fudge........................  .......  .......  .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Mr. Aguilar......................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    14. An amendment offered by Mr. Davis of Illinois to strike 
section 1504 was defeated by a rollcall vote of 3 to 5. The 
vote was as follows:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Representative             Yea      Nay     Present      Representative      Yea      Nay     Present
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ms. Lofgren......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Davis (IL).....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Raskin.......................  .......  .......  .........  Mr. Walker.........       X   .......  .........
Ms. Davis (CA)...................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Loudermilk.....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Butterfield..................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Ms. Fudge........................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Mr. Aguilar......................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    15. An amendment offered by Mr. Loudermilk to strike 
section 1601 was defeated by a rollcall vote of 2 to 4. The 
vote was as follows:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Representative             Yea      Nay     Present      Representative      Yea      Nay     Present
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ms. Lofgren......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Davis (IL).....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Raskin.......................  .......  .......  .........  Mr. Walker.........  .......  .......  .........
Ms. Davis (CA)...................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Loudermilk.....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Butterfield..................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Ms. Fudge........................  .......  .......  .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Mr. Aguilar......................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    16. An amendment offered by Mr. Loudermilk to strike 
section 1611 was defeated by a rollcall vote of 2 to 4. The 
vote was as follows:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Representative             Yea      Nay     Present      Representative      Yea      Nay     Present
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ms. Lofgren......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Davis (IL).....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Raskin.......................  .......  .......  .........  Mr. Walker.........  .......  .......  .........
Ms. Davis (CA)...................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Loudermilk.....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Butterfield..................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Ms. Fudge........................  .......  .......  .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Mr. Aguilar......................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    17. An amendment offered by Mr. Davis of Illinois to strike 
section 1621 was defeated by a rollcall vote of 2 to 4. The 
vote was as follows:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Representative             Yea      Nay     Present      Representative      Yea      Nay     Present
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ms. Lofgren......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Davis (IL).....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Raskin.......................  .......  .......  .........  Mr. Walker.........  .......  .......  .........
Ms. Davis (CA)...................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Loudermilk.....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Butterfield..................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Ms. Fudge........................  .......  .......  .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Mr. Aguilar......................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    18. An amendment offered by Mr. Loudermilk to strike 
section 1811 was defeated by a rollcall vote of 3 to 6. The 
vote was as follows:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Representative             Yea      Nay     Present      Representative      Yea      Nay     Present
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ms. Lofgren......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Davis (IL).....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Raskin.......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Walker.........       X   .......  .........
Ms. Davis (CA)...................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Loudermilk.....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Butterfield..................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Ms. Fudge........................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Mr. Aguilar......................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    19. An amendment offered by Mr. Davis of Illinois to strike 
section 1901 was defeated by a rollcall vote of 3 to 6. The 
vote was as follows:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Representative             Yea      Nay     Present      Representative      Yea      Nay     Present
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ms. Lofgren......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Davis (IL).....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Raskin.......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Walker.........       X   .......  .........
Ms. Davis (CA)...................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Loudermilk.....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Butterfield..................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Ms. Fudge........................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Mr. Aguilar......................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    20. An amendment offered by Mr. Loudermilk to strike 
section 1904 was defeated by a rollcall vote of 3 to 6. The 
vote was as follows:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Representative             Yea      Nay     Present      Representative      Yea      Nay     Present
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ms. Lofgren......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Davis (IL).....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Raskin.......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Walker.........       X   .......  .........
Ms. Davis (CA)...................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Loudermilk.....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Butterfield..................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Ms. Fudge........................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Mr. Aguilar......................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    21. An amendment offered by Mr. Walker to add new subtitle 
prohibiting the collection and transmission of ballots by third 
parties was defeated by a rollcall vote of 2 to 6. The vote was 
as follows:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Representative             Yea      Nay     Present      Representative      Yea      Nay     Present
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ms. Lofgren......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Davis (IL).....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Raskin.......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Walker.........       X   .......  .........
Ms. Davis (CA)...................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Loudermilk.....  .......  .......  .........
Mr. Butterfield..................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Ms. Fudge........................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Mr. Aguilar......................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    22. An amendment offered by Mr. Davis of Illinois to add 
three new subtitles prohibiting provision of funds to persons 
advocating for enactment was defeated by a rollcall vote of 3 
to 5. The vote was as follows:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Representative             Yea      Nay     Present      Representative      Yea      Nay     Present
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ms. Lofgren......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Davis (IL).....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Raskin.......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Walker.........       X   .......  .........
Ms. Davis (CA)...................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Loudermilk.....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Butterfield..................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Ms. Fudge........................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Mr. Aguilar......................  .......  .......  .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    23. An amendment offered by Mr. Davis of Illinois to strike 
section 2502 was defeated by a rollcall vote of 3 to 6. The 
vote was as follows:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Representative             Yea      Nay     Present      Representative      Yea      Nay     Present
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ms. Lofgren......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Davis (IL).....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Raskin.......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Walker.........       X   .......  .........
Ms. Davis (CA)...................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Loudermilk.....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Butterfield..................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Ms. Fudge........................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Mr. Aguilar......................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    24. An amendment offered by Mr. Davis of Illinois to strike 
Title III and replace with Secure elections Act was defeated by 
a rollcall vote of 3 to 6. The vote was as follows:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Representative             Yea      Nay     Present      Representative      Yea      Nay     Present
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ms. Lofgren......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Davis (IL).....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Raskin.......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Walker.........       X   .......  .........
Ms. Davis (CA)...................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Loudermilk.....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Butterfield..................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Ms. Fudge........................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Mr. Aguilar......................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    25. An amendment offered by Mr. Walker to strike section 
4122 was defeated by a rollcall vote of 3 to 6. The vote was as 
follows:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Representative             Yea      Nay     Present      Representative      Yea      Nay     Present
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ms. Lofgren......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Davis (IL).....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Raskin.......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Walker.........       X   .......  .........
Ms. Davis (CA)...................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Loudermilk.....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Butterfield..................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Ms. Fudge........................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Mr. Aguilar......................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    26. An amendment offered by Mr. Davis of Illinois to strike 
section 4208 was defeated by a rollcall vote of 3 to 6. The 
vote was as follows:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Representative             Yea      Nay     Present      Representative      Yea      Nay     Present
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ms. Lofgren......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Davis (IL).....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Raskin.......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Walker.........       X   .......  .........
Ms. Davis (CA)...................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Loudermilk.....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Butterfield..................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Ms. Fudge........................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Mr. Aguilar......................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    27. An amendment offered by Mr. Davis of Illinois to strike 
section 5101 was defeated by a rollcall vote of 3 to 5 with one 
Member abstaining. The vote was as follows:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Representative             Yea      Nay     Present      Representative      Yea      Nay     Present
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ms. Lofgren......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Davis (IL).....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Raskin.......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Walker.........       X   .......  .........
Ms. Davis (CA)...................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Loudermilk.....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Butterfield..................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Ms. Fudge........................  .......  .......         X   ...................  .......  .......  .........
Mr. Aguilar......................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    28. An amendment offered by Mr. Davis of Illinois to strike 
section 5111 was defeated by a rollcall vote of 3 to 5 with one 
Member abstaining. The vote was as follows:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Representative             Yea      Nay     Present      Representative      Yea      Nay     Present
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ms. Lofgren......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Davis (IL).....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Raskin.......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Walker.........       X   .......  .........
Ms. Davis (CA)...................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Loudermilk.....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Butterfield..................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Ms. Fudge........................  .......  .......         X   ...................  .......  .......  .........
Mr. Aguilar......................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    29. An amendment offered by Mr. Davis of Illinois to strike 
section to require the identification for small dollar donors 
under section 5111 if the aggregate of qualifying small dollar 
donations from outside the district exceed $250,000 was 
defeated by a rollcall vote of 3 to 6. The vote was as follows:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Representative             Yea      Nay     Present      Representative      Yea      Nay     Present
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ms. Lofgren......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Davis (IL).....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Raskin.......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Walker.........       X   .......  .........
Ms. Davis (CA)...................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Loudermilk.....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Butterfield..................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Ms. Fudge........................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Mr. Aguilar......................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    30. An amendment offered by Mr. Davis of Illinois to strike 
subtitle A of Title VI was defeated by a rollcall vote of 3 to 
6. The vote was as follows:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Representative             Yea      Nay     Present      Representative      Yea      Nay     Present
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ms. Lofgren......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Davis (IL).....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Raskin.......................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Walker.........       X   .......  .........
Ms. Davis (CA)...................  .......       X   .........  Mr. Loudermilk.....       X   .......  .........
Mr. Butterfield..................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Ms. Fudge........................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
Mr. Aguilar......................  .......       X   .........  ...................  .......  .......  .........
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                      Committee Oversight Findings

    In compliance with clause 3(c)(1) of rule XIII and clause 
(2)(b)(1) of rule X of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives, the Committee's oversight findings and 
recommendations are reflected in the descriptive portions of 
this report.

         Statement of General Performance Goals and Objectives

    The objective of H.R. 1, as amended, is to improve access 
to the right to vote, promote integrity, and bolster security 
in our elections. It will improve transparency in campaign 
spending and empower more Americans to participate in the 
political process. H.R. 1 will also fortify ethics laws and 
improve their enforcement. In sum, the objective is to improve 
the processes of American democracy to ensure that government 
is reflective and responsive to the public.

   New Budget Authority, Entitlement Authority, and Tax Expenditures

    In compliance with clause 3(c)(2) of rule XIII of the Rules 
of the House of Representatives, the Committee adopts as its 
own the estimate of new budget authority, entitlement 
authority, or tax expenditures or revenues contained in the 
cost estimate prepared by the Director of the Congressional 
Budget Office pursuant to section 402 of the Congressional 
Budget Act of 1974.

                  Earmarks and Tax and Tariff Benefits

    H.R. 1 contains no congressional earmarks, limited tax 
benefits, or limited tariff benefits as described in clauses 
9(e), 9(f), and 9(g) of House rule XXI.

                        Committee Cost Estimate

    The Committee adopts as its own the cost estimate on H.R. 
1, as amended, prepared by the Director of the Congressional 
Budget Office pursuant to section 402 of the Congressional 
Budget Act of 1974.

                  Congressional Budget Office Estimate

    Pursuant to clause 3(c)(3) of rule XIII of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives, the following is the cost estimate 
for H.R. 1, as amended, provided by the Congressional Budget 
Office pursuant to section 402 of the Congressional Budget Act 
of 1974.
                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                     Washington, DC, March 1, 2019.
Hon. Zoe Lofgren,
Chairperson, Committee on House Administration,
House of Representatives, Washington, DC.
    Dear Madam Chairperson: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for H.R. 1, the For the 
People Act of 2019.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Matthew 
Pickford.
            Sincerely,
                                                Keith Hall,
                                                          Director.
    Enclosure.
    
    
Bill Summary

    H.R. 1 would amend and reform federal statutes governing 
voting rights, elections, election security, campaign finance, 
lobbying, and ethics, among numerous other provisions. The bill 
would reauthorize several federal agencies that oversee those 
statutes and provide new enforcement powers. Additionally, the 
bill would create new voluntary programs to provide public 
financing for elections and authorize appropriations for grants 
related to election systems and security.
    The bill would make significant changes to the operation of 
federal elections by states, including changes to voter access 
and voting systems. Those changes are primarily contained in 
division A. The bill would require states to offer online voter 
registration and automatic voter registration through state 
agency records (such as education enrollment), to expand early 
voting opportunities and permit unrestricted voting by mail, to 
offer same-day voter registration on election days, and to use 
voting systems that produce individual and auditable paper 
ballots. Division A would authorize additional appropriations 
for the Election Assistance Commission (EAC), authorize state 
grant programs, and designate election infrastructure as a 
critical infrastructure subsector under the Homeland Security 
Act.
    Division B would address campaign finance transparency, 
oversight, and enforcement. The bill would amend the Federal 
Election Campaign Act (FECA) to extend contribution and 
expenditure restrictions on foreign-controlled corporations and 
super political action committees (PACs), to broaden FECA 
disclosure and reporting requirements to cover entities not 
subject to contribution limits, and to apply disclosure and 
disclaimer requirements to paid online and digital 
communications.
    The bill would establish a pilot program to provide 
campaign contribution vouchers to eligible voters and a 
voluntary public financing system for campaigns for the House 
of Representatives. Similarly, the bill would amend the 
existing presidential public financing system. Expenditures for 
those programs would be limited to amounts designated in the 
proposed Freedom From Influence Fund. The bill would provide no 
source of funds for the Freedom From Influence Fund; without 
funding, those programs would not be implemented and thus those 
provisions would have no cost.
    H.R. 1 would restructure the Federal Election Commission 
(FEC), reduce the size of the FEC to five commissioners, and 
invest the chair with new powers.
    Division C would amend some existing ethics statutes, 
particularly concerning conflicts of interest and federal 
lobbying. Under the bill, Members of Congress would be required 
to reimburse the Treasury for certain payments under the 
Congressional Accountability Act.

Estimated Federal Cost

    The estimated budgetary effects of H.R. 1 are shown in 
Table 1. Most costs of the legislation fall within budget 
function 800 (general government).

          TABLE 1--ESTIMATED INCREASES IN SPENDING SUBJECT TO APPROPRIATION FOR SELECTED PROVISIONS\a\
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                        By fiscal year, millions of dollars--
                                    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                        2019       2020       2021       2022       2023       2024    2019-2024
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Voting System Grants:
    Authorization..................      1,020        175          0        175          0        175      1,545
    Estimated Outlays..............        345        603        199         89        106         78      1,420
Election Assistance Grants:
    Estimated Authorization........        500          0        100         50         50         50        750
Estimated Outlays..................         10        200        200        240         50         50        750
HHS Grants:
    Estimated Authorization........          0         50         25         25         25         25        150
    Estimated Outlays..............          0         50         25         25         25         25        150
EAC Reauthorization:
    Authorization..................          0         10         10         10         10         10         50
    Estimated Outlays..............          0         10         10         10         10         10         50
Bounty Program:
    Estimated Authorization........          0         11         11         11         11         11         55
    Estimated Outlays..............          0         11         11         11         11         11         55
Other DHS Provisions:
    Estimated Authorization........          2          3          1          3          1          3         13
    Estimated Outlays..............          2          3          1          3          1          3         13
    Total Changes
        Estimated Authorization....      1,522        249        147        274         97        274      2,563
        Estimated Outlays..........        357        877        446        378        203        177      2,438
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
DHS = Department of Homeland Security, EAC = Election Assistance Commission; HHS = Department of Health and
  Human Services.
a CBO has completed an estimate of most discretionary costs under H.R. 1, however, CBO has not completed an
  estimate of some provisions that might cost tens of millions of dollars.

    Basis of estimate: For this estimate, CBO assumes that the 
legislation will be enacted in 2019 and that the specified and 
estimated amounts will be appropriated for each fiscal year, 
including supplemental amounts in 2019. Estimated outlays are 
based on historical patterns for existing and similar 
activities.

Spending Subject to appropriation

    CBO estimates that H.R. 1 would authorize the appropriation 
of about $2.6 billion over the 2019-2024 period. Assuming 
appropriation of the specified and estimated amounts, CBO 
estimates that implementing those provisions would cost $2.4 
billion over the same period. CBO has not completed an estimate 
of some of the bill's provisions with costs that are subject to 
annual appropriation, but expects those costs would total tens 
of millions of dollars.
    Voting System Grants. Sections 3001 and 3011 would 
authorize the appropriation of $1,545 million over the 2019-
2024 period for the EAC to make grants to states to improve 
voting technology and reduce cybersecurity vulnerabilities in 
election infrastructure. States could use those grants to 
acquire new voting systems, provide cybersecurity training to 
election officials, conduct security risk and vulnerability 
assessments, and other related activities. Based on historical 
data from the EAC, CBO estimates that those efforts would cost 
about $1.5 billion over the 2019-2014 period.
    Election Assistance Grants. Section 1017 would authorize 
the appropriation of $500 million in 2019 and whatever amounts 
are necessary in future years primarily for the EAC to provide 
grants to states to implement online and automatic voter 
registration. States would have to allow people to register to 
vote online or through an automated telephone-based system. 
States also would have to allow voters to update their voter 
information online. Based on the experience of the EAC with 
other efforts to improve voting-systems, the number of states 
eligible, and the costs to create and protect online systems, 
CBO estimates those grants would cost $750 million over the 
2019-2024 period.
    Department of Health and Human Services Grants. Section 
1102 would authorize the appropriation of whatever amounts are 
necessary for the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) 
to provide states with grants to make polling places more 
accessible to people with disabilities. Based on the cost of 
similar programs, CBO estimates that implementing the provision 
would cost $150 million over the 2019-2024 period.
    Election Assistance Commission Reauthorization. Section 
1911 would permanently authorize the appropriation of operating 
funds for the EAC. Based on the amounts provided in recent 
years, CBO estimates that provision would cost $50 million over 
the 2020-2024 period.
    Bounty Program. Section 3402 would authorize the Department 
of Homeland Security (DHS) to establish a program to improve 
the cybersecurity of the systems used to administer federal 
elections. The program would facilitate and encourage 
assessments by independent technical experts in cooperation 
with state and local election officials to identify and report 
cybersecurity vulnerabilities. Using information about similar 
programs in other federal agencies, including the Department of 
Defense Hack the Pentagon program, CBO estimates that 
implementing the program would cost $55 million over the 2019-
2024 period.
    Other Department of Homeland Security Provisions. H.R. 1 
also would require the EAC and DHS to complete a variety of 
reports, analyses, and other administrative actions aimed at 
securing the election process. Those measures include providing 
security clearances to state election officials, testing voting 
systems for compliance with cybersecurity guidelines, and 
establishing a national commission to protect democratic 
institutions. CBO estimates that, in total, implementing those 
measures would cost $13 million over the 2019-2024 period.
    Other Programs. CBO has not had sufficient time to estimate 
the costs of several other provisions of H.R. 1, including ones 
that would require:
           Grants to be made by the Department of 
        Education to institutions of higher education to 
        register students to vote provided;
           A voter information and response hotline to 
        be established and operated by the Department of 
        Justice;
           Grants to be made by the National Institute 
        of Standards and Technology for studies on voting by 
        people with disabilities provided; and
           Reimbursements from the EAC to be made to 
        states for the costs of tracking and confirming 
        acceptance of absentee ballots.

Freedom from influence fund

    Section 541 would establish an account in the Treasury to 
be known as the Freedom From Influence Fund. That fund would be 
the sole source of funding for three programs: the My Voice 
Voucher Pilot Program (proposed in section 5100), a program to 
match certain small-dollar contributions to election campaigns 
for the House of Representatives (proposed in section 5111) and 
the matching funds for Presidential election campaigns program 
(as amended in section 5200).
    CBO expects that the cost of operating those programs could 
exceed $1 billion over the next 10 years, but because H.R. 1 
would not authorize any funds to be deposited into the Freedom 
From Influence Fund, any costs to implement the voucher pilot 
program and the two programs to provide matching funds would be 
attributed to future legislation that would provide funds for 
that Treasury account and not to H.R. 1. Those programs are 
briefly described below.
    My Voice Voucher Pilot Program. The FEC would be required 
to establish a pilot program in three states to reimburse those 
states for the cost of providing a voucher worth $25 to any 
eligible voter in the state to be used for campaign 
contributions in $5 increments for candidates for the House of 
Representatives. The pilot program would operate during the 
2022 and 2024 campaign cycles. Each state participating in the 
pilot program would be limited to receiving $10 million in 
reimbursements from the federal government for each of the two 
campaign cycles (six states over two election cycles). The 
vouchers could be used as donations to qualify for the matching 
program for U.S. House elections.
    Matching Funds for Elections for the House of 
Representatives. H.R. 1 would create a program to match certain 
qualifying campaign contributions with federal funds for 
candidates running to serve in the House of Representatives who 
choose to comply with the program's requirements. Generally, 
candidates would be able to accept campaign contributions of 
$200 or less from individual donors to receive federal matching 
funds at the rate of $6 for every $1 raised from donors. 
Eligible candidates would need to meet certain other 
fundraising thresholds, and the bill would limit the total 
matching funds available to any individual candidate. The bill 
would not limit the total cost of providing matching funds for 
all participating candidates.
    Presidential Campaign Matching Funds Program. Under current 
law, candidates for President can choose to participate in a 
program that matches certain campaign contributions with 
federal funds. (No candidates have participated in that program 
since 2008.) H.R. 1 would modify the current program to 
increase the federal match rate of qualifying private donations 
to $6 for each $1 contributed. Under the bill, the only source 
of funding for the amended program would be the Freedom From 
Influence Fund, and the program would not begin operations 
until the start of the 2028 presidential campaign cycle.
    Pay-As-You-Go considerations: None.
    Increase in Long-Term Direct Spending and Deficits: None.

Mandates

    CBO has not reviewed title I or section 2502 of H.R. 1 for 
intergovernmental or private-sector mandates. Section 4 of the 
Unfunded Mandates Reform Act excludes from the application of 
that act any legislative provision that enforces constitutional 
rights of individuals. CBO has determined that both title I and 
section 2502 fall within that exclusion because they enforce 
constitutional rights related to voting.
    Other provisions of H.R. 1 would impose intergovernmental 
and private sector mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates 
Reform Act (UMRA). CBO estimates the cost of the mandates would 
fall below the annual thresholds for intergovernmental and 
private-sector mandates established in UMRA ($82 million and 
$164 million in 2019, respectively, adjusted annually for 
inflation).

Intergovernmental Mandates

    Section 3303 would impose an intergovernmental mandate by 
requiring states to submit a report on the voting system each 
jurisdiction in the state plans to use, which would include 
details on how each jurisdiction would use electronic poll 
books and other equipment. The new report would be due 120 days 
before each regularly scheduled federal election. Because 
states report extensively on their election activities and have 
previously reported similar information, CBO estimates the cost 
of the mandate would be small.

Private-Sector Mandates

    H.R. 1 would impose numerous private-sector mandates on 
candidates for federal office, campaign committees, political 
entities, and advertising platforms, among other entities. 
Several of the mandates, listed in more detail below, would 
prohibit entities from engaging in certain activities. In 
general, those mandates would not impose costs because they do 
not require any action on the part of the mandated entities. 
However, several sections would expand existing mandates, 
particularly those related to campaign finance disclosure and 
reporting. CBO expects that the aggregate cost of complying 
with these mandates would be small because most of the mandated 
entities are already subject to some form of disclosure and 
reporting requirements. For such entities, the new duties would 
impose only minor additional administrative costs.
    Campaign Finance and Disclosure Duties. Mandates related to 
campaign finance and fundraising laws would restrict certain 
contribution activities, require advertisement disclaimers, and 
considerably increase the volume of certain activities that 
must be reported to the FEC.
           Section 4101 would extend FECA's prohibition 
        on foreign nationals' making campaign contributions and 
        expenditures to include corporations or partnerships 
        that meet certain foreign ownership criteria. Because 
        those entities may operate domestically, they would be 
        considered private-sector entities under UMRA; thus, 
        the new restrictions would be mandates on these 
        entities.
           Section 4102 would require certain corporate 
        PACs to certify that their segregated campaign funds 
        are not controlled by foreign nationals.
           Section 4111 would impose reporting 
        requirements on covered organizations that make 
        campaign-related disbursements greater than $10,000 
        during a reporting cycle. This provision would require 
        organizations to submit a statement to the FEC, as 
        applicable, that identifies any beneficial owners of 
        the organization; certifies that disbursements are not 
        made in coordination with candidates, committees, or 
        parties; and describes receipts and disbursements in 
        greater detail.
           Sections 4205 and 4206 would amend the 
        definitions of public communication and electioneering 
        communication under FECA to include paid online and 
        digital communications. Entities making such 
        communications online, therefore, would be required to 
        comply with existing FECA disclosure mandates.
           Section 4207 would establish special 
        disclaimer rules for certain Internet or digital 
        communications placed by political entities. The bill 
        would require that covered communications state the 
        name of the person who paid for the communication or 
        provide a source for that information.
           Sections 4208 would require certain online 
        platforms that sell political advertisements and meet 
        minimum traffic thresholds to maintain a public 
        database of requests to purchase qualified political 
        advertisements in excess of $500 annually. This section 
        also would require those entities to retain other 
        information, including copies of the advertisements and 
        purchasing information.
           Section 4209 would require television and 
        radio broadcasters and online platforms to make 
        reasonable efforts to ensure that campaign 
        communications are not purchased by foreign nationals.
           Section 4302 would require the sponsors of 
        campaign communications made on the Internet to 
        identify the source of funding for such communications 
        if not authorized by candidates or committees.
           Section 4303 would require the sponsors of 
        prerecorded campaign telephone calls to identify the 
        source of funding for such communications in the phone 
        call. Sections 4302 and 4303 extend an existing 
        disclosure mandate under FECA to cover such 
        communications.
           Section 6102 would add coordinated 
        expenditures between candidates, parties, and super 
        PACs to the definition of contribution under FECA, 
        which would extend existing disclosure and reporting 
        requirements to those expenditures.
           Section 6103 would prohibit federal 
        candidates from soliciting or receiving funds from, or 
        transferring funds to, entities, including super PACs, 
        that are not subject to certain FECA requirements.
           Section 9202 would require political 
        committees, people making independent expenditures, and 
        people making electioneering communications to disclose 
        whether those persons or certain donors are lobbyists 
        registered under the Lobbying Disclosure Act.
    Presidential Inaugural Committees. Section 4702 would 
impose private-sector mandates on presidential inaugural 
committees and on individuals making donations to or handling 
donations for such committees. The section would prohibit 
inaugural committees from soliciting or receiving donations 
from an entity that is not an individual or is a foreign 
national and would require the committee to report 
contributions and disbursements to the FEC. Additionally, the 
section would limit the aggregate amount an individual may 
donate to an inaugural committee to $50,000 and would prohibit 
any person from making a donation to an inaugural committee in 
the name of another person or converting a donation to personal 
use. CBO estimates the cost to comply with those mandates would 
be negligible because the additional reporting requirements are 
an extension of similar requirements in current law. The 
prohibitions would impose no direct costs on the mandated 
entities.
    Estimate prepared by: Federal Costs: Matthew Pickford, Dan 
Ready, and Aldo Prosperi; Mandates: Andrew Laughlin.
    Estimate reviewed by: Kim Cawley, Chief, Natural and 
Physical Resources; David Newman, Chief, Defense, International 
Affairs, and Veterans' Affairs Unit; Susan Willie, Chief, 
Public and Private Mandates Unit; H. Samuel Papenfuss, Deputy 
Assistant Director for Budget Analysis; Theresa Gullo, 
Assistant Director for Budget Analysis.

                       Federal Mandates Statement

    The Committee adopts as its own the estimate of Federal 
mandates regarding H.R. 1, as amended, prepared by the Director 
of the Congressional Budget Office pursuant to section 423 of 
the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act.

                  Non-Duplication of Federal Programs

    Pursuant to clause 3(c)(5) of House rule XIII, the 
committee states that no provision of this resolution 
establishes or reauthorizes a program of the Federal Government 
known to be duplicative of another Federal program, a program 
that was included in any report from the Government 
Accountability Office to Congress pursuant to section 21 of 
Public Law 111-139, or a program related to a program 
identified in the most recent Catalog of Federal Domestic 
Assistance.

                      Advisory Committee Statement

    H.R. 1 does not establish or authorize any new advisory 
committees.

                  Applicability to Legislative Branch

    H.R. 1 does not apply to terms and conditions of employment 
or to access to public services or accommodations within the 
legislative branch.

             Section-by-Section Analysis of the Legislation


                           DIVISION A--VOTING

                        Title I--Election Access


              Subtitle A--Voter Registration Modernization


Section 1000. Short title; statement of policy

    This section states that it is the policy of the United 
States that all eligible citizens should have free and fair 
access to the vote, and that the integrity, security, and 
accountability of the voting process must be vigilantly 
protected.

                Part 1--Promoting Internet Registration


Section 1001. Requiring availability of Internet for voter registration

    This section would amend the National Voter Registration 
Act to require the availability of online application, 
assistance, completion, submission, and receipt of voter 
registration applications. It would allow online signature 
through use of state agency databases, submitting a 
supplemental paper copy, a verified electronic copy, or other 
state-established means. It directs States to allow voters who 
complete all other parts of the online voter registration, 
except for the signature verification, to submit a signature 
upon requesting a ballot in person or by mail. Requires States 
to inform potential voters about the signature process and 
their rights. Requires States to certify receipt of online 
voter registration applications and update potential voters on 
the status and outcome of their application in a timely and 
direct manner by email and/ or postal mail. Requires that 
services are provided in a nonpartisan manner. Requires the 
protection of all information provided online. Requires that 
state ensure services in this section are made available to 
individuals with disabilities to the same extent as others. 
Allows states to use a telephone-based system that provides the 
same services as are available online. Requires that voters 
registered online be treated the same as those registered by 
mail.

Section 1002. Use of Internet to update registration information

    This section would allow registered voters to update their 
registration information online. It would require States to 
send receipts of registration update and notice of disposition 
of the request. It would require that, within 7 days of an 
election official accepting or rejecting updated information, 
that an official send the requesting individual notice of the 
disposition of the update.

Section 1003. Provision of election information by electronic mail to 
        individuals registered to vote

    This section would add a space to voter registration forms 
for applicants to provide email addresses. Restricts the use of 
voter's email address to official election purposes only. 
Requires that voters who provide an email address be sent an 
email not later than seven days before an election including 
providing information on how the voter may obtain, by 
electronic means, the name and address of their polling place, 
the hours of operation of said polling place, and a description 
of any identification required.

Section 1004. Clarification of requirement regarding necessary 
        information to show eligibility to vote

    This section would clarify that States shall consider an 
applicant to have provided a valid voter registration form if 
the applicant substantially completes the application and 
attestation and, in the case of online registration, the 
applicant provides a signature.

Section 1005. Effective date

    This section provides that, with limited exceptions, this 
subtitle takes effect on January 1, 2020.

                  Part 2--Automatic Voter Registration


Section 1011. Short title; findings and purpose

    States the short title of this section is the ``Automatic 
Voter Registration Act of 2019.'' Finds the right to vote is a 
fundamental right of citizens, that the State and Federal 
government are charged with ensuring every eligible citizen is 
registered to vote, and that existing voter registration 
systems are underinclusive and must be updated. Establishes the 
purpose of the bill to enable governments to register all 
eligible citizens, to modernize voter registration, and to 
protect and enhance the integrity, accuracy, efficiency, and 
accessibility of the U.S. electoral process.

Section 1012. Automatic registration of eligible individuals

    This section would require chief State election officials 
to establish an automatic voter registration system that 
complies with this Act. Defines an automatic voter registration 
system, where unless the individual affirmatively declines to 
be registered, the individual will be registered to vote. 
Requires the chief State election official to register eligible 
individuals within 15 days of receiving transmitted information 
and to notify the individual of their voter status within 120 
days of such information being transmitted. Outlines the 
notification and opt-out process for one-time automatic voter 
registration for existing contributing agency records in a 
manner that allows individuals to choose or decline a party 
affiliation, correct erroneous information, and learn more 
about the process. Directs chief State election officials to 
complete the one-time automatic voter registration within 45 
days of sending notice, unless the individual declines to 
register. Allows eligible individuals above age 16 and under 
age 18 to participate in the automatic voter registration 
process.

Section 1013. Contributing agency assistance in registration

    This section would require contributing agencies to assist 
the chief State election official in registering all eligible 
individuals served by the agency. Directs each contributing 
agency, including institutions of higher education, to inform 
confirmed, eligible citizens of the automatic voter 
registration process, update, and need to select a party 
affiliation if required by State law--unless they exercise 
their right to decline or do not meet the Federal 
qualifications. Each contributing agency shall ensure that 
every individual has the opportunity to decline to be 
registered to vote. Unless the individual declines during the 
30-day notice period, each contributing agency will 
electronically transmit the voter registration information to 
the chief State election official in a compatible format.
    Further, this section prescribes that the individual's 
name, date of birth, address, proof of citizenship, date 
information was collected or updated, electronic signature if 
available, political party affiliation, and any additional 
information required for Federal office is included in the 
transmission. Provides an alternate procedure for certain 
contributing agencies, including institutions of higher 
education that do not request confirmation of citizenship 
information from individuals. Requires each contributing agency 
to provide an opportunity for individuals to register to vote 
every time the individual applies for service or assistance, 
without regard to whether an individual previously declined a 
registration opportunity. Defines State and Federal 
contributing agencies--including institutions of higher 
education that receive Federal funds. Requires the chief State 
election official to publish the list of contributing agencies 
180 days in advance of a Federal election. Directs the chief 
State election official to educate the public about the 
automatic voter registration process.

Section 1014. One-time contributing agency assistance in registration 
        of eligible voters in existing records

    Prescribes the timeline for the initial transmission of 
information.

Section 1015. Voter protection and security in automatic registration

    This section would provide protections against errors in 
automatic registration by affirming that a person engaging in 
intentional fraud in registration or voting is still punishable 
and prevents adverse Federal and State consequences for a 
person who is ineligible and did not know that the person 
should decline or did not mean to become registered. Prohibits 
a contributing agency from collecting information on who 
declines registration and prohibits election officials' 
disclosure of which contributing agency a person visited. 
Limits the use of voter registration records in contexts other 
than voter registration, election administration, and 
prosecution of election crimes. Requires that each State 
maintain, and make publicly available electronically, records 
of changes to voter records, including removals, reasons for 
removals, and updates, for at least 2 years. Requires the 
National Institute of Standards and Technology to establish 
enhanced privacy and security standards for how states maintain 
the voter rolls and protect voters' privacy, and requires that 
such standards be uniform and nondiscriminatory, and applied in 
a uniform and nondiscriminatory manner. States must comply with 
and publish those compliance standards.
    Further, this section would require that the chief State 
election official adopt a policy specifying each class of users 
with authorized access to the computerized statewide voter 
registration list and their level of access, and set forth 
safeguards to protect the privacy, security, and accuracy of 
the information on the list. Requires the chief executive 
officer of the state to annually file with the Election 
Assistance Commission (EAC) certifying compliance with the 
privacy and security standards offered by the National 
Institute of Standards and Technology. Failure to timely file 
such certification will result in a State not receiving payment 
under this section for the upcoming fiscal year. Allows that in 
the case of a State that requires State legislation to carry 
out an activity covered by the certification, for a period of 
not more than 2 years the State shall be permitted to make the 
certification notwithstanding that the legislation has not been 
enacted at the time the certification is submitted, and such 
State shall submit an additional certification once such 
legislation is enacted. Restricts usage of information, 
providing no one acting under color of law may discriminate 
against any individual based on their voter registration 
records, decision to decline to register, or their voter 
registration status. Further prohibits use of voter 
registration information for commercial purposes.

Section 1016. Registration portability and correction

    This section would permit registered voters to update and 
correct their voter registration information at the polling 
station and cast a regular ballot based upon the most current 
information. Requires election officials to update statewide 
voter registration lists with the updated or corrected 
information provided by the voter.

Section 1017. Payments and grants

    This section would authorize the EAC to distribute grants 
to the states, monitor their use, and allocate funding based on 
a set of priority investments, including technological upgrades 
and public education. Authorizes an appropriation of 
$500,000,000 beginning in fiscal year 2019 to implement this 
Subtitle, authorizes such sums as may be necessary for each 
succeeding fiscal year, and permits funds to be available until 
expended.

Section 1018. Treatment of exempt States

    This section would clarify the treatment and availability 
of funds for exempt States, including states that provide 
automatic voter registration through the motor vehicle 
authority of the State or through the permanent Dividend Fund 
of the State.

Section 1019. Miscellaneous provisions

    This section would require contributing agencies to ensure 
that registration services are equally available to individuals 
with disabilities. Permits contributing agencies to contract 
with a third party to enable a secure transmission of voter 
data. Reiterates that contributing agencies must provide 
services in a nonpartisan, nondiscriminatory manner. Permits a 
State to communicate with an individual by email if provided 
and mandates that, for notices that require a response, the 
notified individual must be offered the opportunity to respond 
at no cost. Clarifies that civil enforcement and the private 
rights of action outlined in the National Voter Registration 
Act apply to this section. Explains that this subtitle does not 
impact other voting rights and election administration 
statutes.

Section 1020. Definitions.

    This section provides definitions for Part 2 of the bill.

Section 1021. Effective date

    This section provides that the effective date for States 
begins on January 1, 2021, although the EAC may grant 
extensions through Jan. 1, 2023 if a State certifies to the 
Commission it will not meet compliance deadlines because of 
extraordinary circumstances and includes reasons for the 
failure to meet said deadline.

                  Part 3--Same Day Voter Registration


Section 1031. Same day registration

    This section mandates that each State permit an eligible 
individual to register to vote on the day of a Federal election 
or when voting is allowed in a Federal election, such as early 
voting, and further allows already-registered voters to update 
or correct registration information. Excepts states with no 
voter registration requirement from this mandate. Requires 
compliance in time for the regularly scheduled general election 
for Federal office of November 2020.

   Part 4--Conditions on Removal on Basis of Interstate Cross-Checks


Section. 1041. Conditions on removal of registrants from official list 
        of eligible voters on basis of interstate cross-checks

    This section maintains other conditions on removal and 
additionally prohibits a State election official from removing 
a voter deemed ineligible in a cross-State check from a 
registration list unless the State obtained the voter's full 
name, date of birth, and last four digits of their Social 
Security number or obtained documentation from the Electronic 
Registration Information Center (ERIC) system that the voter is 
no longer a resident of the State. Requires cross-checks to be 
completed at least six months ahead of an election.

        Part 5--Other Initiatives to Promote Voter Registration


Section. 1051. Annual reports on voter registration statistics

    This section would require each State to submit an annual 
report to Congress and the EAC on voter registration statistics 
prescribed by this Title. The report will not share any voter 
identifying information.

   Part 6--Availability of Help America Vote Act Requirement Payments


Section 1061. Availability of requirements payments under HAVA to cover 
        costs of compliance with new requirements

    This section provides that a State may use a requirements 
payment to carry out any of the requirements of the Voter 
Registration Modernization Act of 2019.

        Part 7--Prohibiting Interference with Voter Registration


Section 1071. [RESERVED]

Section 1072. Establishment of Best Practices

    This section would require the EAC to develop and publish 
best practice recommendations for States to educate voters, 
poll workers, and election officials about illegal interference 
with the registration and voting process.

     Subtitle B--Access to Voting for Individuals with Disabilities


Section 1101. Requirements for States to promote access to voter 
        registration and voting for individuals with disabilities

    This section would mandate the availability of absentee 
ballots for individuals with disabilities. Allows for 
individuals with disabilities to request and receive, by mail 
or electronically, registration forms and absentee ballots. 
Requires State to accept and process any otherwise valid voter 
registration or absentee ballot application from an individual 
with a disability if received by appropriate State election 
official within the deadline for the election applicable under 
Federal law. Provides absentee ballots no later than 45 days 
prior to an election, when the request has been received at 
least 45 days prior to an election. Mandates a single state 
office responsible for providing voting-related information to 
individuals with disabilities. Requires states to provide means 
of electronic communication of information related to 
registration, voting, etc. Includes guidance to ensure that 
absentee ballots sent to voters with disabilities are the same 
as those returned. Includes hardship exemption for states 
incapable of providing electronic transmissions, which must be 
approved by the Attorney General.

Section 1102. Expansion and reauthorization of grant program to assure 
        voting access for individuals with disabilities

    This section would provide grants for making absentee 
voting and voting at home accessible, making polling places 
accessible, and providing accessibility solutions that are 
universally designed and provide the same opportunities to vote 
for individuals with and without disabilities.

                  Subtitle C--Prohibiting Voter Caging


Section 1201. [RESERVED]

Section 1202. Development and adoption of best practices for preventing 
        voter caging

    Mandates that EAC develop best practices to deter and 
prevent voter caging, include such practices in voter 
information materials, and provide information on how 
individuals may report allegations of violations of this 
prohibition on voter caging.

   Subtitle D--Prohibiting Deceptive Practices and Preventing Voter 
                              Intimidation


                               [RESERVED]


                   Subtitle E--Democracy Restoration


                               [RESERVED]


 Subtitle F--Promoting Accuracy, Integrity, and Security Through Voter-
                    Verified Permanent Paper Ballot


Section 1501. Short title

    This section provides that this subtitle may be cited as 
the ``Voter Confidence and Increased Accessibility Act of 
2019.''

Section 1502. Paper ballot and manual counting requirements

    This section would amend the Help America Vote Act of 2002 
to require individual, durable, voter-verified, paper ballots. 
Votes must be counted by hand or optical character recognition 
device. Provides voter an opportunity to correct ballot. 
Ballots are not preserved in any manner that makes it possible 
to associate a voter to the ballot without the voter's consent. 
Paper ballots constitute an official ballot and shall be used 
for any recount or audit. Applies paper ballot requirement to 
all ballots cast in elections for Federal office, including 
ballots cast by absent uniformed services voters and overseas 
voters under the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee 
Voting Act and other absentee voters. Provides a special rule 
for treatment of disputes when paper ballots have been shown, 
by clear and convincing evidence, to be compromised, and in 
such numbers that the results of the election could be changed. 
Provides that the appropriate remedy shall be made in 
accordance with applicable State law, except that the 
electronic tally may not be used as the exclusive basis for 
determining the official certified result. Ensures that the 
entire process retains alternative language accessibility 
standards.

Section 1503. Accessibility and ballot verification for individuals 
        with disabilities

    This section would ensure that individuals with 
disabilities and others are given an equivalent opportunity to 
vote, including with privacy and independence, in a manner that 
produces a voter-verified paper ballot as for other voters. 
Allows the voter to privately and independently verify the 
permanent paper ballot through the presentation, in accessible 
form, of the printed or marked vote selections from the same 
printed or marked information that would be used for any vote 
counting or auditing; and allows the voter to privately and 
independently verify and cast the permanent paper ballot 
without requiring the voter to manually handle the paper 
ballot.
    Authorizes $5,000,000 for the Director of the National 
Science Foundation to make grants to at least three entities to 
study, test, and develop accessible paper ballots for public 
use to enhance accessibility for voters with disabilities, 
voters whose primary language is not English, and/or voters who 
have difficulties with literacy.

Section 1504. Durability and readability requirements for ballots

    This section would require that all voter-verified ballots 
are printed on durable paper that is able to maintain the 
accuracy and integrity of the ballot over repeated handling.

Section 1505. Effective date for new requirements

    This section would require each State and jurisdiction be 
in compliance on and after January 1, 2020.

                    Subtitle G--Provisional Ballots


Section 1601. Requirements for counting provisional ballots; 
        establishment of uniform and nondiscriminatory standards

    This section would require that a provisional ballot shall 
be counted for statewide election, notwithstanding at which 
polling place it was cast. Each State shall establish uniform 
and nondiscriminatory standards for the issuance, handling, and 
counting of provisional ballots for elections held on or after 
January 1, 2020.

                        Subtitle H--Early Voting


Section 1611. Early Voting

    This section would require early voting in Federal 
elections to occur for at least 15 consecutive days, including 
weekends, of no less than 4 uniform hours each day, and notes 
that the early voting should occur within walking distance to 
public transportation. Requires the EAC to establish voluntary 
early voting standards. Standards shall include the 
nondiscriminatory geographic placement of polling places at 
which such voting occurs. Standards shall permit States, upon 
providing adequate public notice, to deviate from any 
requirement in the case of unforeseen circumstances such as a 
natural disaster, terrorist attack, or a change in voter 
turnout. Makes this section effective to elections held on or 
after January 1, 2020.

                       Subtitle I--Voting by Mail


Section 1621. Voting by Mail

    This section would prohibit any additional conditions or 
requirements to voting by mail, other than deadlines for 
requesting and returning the ballot. Requires State to verify 
voter's identity by signature comparison in order for absentee 
ballot to be accepted. Provides due process protections 
specific to signature verification, including provision of an 
immediate notice and opportunity to cure any discrepancy before 
making final determination on ballot's validity. Also notes an 
election official may not determine signature discrepancy 
unless at least two officials make the same determination, and 
each official has received training in procedures to verify 
signatures. State or local election officials will ensure that 
the ballot and voting materials are received by the individual 
at least two weeks before the date of a Federal election or as 
expeditiously as possible if the State's deadline to request a 
ballot is less than two weeks. Ensures that all absentee 
ballots and voting materials are equally accessibly to voters 
with disabilities. Establishes that State and local elected 
officials must accept any otherwise-appropriate ballot 
postmarked on or before the date of a Federal election. 
Certifies that this title has no effect on ballots cast by 
military and overseas voters. The effective date of this 
section is on or after January 1, 2020. Directs the EAC to 
establish voluntary vote by mail standards by June 30, 2020. 
Directs National Institute of Standards, in consultation with 
EAC, to develop standards for use of biometric methods which 
can be used voluntarily in place of signature verification 
requirements for purposes of verifying identity of individual 
voting by absentee ballot in Federal election. Provides for 
notice and comment, and publication of standards not later than 
a year after enactment of this Act.

    Subtitle J--Absent Uniformed Services Voters and Overseas Voters


Section 1701. Pre-election reports on availability and transmission of 
        absentee ballots

    This section would require reports 55 days prior to an 
election certifying that absentee ballots will be available for 
uniformed services voters and overseas voters by not later than 
45 days prior to election. Requires report 43 days prior to 
election confirming that ballots have been sent. Not later than 
90 days after election, requires report on combined number of 
absentee ballots transmitted to absent uniformed services 
voters and overseas voters and the combined number of such 
ballots that were returned by such voters and cast in the 
election.

Section 1702. Enforcement

    This section would enable the Attorney General to bring a 
civil action for declaratory or injunctive relief. Allows civil 
penalty up to $110,000 for first and up to $220,000 for each 
subsequent violation. The Attorney General must report to 
Congress by end of each year on any civil actions brought 
against states. Provides for private right of action for 
declaratory or injunctive relief. Clarifies that the State is 
the only necessary party defendant. Makes the effective date of 
this section the day of enactment of this Act.

Section 1703. Revisions to 45-day absentee ballot transmission rule

    This section would require express delivery of ballots if a 
State misses the 45-day deadline. Requires States to enable 
express delivery for ballots to be returned if sent fewer than 
40 days prior to election. Clarifies 45 days prior to an 
election, or most recent weekday which proceeds 45th day in 
case of weekend or public holiday.

Section 1704. Use of single absentee ballot application for subsequent 
        elections

    This section would require States to send absentee ballots 
for each subsequent election after an official post card form 
has been submitted, except for when a voter notifies the State 
that voter no longer wishes to be registered to vote in the 
State or has registered in another State or is otherwise no 
longer eligible to vote in the State. Prohibits State from 
refusing an application for absentee ballot because it was sent 
before the first date on which the State otherwise accepts.

Section 1705. Effective date

    This section would provide that this subtitle applies to 
every election occurring after January 1, 2020.

            Subtitle K--Poll Worker Recruitment and Training


Section 1801. [RESERVED]

Section 1802. Grants to States for poll worker recruitment and training

    This section would provide that the EAC may make grants to 
States for recruiting and training non-partisan poll workers. 
Grant recipients must use EAC materials. Amount of grant equal 
to product of aggregate amount made available for grants to 
States under this section and proportion of voting age 
population of the state. States must submit reports 6 months 
after final grant is made. Election Assistance Commission must 
submit report to Congress no later than one year after grant is 
made.

Section 1803. State defined

    This section would define the term ``State'' to include the 
District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, 
American Samoa, the United States Virgin Islands, and the 
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

                 Subtitle L--Enhancement of Enforcement


Section 1811. Enhancement of enforcement of Help America Vote Act of 
        2002

    This section would permit an individual to file a 
complaint, with Attorney General, to a State-based 
administrative complaint processing entity. Provides for a 
private right of action. Does not affect any administrative 
remedies made available by the State. This title applies to any 
violation for Federal elections held beginning in 2020.

                 Subtitle M--Federal Election Integrity


Section 1821. Prohibition on campaign activities by chief State 
        election administration officials

    This section provides that Chief State election 
administration officials may not take part in a Federal office 
campaign over which such official has supervisory authority, 
including serving as a member of an authorized committee of a 
candidate, using official authority to affect the result, or 
taking part in contributions on behalf of any candidate. 
Exception for when official or immediate family member is a 
candidate, as long as the official recuses themselves from all 
official responsibilities for the administration of such 
election, and the official who then assumes those 
responsibilities for supervising the administration of the 
election does not report directly to such official. Defines 
immediate family member as a father, mother, son, daughter, 
brother, sister, husband, wife, father-in-law, or mother-in-
law. Federal elections held after December 2019 must comply 
with this section.

  Subtitle N--Promoting Voter Access Through Election Administration 
                              Improvements


                     Part 1--Promoting Voter Access


Section 1901. Treatment of universities as voter registration agencies

    This section would designate institutions of higher 
education as voter registration agencies subject to the 
requirements of the National Voter Registration Act if the 
institution does not already serve as a contributing agency for 
the purpose of the automatic voter registration provisions of 
the bill. Requires an institution to designate a Campus Vote 
Coordinator, who shall provide assistance and information to 
students related to voting and registering to vote. Authorizes 
the Secretary of Education to administer grants to institutions 
that exceed the ``good faith'' requirements of paragraph 23 of 
the Higher Education Act. Includes a sense of Congress that 
students of these institutions have the options of registering 
either in the state of the institution or the state of their 
domicile.

Section 1902. Minimum notification requirements for voters affected by 
        polling place changes

    This section would require States to notify an individual, 
not later than 7 seven days before election, that a voter's 
polling place has changed. If the reassignment is made fewer 
than seven days before the election and the individual appears 
on the date of the election at the previously-assigned polling 
place, the State must make every reasonable effort to enable 
the individual to vote on the date of the election.

Section 1903. [RESERVED]

Section 1904. Permitting use of sworn written statement to meet 
        identification requirements for voting

    This section would provide that if a State has an 
identification requirement, the State shall permit any 
individual who is not a first-time voter who registered by 
mail, to submit a sworn written statement under penalty of 
perjury to attest to the individual's identification and 
eligibility to vote in a Federal election. Requires EAC to 
create a standardized form for this purpose, to ensure forms 
are clear and prevent any state effort that, inadvertently or 
otherwise, causes the voter ID alternative form to be 
intimidating or confusing. Applicable States must provide a 
pre-printed copy of the certification statement at polling 
places or with absentee ballot information. Any individual who 
presents a sworn written statement shall be permitted to cast a 
regular ballot in the same manner as an individual who presents 
identification. Requires States to include information about 
the right for voters to sign a sworn, written statement in all 
voting information material posted at the polling place. This 
section is applicable upon enactment.

Section 1905. [RESERVED]

Section 1906. Reimbursement for costs incurred by States in 
        establishing program to track and confirm receipt of absentee 
        ballots

    This section would enable States to use Help America Vote 
Act funds for the costs of establishing a program to establish 
an absentee ballot tracking program with respect to Federal 
elections. The program should collect information on whether 
the vote was counted, and if the vote was not counted explain 
the justification for its exclusion. Permits State and local 
officials to use a toll-free telephone number for voters to 
obtain this information if the State or local election office 
does not have an Internet site. The State must submit a 
statement certifying the creation of an absentee ballot 
tracking program and costs incurred with the program to the EAC 
in order to receive a payment for this program. Reimbursements 
may not exceed the product of the number of jurisdictions in 
which the State is responsible for operating the program and 
$3,000. Such sums as necessary are authorized for the purpose 
of the section, and these funds are available until expended.

Section 1907. Voter information response systems and hotline

    This section would require the Attorney General to develop 
a state-based response system and hotline that provides 
information on voting, including voter registration, location 
and hours of polling places, and how to obtain absentee 
ballots, and provides immediate assistance to individuals 
encountering problems with registering to vote or voting. 
Attorney General shall ensure that the response system & 
hotline are developed in consultation with civil rights and 
voting rights organizations, State and local election 
officials, voter protection groups, and other interested 
community organizations, especially those that have experience 
in the operation of similar systems and services. Hotline 
allows individuals to report information on problems 
encountered in registering or voting, including intimidation or 
suppression. Hotline must be usable by individuals with 
disabilities and those with limited proficiency in the English 
language. Establishes a Task Force to provide ongoing analysis 
of operation of Hotline. In determining members, there is a 
preference to civil rights organizations. To be eligible to 
serve on the Task Force, one must not have been convicted of 
any criminal offense relating to voter intimidation or 
suppression. Terms last for two years, and the position is 
uncompensated. Requires the Attorney General to report to 
Congress no later than March 1st every odd-numbered year, 
description of the reports made, assessment of the 
effectiveness of the service, and any recommendations developed 
by the Task Force. Appropriates such sums as may be necessary 
and notes that not less than 15% of appropriations must be used 
for public awareness of availability of Hotline with an 
emphasis on outreach to individuals with disabilities and 
individuals with limited English language proficiency.

        Part 2--Improvements in Operation of Election Assistance


Section 1911. Reauthorization of Election Assistance Commission

    This section would provide for reauthorization of the EAC.

Section 1913. Requiring states to participate in post-general election 
        surveys

    This section would require each State to comply with any 
EAC request for a post-election survey following any regularly 
scheduled general election for Federal office beginning in 
November 2020.

Section 1914. Reports by National Institute of Standards and Technology 
        on use of funds transferred from Election Assistance Commission

    This section would require the Director of the National 
Institute of Standards and Technology to certify, at the time 
of any transfer of funds from the EAC, that the Director will 
submit a report to the Commission within 90 days of the end of 
the fiscal year detailing how the Director used the funds. This 
section is applicable beginning in fiscal year 2020.

Section 1915. Recommendations to improve operations of Election 
        Assistance Commission

    This section would direct the EAC to assess the security, 
cybersecurity, and effectiveness of the Commission's 
information technology systems. Requires the EAC to carry out a 
review of the effectiveness and efficiency of the State-based 
Help America Vote Act administrative complaint procedures for 
the investigation and resolution of allegations and violations. 
Requires the Commission to submit a report to Congress, not 
later than December 31, 2019 on these findings and 
recommendations to streamline and improve administrative 
procedures.

Section 1916. Repeal of exemption of Election Assistance Commission 
        from certain government contracting requirements

    This section would repeal certain existing contracting 
exemptions for the EAC.

                    Part 3--Miscellaneous Provisions


Section 1921. Application of laws to Commonwealth of Northern Mariana 
        Islands

    This section would amend the National Voter Registration 
Act of 1993 and the Help America Vote Act of 2002 to include 
the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, alongside the 
States and the District of Columbia.

Section 1922. No effect on other laws

    This section would provide that, except as specifically 
provided, nothing in this subtitle may be construed to 
authorize or require conduct prohibited under the following 
laws, or to supersede, restrict, or limit the application of 
such laws: The Voting Rights Act of 1965, The Voting 
Accessibility for the Elderly and Handicapped Act, The 
Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act, The 
National Voter Registration Act of 1993, The Americans with 
Disabilities Act of 1990, and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. 
Provides that the approval of a payment or grant under this 
title, or any action taken under this title, shall have no 
effect on preclearance or other requirements under the Voting 
Rights Act. Provides that nothing in this title or its 
amendments may be construed to prohibit States from providing 
greater opportunities to register to vote or vote than are 
provided by this title, creating a floor and not a ceiling for 
State action.

                    Subtitle O--Severability Clause


Section 1931. Severability

    This section would establish severability such that the 
application of the provisions of this title and amendments made 
by this title shall not be affected by a holding finding any 
provision of the title or amendment made by the title 
unconstitutional.

                      Title II--Election INTEGRITY


                         Subtitle A--[RESERVED]


                         Subtitle B--[RESERVED]


                         Subtitle C--[RESERVED]


                         Subtitle D--[RESERVED]


                         Subtitle E--[RESERVED]


         Subtitle F--Saving Eligible Voters from Voter Purging


Section 2501. Short Title

    This section would provide that this subtitle may be cited 
as the ``Stop Automatically Voiding Eligible Voters Off Their 
Enlisted Rolls in States Act'' or the ``Save Voters Act.''

Section 2502. Conditions for Removal of Voters from List of Registered 
        Voters

    This section would, in response to the Supreme Court 
decision in Husted v. A. Philip Randolph Institute (584 U.S. 
___; 138 S. Ct. 1833 (2018)) amend the National Voter 
Registration Act (NVRA) and the Help American Vote Act (HAVA) 
to prohibit states from using failure to vote as a trigger to 
begin a process of removing voters from the voter rolls. 
Currently, states must have ``objective and reliable evidence'' 
of an address change in order for the removal process to begin. 
Sets out conditions for removal from official list of 
registered voters, and provides that the following shall not be 
treated as objective and reliable evidence: failure to vote in 
any election, failure to respond to notice under NVRA unless 
returned as undeliverable, or failure to take any other action 
with respect to voting or one's status as a registrant. Also 
requires States to send individualized notice to removed 
registrant not later than 48 hours after removal, including the 
grounds for the removal, and how to contest removal or be 
reinstated. Provides exceptions for registrant who confirms in 
writing ineligibility to vote or is confirmed deceased. 
Requires public notice that list maintenance is taking place 
and registrants should check their registration status no later 
than 48 hours after conducting any general program to remove 
the names of ineligible voters from the official list of 
eligible voters. Provides that a state may not transmit a 
removal notice to registrant unless State obtains objective and 
reliable evidence that the registrant has changed residence to 
a place outside the registrar's jurisdiction. Also amends HAVA 
to include the ``objective and reliable evidence'' standard to 
ensure that failure to vote does not trigger the HAVA removal 
process.

    Subtitle G--No Effect on Authority of States to Provide Greater 
                        Opportunities for Voting


Section 2601. No Effect on Authority of States to Provide Greater 
        Opportunities for Voting

    This section would provide that nothing in this title or 
its amendments may be construed to prohibit States from 
providing greater opportunities to register to vote or vote 
than are provided by this title, creating a floor and not a 
ceiling for State action.

                    Subtitle H--Severability Clause


Section 2701. Severability

    This section would establish severability such that the 
application of the provisions of this title and amendments made 
by this title shall not be affected by a holding finding any 
provision of the title or amendment made by the title 
unconstitutional.

                      Title III--Election Security


       Subtitle A--Financial Support for Election Infrastructure


           Part 1--Voting System Security Improvement Grants


Sec. 3001. Grants for Obtaining Compliant Paper Ballot Voting Systems 
        and Carrying Out Voting System Security Improvements

    This section would amend Subtitle D of Part II of the Help 
America Vote Act of 2002 to direct the EAC to make available 
grants for states to replace voting machines that are not 
compliant paper ballot voting systems or do not meet the most 
recent voluntary voting systems guidelines promulgated by the 
Commission, as well as carry out voting system security 
improvements. Compliant paper ballot voting systems must meet 
the requirements of the Voter Confidence and Increased 
Accessibility Act of 2019.
    Further, provides that the amount of a grant made to a 
State shall be determined by the Commission but shall not be 
less than $1 multiplied by the average number of individuals 
who cast votes in any two of the most recent regularly 
scheduled general elections for Federal Office held in the 
State. In the event that Congress appropriates insufficient 
funds to provide States the amount directed under subsection 
(b), there shall be a pro rata reduction. Also provides that to 
the greatest extent practicable, an eligible State which 
receives a grant to replace a voting system under this section 
shall ensure such replacement system is capable of 
administering a system of ranked choice voting.
    Further, this section defines eligible voting system 
improvements as: (1) The acquisition of goods and services from 
qualified election infrastructure vendors by purchase, lease, 
or such other arrangements as may be appropriate; (2) Cyber and 
risk mitigation training; (3) A security risk and vulnerability 
assessment of the State's election infrastructure which is 
carried out by a provider of cybersecurity services under a 
contract entered into between the chief State election official 
and the provider; (4) The maintenance of election 
infrastructure, including addressing risks and vulnerabilities 
which are identified under either of the security risk and 
vulnerability assessments described in paragraph (3), except 
that none of the funds provided under this part may be used to 
renovate or replace a building or facility which is used 
primarily for purposes other than the administration of 
elections for public office; (5) Providing increased technical 
support for any information technology infrastructure that the 
chief State election official deems to be part of the State's 
election infrastructure or designates as critical to the 
operation of the State's election infrastructure; (6) Enhancing 
the cybersecurity and operations of the information technology 
infrastructure described in paragraph (4); and (7) Enhancing 
the cybersecurity of voter registration systems.
    Defines a ``qualified election infrastructure vendor'' as 
any person who provides, supports, or maintains, or who seeks 
to provide, support, or maintain, election infrastructure on 
behalf of a State, unit of local government, or election agency 
who meets certain criteria established by the Chair of the EAC 
and the Secretary of Homeland Security.
    Directs the Chair of the EAC and the Secretary of Homeland 
Security to include the following in the criteria a person must 
meet to be considered a ``qualified election infrastructure 
vendor'': (1) the vendor must be owned and controlled by a 
citizen or permanent resident of the United States; (2) the 
vendor must disclose to the Chairman and the Secretary, and to 
the chief State election official of any State to which the 
vendor provides any goods and services with funds provided 
under this part, of any sourcing outside the United States for 
parts of the election infrastructure; (3) the vendor agrees to 
ensure that the election infrastructure will be developed and 
maintained in a manner that is consistent with the 
cybersecurity best practices issued by the Technical Guidelines 
Development Committee; (4) the vendor agrees to maintain its 
information technology infrastructure in a manner that is 
consistent with the cybersecurity best practices issued by the 
Technical Guidelines Development Committee; (5) the vendor 
agrees to meet the notification requirement defined herein with 
respect to any known or suspected cybersecurity incidents 
involving any of the goods and services provided by the vendor 
pursuant to a grant under this part; and (6) the vendor agrees 
to permit independent security testing by the Commission.
    Requires ``qualified election infrastructure vendors,'' 
upon learning of a potential cybersecurity incident, to assess 
whether such incident occurred and to notify the Chair of the 
Election Assistance Commission and the Secretary of Homeland 
Security within three days. The ``qualified election 
infrastructure vendor'' must also inform any potentially 
impacted election security agency within three days and 
cooperate with agency in providing any further notifications 
necessary. The ``qualified election infrastructure vendor'' 
must provide ongoing updates to the Chair of the Election 
Assistance Commission, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and 
the affected election security agency.
    The notification ``qualified election infrastructure 
vendors'' must provide the Chair of the Election Assistance 
Commission, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and the 
affected election security agency must include the following: 
(1) the date, time, and time zone when the election 
cybersecurity incident began, if known; (2) the date, time, and 
time zone when the election cybersecurity incident was 
detected; (3) The date, time, and duration of the election 
cybersecurity incident; (4) the circumstances of the election 
cybersecurity incident, including the specific election 
infrastructure systems believed to have been accessed and 
information acquired, if any; (5) Any planned and implemented 
technical measures to respond to and recover from the incident; 
(6) In the case of any notification which is an update to a 
prior notification; and (7) any additional material information 
relating to the incident, including technical data, as it 
becomes available.
    To be eligible for a grant, a State must: (1) describe of 
how the it will use the grant to carry out the activities 
authorized under this part; (2) a certify and assure that, not 
later than 5 years after receiving the grant, the State will 
implement risk limiting audits; and (3) provide such other 
information and assurances as the Commission may require.
    Requires the EAC to, not later than 90 days after the end 
of each fiscal year, the Commission shall submit a report to 
the appropriate congressional committees, including the 
Committees on Homeland Security and House Administration of the 
House of Representatives and the Committees on Homeland 
Security and Governmental Affairs and Rules and Administration 
of the Senate, on the activities carried out with the funds 
provided under this part.
    Authorizes $1 billion for FY 2019. Authorizes $175 million 
for FY 2020, 2022, 2024, and 2026.

Section 3002. Coordination of Voting System Security Activities with 
        Use of Requirements Payments and Election Administration 
        Requirements under Help America Vote Act of 2002

    This section would add the Secretary of Homeland Security, 
or the Secretary's designee, to the Board of Advisors of the 
EAC. Adds a Representative from the Department of Homeland 
Security to the Technical Guidelines Development Committee.
    Further, this section would direct the EAC to consult with 
the Department of Homeland Security in conducting periodic 
studies on election administration and adds to the objectives 
of the periodic studies ensuring the integrity of elections 
against interference through cyber means. Amends the allowable 
uses of requirements payments under the Help America Vote Act 
of 2002 to include election security, including cyber training 
for election officials, technical support, enhancing 
cybersecurity of information systems, and enhancing 
cybersecurity of voter registration databases. Requires States 
to include protection of election infrastructure into their 
State plans developed pursuant to 53 U.S.C. 21004.
    Requires the Committee responsible for developing State 
plans pursuant to 53 U.S.C. 21004 to be comprised of 
representatives from Cities, towns, Indian tribes, and rural 
areas, as appropriate.
    Requires States to undertake measures to prevent and deter 
cybersecurity incidents, as identified by the Commission, the 
Secretary of Homeland Security, and the Technical Guidelines 
Development Committee, of computerized voter registration 
databases.

Section 3003. Incorporation of Definitions

    Amends the Help America Vote Act to include the definitions 
of ``cybersecurity incident'' (6 U.S.C. 148), ``election 
infrastructure'' (Election Security Act), and ``State'' 
(States, DC, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, USVI, Northern 
Mariana Islands).

    Part 2--Grants for Risk-Limiting Audits of Results of Elections


Section 3011. Grants to States for Conducting Risk-Limiting Audits of 
        Results of Elections

    This section would authorize $20 million in grants for the 
EAC to provide to States to implement risk-limiting audits for 
regularly scheduled general elections for Federal office. 
Describes risk-limiting audit. Establishes guidelines for 
eligibility of States to receive funding, including requiring 
States to certify that: (1) it will conduct risk-limiting 
audits of the results of elections for Federal offices within 
five years; (2) the Chief election official of the State will 
establish rules and procedures for performing risk-limiting 
audits within one year of enactment; (3) the audit will be 
completed by the time the State certified election results; (4) 
the State will publish a report on the results of the audit; 
(5) if the audit leads to a full manual tally of an election, 
State law requires the manual tally to be the official results 
of the election; and (6) any other information the EAC 
requires.

Section 3012. GAO Analysis of Effects of Audits

    This section would require the Government Accountability 
Office to do an analysis of the extent to which risk-limiting 
audits have improved election administration.

        Part 3--Election Infrastructure Innovation Grant Program


    Section 3021. Election Infrastructure Innovation Grant Program. 
                               [RESERVED]


                     Subtitle B--Security Measures


Section 3101. Election Infrastructure Designation

    This section amends the Homeland Security Act of 2002 to 
include ``election infrastructure'' as a subsector of the 
``government facilities'' critical infrastructure sector.

Section 3102. Timely Threat Information

    This section would amend the Homeland Security Act of 2002 
to direct the Secretary of Homeland Security to provide timely 
threat information regarding election infrastructure to the 
chief State election official of the State with respect to 
which such information pertains.

Section 3103. Security Clearance Assistance for Election Officials

    This section would authorize the Secretary to expedite 
security clearances for chief State election officials and 
other appropriate State personnel involved in the 
administration of elections, sponsor security clearances for 
election officials, and facilitate temporary clearances for 
State election officials as necessary.

Section 3104. Security Risk and Vulnerability Assessments

    This section would clarify that the Department of Homeland 
Security shall provide ``risk and vulnerability assessments'' 
as a component of ``risk management support.'' Directs the 
Secretary to provide within 90 days a risk and vulnerability 
assessment on election infrastructure to any State that 
requests one in writing. The Secretary must notify the State if 
the Department of Homeland Security is unable to commence the 
risk and vulnerability assessment within 90 days.

Section 3105. Annual Reports

    This section would require the Secretary of Homeland 
Security to report to appropriate congressional committees, 
within one year of enactment and annually thereafter through 
2026, information on the Department of Homeland Security's 
efforts to assist States in securing election infrastructure, 
including how many States it helped, which States it helped, 
how many clearances it sponsored in each State, and a list of 
States for which it was unable to provide risk and 
vulnerability assessments, among other things. The Secretary of 
Homeland Security and the Director of National Intelligence, in 
coordination with the heads of appropriate Federal agencies, 
shall, 90 days after the end of each fiscal year, provide to 
appropriate congressional committees a report on foreign 
threats to elections, including physical and cybersecurity 
threats. The Secretary of Homeland Security must solicit and 
consider information for States for purposes of preparing the 
reports required under this section.

     Subtitle C--Enhancing Protection for United States Democratic 
                              Institutions


Section 3201. National Strategy to Protect United States Democratic 
        Institutions

    This section would require the Secretary of Homeland 
Security, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, the 
Secretary of State, the Attorney General, the Secretary of 
Education, the Director of National Intelligence, the Chairman 
of the Federal Election Commission, and the heads of any other 
appropriate Federal agencies, to issue a national strategy to 
protect against cyber-attacks, influence operations, 
disinformation campaigns, and other activities that could 
undermine the security and integrity of United States 
democratic institutions.
    Requires the national strategy to consider: (1) The threat 
of a foreign state actor, foreign terrorist organization (as 
designated pursuant to section 219 of the Immigration and 
Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1189)), or a domestic actor carrying 
out a cyber-attack, influence operation, disinformation 
campaign, or other activity aimed at undermining the security 
and integrity of United States democratic institutions; (2) The 
extent to which United States democratic institutions are 
vulnerable to a cyber-attack influence operation, 
disinformation campaign, or other activity aimed at undermining 
the security and integrity of such democratic institutions; (3) 
Potential consequences, such as an erosion of public trust or 
an undermining of the rule of law that could result from a 
successful cyber-attack, influence operation, disinformation 
campaign, or other activity aimed at undermining the security 
and integrity of United States democratic institutions; (4) 
Lessons learned from other Western governments the institutions 
of which were subject to a cyber-attack, influence operation, 
disinformation campaign, or other activity aimed at undermining 
the security and integrity of such institutions, as well as 
actions that could be taken by the United States Government to 
bolster collaboration with foreign partners to detect, deter, 
prevent, and counter such activities; (5) Potential impacts 
such as an erosion of public trust in democratic institutions 
as could be associated with a successful cyber breach or other 
activity negatively-affecting election infrastructure; (6) 
Roles and responsibilities of the Secretary of Homeland 
Security. the Chairman, and the heads of other Federal entities 
and non-Federal entities, including chief State election 
officials and representatives of multi-state information 
sharing and analysis center; and (7) Any findings, conclusions, 
and recommendations to strengthen protections for United States 
democratic institutions that have been agreed to by a majority 
of Commission members on the National Commission to Protect 
United States Democratic Institutions, authorized pursuant to 
section 32002.
    Requires the President, acting through the Secretary of 
Homeland Security, in Coordination with the Chair of the 
Commission, to issue an implementation plan of the national 
strategy within 90 days, which includes the following: (1) 
strategic objectives and corresponding tasks; (2) projected 
timelines and costs; and (3) metrics to evaluate performance. 
Requires the strategy to be unclassified but allows a 
classified annex.

Section 3202. National Commission to Protect United States Democratic 
        Institutions

    This section would establish within the legislative branch 
the National Commission to Protect United States Democratic 
Institutions to counter efforts to undermine democratic 
institutions with in the United States. Describes the 
composition of the Commission as including 10 members appointed 
for the life of the Commission as follows: (1) One member shall 
be appointed by the Secretary of Homeland Security; (2) One 
member shall be appointed by the Chairman; (3) 2 members shall 
be appointed by the majority leader of the Senate, in 
consultation with the Chairman of the Committee on Homeland 
Security and Governmental Affairs and the Chairman of the 
Committee on Rules and Administration; (4) 2 members shall be 
appointed by the minority leader of the Senate, in consultation 
with the ranking minority member of the Committee on Homeland 
Security and Governmental Affairs and the ranking minority 
member of the Committee on Rules and Administration; (5) 2 
members shall be appointed by the Speaker of the House of 
Representatives, in consultation with the Chairman of the 
Committee on Homeland Security and the Chairman of the 
Committee on House Administration; and (6) 2 members shall be 
appointed by the minority leader of the House of 
Representatives, in consultation with the ranking minority 
member of the Committee on Homeland Security and the ranking 
minority member of the Committee on House Administration.
    Establishes that individuals shall be selected for 
appointment to the Commission solely on the basis of their 
professional qualifications, achievements, public stature, 
experience, and expertise in relevant fields, including, but 
not limited to cybersecurity, national security, and the 
Constitution of the United States. Bars members from receiving 
compensation for service on the Commission but permits 
reimbursement of certain expenses. Requires members to be 
appointed by 60 days after the date of the enactment. Provides 
that a vacancy on the Commission shall not affect its powers 
and shall be filled in the manner in which the original 
appointment was made. The appointment of the replacement member 
shall be made not later than 60 days after the date on which 
the vacancy occurs.
    Establishes the powers of the Commission, including the 
authority to hold hearings and receive evidence, enter into 
contracts to enable the Commission to perform its 
responsibilities, and receive support on a reimbursable basis 
from the Administrator of General Services and other Federal 
agencies. Requires any public meetings to be held in a manner 
that protects the information provided or developed by the 
Commission. Directs Federal agencies to provide Commission 
members and staff appropriate clearances expeditiously. 
Authorizes the Commission to provide to the President and 
Congress interim reports. Requires the Commission to Provide a 
final report to the President and Congress within 18 months of 
enactment. Provides that the Commission shall terminate 60 days 
after the Commission submits its final report.

 Subtitle D--Promoting Cybersecurity Through Improvements in Election 
                             Administration


Section 3301. Testing of Existing Voting Systems to Ensure Compliance 
        with Election Cybersecurity Guidelines and Other Guidelines

    This section would amend the Helps America Vote Act to 
require the Commission to provide, 9 months prior to regularly 
scheduled Federal elections, for the testing by accredited 
laboratories under this section of the voting system hardware 
and software which was certified for use in the most recent 
such election, on the basis of the most recent voting system 
guide lines applicable to such hardware or software (including 
election cybersecurity guidelines) issued under this Act. 
Requires the EAC to decertify any hardware or software the 
Commission determines does not meet the most recent guidelines. 
This section applies to the regularly scheduled general 
election for Federal office held in November 2020 and each 
succeeding regularly scheduled general election for Federal 
office.
    Amends the Help America Vote Act to require the Technical 
Guidelines Development Committee within the EAC to, within six 
months of enactment, issue election cybersecurity guidelines, 
including standards and best practices for procuring, 
maintaining, testing, operating, and updating election systems 
to prevent and deter cybersecurity incidents.

Section 3302. Treatment of Electronic Poll Books as Part of Voting 
        Systems

    This section would amend the Help America Vote Act of 2002 
to include Electronic Poll Books as part of Voting Systems. 
Defines electronic poll book as the total combination of 
mechanical, electromechanical, or electronic equipment 
(including the software, firmware, and documentation required 
to program, control, and support the equipment) that is used: 
(1) to retain the list of registered voters at a polling 
location, or vote center, or other location at which voters 
cast votes in an election for Federal office; and (2) to 
identify registered voters who are eligible to vote in an 
election.

Section 3303. Pre-Election Reports on Voting System Usage

    This section would require the Chief State Election 
Official of each states to submit a report to the EAC 
containing detailed voting system usage information 120 prior 
to any regularly scheduled election for Federal office.

Section 3304. Streamlining collection of election information

    This section would waive subchapter I of chapter 35 of 
title 44, United States Code for purposes of maintaining the 
clearinghouse described in this section.

                Subtitle E--Preventing Election Hacking


Section 3402. Election Security Bug Bounty Program

    This section would require the Secretary to establish the 
``Election Security Bug Bounty Program'' to improve the 
cybersecurity of the systems used to administer elections for 
Federal office by facilitating and encouraging assessments by 
independent technical experts, in cooperation with State and 
local election officials and election service providers, to 
identify and report election cybersecurity vulnerabilities.
    Provides that participation in the Program shall be 
entirely voluntary for State and local election officials and 
election service providers. Requires the Secretary of Homeland 
Security to solicit the input from election officials in 
developing the program.
    Requires the Secretary of Homeland Security to: (1) 
establish a process for State and local election officials and 
election service providers to voluntarily participate in the 
Program; (2) designate appropriate information systems to be 
included in the Program; (3) provide compensation to eligible 
individuals, organizations, and companies for reports of 
previously unidentified security vulnerabilities within the 
information systems included and establish criteria for 
individuals, organizations, and companies to be considered 
eligible for such compensation in compliance with Federal laws; 
(4) consult with the Attorney General on how to ensure that 
approved individuals, organizations, or companies that comply 
with the requirements of the Program are protected from 
prosecution under section 1030 of title 18, United States Code, 
and similar provisions of law, and from liability under civil 
actions for specific activities authorized under the Program; 
(5) consult with the Secretary of Defense and the heads of 
other departments and agencies that have implemented programs 
to provide compensation for reports of previously undisclosed 
vulnerabilities in information systems, regarding lessons that 
may be applied from such programs; (6) develop an expeditious 
process by which an individual, organization, or company can 
register with the Department, submit to a background check as 
determined by the Department, and receive a determination as to 
eligibility for participation in the Program; and (7) engage 
qualified interested persons, including representatives of 
private entities, about the structure of the Program and, to 
the extent practicable, establish a recurring competition for 
independent technical experts to assess election systems for 
the purpose of identifying and reporting election cybersecurity 
vulnerabilities. Authorizes the Secretary to enter into a 
competitive contract to manage the Program.

                  Subtitle F--Miscellaneous Provisions


Section 3501 & 3502. Definitions & Initial Report on Adequacy of 
        Resources Available for Implementation

    This section would require the Secretary of Homeland 
Security and the Chair of the EAC to submit to Congress within 
120 days an assessment on the adequacy of funding, resources, 
and personnel available to carry out this title.

                    Subtitle G--Severability Clause


Section 2601. Severability

    This section would establish severability such that the 
application of the provisions of this title and amendments made 
by this title shall not be affected by a holding finding any 
provision of the title or amendment made by the title 
unconstitutional.

                      DIVISION B--CAMPAIGN FINANCE

                Title IV--Campaign Finance Transparency


    Subtitle A--Findings Relating to Illicit Money Undermining Our 
                               Democracy


Section 4001. Findings relating to illicit money undermining our 
        democracy

    This section would provide various findings related to 
illicit money undermining our democracy.

                        Subtitle B--DISCLOSE Act


  Part 1--Regulation of Certain Political Spending (Foreign Money Ban)


Section 4100. Short title

    This section would provide that this subtitle may be cited 
as the ``Democracy Is Strengthened by Casting Light On Spending 
in Elections Act of 2019'' or the ``DISCLOSE Act of 2019''.

Section 4101. Application of Ban on Contributions and Expenditures by 
        Foreign Nationals

    This section would amend the definition of ``foreign 
national'' for purposes of the ban on foreign national campaign 
spending to add any corporation or limited liability 
corporation which is 5 percent or more owned or controlled by a 
foreign country or foreign government official, or which is 20 
percent or more owned by any other foreign national, or over 
which one or more foreign nationals has the power to control 
the decision-making of the corporation; requires certification 
of compliance with ban on foreign national spending by chief 
executive officer before any corporation makes any 
contribution, donation or expenditure in connection with an 
election. Notwithstanding the amended definition of foreign 
national, a foreign national described in this section, which 
is a domestic corporation whose principle place of business is 
in the United States, may establish, administer, and solicit 
contributions to a separate segregated fund, so long as the 
foreign national parent corporation of the domestic corporation 
does not directly or indirectly finance the establishment, 
administration, or solicitation activities of the fund, and the 
fund is in compliance with the certification requirements.

Section 4102. Clarification of Application of Foreign Money Ban to 
        Certain Disbursements and Activities

    This section would prohibit foreign national contributions 
to Super PACs; prohibits any foreign national from 
participating in decision making by any corporate PAC.

Part 2--Reporting of Campaign-Related Disbursements

Section 4111. Reporting of Campaign-Related Disbursements

    This section would entirely amend section 324 of the 
Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 (52 U.S.C. 30126)
          Section 324(a). Disclosure Statement. Requires a 
        ``covered organization'' to file a disclosure report 
        within 24 hours of making $10,000 or more of 
        ``campaign-related disbursements'' that, for the first 
        such report, provides disclosure of information since 
        the beginning of the election cycle or for the period 
        beginning one-year prior to the report, whichever is 
        earlier, and for subsequent reports, provides 
        information since the last filed report. Further 
        provides that disclosure report includes name and place 
        of business of the ``covered organization'' and for 
        certain corporations, a list of their beneficial owners 
        (as defined in this section), the amount and purpose of 
        each ``campaign-related disbursement'' of $1,000 or 
        more, the election to which the disbursement pertains 
        and the name of any candidate identified in the 
        disbursement, and a certification that the disbursement 
        was made independently of a candidate or party. Further 
        provides that if the disbursement was made from a 
        segregated bank account, the report includes the name 
        and address of every donor and date of every donation 
        of more than $10,000 to the segregated account, and if 
        the disbursement was not made from a segregate bank 
        account, the same information for all payments to the 
        ``covered organization,'' with the exceptions that 
        payments need not be reported if received in the 
        ordinary course of business, or if received subject to 
        a restriction that the funds cannot be used for 
        ``campaign related disbursements.'' Amounts received as 
        remittances from an employee to the employee's 
        collective bargaining representative shall be treated 
        as amounts received in the ordinary course of business. 
        Further provides that donor information also need not 
        be reported if such disclosure would subject the donor 
        to serious threats, harassment or reprisals.
          Section 324(b). Coordination with Other Provisions. 
        Provides that information contained in a disclosure 
        report under subsection (a) need not be included in 
        other campaign finance disclosure reports, and that a 
        segregated bank account under subsection (a) may be 
        treated as a separate segregated fund for tax purposes.
          Section 324(c). Filing. Provides that disclosure 
        reports filed under this section may be filed with the 
        FEC electronically.
          Section 324(d). Campaign-Related Disbursement 
        Defined. Provides that a ``campaign-related 
        disbursement'' includes an independent expenditure, a 
        public communication that promotes, supports, attacks 
        or opposes the election of a federal candidate, an 
        electioneering communication and a ``covered 
        transfer.''
          Section 324(e). Covered Organization Defined. 
        Provides that a ``covered organization'' is a 
        corporation (other than a section 501(c)(3) charity), a 
        limited liability corporation, a section 501(c) non-
        profit organization (other than a section 501(c)(3) 
        charity), a labor organization, a ``political 
        organization'' under section 527 of the tax code, and a 
        Super PAC.
          Section 324(f). Covered Transfer Defined. Provides 
        that a ``covered transfer'' is any transfer from a 
        ``covered organization'' to another person if any one 
        of five conditions applies to the transfer: (1) the 
        transferor requests the money be used for campaign-
        related disbursements (or to make a transfer to another 
        person for that purpose), (2) the transfer is made in 
        response to a solicitation for a donation for the 
        purpose of making ``campaign-related disbursements'' 
        (or for a transfer to another person for that purpose), 
        (3) the transferor engaged in discussions with the 
        recipient about using the money for ``campaign-related 
        disbursements'' (or for making a transfer to another 
        person for that purpose), (4) the transferor spent, or 
        knew that the recipient had spent, $50,000 or more for 
        ``campaign-related disbursements'' in the prior two 
        years, or (5) the transferor knew or had reason to know 
        that the recipient would spend $50,000 or more for 
        ``campaign-related disbursements'' in the two years 
        after the transfer. Further provides that a ``covered 
        transfer'' does not include a disbursement for a 
        commercial transaction or any disbursement where there 
        is an agreement that the money will not be used for 
        ``campaign related disbursements.''
          Further provides a special rule for transfers between 
        two ``covered organizations'' which are ``affiliates'' 
        of each other. Defines a ``transfer between 
        affiliates'' to include a transfer between either two 
        organizations which are affiliated with each other, or 
        two organizations each of which is affiliated with the 
        same third organization. Defines ``affiliate status'' 
        to include an organization whose governing documents 
        require it to be bound by the decisions of another 
        organization, an organization whose governing board 
        includes specifically designated representatives of 
        another organization, or an organization chartered by 
        another organization.
          Further provides that in the case of a ``covered 
        transfer'' between affiliates, the reporting 
        requirement is triggered only if the amount of the 
        transfer is $50,000 or more, and that transferred 
        amounts consisting of ``dues, fees or assessments which 
        are paid by individuals on a regular, periodic basis in 
        accordance with a per-individual calculation which is 
        made on a regular basis'' do not count against the 
        $50,000 threshold.
          Section 324(g). No Effect on Other Reporting 
        Requirements. Provides that nothing in these provisions 
        waives or affects other reporting requirements in the 
        Federal Election Campaign Act, and cross-references 
        section 324(b) with existing electioneering 
        communication reporting requirements.
    This section would also require the director of FinCEN to 
assist the FEC in administering section 324 and requires the 
chairman of the FEC to report to Congress within 6 months after 
enactment of the Act on the need for further legislative 
authority to administer section 324.

Section 4112. Application of Foreign Money Ban to Disbursements for 
        Campaign-Related Disbursement Consisting of Covered Transfers

    This section would prohibit a foreign national from making 
a disbursement to any person who made a ``covered transfer'' 
during the prior two-year period. There is an exception to the 
ban on foreign national disbursements to certain covered 
organizations for disbursements by foreign nationals that are 
commercial transactions.

Section 4113. Effective Date

    This section would provide that amendments made by this 
part shall take effect on January 1, 2020 without regard to 
whether the FEC has promulgated regulations to carry out 
section 324.

                  Part 3--Other Administrative Reforms


Section 4121. Petition for Certiorari

    This section would provide that the FEC has the authority 
to file a petition for certiorari with the Supreme Court.

Section 4122. Judicial Review of Actions Related to Campaign Finance 
        Laws

    This section would provide that any action brought to 
challenge the constitutionality of any provision of the 
campaign finance laws shall be filed in the U.S. district court 
for the District of Columbia, with an appeal to the D.C. 
Circuit Court of Appeals, and that the courts would have a duty 
to expedite such cases. Further, provides that Members of 
Congress shall have a right to bring a case challenging the 
constitutionality of any provision of the campaign finance 
laws, or to intervene in such cases.

                         Subtitle C--Honest Ads


Section 4201. Short title

    This section provides that this subtitle may be cited as 
the ``Honest Ads Act.''

Section 4202. Purpose

    This section would provide that the purpose of this 
subtitle is to improve disclosure requirements for online 
political advertisements to enhance the integrity of American 
democracy and national security. Affirms that it does so to 
uphold the Supreme Court's well-established standard that the 
electorate bears the right to be fully informed.

Section 4203. Findings

    This section provides Congressional findings, including 
Russian efforts to influence the 2016 election with paid social 
media users or ``trolls''; Russian efforts to exploit American-
made technology platforms to sow distrust in democracy; and 
Russian entities that purchased $100,000 in political 
advertisements online. Money spent to advertise online has 
risen dramatically. More than $1.4 billion was spent on online 
political advertising in 2016. The findings also establish that 
large online platforms have a reach far larger than any 
broadcast, satellite, or cable provider, which facilitates the 
scope and effectiveness of disinformation campaigns. The 
findings compare the nature of broadcast television, radio, and 
satellite advertising, which is by its nature public to the 
press, fact-checkers, and political opponents. This creates 
strong disincentives for a candidate to disseminate materially 
false information to the public. Social media platforms, 
however, provide advertisers with an ability to target the 
electorate with direct messages based on private information. 
The findings assert that the Federal Election Commission has 
failed to act on the issue of online political advertisements. 
Ultimately, Congress finds that the current regulations on 
political advertisements do not provide enough transparency to 
uphold the public's right to be fully informed about political 
advertisements made online.

Section 4204. Sense of Congress

    This section would provide the sense of Congress that the 
dramatic increase in digital political advertisements, and the 
growing centrality of online platforms, requires the Congress 
and the Federal Election Commission to take meaningful action 
to ensure that laws and regulations provide the accountability 
and transparency that is fundamental to our democracy; that 
free and fair elections require transparency and accountability 
to give the public a right to know the true sources of funding 
for political advertisements to make informed political choices 
and hold elected officials accountable; and transparency of 
funding for political advertisements is essential to enforce 
other campaign finance laws, including prohibitions on spending 
by foreign nationals.

Section 4205. Expansion of Definition of Public Communication

    This section would provide that ``paid internet or paid 
digital communication'' be added to the definition of public 
communication. Amends the press exception to the definition of 
expenditure to account for online or digital outlets, including 
blogs and digital newspapers, unless such online or digital 
facilities are owned or controlled by any political party, 
political committee, or candidate. Substitutes ``public 
communication'' for references to general political 
advertisements and public communications, including for those 
public communications that require disclaimers.

Section 4206. Expansion of Definition of Electioneering Communication

    This section would provide that ``qualified internet or 
digital communication'' be added to the definition of 
electioneering communication. Defines ``qualified internet or 
digital communication'' to mean any communication which is 
placed or promoted for a fee on an online platform. Does not 
require electioneering communications by means of online 
communications to be targeted to the relevant electorate. 
Amends the news exemption to the definition electioneering 
communication to include communications appearing in a news 
story, commentary, or editorial distributed through the 
facilities of any broadcasting station or any online or digital 
newspaper, magazine, blog, publication, or periodical, unless 
such broadcasting, online, or digital facilities are owned or 
controlled by any political party, political committee, or 
candidate. Provides that these amendments apply with respect to 
communications made on or after January 1, 2020.

Section 4207. Application of Disclaimer Statements to Online 
        Communications

    This section substitutes ``shall state in a clear and 
conspicuous manner'' for ``shall clearly state'' when 
describing disclaimer requirements. Clarifies that 
communications are not made in a clear and conspicuous manner 
if it is difficult to read or hear or if the placement is 
easily overlooked. Provides special rules for disclaimers that 
apply to qualified internet or digital communications if the 
communication is disseminated through a medium in which all the 
information is not possible. Specifically, requires the 
communication to include in a clear and conspicuous manner the 
name of the person who paid for the communication, and provide 
a means for the recipient of the communication to obtain the 
remainder of the information with minimal effort. Includes a 
safe harbor for clear and conspicuous statements for text, 
audio, and video communications. For text or graphic 
communications, letters must appear at least as large as the 
majority of the text in the communication, contained in a 
printed box, and printed with a reasonable degree of color 
contrast between the background and the printed statement. 
Audio statements must be clearly audible and intelligible at 
the beginning or end of a communication and last at least 3 
seconds. Video with audio must include the statement at the 
beginning or end of the communication, and be both in a written 
format that appears for 4 seconds and with audio that is 
clearly audible and intelligible for at least 3 seconds. All 
other types of communications must be at least as clear and 
conspicuous as what is otherwise required for text, video, and 
audio. The ``small items'' regulatory exception for bumper 
stickers, pins, buttons, pens, and similar small items upon 
which disclaimers cannot be conveniently printed does not apply 
to qualified internet or digital communications, nor does the 
impracticability regulatory exception (for skywriting, water 
towers, wearing apparel) (specifically, 11 CFR 110.11(f)(1)(i) 
and (ii), or any successor to these rules). Modifies ``stand by 
your ad'' requirements for candidates or authorized persons by 
substituting ``audio format'' for radio, and ``video format'' 
for television.

Section 4208. Political Record Requirements for Online Platforms

    This section would require online platforms to maintain and 
make public in machine readable format a complete record of any 
request to purchase qualified political advertisements made by 
a person whose aggregate requests on the online platform during 
the calendar year exceeds $500. Requires advertisers to provide 
the online platform with the necessary information for the 
online platform to comply. Requires the contents of the record 
to include a digital copy of the political advertisement, a 
description of the audience targeted, the number of views 
generated and the date and timing that the advertisement was 
first and last displayed, the average rate charged for the 
advertisement, the name of the candidate to which the 
advertisement refers (and the office sought) or the national 
legislative issue to which the advertisement refers. If a 
candidate is the advertiser, the record must include the name 
of the candidate, the committee of the candidate, and the 
treasurer of the candidate. All other records must include the 
name of the person purchasing the advertisement, the name and 
address of a contact person, and a list of the chief executive 
officers or members of the executive committee or of the board 
of directors of the person. Defines online platforms as any 
public-facing website, web application, or digital application 
(including a social network, ad network, or search engine) 
which sells qualified political advertisements and has 
50,000,000 or more unique monthly United States visitors or 
users for a majority of the months during the preceding 12 
months. Qualified political advertisements are defined to mean 
any advertisements (including search engine marketing, display 
advertisements, video advertisements, native advertisements, 
and sponsorships) that are made by or on behalf of a candidate, 
or communicate a message relating to any political matter of 
national importance, including (i) a candidate; (ii) any 
election to federal office, or (iii) a national legislative 
issue of public importance. Online platforms must make the 
record public as soon as possible, and retain it for a period 
of not less than 4 years. Provides a safe harbor from 
enforcement for online platforms making their best efforts to 
identify requests which are subject to record maintenance 
requirements. The FEC will be responsible for crafting these 
best efforts rules. Provides penalties for failure to otherwise 
comply. Requires the FEC to establish rules, no later than 120 
after enactment, requiring common data formats for the online 
platform records so that they are machine-readable, and 
establishing search interface requirements relating to such 
record, including searches by candidate name, issue, purchaser, 
and date. Requires FEC to report biannually to Congress on 
matters relating to compliance, recommendations for 
modifications, and identifying other ways to bring transparency 
to online political advertisements distributed for free.

Section 4209. Preventing Contributions, Expenditures, Independent 
        Expenditures, and Disbursements for Electioneering 
        Communications by Foreign Nationals in the Form of Online 
        Advertising

    This section would require broadcasters, providers of cable 
or satellite television and online platforms to make reasonable 
efforts to ensure that political advertising is not purchased 
by foreign nationals, directly or indirectly.

                     Subtitle D--Stand By Every Ad


Section 4301. Short title

    This section provides a short title of ``Stand By Every Ad 
Act.''

Section 4302. Stand By Every Ad

    This section would provide for expanded disclaimer 
requirements for communications that are not authorized by 
candidates--for example, for communications by corporations, 
527 organizations, or nonprofit organizations that spend money 
on express advocacy.
    If the disclaimer statement is transmitted in a video 
format or is an Internet or digital communication transmitted 
in a text or graphic format and is paid for in whole or in part 
with a payment that is treated as a campaign-related 
disbursement, it must include a Top Five Funders list (if 
applicable). If the communication is of such short duration 
that including the Top Five Funders list would constitute a 
hardship to the person paying for the communication by 
requiring a disproportionate amount of the content of the 
communication to consist of the Top Five Funders list, then it 
must include the name of a website which contains the Top Five 
Funders list (if applicable) or in the case of an internet or 
digital communication, a hyperlink. If the communication is 
transmitted in an audio format and is paid for in whole or in 
part with a payment that is treated as a campaign-related 
disbursement, then it must include the Top Two Funders list (if 
applicable), or, if the communication is of such short duration 
that including the Top Two Funders list is a hardship for the 
same reasons as for video, the name of a website which contains 
the Top Two Funders list. The FEC is responsible for 
determining the basis of criteria for the hardship exception.
    If the person paying for the communication is an 
individual, they must state their name and that they approve 
the message. If the person paying is an organization, the 
statement must be ``I am [name of applicable individual], the 
[title of applicable individual] of [name of organization], and 
[name of organization] approves this message.'' If the 
organization is a corporation, the applicable individual is the 
chief executive officer (or highest ranking official if there 
is no CEO). If a labor organization, then the highest ranking 
officer of the labor organization. Any other organization 
should include the highest ranking official.
    If the communication is made in a text or graphic format, 
the disclosure statements must appear in letters at least as 
large as the majority of the text in the communication. If made 
by audio, the audio must be clear and conspicuous. If in video, 
the information must appear in writing at the end of the 
communication or in a crawl along the bottom of the 
communication in a clear and conspicuous manner, for at least 6 
seconds, and also conveyed by an unobscured full-screen view of 
the individual making the statement, or a by voiceover with a 
clearly identifiable photograph or similar image of the 
individual.
    The Top Five or Top Two Funders list is a list of the five 
or two persons who respectively, during the 12-month period 
ending on the date of the disbursement, provided the largest 
payments in an aggregate amount equal to or exceeding $10,000. 
Excluded from the calculations are any amounts provided in the 
ordinary course of trade or business or in the form of 
investments in the person paying for the communication, or any 
payment which the person prohibited, in writing, from being 
used for campaign-related disbursements.
    There is an exception for video communications that last 10 
seconds or less. For those short videos, the communication must 
include the person or organizational statement who paid for the 
ad in a crawl on the bottom of the screen. Moreover, a website 
address must appear for the full duration of the ad that will 
provide all of the information otherwise required of longer 
ads, and the website address must appear for the full duration 
of the ad. If the communication permits hyperlinks, it must be 
provided by hyperlink.
    Expanded disclaimer requirements are also applied to public 
communications consisting of campaign-related disbursements, as 
defined in the DISCLOSE Act, consisting of public 
communications.
    This section creates an exception for communications paid 
for by political parties and political committees because they 
are subject to a separate set of existing disclaimer rules. 
This exception excludes, however, communications by political 
committees paid for in whole or in part with a campaign-related 
disbursement, but only if the covered organization making the 
campaign-related disbursement made campaign-related 
disbursements aggregating more than $10,000 in the calendar 
year.

Section 4303. Disclaimer Requirements for Communications Made Through 
        Prerecorded Telephone Call

    This section would apply ``stand by your ad'' disclaimer 
requirements to prerecorded audio messages distributed by 
telephone by treating them as communications transmitted in an 
audio format.

Section 4304. No Expansion of Persons Subject to Disclaimer 
        Requirements on Internet Communications

    This section would provide that nothing in the Stand By 
Your Ad subtitle may be construed to require any person who is 
not required by the Federal Election Campaign Act to include a 
disclaimer on communications made by the person through the 
internet to include any disclaimer on any such communications.

Section 4305. Effective Date

    This section would provide an effective date apply with 
respect to communications made on or after January 1, 2020, and 
shall take effect without regard to whether or not the Federal 
Election Commission has promulgated regulations to carry out 
such amendments.

                 Subtitle E--Secret Money Transparency


Sec. 4401. Repeal of Restriction of Use of Funds by Internal Revenue 
        Service to Bring Transparency to Political Activity of Certain 
        Nonprofit Organizations

    This section would provide that an appropriations rider 
prohibiting the IRS from clarifying rules related to political 
activity by nonprofit organizations has no force or effect.

                 Subtitle F--Shareholder Right-to-Know


Sec. 4501. Repeal of Restriction on Use of Funds by Securities and 
        Exchange Commission to Ensure Shareholders of Corporations Have 
        Knowledge of Corporation Political Activity

    This section would provide that an appropriations rider 
prohibiting the SEC from requiring disclosure to shareholders 
of corporate political spending has no force or effect.

 Subtitle G--Disclosure of Political Spending by Government Contractors


Sec. 4601. Repeal of Restriction on Use of Funds to Require Disclosure 
        of Political Spending by Government Contractors

    This section would provide that an appropriations rider 
prohibiting the Executive Branch from requiring government 
contractors to disclose political spending has no force or 
effect.

    Subtitle H--Disclosure Requirements for Presidential Inaugural 
                               Committees


Sec. 4701. Short title

    This section provides that this subtitle may be cited as 
the ``Presidential Inaugural Committee Oversight Act.''

Sec. 4702. Limitations and Disclosure of Certain Donations to, and 
        Disbursements by, Inaugural Committees

    This section would prohibit inaugural committees from 
raising donations from non-individuals and foreign nationals. 
Prohibits the use of inaugural funds for personal use unrelated 
to the inauguration. Limits the maximum amount an individual 
can donate to an inaugural committee to $50,000, indexed for 
inflation. Requires an inaugural committee to disclose, within 
24 hours, contributions of more than $1,000. Requires an 
inaugural committee to file within 90 days of an inauguration a 
final report disclosing all contributions and expenditures of 
more than $200.

                    Subtitle I--Severability Clause


Sec. 4801. Severability

    This section would clarify that if any provision of this 
Title or amendment made by this Title is held unconstitutional, 
the remainder of the Title shall not be affect by the holding.

                 Title V--CAMPAIGN FINANCE EMPOWERMENT


       Subtitle A--Findings Relating to Citizens United Decision


Sec. 4801. Findings Relating to Citizens United Decision

    This section provides Congressional findings that the 
Citizens United decision is detrimental to democracy and that 
the Constitution should be amended to clarify Congress' and the 
States' authority to regulate campaign contributions and 
expenditures.

                  Subtitle B--Congressional Elections


Sec. 5100. Short title

    This section would provide that this subtitle may be cited 
as the ``Government By the People Act of 2019.''

                 Part 1--My Voice Voucher Pilot Program


Sec. 5101. Establishment of Voucher Pilot Program

    This section would establish a three-State-based pilot 
demonstration program of political giving to candidates for the 
U.S. House of Representatives. The pilot would seek to develop 
best practices for a potential nation-wide campaign voucher 
program. States will be judged on their capacity to execute the 
program. Provides that all payments to states shall come from 
the Freedom From Influence Fund, which is subject to a 
mandatory reduction of payments in case of insufficient amounts 
in the Fund. No appropriated funds shall be used for the 
Freedom From Influence Fund. Payments are capped at $10,000,000 
for each of the three states.

Sec. 5102. Voucher Program Described

    This section would provide certain programmatic 
requirements for State applying to participate in the voucher 
pilot must satisfy. The State shall provide each qualified 
individual upon the individual's request a voucher worth $25 to 
be known as a ``My Voice Voucher. The State shall create an 
electronic routing system, contribution clearinghouse, and 
implementation of anti-fraud measures. States would also be 
prohibited from conditioning the receipt of the voucher based 
on individual's voter registration status. States are required 
to engage in a public awareness campaign.

Sec. 5103. Reports

    This section would require participating states to complete 
reports for submission to the FEC on the operation and efficacy 
of the pilot programs, including the making of recommendations 
for the program's expansion or adjustment. The FEC will be 
required to submit a report to Congress synthesizing the state 
reports and making recommendations by the end of the fifth 
election cycle.

Sec. 5104. Definitions

    This section would define ``election cycle'' to mean the 
period beginning on the day after the date of the most recent 
regularly scheduled general election for Federal office and 
ending on the date of the next regularly scheduled general 
election for federal office. Defines periods of application, 
preparation, and operation for the pilot program.

   Part 2--Small Dollar Financing of Congressional Election Campaigns


Sec. 5111. Benefits and Eligibility Requirements for Candidates

    This section would amend the Federal Election Campaign Act 
of 1971 by adding a new Title V, Small Dollar Financing of 
Congressional Election Campaigns, that would establish a 
publicly financed matching system for Congressional campaigns. 
The new Title would include Subtitle A--Benefits, and the 
following new sections:
          Sec. 501. Benefits for Participating Candidates. 
        Provides for a 6-to-1 match of contributions of less 
        than $200 per election for participating candidates. 
        Caps the total amount of matching funds for a candidate 
        at half of the average of the 20 most expensive winning 
        campaigns in the previous cycle.
          Sec. 502. Procedures for Making Payments. Requires 
        the Federal Election Commission to disburse payments to 
        qualified candidates upon receipt of statements 
        detailing the amount of qualifying contributions raised 
        since the last request, the amount of matching funds 
        sought, and the total amount of matching funds received 
        during the cycle. Prohibits candidates from requesting 
        matching funds on less than $5,000 in qualified 
        contributions, except during the final 30 days of a 
        campaign, and from requesting funds more than once in a 
        7-day period. Requires the FEC to make payments within 
        2 days of receiving a request.
          Sec. 503. Use of Funds. Authorizes the use of 
        matching funds exclusively for direct payments for 
        authorized expenditures for campaign funds. Explicitly 
        prohibits the use of funds for legal expenses or fines.
          Sec. 504. Qualified Small Dollar Contributions 
        Described. Defines a ``qualified small dollar 
        contribution'' as a donation of $1-200 per election 
        from an individual or segregated small-dollar account 
        of a political committee. Prohibits donors who make 
        qualified small dollar contributions to a candidate 
        from making additional nonqualified contributions to 
        that candidate. Requires candidates to return the 
        additional nonqualified contribution or to repay 
        matching funds on the original qualified contribution 
        from that donor. Requires participating candidates to 
        disclose information about matching funds and qualified 
        contributions in fundraising materials.
            Subtitle B--Eligibility and Certification
          Sec. 511. Eligibility. Deems a candidate eligible for 
        matching funds if the candidate seeks certification 
        from the FEC, meets the qualifications in section 512, 
        certifies that the candidates' authorized committees 
        meet the notification requirements in section 504(d), 
        and, during the Small Dollar Democracy qualifying 
        period (within 180 days of filing to run), files an 
        affidavit with the FEC that the candidate will comply 
        with contribution and expenditure requirements, will 
        run as a qualified candidate for both the primary and 
        general elections and will qualify under state law to 
        appear on the ballot. Specifies that for a general 
        election, qualified candidates must have been chosen as 
        their parties' nominees or otherwise qualified to 
        appear on the ballot.
          Sec. 512. Qualifying Requirements. Requires 
        participating candidates to raise at least $50,000 in 
        qualified small dollar contributions from at least 
        1,000 individuals during the Small Dollar Democracy 
        qualifying period. Requires the FEC to establish random 
        audits to ensure compliance.
          Sec. 513. Certification. Requires the FEC to certify 
        qualified candidates within five days of receiving an 
        affidavit seeking certification. A certification covers 
        both the primary and general elections. Requires the 
        FEC to decertify a candidate who does not comply with 
        requirements, withdraws from the race, does not make it 
        onto the ballot, or is criminally sanctioned for 
        conduct relating to the election. Requires certain 
        decertified candidates to repay all matching funds with 
        interest, prohibits decertified candidates from 
        becoming certified during the next election cycle, and 
        prohibits a candidate who is decertified three times 
        from becoming certified for any future election.
            Subtitle C--Requirements for Candidates Certified as 
                    Participating Candidates
          Sec. 521. Contribution and Expenditure Requirements. 
        Restricts the sources from which participating 
        candidates can raise funds to qualified small dollar 
        contributions, matching funds, nonqualified 
        contributions of up to $1,000 per election, personal 
        funds up to $50,000 and certain political committees. 
        Establishes rules for funds raised prior to seeking 
        qualification as a participating candidate. Creates 
        prohibitions on leadership PACs and joint fundraising 
        committees for participating candidates.
          Sec. 522. Administration of Campaign. Requires 
        campaigns to establish separate accounting for each 
        different type of contribution received, disclose all 
        donors making qualified small dollar contributions, and 
        publish on the internet all materials provided to the 
        FEC relating to contributions and expenditures.
          Sec. 523. Preventing Unnecessary Spending of Public 
        Funds. Limits the amount of expenditures campaigns can 
        make from matching funds to the amount of expenditures 
        made from other sources of funds, if available.
          Sec. 524. Remitting Unspent Funds After Election. 
        Requires candidates to return unspent matching funds 
        within 180 days of an election, except that a candidate 
        may retain up to $100,000 in matching funds if the 
        candidate signs an affidavit promising to seek 
        certification again in the next cycle. Retained funds 
        are sequestered until the candidate is certified again.
            Subtitle D--Enhanced Match Support
          Sec. 531. Enhanced Support for General Election. 
        Allows eligible candidates to receive additional 
        matching funds.
          Sec. 532. Eligibility. Requires that a qualified 
        candidate in a general election raise at least $50,000 
        in qualified small dollar contributions during the 
        ``enhanced support qualifying period'' in order to 
        qualify for additional matching funds. Defines the 
        ``enhanced support qualifying period'' as the period 
        between 60 and 14 days before a general election.
          Sec. 533. Amount. A candidate who qualifies for 
        enhanced support receives an additional 3-to-1 match on 
        qualified small dollar contributions raised during the 
        enhanced support qualifying period. A candidate cannot 
        receive more than $500,000 in enhanced matching funds. 
        Enhanced matching funds do not count against the 
        aggregate limit for matching funds a candidate can 
        receive.
          Sec. 534. Waiver of Authority to Retain Portion of 
        Unspent Funds After Election. Candidates who receive 
        enhanced funding may not retain any amount of matching 
        funds after an election.
            Subtitle E--Administrative Provisions
          Sec. 541. Freedom From Influence Fund. Establishes 
        the Freedom From Influence Fund to provide matching 
        funds to qualified candidates. Matching fund payments 
        are subject to a mandatory reduction in case of 
        insufficient amounts in the Freedom From Influence 
        Fund. No appropriated funds shall be used for the 
        Freedom From Influence Fund.
          Sec. 542. Reviews and Reports by Government 
        Accountability Office. Requires the Comptroller General 
        to review after every election cycle the small dollar 
        financing program. The review can include 
        recommendations for adjustments to the criteria for 
        qualification and the aggregate limit of matching 
        funds.
          Sec. 543. Administration by Commission. Requires the 
        FEC to promulgate regulations for the small dollar 
        financing program.
          Sec. 544. Violations and Penalties. The FEC can 
        assess civil penalties against candidates for 
        prohibited contributions or expenditures. Requires the 
        FEC to seek repayment plus interest of any matching 
        funds used in a prohibited manner or not returned as 
        required after an election. Does not preclude other 
        enforcement actions, including criminal referrals.
          Sec. 545. Appeals Process. The U.S. Court of Appeals 
        for the District of Columbia has jurisdiction to review 
        any actions by the FEC relating to the small dollar 
        financing program.
          Sec. 546. Indexing of Amounts. Indexes to inflation 
        the amounts in this title, except for the aggregate 
        limit on matching funds a candidate may receive, which 
        is indexed to campaign costs as described in section 
        501.
          Sec. 547. Election Cycle Defined. Defines an election 
        cycle as the period between the day after a general 
        election and the next general election.

Sec. 5112. Contributions and Expenditures by Multicandidate and 
        Political Party Committees on Behalf of Participating 
        Candidates

    This section would allow multicandidate and party 
committees to contribute to participating candidates if the 
contributions come from segregated accounts that only raise 
funds pursuant to the requirements for small dollar qualified 
contributions. Allows party committees to make unlimited 
coordinated expenditures with a participating candidate if the 
committee only spends from the segregated account and does not 
provide any additional funding to the candidate.

Sec. 5113. Prohibiting Use of Contributions by Participating Candidates 
        for Purposes Other Than Campaign for Election

    This section would prohibit participating candidates from 
using contributions for anything other than authorized 
expenditures.

Sec. 5114. Effective Date

    This section would provide the effective date for the 
program as the 2026 election cycle.

                   Subtitle C--Presidential Elections


                       Part 1--Primary Elections


Sec. 5201. Increase in and Modifications to Matching Payments

    This section would provide for a 6-to-1 match of up to $200 
of ``matchable contributions'' made to Presidential primary 
election candidates who qualify for receipt of public matching 
funds. Further provides that a ``matchable contribution'' is a 
``direct contribution'' made to a candidate by an individual in 
an aggregate amount of no greater than $1,000. Further provides 
that a ``direct contribution'' is one that is made directly to 
a candidate by an individual and is not either forwarded to the 
candidate by another person or received by the candidate with 
knowledge that the contribution was made at the request or 
recommendation of another person. Provides that for this 
purpose a ``person'' does not include an individual (other than 
a registered lobbyist), or a political party committee, or a 
political committee which is not a PAC and which does not make 
independent expenditures, does not lobby and is not established 
or controlled by a lobbyist or lobbying organization. Also 
clarifies that a contribution may be made at the request or 
recommendation of a person so long as the candidate does not 
know who provided the information.
    Further, this section would provide a cap on public funding 
a participating candidate may receive of $250,000,000 for the 
primary elections, subject to increases for inflation. Provides 
that a candidate qualifies to receive matching funds by raising 
$25,000 in contributions of no more than $200 in each of at 
least 20 states. Provides that a participating candidate will 
not accept contributions of more than $1,000 from any person 
for the primary elections. Further provides that a 
participating candidate will accept only ``direct 
contributions,'' as defined above, and not any bundled 
contributions. Further provides that a candidate participating 
in the primary election matching funds system also agrees to 
participate in the general election matching funds system, if 
nominated for the general election.

Sec. 5203. Repeal of Expenditure Limitations

    This section would repeal current state-by-state 
expenditures limits and continues current expenditure limit of 
$50,000 on a candidate's personal funds.

Sec. 5204. Period of Availability of Matching Payments

    This section would provide that ``matching payment period'' 
begins six months prior to the date of the earliest State 
primary election.

Sec. 5205. Examination and Audits of Matchable Contributions

    This section would provide the FEC with authority to audit 
matchable contributions received by a candidate participating 
in the presidential primary matching funds system.

Sec. 5206. Modification to Limitation on Contributions for Presidential 
        Primary Candidates

    This section would provide that the contribution limit for 
presidential primary elections applies to all such elections in 
a four-year election cycle and not for a calendar year.

Sec. 5207. Use of Freedom From Influence Fund as Source of Payments

    This section would amend Chapter 96 of subtitle H of the 
Internal Revenue Code of 1986 by adding a new section 9043, Use 
of Freedom from Influence Fund as Source of Payments. This new 
section would provide that all payments shall come from the 
Freedom From Influence Fund, which is subject to a mandatory 
reduction of payments in case of insufficient amounts in the 
Fund. No appropriated funds shall be used for the Freedom From 
Influence Fund. Has no effect on amounts transferred for 
pediatric research initiative.

                       Part 2--General Elections


Sec. 5211. Modification of Eligibility Requirements for Public 
        Financing

    This section would provide that a presidential general 
election candidate is eligible to receive public matching funds 
if the candidate participated in the primary election matching 
funds system, agrees to an audit by the FEC, and accepts only 
``direct contributions'' (and no bundled contributions) as 
defined by the presidential primary election provisions.

Sec. 5212. Repeal of Expenditure Limitations and Use of Qualified 
        Campaign Contributions

    This section would repeal existing expenditure limits for 
presidential general election candidates receiving public 
funds, provides that presidential candidates participating in 
the matching funds system in the general election will accept 
only ``qualified campaign contributions'' to defray campaign 
expenses and provides criminal penalties for violation of the 
restriction. Defines ``qualified campaign contribution'' to 
mean contributions that aggregate no more than $1,000 from an 
individual donor.

Sec. 5213. Matching Payments and Other Modifications to Payment Amounts

    This section would provide for a 6-to-1 match of up to $200 
of ``matchable contributions''' made to Presidential general 
election candidates who qualify for receipt of public matching 
funds, up to a total of $250,000,000 in public matching funds 
for the general election, subject to increases for inflation. 
Further provides that a ``matchable contribution'' is a 
``direct contribution'' made to a candidate by an individual in 
an aggregate amount of no greater than $1,000.

Sec. 5214. Increase in Limit on Coordinated Party Expenditures

    This section would provide that a national party committee 
may make coordinated expenditures with a general election 
Presidential candidate of no more than $100,000,000, subject to 
increases for inflation.

Sec. 5215. Establishment of Uniform Date for Release of Payments

    This section would provide for a uniform date for the 
payment of matching funds to Presidential general election 
candidates on the later of the last Friday before the first 
Monday in September, or within 24 hours after receiving 
certifications for payment for all eligible major party 
candidates.

Sec. 5216. Amounts in Presidential Election Campaign Fund

    This section would provide that Secretary of Treasury shall 
take into account estimated check-off funds that will be 
deposited into the Presidential Election Campaign Fund during 
the election year in determining whether there will be 
sufficient funds in the Fund to make payments to eligible 
candidates.

Sec. 5217. Use of General Election Payments for General Election Legal 
        and Accounting Compliance

    This section would provide that candidate expenses for 
general election legal and accounting compliance are treated as 
qualified campaign expenses.

Sec. 5218. Use of Freedom From Influence Fund as Source of Payments

    This section would amend Chapter 95 of subtitle H of the 
Internal Revenue Code of 1986 by adding a new section 9013. 
This new section would provide that all payments shall come 
from the Freedom From Influence Fund, which is subject to a 
mandatory reduction of payments in case of insufficient amounts 
in the Fund. No appropriated funds shall be used for the 
Freedom From Influence Fund. Has no effect on amounts 
transferred for pediatric research initiative.

                         Part 3--Effective Date


Sec. 5221. Effective Date

    This section would provide that amendments shall apply with 
respect to the 2028 Presidential election without regard to 
whether the FEC has promulgated regulations to implement the 
amendments made by the Act; Requires FEC to promulgate 
regulations to implement the amendments by June 30, 2026.

 Subtitle D--Personal Use Services as Authorized Campaign Expenditures


Sec. 5301. Short Title; Findings; Purpose

    This section would provide that the short title of this 
section is the ``Help America Run Act.'' Finds that everyday 
Americans experience barriers to entry before being able to 
consider running for federal office. Finds that the current 
process of identifying those who can run privileges the 
wealthiest Americans, rather than those who must work to 
provide necessities like childcare and health insurance and who 
cannot afford to risk their livelihoods by testing a run for 
office. Finds that leadership not reflecting the economic 
realities of the citizenry yields policy that may not reflect 
the needs of the citizenry. Establishes purpose to ensure that 
otherwise-qualified, credible candidates may run for office 
regardless of their economic status, facilitating the candidacy 
of more representative candidates.

Sec. 5302. Treatment of Payments for Child Care and other Personal Use 
        Services as Authorized Campaign Expenditures

    This section would amend the Federal Election Campaign Act 
to provide that, under limited circumstances, the payment by an 
authorized committee of a nonincumbent candidate for the 
following are authorized expenditures if the services are 
necessary to enable participation of the candidate in campaign-
related activities: child care services; elder care services; 
care for other legal dependents; dues, fees, and other expenses 
to maintain a license or status related to a profession; and 
health insurance coverage. Renders effective upon enactment. 
Provides several limitations, including capping the amount of 
campaign funds that may be used for these circumstances at the 
salary that would be drawn as an elected as currently provided 
by existing FEC regulations that cap nonincumbent candidates 
drawing a salary during a campaign. Also provides that 
candidates may not ``double dip'' and must choose between 
availing themselves of the salary benefit allowed under 
existing regulations, or using campaign funds under the 
exemptions of this subtitle.

                    Subtitle E--Severability Clause


                  Title VI--Campaign Finance Oversight


         Subtitle A--Restoring Integrity to America's Elections


Section 6001. Short title

    This section would provide that this subtitle may be cited 
as the ``Restoring Integrity to America's Elections Act.''

Section 6002. Membership of Federal Election Commission

    This section would provide for a reduction in the number of 
FEC Commissioners from six to five, with no more than two 
members of the same party, all appointed by the President with 
the advice and consent of the Senate. Establishes that a 
commissioner shall be treated as affiliated with a political 
party if he or she was affiliated, including as a registered 
voter, employee, consultant, donor, officer, or attorney, with 
such political party or any of its candidates or elected public 
officials at any time during the 5-year period ending on the 
date on which such individual is nominated to be a member of 
the Commission. Further provides that each member shall serve a 
six-year term and is not eligible for reappointment. Further 
provides that President shall convene a Blue-Ribbon Advisory 
Panel to recommend individuals for appointment as a member of 
the Commission.

Section 6003. Assignment of Powers to Chair of Federal Election 
        Commission

    This section would provide that the President designates 
one member of the Commission as Chairman and assigns certain 
powers to the Chairman and assigns other powers to the 
Commission.

Section 6004. Revision to Enforcement Process

    This section would revise the enforcement process to 
provide that the general counsel shall make a determination of 
whether there is reason to believe a violation has occurred, or 
whether there is probable cause that a violation has occurred, 
and that determination shall take effect unless a majority of 
the Commission votes to overrule the general counsel's 
determination within 30 days. Further provides that any person 
aggrieved by a finding of no reason to believe a violation has 
occurred or no probable cause that a violation has occurred, or 
aggrieved by a failure of the Commission to act on a complaint 
within one year after filing a complaint, may seek judicial 
review in the district court for the District of Columbia and 
the court shall determine by de novo review whether the agency 
action or failure to act is contrary to law.

Section 6005. Revision to Certain Enforcement Authorities

    This section would provide that FEC attorneys may represent 
the FEC before the Supreme Court. Further provides that an 
interested party who has submitted written comments on an 
advisory opinion request may present testimony to the 
Commission.

Section 6006. Permanent Extension of Administrative Penalty Authority

    This section would extend statutory authority for the 
administrative fines program for violation of certain 
disclosure requirements.

Section 6007. Restrictions on Ex Parte Communications

    This section would codify, by reference, limitations on ex 
parte communications by members of the Commission and their 
staff.

Section 6008. Effective date; transition

    This section would provide the effective date of January 1, 
2022 for amendments made by this subtitle, and for procedures 
for transition.

         Subtitle B--Stopping Super PAC-Candidate Coordination


Section 6101. Short title

    This section would provide that this subtitle may be cited 
as the ``Stop Super PAC-Candidate Coordination Act.''

Section 6102. Clarification of Treatment of Coordinated Expenditures as 
        Contributions to Candidates

    This section would amend the definition of ``contribution'' 
to add any payment for a ``coordinated expenditure.'' In 
addition, this section would add a new section 326, Payments 
for Coordinated Expenditures, to the Federal Election Campaign 
Act of 1971. This new section would define ``coordinated 
expenditure'' to mean a payment made in cooperation, 
consultation or concert with or at the request or suggestion of 
a candidate or his agents; or a payment to republish candidate 
materials, but not to include news stories or commentary, or 
candidate debates or forums conducted pursuant to rules issues 
by the FEC.
    In addition, new section 326 would define ``in cooperation, 
consultation or concert with or at the request or suggestion 
of'' a candidate or his agents to mean a communication which is 
not made entirely independently of a candidate, or which is 
made pursuant to any general or particular understanding with 
the candidate, or pursuant to any communication with the 
candidate, about the payment. Provides that a payment is not 
coordinated solely because a person engages in a policy 
discussion with a candidate or his agents, so long as there is 
no discussion regarding a campaign. Further provides that this 
standard does not apply to coordination between a candidate and 
a political party. Further provides that coordination is 
determined without regard to whether a person is using a 
firewall to restrict sharing of information between employees 
or agents of the person.
    Further, new section 326 would provide that a payment is 
made in coordination with a candidate if it is made for a 
``covered communication'' by a ``coordinated spender.'' Defines 
a ``coordinated spender'' as a person who meets any one of five 
standards: (A) the person was formed or established by the 
candidate or his agents within the 4 year period prior to the 
payment; (B) the candidate raised funds for the person during 
the election cycle; (C) the person is managed by the candidate 
or by any person who has been employed by the candidate as an 
adviser or consultant during the prior 4 year period; (D) the 
person retains the services of a consultant who provided 
consulting services to the candidate within the prior 2 year 
period, and (E) the person is established or managed by any 
member of the candidate's family.
    New section 326 would define ``covered communication'' to 
include a public communication which expressly advocates the 
election of a candidate, or which promotes, supports, attacks 
or opposes a candidate, or which refers to a candidate in the 
period 60 days before a primary election or 120 days before a 
general election, provided the communication is disseminated in 
the jurisdiction of the office the candidate is seeking.
    Finally, new section 326 would provide for a fine of 300 
percent of the amount of any payment for a coordinated 
communication that is made in knowing and willful violation of 
the Act, and provides for joint and several liability for 
officers or directors of a person subject to a penalty.

Section 6103. Clarification of Ban on Fundraising for Super PACs by 
        Federal Candidates and Officeholders

    This section would provide that a Federal candidate or 
officeholder is prohibited from soliciting or directing money 
to a Super PAC or to any section 527 organization which does 
not comply with federal contribution limits.

                    Subtitle C--Severability Clause


                           DIVISION C--ETHICS

                      Title VII--Ethics Standards


                               [RESERVED]


   Title VIII--Ethics Reforms for the President, Vice President and 
                     Federal Officers and Employees


                               [RESERVED]


                 Title IX--Congressional Ethics Reform


  Subtitle A--Requiring Members of Congress to Reimburse Treasury for 
      Amounts Paid as Settlements and Awards Under Congressional 
                           Accountability Act


Section 9001. Requiring Congressional Reimbursement for Employment 
        Discrimination

    This section would require Members to reimburse Treasury 
for amounts paid pursuant to a settlement for employment 
discrimination under the Congressional Accountability Act.

                   Subtitle B--Conflicts of Interest


Section 9101.

                               [RESERVED]


Section 9102. Conflict of Interest Rules for Members of Congress and 
        Congressional Staff

    This section would prohibit Members, Senators, House 
officer, and committee staff from using their position to 
introduce or help pass legislation the principal purpose of 
which is the pecuniary gain of the aforementioned classes or 
their immediate families.

Section 9103. Exercise of Rulemaking Powers

    This section would provide that enactment of the subtitle 
is an exercise in the rulemaking authority of each House of 
Congress and should be considered part of the rules of each 
House, superseding other rules to the extent that they are 
inconsistent. This section recognizes the constitutional right 
of each House to change these rules at any time as they would 
any other rule of such House.

          Subtitle C--Campaign Finance and Lobbying Disclosure


Section 9201. Short Title

    This section would provide that the subtitle may be cited 
as the ``Connecting Lobbyists and Electeds for Accountability 
and Reform Act'' or the ``CLEAR Act.''

Section 9202. Requiring disclosure in certain reports filed with 
        Federal Election Commission of persons who are registered 
        lobbyists

    This section would require registered lobbyists to file 
certain disclosure reports with the FEC. Further requires the 
FEC database containing the information described in this 
section is linked to the website.

Section 9203. Effective date

    This section would establish that with respect to reports 
required to be filed under the Federal Election Campaign Act, 
the amendments of this subtitle become effective on or after 
the expiration of the 90-day period which begins on the date of 
the enactment of the Act.

         Subtitle D--Access to Congressionally Mandated Reports


Section 9301. Short Title

    This section would establish that this subtitle may be 
cited as the ``Access to Congressionally Mandated Reports 
Act.''

Section 9302. Definitions

    This section would provide definitions for the subtitle.

Section 9303. Establishment of Online Portal for Congressionally 
        Mandated Reports

    This section would require the Director of the Government 
Publishing Office (GPO) to establish a searchable publicly 
accessible online portal to serve as a repository for 
Congressionally-mandated government reports in an open format.

Section 9304. Federal Agency Responsibilities

    This section would require of agency heads to submit 
reports concurrently to GPO with their submission to Congress. 
Clarifies that this does not relieve agencies of other report 
submission duties, such as to specific committees, if they 
exist.

Section 9305. Removing and altering reports

    This section would restrict removal or alteration of 
reports unless the head of the agency consults with each 
congressional committee to which the report was submitted, and 
Congress passes a joint resolution authorizing it.

Section 9306. Relationship to the Freedom of Information Act

    This section would clarify the law's relation to the 
Freedom of Information Act, excluding otherwise exempt 
information from disclosure. Does not impose an affirmative 
duty on the director of GPO to review reports for purpose of 
identifying information for redaction. Permits agency heads to 
redact information that is properly withheld from disclosure.

Section 9307. Implementation

    This section would establish that implementation shall 
occur not later than 1 year after enactment.

                    Subtitle E--Severability Clause


Section 9401. Severability

    This section would establish severability such that the 
application of the provisions of this title and amendments made 
by this title shall not be affected by a holding finding any 
provision of the title or amendment made by the title 
unconstitutional.

                 Title X--Presidential Tax Transparency


                               [RESERVED]


         Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported

  In compliance with clause 3(e) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, changes in existing law made by 
the bill, as reported, are shown as follows (existing law 
proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new 
matter is printed in italic, and existing law in which no 
change is proposed is shown in roman):

                NATIONAL VOTER REGISTRATION ACT OF 1993




           *       *       *       *       *       *       *
SEC. 3. DEFINITIONS.

   As used in this Act--
          (1) the term ``election'' has the meaning stated in 
        section 301(1) of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 
        1971 (2 U.S.C. 431(1));
          (2) the term ``Federal office'' has the meaning 
        stated in section 301(3) of the Federal Election 
        Campaign Act of 1971 (2 U.S.C. 431(3));
          (3) the term ``motor vehicle driver's license'' 
        includes any personal identification document issued by 
        a State motor vehicle authority;
          (4) the term ``State'' means a State of the United 
        [States and the District of Columbia] States, the 
        District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of the 
        Northern Mariana Islands; and
          (5) the term ``voter registration agency'' means an 
        office designated under section 7(a)(1) to perform 
        voter registration activities.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 6A. INTERNET REGISTRATION.

  (a) Requiring Availability of Internet for Online 
Registration.--
          (1) Availability o