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115th Congress   }                                            {   Report
                                 SENATE
 2d Session      }                                            {  115-259

======================================================================



 
   AGRICULTURE, RURAL DEVELOPMENT, FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, AND 
               RELATED AGENCIES APPROPRIATIONS BILL, 2019
                                _______
                                

                  May 24, 2018--Ordered to be printed

           Mr. Hoeven, from the Committee on Appropriations, 
                        submitted the following

                                 REPORT

                         [To accompany S. 2976]

    The Committee on Appropriations reports the bill (S. 2976) 
making appropriations for Agriculture, Rural Development, Food 
and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies programs for the 
fiscal year ending September 30, 2019, and for other purposes, 
reports favorably thereon and recommends that the bill do pass.


 
New obligational authority

Total of bill as reported to the Senate.................$145,446,786,000
Amount of 2018 appropriations........................... 151,145,985,000
Amount of 2019 budget estimate.......................... 139,317,668,000
Bill as recommended to Senate compared to--
    2018 appropriations.................................  -5,699,199,000
    2019 budget estimate................................  +6,129,118,000

 
 

 
                                CONTENTS

                              ----------                              
                                                                   Page
Breakdown by Title...............................................     4
Overview and Summary of the Bill.................................     5
Reports to Congress..............................................     6
Title I:
    Agricultural Programs:
        Production, Processing, and Marketing:
            Office of the Secretary..............................     7
            Executive Operations.................................     9
            Office of Hearings and Appeals.......................    10
            Office of the Chief Information Officer..............    11
            Office of the Chief Financial Officer................    12
            Office of the Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights...    12
            Office of Civil Rights...............................    12
            Agriculture Buildings and Facilities.................    13
            Hazardous Materials Management.......................    13
            Office of Inspector General..........................    14
            Office of the General Counsel........................    14
            Office of Ethics.....................................    15
            Office of the Under Secretary for Research, 
              Education, and Economics...........................    15
            Economic Research Service............................    15
            National Agricultural Statistics Service.............    16
            Agricultural Research Service........................    17
            National Institute of Food and Agriculture...........    27
            Office of the Under Secretary for Marketing and 
              Regulatory Programs................................    37
            Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...........    37
            Agricultural Marketing Service.......................    45
            Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety........    48
            Food Safety and Inspection Service...................    48
Title II:
    Farm Production and Conservation Programs:
        Office of the Under Secretary for Farm Production and 
          Conser-
          vation.................................................    51
        Farm Production and Conservation Business Center.........    51
        Farm Service Agency......................................    52
        Risk Management Agency...................................    56
        Natural Resources Conservation Service...................    57
    Corporations:
        Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Fund..................    59
        Commodity Credit Corporation Fund........................    59
Title III:
    Rural Development Programs:
        Office of the Under Secretary for Rural Development......    62
        Rural Housing Service....................................    63
        Rural Community Facilities Program Account...............    68
        Rural Business--Cooperative Service......................    69
        Rural Utilities Service..................................    73
Title IV:
    Domestic Food Programs:
        Office of the Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and 
          Consumer Services......................................    79
        Food and Nutrition Service...............................    79
Title V:
    Foreign Assistance and Related Programs:
        Office of the Under Secretary for Trade and Foreign 
          Agricultural Affairs...................................    89
        Foreign Agricultural Service.............................    90
Title VI:
    Related Agency and Food and Drug Administration:
        Department of Health and Human Services: Food and Drug 
          Administration.........................................    94
        Independent Agency: Farm Credit Administration...........   108
Title VII: General Provisions....................................   110
Program, Project, and Activity...................................   113
Compliance With Paragraph 7, Rule XVI of the Standing Rules of 
  the 
  Senate.........................................................   113
Compliance With Paragraph 7(c), Rule XXVI of the Standing Rules 
  of the Senate..................................................   114
Compliance With Paragraph 12, Rule XXVI of the Standing Rules of 
  the 
  Senate.........................................................   115
Budgetary Impact of Bill.........................................   116
Comparative Statement of Budget Authority........................   117

                           BREAKDOWN BY TITLE

    The amounts of obligational authority for each of the seven 
titles are shown in the following table. A detailed tabulation, 
showing comparisons, appears at the end of this report. 
Recommendations for individual appropriation items, projects 
and activities are carried in this report under the appropriate 
item headings.


                        [In thousands of dollars]
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                     Fiscal year 2018      Committee
                                         enacted         recommendation
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Title I: Agricultural programs....          6,966,837          6,967,783
Title II: Farm Production and              25,933,930         26,825,522
 Conservation programs............
Title III: Rural economic and               3,000,881          3,000,883
 community development programs...
Title IV: Domestic food programs..        104,919,418        103,040,913
Title V: Foreign assistance and             2,020,957          2,152,323
 related programs.................
Title VI: Related agencies and              2,811,866          2,970,866
 Food and Drug Administration.....
Title VII: General provisions.....            577,096            488,496
Supplemental Appropriations for             3,645,000  .................
 Disaster.........................                            ..........
                                   -------------------------------------
      Total, new budget                   151,145,985        145,446,786
       (obligational) authority...
------------------------------------------------------------------------


                    OVERVIEW AND SUMMARY OF THE BILL

    The Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug 
Administration, and Related Agencies appropriations bill 
provides funding for a wide array of Federal programs, mostly 
in the U.S. Department of Agriculture [USDA]. These programs 
include agricultural research, education, and extension 
activities; natural resources conservation programs; farm 
income and support programs; marketing and inspection 
activities; domestic food assistance programs; rural housing, 
economic and community development, and telecommunication and 
electrification assistance; and various export and 
international activities of the USDA.
    The bill also provides funding for the Food and Drug 
Administration [FDA] and allows the use of collected fees for 
administrative expenses of the Farm Credit Administration 
[FCA].
    The discretionary programs and activities of USDA and FDA 
that are supported by this bill include high priority 
responsibilities entrusted to the Federal Government and its 
partners to protect human health and safety, contribute to 
economic recovery, and achieve policy objectives strongly 
supported by the American people. The ability to provide for 
these measures is made difficult by growing pressure on 
available levels of discretionary spending as a consequence of 
the overall public debate on Federal spending, revenues, and 
size of the Federal debt.
    Too often, the USDA programs funded by this bill are 
confused with farm subsidies and other mandatory spending more 
properly associated with multi-year farm bills. In contrast, 
this bill provides annual funding for programs familiar to all 
Americans such as protecting food safety through the Food 
Safety and Inspection Service and the Food and Drug 
Administration, which also plays a vital role in maintaining 
the safety of the Nation's blood supply and availability of 
safe and effective medical products and other components of our 
health system. This bill also provides funding to fight against 
the introduction and spread of noxious or infectious and often 
invasive pests and disease that threaten our plant and animal 
health environments, as well as funding for many other missions 
of dire importance to the American people.
    In the context of overall pressures on spending and the 
competing priorities that the Committee faces, this bill as 
reported provides the proper amount of emphasis on 
agricultural, rural development, and other programs and 
activities funded by the bill. It is consistent with the 
subcommittee's allocation for fiscal year 2019.
    All accounts in the bill have been closely examined to 
ensure that an appropriate level of funding is provided to 
carry out the programs of USDA, FDA, and FCA. Details on each 
of the accounts, the funding level, and the Committee's 
justifications for the funding levels are included in the 
report.

                          REPORTS TO CONGRESS

    The Committee has, throughout this report, requested 
agencies to provide studies and reports on various issues. The 
Committee utilizes these reports to evaluate program 
performance and make decisions on future appropriations. The 
Committee directs that all studies and reports be provided to 
the Committee as electronic documents in an agreed upon format 
within 120 days after the date of enactment, unless an 
alternative submission schedule is specifically stated in the 
report request.

                                TITLE I

                         AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMS

                  Processing, Research, and Marketing

                        Office of the Secretary

                     (including transfers of funds)

Appropriations, 2018....................................     $46,532,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................      42,498,000
Committee recommendation................................      46,532,000

    The Secretary of Agriculture, assisted by the Deputy 
Secretary, Under Secretaries and Assistant Secretaries, Chief 
Information Officer, Chief Financial Officer, and members of 
their immediate staffs, directs and coordinates the work of the 
Department. This includes developing policy, maintaining 
relationships with agricultural organizations and others in the 
development of farm programs, and maintaining liaison with the 
Executive Office of the President and Members of Congress on 
all matters pertaining to agricultural policy.
    The general authority of the Secretary to supervise and 
control the work of the Department is contained in the Organic 
Act (7 U.S.C. 2201-2202). The delegation of regulatory 
functions to Department employees and authorization of 
appropriations to carry out these functions is contained in 7 
U.S.C. 450c-450g.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $46,532,000 
for the Office of the Secretary. The Committee recommendation 
includes the following accounts under the Office of the 
Secretary: Office of the Secretary; Office of Tribal Relations; 
Office of Homeland Security and Emergency Coordination; Office 
of Advocacy and Outreach; Office of the Assistant Secretary for 
Administration; Departmental Administration; Office of 
Assistant Secretary for Congressional Relations; and Office of 
Communications. The following table reflects the amount 
provided by the Committee for each office and activity:

                                             OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY
                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            Fiscal year 2018  Fiscal year 2019      Committee
                                                                 enacted       budget request    recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Office of the Secretary...................................             5,051             4,850             5,051
Office of the Assistant to the Secretary for Rural                       800               800               800
 Development..............................................
Office of Homeland Security...............................             1,496             1,448             1,496
Office of Partnerships and Public Engagement..............             4,711             1,672             4,711
Office of Assistant Secretary for Administration..........               804               875               804
Departmental Administration...............................            22,301            22,501            22,301
Office of Assistant Secretary for Congressional Relations.             3,869             3,091             3,869
Office of Communications..................................             7,500             7,261             7,500
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
      Total...............................................            46,532            42,498            46,532
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Century Farms.--The Committee encourages the Secretary to 
create a program to recognize farms that have been in operation 
for 100 years and encourages the establishment of a National 
Century Farms Designation.
    Commodity Credit Corporation [CCC] Obligations and 
Commitments.--The Secretary is directed to notify the 
Committees on Appropriations of the House and Senate in writing 
15 days prior to the obligation or commitment of any emergency 
funds from the CCC.
    Livestock Crossing.--The Committee is concerned with the 
ongoing problem of the crossing of livestock from Mexico into 
the U.S. without proper inspection, which creates risk of 
disease and loss of forage for U.S. ranchers in the Southwest 
border region. The Committee directs the agency, in 
consultation with other Federal and State agencies, to develop 
a plan of action to better prevent and reduce unauthorized 
international crossing of livestock on the Southwest border.
    Multi-Agency Transparency.--The Committee expresses support 
for increasing transparency within all agencies of the 
Department of Agriculture. The agencies are encouraged to 
disclose costs associated with analyses required by the 
National Environmental Policy Act.
    Outreach to Socially Disadvantaged and Veteran Farmers and 
Ranchers.--The Committee supports the efforts of the Office of 
Advocacy and Outreach to increase the accessibility of USDA 
programs to underserved constituents, and notes that 
$10,000,000 in mandatory funds is available to assist socially 
disadvantaged and veteran farmers and ranchers in owning and 
operating farms and ranches to meet the growing need for 
financial, production, management, and other assistance to 
those communities and address workforce shortages. 
Additionally, the Committee recommendation includes $3,000,000 
in discretionary funding for these activities.
    Resource Conservation and Development Councils.--Since 
1964, the Resource Conservation and Development [RC&D] Councils 
have worked at the grassroots level with local leaders to plan, 
develop, and carry out programs for land and water conservation 
and management. The Committee encourages the Secretary to 
consider the maximum practical use of RC&D Councils, where such 
RC&D Councils meet agency performance requirements, in the 
delivery of USDA programs and services.
    State Rural Development Councils.--The Committee recognizes 
the successful work of State Rural Development Councils [SRDCs) 
and their role in advancing rural America and promoting 
strength and prosperity across the country, and urges the 
Secretary to provide resources to help improve and expand the 
impact of SRDCs.
    Urban Agriculture.--The Committee is aware of a steady 
increase in urban agriculture initiatives taking place in 
metropolitan areas across the country. The Committee strongly 
supports such initiatives and recognizes that successful, 
robust urban farms can positively impact urban communities and 
residents in a variety of ways by providing education, 
entrepreneurial opportunities, and job training; addressing 
shortages of fresh fruits and vegetables; increasing health and 
wellness of pregnant women and young children; and reducing 
obesity rates, recidivism, and urban blight. The Committee 
commends the Department's efforts to foster such initiatives 
and encourages the Secretary to increase support and outreach 
for urban agriculture, including grants, loans, and technical 
assistance for these innovative urban horticulture projects.
    Wheat Grading.--The Committee is concerned about unfair 
wheat grading practices that negatively affects American wheat 
growers that export to Canada. Current Canadian wheat grading 
law automatically downgrades America wheat to the lowest 
quality designation regardless of the type or quality of the 
wheat. In the United States, however, our grading system 
provides a fair examination for wheat imported from Canada. 
This discrepancy needs to be addressed to ensure our wheat 
growers are being treated fairly. Therefore, the Committee 
urges the Secretary of Agriculture to work with the Department 
of Commerce and the United States Trade Representative to 
prioritize initiating conversations with the Canadian 
Government to address trade inequities resulting from Canada's 
current wheat grading practices.
    Zoonotic Disease Collaboration.--The Committee believes 
that complex problems affecting the health of humans, animals, 
and the environment are best solved through important 
communication, cooperation, and collaboration across 
disciplines, sectors, between agencies, and between other 
appropriate domestic and international actors. The Committee 
directs USDA to provide a report within 60 days of enactment of 
this Act detailing existing collaborative efforts between FDA, 
USDA, and other agencies to prevent and respond to zoonotic 
disease outbreaks in animals and humans; a proposed framework 
to improve these efforts; and specific activities requested to 
achieve the proposed framework.

                          Executive Operations

    Executive operations were established as a result of the 
reorganization of the Department to provide a support team for 
USDA policy officials and selected department-wide services. 
Activities under the executive operations include the Office of 
the Chief Economist, the National Appeals Division, and the 
Office of Budget and Program Analysis.

                     OFFICE OF THE CHIEF ECONOMIST

Appropriations, 2018....................................     $19,786,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................      19,487,000
Committee recommendation................................      19,786,000

    The Office of the Chief Economist advises the Secretary of 
Agriculture on the economic implications of Department policies 
and programs. The Office serves as the single focal point for 
the Nation's economic intelligence and analysis, risk 
assessment, and cost-benefit analysis related to domestic and 
international food and agriculture issues, provides policy 
direction for renewable energy development, conducts analyses 
of climate change impacts on agriculture and forestry, and is 
responsible for coordination and review of all commodity and 
aggregate agricultural and food-related data used to develop 
outlook and situation material within the Department.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $19,786,000 
for the Office of the Chief Economist.
    Policy Research.--The Committee recommendation includes 
$4,000,000 for policy research under 7 U.S.C. 3155 for entities 
with existing institutional capacity to conduct complex 
economic and policy analysis and a lengthy and well-documented 
record of conducting policy analysis for the benefit of the 
Department of Agriculture, the Congressional Budget Office, or 
the Congress. To maximize resources, the Committee expects the 
Department to focus efforts on entities that have developed 
models, databases, and staff necessary to conduct in-depth 
analysis of impacts of agriculture or rural development policy 
proposals on rural communities, farmers, agribusiness, 
taxpayers, and consumers.

                     Office of Hearings and Appeals

Appropriations, 2018....................................     $15,222,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................      14,183,000
Committee recommendation................................      15,222,000

    The Office of Hearings and Appeals conducts administrative 
hearings and reviews of adverse program decisions made by the 
Rural Development mission area, the Farm Service Agency, the 
Risk Management Agency, and the Natural Resources Conservation 
Service.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $15,222,000 
for the Office of Hearings and Appeals.

                 OFFICE OF BUDGET AND PROGRAM ANALYSIS

Appropriations, 2018....................................      $9,525,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................       8,631,000
Committee recommendation................................       9,525,000

    The Office of Budget and Program Analysis provides 
direction and administration of the Department's budgetary 
functions including development, presentation, and execution of 
the budget; reviews program and legislative proposals for 
program, budget, and related implications; analyzes program and 
resource issues and alternatives, and prepares summaries of 
pertinent data to aid the Secretary and departmental policy 
officials and agency program managers in the decisionmaking 
process; and provides departmentwide coordination for and 
participation in the presentation of budget-related matters to 
the committees of the Congress, the media, and interested 
public. The Office also provides department-wide coordination 
of the preparation and processing of regulations and 
legislative programs and reports.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $9,525,000 for 
the Office of Budget and Program Analysis.

                Office of the Chief Information Officer

Appropriations, 2018....................................     $58,950,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................      62,524,000
Committee recommendation................................      63,950,000

    The Office of the Chief Information Officer was established 
in August 1996 (40 U.S.C. 1401 et seq.), pursuant to the 
Clinger-Cohen Act of 1996, which required the establishment of 
a Chief Information Officer for major Federal agencies. This 
Office provides policy guidance, leadership, coordination, and 
direction to the Department's information management and 
information technology investment activities in support of USDA 
program delivery, and is the lead office in USDA e-gov efforts. 
The Office provides long-range planning guidance, implements 
measures to ensure that technology investments are economical 
and effective, coordinates interagency information resources 
management projects, and implements standards to promote 
information exchange and technical interoperability. In 
addition, the Office of the Chief Information Officer is 
responsible for certain activities financed under the 
Department's Working Capital Fund (7 U.S.C. 2235). The Office 
also provides telecommunication and automated data processing 
[ADP] services to USDA agencies through the National 
Information Technology Center with locations in Fort Collins, 
Colorado, Kansas City, Missouri and Washington, DC. Direct ADP 
operational services are also provided to the Office of the 
Secretary, the Office of the General Counsel, the Office of 
Communications, the Office of the Chief Financial Officer, and 
Departmental Management.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $63,950,000 
for the Office of the Chief Information Officer. This includes 
an increase of $5,000,000 for enhanced cybersecurity 
activities.
    Mobile Derived Credentials.--The Committee provides the 
requested increase for IT Modernization including cyber 
security initiatives to ensure the Department maintains and 
increases its cyber security posture. Of the funding provided 
$1,000,000 is for the procurement and implementation of Mobile 
Derived Credentials to allow all employees, including field 
offices, secure and rapid access to all Departmental systems 
from a mobile and remote environment. The Department shall also 
use these funds to develop similar mobile and remote access 
credentials for consumers to easily and securely access 
Department consumer applications, therefore reducing the need 
for consumers to travel to field offices for transactions.
    Software Licenses.--The Committee encourages the 
Department's Chief Information Officer to perform periodic 
automated inventories of software licenses in use across the 
Department. The Department should compare those usage numbers 
to its purchased licenses and seek to increase efficiency 
wherever it identifies discrepancies. The Department is to 
consider using this information to obtain department-wide 
acquisitions as opposed to component-specific purchases of 
licenses.

                 Office of the Chief Financial Officer

Appropriations, 2018....................................      $6,028,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................       5,536,000
Committee recommendation................................       6,028,000

    The Office of the Chief Financial Officer is responsible 
for the dual roles of Chief Financial Management Policy Officer 
and Chief Financial Management Advisor to the Secretary and 
mission area heads. The Office provides leadership for all 
financial management, accounting, travel, Federal assistance, 
and strategic planning performance measurement activities 
within the Department. The Office is also responsible for the 
management and operation of the National Finance Center and the 
Departmental Working Capital Fund.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $6,028,000 for 
the Office of the Chief Financial Officer.

           Office of the Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights

Appropriations, 2018....................................        $901,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................         800,000
Committee recommendation................................         901,000

    The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights 
provides oversight of civil rights and related functions. This 
includes coordination of the administration of civil rights 
laws and regulations for employees of the Department of 
Agriculture and participants in programs of the Department, and 
ensuring compliance with civil rights laws.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $901,000 for 
the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights.

                         Office of Civil Rights

Appropriations, 2018....................................     $24,206,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................      22,345,000
Committee recommendation................................      24,206,000

    The Office of Civil Rights provides overall leadership 
responsibility for all department-wide civil rights activities. 
These activities include employment opportunity as well as 
program nondiscrimination policy development, analysis, 
coordination, and compliance. The Office is responsible for 
providing leadership in facilitating the fair and equitable 
treatment of USDA employees, and for monitoring program 
activities to ensure that all USDA programs are delivered in a 
nondiscriminatory manner. The Office's outreach functions 
provide leadership, coordination, facilitation, and expertise 
to internal and external partners to ensure equal and timely 
access to USDA programs for all constituents, with emphasis on 
the underserved, through information sharing, technical 
assistance, and training.

                        COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATION

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $24,206,000 
for the Office of Civil Rights.

                  Agriculture Buildings and Facilities


                     (including transfers of funds)

Appropriations, 2018....................................     $64,414,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................      58,330,000
Committee recommendation................................      58,330,000

    Department headquarters presently operates in a two-
building, Government-owned complex in downtown Washington, DC, 
the George Washington Carver Center in Beltsville, Maryland, 
and in leased buildings in the metropolitan Washington, DC, 
area. Under an arrangement with the General Services 
Administration, USDA operates, maintains, and repairs these 
facilities, in lieu of rental payments. For the last several 
years the Department has implemented a strategic space plan to 
locate staff more efficiently, renovate its buildings, and 
eliminate safety hazards, particularly in the Agriculture South 
Building.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $58,330,000 
for Agriculture Buildings and Facilities.

                     Hazardous Materials Management


                     (including transfers of funds)

Appropriations, 2018....................................      $3,503,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................       3,463,000
Committee recommendation................................       3,503,000

    Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, 
Compensation, and Liability Act and the Resource Conservation 
and Recovery Act, the Department has the responsibility to meet 
the same standards regarding the storage and disposition of 
hazardous materials as private businesses. The Department is 
required to contain, cleanup, monitor, and inspect for 
hazardous materials in areas under the Department's 
jurisdiction.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $3,503,000 for 
Hazardous Materials Management.

                      Office of Inspector General

Appropriations, 2018....................................     $98,208,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................      87,436,000
Committee recommendation................................      98,208,000

    The Office of Inspector General [OIG] was established 
October 12, 1978, by the Inspector General Act of 1978 (Public 
Law 95-452). This act expanded and provided specific 
authorities for the activities of OIG which had previously been 
carried out under the general authorities of the Secretary of 
Agriculture.
    The Office is administered by an inspector general who 
reports directly to the Secretary of Agriculture. Functions and 
responsibilities of this Office include direction and control 
of audit and investigative activities within the Department, 
formulation of audit and investigative policies and procedures 
regarding Department programs and operations, and analysis and 
coordination of program-related audit and investigation 
activities performed by other Department agencies.
    The activities of this Office are designed to assure 
compliance with existing laws, policies, regulations, and 
programs of the Department's agencies, and to provide 
appropriate officials with the means for prompt corrective 
action where deviations have occurred. The scope of audit and 
investigative activities is large and includes administrative, 
program, and criminal matters. These activities are 
coordinated, when appropriate, with various audit and 
investigative agencies of the executive and legislative 
branches of the Government.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $98,208,000 
for the Office of Inspector General. The recommendation also 
includes funding for OIG to address violations of section 26 of 
the Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. 2156) and to coordinate with 
State and local law enforcement personnel in this effort.

                     Office of the General Counsel

Appropriations, 2018....................................     $44,546,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................      41,717,000
Committee recommendation................................      45,146,000

    The Office of the General Counsel provides all legal 
advice, counsel, and services to the Secretary and to all 
agencies, offices, and corporations of the Department. The 
Office represents the Department in administrative proceedings; 
nonlitigation debt collection proceedings; State water rights 
adjudications; proceedings before the Environmental Protection 
Agency, Interstate Commerce Commission, Federal Maritime 
Administration, and International Trade Commission; and, in 
conjunction with the Department of Justice, in judicial 
proceedings and litigation.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $45,146,000 
for the Office of the General Counsel. This includes an 
increase of $600,000 to support international trade activities, 
as requested in the budget.

                            Office of Ethics

Appropriations, 2018....................................      $4,136,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................       2,897,000
Committee recommendation................................       4,136,000

    The Office of Ethics is the centralized and consolidated 
office implementing USDA's ethics program throughout the 
Department. The Office provides ethics services to all 
employees at the Department concerning advice, training, and 
guidance about compliance with conflict of interest and 
impartiality rules. This includes complying with the 
requirements of the Stop Trading on Congressional Knowledge 
Act, Public Law 112-105 (the STOCK Act), and the Office of 
Government Ethics regulatory requirements (5 CFR parts 2634 
through 2641).

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $4,136,000 for 
the Office of Ethics.

  Office of the Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics

Appropriations, 2018....................................        $800,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................         800,000
Committee recommendation................................         800,000

    The Office of the Under Secretary for Research, Education, 
and Economics provides direction and coordination in carrying 
out the laws enacted by the Congress for food and agricultural 
research, education, extension, and economic and statistical 
information. The Office has oversight and management 
responsibilities for the Agricultural Research Service; 
National Institute of Food and Agriculture; Economic Research 
Service; and National Agricultural Statistics Service.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $800,000 for 
the Office of the Under Secretary for Research, Education, and 
Economics.
    Industrial Hemp.--The Committee is aware of statements made 
by the Department acknowledging the eligibility of researchers 
participating in industrial hemp pilot programs as defined by 
Section 7606 of the Agricultural Act of 2014 to compete for 
Federal funds awarded by the Department. The Committee directs 
the Department to work with and inform stakeholders of this 
eligibility and to support industrial hemp research as 
authorized by Section 7606 of the Agricultural Act of 2014.

                       Economic Research Service

Appropriations, 2018....................................     $86,757,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................      45,000,000
Committee recommendation................................      86,757,000

    The Economic Research Service [ERS] provides economic and 
other social science research and analysis for public and 
private decisions on agriculture, food, the environment, and 
rural America. The information that ERS produces is for use by 
the general public and to help the executive and legislative 
branches develop, administer, and evaluate agricultural and 
rural policies and programs.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $86,757,000 
for the Economic Research Service.
    Breastfeeding Study.--The Committee recognizes the 
important role of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program 
for Women, Infants, and Children [WIC] in encouraging 
breastfeeding. Breastfeeding can be an important preventive 
measure in infant and maternal health, and WIC offers multiple 
services and supports to mothers to help achieve optimal 
breastfeeding. As Congress looks for ways to reduce Federal 
healthcare spending, it is important to understand the 
preventive impact of breastfeeding and WIC's initiatives within 
broader healthcare spending. The Committee requests within 12 
months an updated study from the ERS on the economic benefits 
of breastfeeding, including its potential cost-savings for 
Medicaid and the WIC program.
    Feed Costs.--The Committee maintains funding provided in 
fiscal year 2018 for ERS to expand its current feed cost 
components surveys nationally.
    Low Density Polyethylene.--The use of Low Density 
Polyethylene [LDPE] as an agricultural aid on farms is common 
practice but as a single use material represents a negative 
impact on the environment. The Committee encourages ERS to 
conduct research into the viability of creating collection 
networks and potential markets for agricultural LDPE. The 
Committee directs NASS to include data from Alaska in compiling 
the report.
    Organic Data Analysis.--The organic industry has grown at a 
tremendous rate over the past several years, and accurate data 
for the production, pricing and marketing of organic products 
is essential. Therefore, the Committee encourages ERS to 
continue and expand the efforts relating to organic data 
analysis.

                National Agricultural Statistics Service

Appropriations, 2018....................................    $191,717,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................     165,000,000
Committee recommendation................................     174,767,000

    The National Agricultural Statistics Service [NASS] 
administers the Department's program of collecting and 
publishing current national, State, and county agricultural 
statistics. These statistics provide accurate and timely 
projections of current agricultural production and measures of 
the economic and environmental welfare of the agricultural 
sector which are essential for making effective policy, 
production, and marketing decisions. NASS also furnishes 
statistical services to other USDA and Federal agencies in 
support of their missions, and provides consulting, technical 
assistance, and training to developing countries.
    NASS is also responsible for administration of the Census 
of Agriculture, which is taken every 5 years and provides 
comprehensive data on the agricultural economy including: data 
on the number of farms, land use, production expenses, farm 
product values, value of land and buildings, farm size and 
characteristics of farm operators, market value of agricultural 
production sold, acreage of major crops, inventory of livestock 
and poultry, and farm irrigation practices.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $174,767,000 
for the National Agricultural Statistics Service. This includes 
an increase of $600,000 for the Geospatial Improvement 
Initiative as requested in the budget.
    Alfalfa Prices.--The Committee is concerned that the 
National Agricultural Statistics Service monthly Agricultural 
Prices Report only lists the average price received by 
agricultural producers for alfalfa sold, with no further 
breakdown of alfalfa hay that meets the higher quality 
standards required for dairy feed (graded as premium or better, 
or the equivalent). The Committee directs the National 
Agricultural Statistics Service to calculate and report in the 
monthly Agricultural Prices Report on the average price of 
premium or better alfalfa sold in the United States.
    Barley Estimates.--The Committee recommends that NASS 
reinstate acreage and production estimates for barley in States 
that were discontinued in 2016.
    Chemical Use Data Series.--The Committee believes that the 
Chemical Use Data Series provides timely, valuable information 
on fertilizer and chemical use data on major field crops and 
selected specialty crops. The Committee encourages the National 
Agricultural Statistics Service to continue funding the 
collection and analysis of chemical use data as well as 
practices such as integrated pest management. The Committee 
supports the National Agricultural Statistics Service's effort 
to resume collecting Fruit Chemical Use data and Vegetable 
Chemical Use data in alternating years and also directs the 
continuation of this practice to ensure equal access to Federal 
statistics.
    Floriculture Crops Report.--The Committee recognizes the 
importance of the Floriculture Crops Report, and recommends an 
increase of $500,000 for NASS to complete the report. The 
Committee directs NASS to include data from Alaska in compiling 
the report.
    Organic Data Initiative.--The Committee encourages NASS and 
AMS to coordinate activities related to expanding organic price 
reporting and organic data collection, and provides NASS an 
additional $250,000 for these activities.

                     Agricultural Research Service


                         SALARIES AND EXPENSES

Appropriations, 2018....................................  $1,202,766,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................   1,018,991,000
Committee recommendation................................   1,300,966,000

    The Agricultural Research Service [ARS] is responsible for 
conducting basic, applied, and developmental research through 
its major program areas of New Products/Product Quality/Value 
Added; Livestock/Crop Production; Food Safety; Livestock/Crop 
Protection; Human Nutrition; and Environmental Stewardship. The 
research applies to a wide range of goals; commodities; natural 
resources; fields of science; and geographic, climatic, and 
environmental conditions.
    ARS is also responsible for the Abraham Lincoln National 
Agricultural Library which provides agricultural information 
and library services through traditional library functions and 
modern electronic dissemination to agencies of the USDA, public 
and private organizations, and individuals.
    As the USDA's in-house agricultural research unit, ARS has 
major responsibilities for conducting and leading the national 
agricultural research effort. It provides initiative and 
leadership in five areas: research on broad regional and 
national problems, research to support Federal action and 
regulatory agencies, expertise to meet national emergencies, 
research support for international programs, and scientific 
resources to the executive branch and Congress.
    The mission of ARS research is to develop and transfer 
solutions to agricultural problems of high national priority 
and provide information access and dissemination to ensure 
high-quality, safe food and other agricultural products; assess 
the nutritional needs of Americans; sustain a competitive 
agricultural economy; enhance the natural resource base and the 
environment; and provide economic opportunities for rural 
citizens, communities, and society as a whole.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $1,300,966,000 
for salaries and expenses of the Agricultural Research Service. 
The Committee does not concur with the President's budget 
request regarding the termination of research programs and 
laboratory closures. The Committee expects extramural research 
to be funded at no less than the fiscal year 2018 levels.
    Aerial Application Research.--The Committee recognizes the 
importance of the ARS Aerial Application Technology Program. 
The program conducts innovative research making aerial 
applications more efficient, effective and precise. Research 
for aerial application serves the public good as a vital tool 
for the future, as agriculture strives to meet the food, fiber, 
and bio-energy demands of a growing population.
    Agricultural Genomics.--The Committee provides no less than 
the fiscal year 2018 level for agricultural genomic research to 
expand the knowledge of public and private sector entities and 
persons concerning genomes for species of importance to the 
food and agriculture sectors in order to maximize the return on 
the investment in genomics of agriculturally important species.
    Agroforestry.--Agroforestry can provide on-farm financial 
and environmental benefits while also addressing the regional 
and national-scale issues of clean water, wildlife habitat, and 
hypoxia. Agroforesters manage trees with crops, livestock, and 
pasture to combine the best of both agriculture and forestry. 
Recognizing the importance of agroforestry to farm practices 
and the environment, the Committee recommendation includes no 
less than the fiscal year 2018 level to develop integrated 
strategies to manage multifunctional agricultural landscapes 
that combine trees with agricultural and horticultural crops, 
forages and grazing livestock for optimal economic, 
environmental, and natural resources benefits.
    Alfalfa Research.--The Committee notes that research into 
alfalfa seed and alfalfa forage systems holds the potential to 
increase yields, increase milk production, and improve 
genetics, and the Committee recommendation includes an increase 
of $1,000,000 to support research focused on alfalfa 
improvement. Research should focus on using tools to accelerate 
and enhance existing breeding programs focused on improving 
yield and quality parameters; developing innovative harvesting 
and utilization systems; developing new markets for co-
products; and quantifying environmental benefits from alfalfa-
based systems.
    Antimicrobial Research and Development.--The Committee 
recognizes that successful mitigation of antimicrobial 
resistance in food and agriculture takes coordinated research 
efforts targeting animals and interaction with the environment. 
The Committee strongly supports enhanced research efforts to 
advance the development of alternatives to antibiotics used in 
animal production. The Committee encourages ARS to examine the 
role of nutritional alternatives/feed additives containing 
bioactives and prebiotics that may lead to reduced antibiotic 
use and boost immune responses in livestock. The Committee 
requests that ARS provide an update on this effort in its 
fiscal year 2020 budget request.
    Aquaculture Seedstock.--The Committee is concerned that 
vital seedstock to support the development of aquaculture in 
Federal waters of the Gulf of Mexico will be sourced from 
foreign aquaculture producers. Domestic on-land recirculating 
aquaculture systems are highly capable of producing seedstock 
to support significant domestic on-land and offshore 
aquaculture industry growth including through broodstock 
acquisition and care, spawning, larval culture techniques. 
Therefore, the Committee encourages USDA to continue working 
collaboratively with U.S. aquaculture producers and research 
institutions that specialize in the development of aquaculture 
technologies and provides an additional $2,000,000 for the 
development of aquaculture technology that will ensure a steady 
supply of warm water marine fish seedstock for economic growth 
of the U.S. aquaculture industry.
    Atlantic Salmon Breeding Program.--The Committee directs 
ARS to continue its Atlantic salmon breeding and domestication 
work. The Committee notes that domestic salmon farms are 
required to only use strains of salmon that are of North 
American origin and that these strains need substantial 
breeding improvement in order to be competitive with strains 
currently used by foreign producers. The Committee notes that 
the current ARS Atlantic salmon breeding program lacks a 
geneticist and supports efforts by the Department to address 
this need.
    Big Data.--The Committee is aware of ARS' effort to develop 
high performance computing infrastructures for modern 
agricultural research. The Committee provides $9,000,000 to 
expand ARS' high-speed network, high-performance computing 
capabilities, big data storage, and modern informatics 
expertise to meet both current and future needs.
    Center for Pollinator Health.--The Committee is aware that 
bees play a crucial role in U.S. agriculture as pollinators, 
and that continued colony loss poses a serious threat to future 
food production. While the Committee commends the Department 
for the steps it has taken to better understand this problem 
and how to best address it, the Committee is concerned that the 
maximum benefits of multiagency efforts have yet to be 
achieved. The Committee provides $3,000,000 for ARS to 
establish a Center for Pollinator Health in order to provide a 
central Federal voice on pollinator health. The Committee 
encourages ARS to collaborate with Federal and land-grant 
university partners to examine the impact of pesticides, varroa 
mites, and other potential contributors to bee colony declines.
    Ceratocystis Disease.--The Committee directs ARS to 
continue its study of Ceratocystis in the United States, and 
implement actions and recommendations for response and 
management pursuant to Senate Report 115-131.
    Chronic Wasting Disease.--The Committee recognizes the 
importance of a live test for cervids potentially affected with 
chronic wasting disease and provides an additional $1,000,000 
for research dedicated to the development of such test.
    Citrus Greening Disease Research.--The Committee commends 
ARS on its research efforts on citrus greening disease and 
encourages the agency to continue working to develop methods to 
reduce transmission, enhance immunity in citrus trees, and work 
with industry, universities, growers, and other partners to 
develop effective control mechanisms. The Committee also 
encourages ARS to coordinate its efforts with the 
HuanglongbiAng Multi-Agency Coordination [HLB-MAC] group.
    Coffee Germplasm.--The Committee provides $1,900,000 to 
complete its report and implement recommendations on including 
coffee in the National Clonal Germplasm Repository.
    Cotton Ginning.--The Committee recognizes the importance of 
pollution abatement, improving fiber quality, ginning 
efficiency, cotton seed and other byproducts, and provides an 
additional $500,000 to expand research in cotton ginning and 
innovation by existing laboratories.
    Cover Crops Research and Outreach.--The Committee 
recognizes the importance of developing profitable and 
practicable cover crop options for use in dairy, grain, and 
vegetable production systems, including for use in no-till 
organic systems and as forages. Therefore, the Committee 
recommendation includes no less than the fiscal year 2018 level 
for ARS to support research with the purposes of improving 
measures of soil health and resiliency, varietal development, 
optimizing dairy forage species combinations, timing and 
strategies for cover crop seeding and termination, forage 
integration into organic dairy systems, and mitigation of 
environmental and extreme rainfall impacts on water quality and 
soil security for diverse cover crop systems.
    Cranberry Research.--The Committee recognizes the need for 
advancements in water conservation, pest control, disease 
reduction, and fruit quality improvements in cranberry 
production. The Committee recommendation includes an increase 
of $1,000,000 for the improvement of cranberry yields, pest 
management, disease management, and water resource management 
by developing fields devoted to cranberry research and 
collection and storage of samples for analysis in appropriate 
existing laboratory facilities.
    Emerging Cereal Rust Diseases.--The Committee is aware that 
emerging cereal rust diseases are a threat to domestic and 
world food supplies. Therefore, the Department should continue 
to dedicate funding to speed efforts to combat cereal rust 
disease, including development of Ug99-resistant wheat 
varieties.
    Feed Enhancement.--The Committee recognizes the potential 
benefits of using Bromoform [CHBR3], currently produced by 
Asparagopsis taxiformis (red seaweed), as a cattle feed 
enhancement to reduce pollution. The Committee includes an 
increase of $1,000,000 for the Livestock Nutrient Management 
Research Unit [LNMRU] to examine the applicability and 
potential benefits of Bromoform, whether produced by 
Asparagopsis taxiformis or an alternative method, as a cattle 
feed enhancement.
    Floriculture and Nursery Research.--The Committee 
recognizes the economic importance of the floriculture and 
nursery sector of agriculture and the industry's need for 
continued innovation. The Committee provides no less than the 
fiscal year 2018 funding level for ARS to support academic and 
Federal researchers to pursue efforts in crop protection, 
breeding, mechanization and other areas through USDA's 
Floriculture and Nursery Research Initiative.
    Food Systems.--The Committee recommendation includes 
$3,000,000 for ARS to support a Food Systems Center at a land-
grant institution that addresses how local, regional and global 
food systems can provide nutritious and culturally appropriate 
food, regardless of individual life circumstances.
    Foodborne Pathogens.--Salmonella continues to cause serious 
disease in food animals and, via transmission through 
contaminated food products to people, remains the number one 
bacterial foodborne pathogen in humans. The Committee provides 
an additional $1,000,000 to develop non-antibiotic 
interventions to inhibit environmental movement of Salmonella 
between food animal species, and to reduce the pathogen load in 
food animals themselves, using Salmonella-targeted viruses 
called bacteriophages, as well as prebiotic and probiotic 
supplements.
    Forage Production Systems.--The Committee recommendation 
includes no less than the fiscal year 2018 level to develop 
management practices that improve the production efficiency of 
grazing operations in temperate pastures.
    Forest Products.--The Committee recognizes the important 
role of the forests products sector to the U.S. economy. The 
need to create new and improved value-added products and 
renewable energy from our Nation's wood supply is critical to 
the sustainability of the national economy. The Committee 
recommendation includes no less than the fiscal year 2018 level 
to support research on wood product quality improvement and 
improvement in forest products evaluation standards and 
valuation techniques. ARS shall conduct this research in 
consultation with the Forest Products Laboratory.
    Fruit Fly and Exotic Pest Control.--The Committee 
recommendation includes $1,000,000 to implement recommendations 
issued pursuant to Senate Report 115-131 to provide additional 
support and capacity to prevent the spread of fruit flies and 
other exotic pests to the U.S. mainland from the tropical 
Pacific.
    Genetic Oat Research.--The Committee recognizes the 
potential genetic oat research has to improve disease 
resistance (especially rusts and viruses), genetics, increase 
yields, and develop crop rotation systems that include oat, 
which will enhance the value of oats and provide benefits to 
producers and consumers. The Committee includes an increase of 
$1,000,000 to expand existing research focused on oat 
improvement.
    Genomes to Fields.--The Committee recommendation includes 
no less than the fiscal year 2018 level to support the 
Germplasm Enhancement of Maize [GEM] project to complement the 
existing USDA maize germplasm programs and support the emerging 
large-scale public sector effort to investigate the interaction 
of maize genome variation and environments, known as the 
Genomes to Fields project.
    High Performance Computing Support.--The Committee provides 
no less than the fiscal year 2018 level to support high 
performance computing capability to address scientific needs 
and directs ARS to collaborate with appropriate partners with 
the technical capacity and scientific synergy to provide cost-
effective high performance computing support.
    Hops Research.--The Committee recommends no less than the 
fiscal year 2018 level to support hops research.
    Human Nutrition Research.--The Committee remains concerned 
about the high rates of obesity in this country, and believes 
that research into human nutrition is important to help prevent 
childhood obesity and the medical issues obesity brings. The 
Committee recommendation includes an increase of $1,400,000 to 
expand research regarding the growth, health promotion, diet, 
immune function, and disease prevention of the developing 
child.
    Industrial Hemp Germplasm.--The Committee recognizes the 
increasing demand for industrial hemp for a variety of uses, 
and its growing importance as a crop for U.S. farmers. When the 
nation's industrial hemp germplasm was destroyed in the 1980s, 
researchers lost access to publicly available germplasm for 
plant breeding purposes. The Committee directs ARS to establish 
and maintain a hemp germplasm repository at the Plant Genetics 
Research Unit and provides $500,000 for this purpose.
    National Agricultural Library.--The Committee strongly 
encourages the Agricultural Research Service to maintain its 
focus on agriculture-related legal issues within the National 
Agricultural Library. The Committee notes that as the 
agriculture sector faces increasing financial stress, there is 
a necessity that agriculture-related legal issues be addressed 
on an increasingly frequent basis. Further, agricultural-
related legal issues are increasingly complex and the impact of 
these legal issues continues to broaden in scope. Therefore, 
the Committee recommendation includes no less than the fiscal 
year 2018 enacted level for the National Agricultural Library 
to support the Agricultural Law Information Partnership.
    National Apple Rootstock Breeding Program.--The Committee 
recognizes the importance of the National Apple Rootstock 
Breeding Program, which provides virus-free rootstock to apple 
growers throughout the Nation. Therefore, the Committee 
recommendation includes no less than the fiscal year 2018 level 
to support the ARS National Apple Rootstock Breeding Program.
    National Bio and Agro-Defense Facility Transition.--The 
Committee understands that the Department proposes to transfer 
the responsibility for operational planning and future 
operations of the National Bio and Agro-Defense Facility (NBAF) 
to USDA. With the transition of responsibilities from DHS to 
USDA in process, the Committee directed DHS in fiscal year 2018 
to maintain the ability to readily execute a management, 
operations, and research support contract through the end of 
fiscal year 2018 if DHS or USDA determine that its utilization 
would expedite or enhance NBAF's ability to be fully 
operational by December 31, 2022. While the Committee 
appreciates that the joint DHS/USDA transition team is working 
to identify and outline transition activities to address all 
requirements for the timely operational stand-up of NBAF, the 
Committee is concerned that the full breadth of transition 
activities remain undetermined and have not been delivered to 
Congress. As such, the Committee directs USDA to submit a 
report to the Committee no later than 60 days after enactment 
of this Act detailing the transition activities, business plan, 
and critical milestones to reach the full operational 
capability of NBAF by December 31, 2022. The report shall 
include specific information on workforce development such as 
efforts to rapidly recruit and hire talented personnel, the 
number of positions that must be filled at each critical 
milestone, and requirements for each position. Further, the 
report should include specific details regarding USDA's 
potential plan to seize control and utilize current contract 
mechanisms under DHS, and the funding associated for such 
utilization, while remaining within the bounds of Federal 
Acquisition Regulations. Without a transition plan to provide 
greater fidelity, the Committee is concerned that neither DHS 
nor USDA will be able to complete commissioning activities and 
on-going planning activities at the outset of fiscal year 2019 
and remain on-schedule absent a support contract that DHS 
anticipated executing to carry out such efforts. To ensure USDA 
can meet critical milestones, prevent delays, and adhere to the 
current schedule for NBAF, the Committee directs no less than 
$7,000,000 for USDA to execute a management, operations, and 
research support contract to expedite the hiring of a capable 
workforce for the Central Utility Plant of NBAF to ensure the 
timely completion of commissioning activities and on-going 
operations planning activities coordinated by DHS and USDA. 
Additionally, the Committee provides $10,600,000 to address 
one-time costs associated with the transfer of the science 
program from the Plum Island Animal Disease Center to NBAF and 
$42,000,000 to address stand-up activities and other initial 
costs to operate and maintain the facility.
    NBAF will provide the U.S. with expanded capacity to 
implement a comprehensive bio-defense research program to 
protect against foreign animal diseases that pose the greatest 
threats to animal agriculture and public health. The Committee 
provides an additional $5,000,000 for ARS to increase research 
efforts on foreign animal diseases and emerging diseases with 
high consequence to animal and public health.
    Nutrient Density Profile.--The ARS is directed to update 
the nutrient profile and nutrient density characterization of 
pure maple syrup.
    Nutrition Research and Aging.--The Committee recognizes the 
critical importance of human nutrition research and its 
significance for preventative healthcare and degenerative and 
age-related diseases. More research is needed to address the 
needs of all Americans, with a particular focus on the elderly, 
the fastest growing segment of the population. Therefore, the 
Agricultural Research Service is directed to prioritize human 
nutrition research across the lifespan.
    Pear Genetics and Genomics.--The Committee recognizes that 
research into pear genetics and genomics is needed to identify 
genetic sources of pest resistance and to contribute to 
improved, size-controlling rootstocks to enhance orchard 
efficiency, and to otherwise improve cultivated pear research. 
The Committee recommendation includes no less than the fiscal 
year 2018 level to support research into pear genetics and 
genomics.
    Postharvest Dairy Research--The Committee recognizes the 
importance of developing solutions to address agricultural 
postharvest inefficiencies to conserve limited resources and 
feed a growing population. The Committee provides an increase 
of $1,500,000 for research to develop postharvest technologies 
that decrease waste and improve resource use of protein, fat, 
and sugar in dairy processing.
    Poultry Research.--The Committee recognizes the important 
role of the poultry sector to the U.S. economy. The Committee 
provides an additional $1,000,000 to expand the research 
capacity for poultry production and health.
    Public Health Research.--The Committee strongly supports 
USDA research but is concerned about the use of cats in painful 
and terminal laboratory experiments at USDA's Animal Parasitic 
Disease Laboratory. The Committee appreciates USDA's 
responsiveness to concerns that have been raised and directs 
the agency to consult scientific and veterinary experts about 
the feasibility of implementing alternatives to the use of cats 
in public health research, and to develop a program to adopt 
out cats no longer needed in research. The Committee directs 
the Secretary to provide a report on its progress no later than 
90 days after the enactment of this Act.
    Pulse Health Initiative.--The Committee supports the 
expansion of pulse crop research and provides an additional 
$1,000,000 to enhance scientific research into the health and 
nutritional benefits of dry peas, lentils, chickpeas and dry 
beans.
    Rangeland Research.--The Committee recognizes the 
demonstrated potential for cooperative partnerships to address 
complex sagebrush steppe ecosystem challenges in the Great 
Basin region. The Committee recommendation includes no less 
than the fiscal year 2018 level for ARS to support a regional, 
multi-institutional cooperative partnership to advance 
collaborative science-based conservation research, extension, 
and education to address time-sensitive and shared rangeland 
challenges affecting sustainable agricultural productivity, 
rural communities, and ecosystem health.
    Research Assistance.--The Committee encourages the 
Agricultural Research Service to provide direct, place-based 
assistance to 1862 Institutions in States that do not have 
Agricultural Research Service facilities to address the 
research priorities of such States, such as invasive plant 
species and insects that cause significant impacts to 
agriculture, aquaculture, and communities in such States and to 
assist in the development of specialty and horticultural crops 
to increase food security and expand marketing opportunities 
for small farmers. The Committee directs ARS to submit a report 
on the prospective options of such assistance.
    Resilient Dryland Farming.--The Committee recognizes the 
need for advancements in dryland production practices, 
cropping, and equipment to increase profitability, conserve the 
soil, enhance soil water storage, promote soil health, and 
decrease reliance on herbicides. The Committee provides an 
additional $2,000,000 to expand research focused on resilient 
dryland farming. Research should focus on improving yield and 
quality parameters; developing cropping systems capable of 
tolerating drought, heat, and diseases; and quantifying 
economic and environmental benefits from dryland crop 
production systems.
    Roseau Cane.--The Committee is concerned with the invasive 
species scale insect pest that is destroying Roseau cane in the 
Mississippi River's Delta region along the Gulf of Mexico. An 
estimated 225,000 acres of wetlands in the Delta have been 
affected with the die-off, and Roseau cane is important in 
maintaining a healthy marsh and preventing erosion. The 
Committee directs ARS to work with the Animal and Plant Health 
Inspection Service [APHIS] and stakeholders to develop an 
integrated management program for control of the Roseau cane 
scale insect pest infestation.
    Sclerotinia.--The Committee is aware of the economic 
importance of controlling sclerotinia, which affects 
sunflowers, soybeans, canola, edible beans, peas, and lentils 
and encourages ARS to continue both core research and 
cooperative projects of the National Sclerotinia Initiative.
    Shellfish Research.--The Committee encourages the 
Agricultural Research Service to increase its investment in 
partnerships with research institutions on research to improve 
shellfish survival and growth rates and to classify and 
preserve natural genetic variation. Therefore, the Committee 
includes an increase of $500,000 to support shellfish genetics 
research.
    Soft White Wheat Falling Numbers Test.--The Committee 
recognizes the emerging crisis surrounding wheat starch 
degradation, as detected by the Hagberg-Perten Falling Numbers 
[FN] Test. The quality loss was particularly devastating to 
Pacific Northwest soft white wheat producers in late 2016. The 
Committee recommendation includes no less than the fiscal year 
2018 funding level to research the accuracy of the FN test, and 
better understand environmental, storage, and genetic 
conditions leading to this quality loss.
    Small Grains Genomic Initiative.--The Committee supports 
research on barley and wheat high throughput genomics and 
phenotyping and recognizes its importance in improving crop 
traits and developing new cultivars. The Committee 
recommendation includes an additional $1,000,000 to support the 
Small Grains Genomic Initiative.
    Sorghum Genetic Database.--The Committee recognizes the 
importance of phenotyping and genotyping that allows breeders 
to understand which genes are responsible for improvements in 
pest resistance, drought tolerance, and yield. The Committee 
recommends an increase of no less than the fiscal year 2018 
level to further facilitate the partnership between ARS and the 
Department of Energy on sorghum genome mapping--particularly 
the creation of an easily-accessed database to house the 
information generated from the ongoing genetic sequencing 
research which will facilitate further crop development 
efforts, especially in combating the sugarcane aphid, a new and 
devastating invasive pest.
    Sudden Oak Death.--The European strain 1 [EU1] and the 
North American strain 1 [NA1] of the sudden oak death pathogen 
are major threats to western Douglas-fir/tanoak forests, 
resulting in quarantine restrictions that threaten US forests 
and export markets for log shipments and lily bulbs. The 
Committee recommendation includes an increase of $1,200,000 for 
research to improve understanding of the European Strain 1 and 
North American Strain 1 of the sudden oak death pathogen and 
treatment methods to inform control and management techniques 
in wildlands.
    Sugar Beet Research.--The Committee provides an additional 
$1,000,000 for plant disease research to improve the quality of 
sugar beet production.
    Sugarcane Variety Development.--The Committee recognizes 
the devastating impact wrought by invasive pests on the 
domestic sugarcane industry and provides an additional $500,000 
to support the development of new pest and disease-resistant 
varieties.
    Sustainable Aquaculture.--The Committee notes that 
aquaculture is the fastest growing food production industry in 
the world and encourages ARS, in partnership with universities, 
to support rapid response research on sustainable aquaculture 
for coldwater and warmwater production environments, with an 
emphasis on workforce education.
    Sustainable Water Use Research.--The alluvial plain within 
the Lower Mississippi River Basin is one of most productive 
agricultural regions in the United States. The Committee 
remains concerned with the unsustainable use of water in the 
Alluvial Aquifer as a result of increasing water withdrawals 
and stagnant recharging. The Committee provides no less than 
the fiscal year 2018 level for research to improve the recharge 
capabilities of the Alluvial Aquifer and to develop new 
conservation and irrigation techniques to reduce water usage in 
agriculture production.
    Tropical and Subtropical Research.--Research on Tropical 
and Subtropical crops is critical as the presence of and 
destruction by invasive pests such as fruit flies, coffee berry 
borer, felted macadamia nut coccid, and plant viruses and 
fungal diseases increasingly threaten crop security in the 
Pacific and Insular Areas, and the Committee encourages ARS to 
support this research.
    UAS Precision Agriculture Applications.--The Committee 
provides no less than the fiscal year 2018 level to support 
efforts utilizing unmanned aerial systems [UAS] in crop 
production operations and to address the challenges associated 
with data capture, transfer and analysis.
    U.S. Wheat and Barley Scab Initiative [USWBSI].--The 
Committee recognizes that fusarium head blight is a major 
threat to agriculture, inflicting substantial yield and quality 
losses throughout the U.S. The Committee supports research 
carried out through the USWBSI. The Committee recommendation 
includes no less than the fiscal year 2018 level to conduct 
further research on reducing the impact of fusarium head blight 
on wheat and barley.
    Warmwater Aquaculture.--The Committee provides an 
additional $1,600,000 to facilitate the advancement of 
technologies that improve the efficiency, profitability and 
sustainability of warmwater aquaculture production.
    Wheat and Sorghum Research.--The Committee recognizes the 
potential impact heat and drought can have on the yield and 
quality of wheat and sorghum and the need for new cultivars to 
adapt to changing climatic conditions. In addition, sorghum 
crops have been particularly hit hard by the invasive sugarcane 
aphid and new resistant cultivars are needed. The Committee 
provides an additional $1,000,000 for research to improve the 
productivity and quality of wheat and sorghum during uncertain 
growing seasons resulting from extended droughts and increased 
temperatures. Within this increase, funding is included to 
initiate gene flow research to advance the durability and 
sustainability of fitness traits in sorghum.

                        BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES

Appropriations, 2018....................................    $140,600,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................................
Committee recommendation................................................

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee does not recommend an appropriation for 
Agricultural Research Service, Buildings and Facilities.

               National Institute of Food and Agriculture

    Section 7511(f)(2) of the Food, Conservation, and Energy 
Act of 2008 amends the Department of Agriculture Reorganization 
Act of 1994 (7 U.S.C. 6971) by establishing an agency to be 
known as the National Institute of Food and Agriculture [NIFA]. 
The Secretary transferred to the Director of NIFA, effective 
October 1, 2009, all authorities administered by the 
Administrator of the Cooperative State, Research, Education and 
Extension Service. The mission is to work with university 
partners and customers to advance research, extension, and 
higher education in the food and agricultural sciences and 
related environmental and human sciences to benefit people, 
communities, and the Nation.

                   RESEARCH AND EDUCATION ACTIVITIES

Appropriations, 2018....................................    $887,171,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................     794,479,000
Committee recommendation................................     898,535,000

    Research and Education programs administered by NIFA are 
USDA's principal entree to the university system of the United 
States for the purpose of conducting agricultural research and 
education programs as authorized by the Hatch Act of 1887, as 
amended (7 U.S.C. 361a-361i); the McIntire-Stennis Cooperative 
Forestry Act of 1962, as amended (16 U.S.C. 582a et seq.); the 
Competitive, Special, and Facilities Research Grant Act, as 
amended (7 U.S.C. 450i); the National Agricultural, Research, 
Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977, as amended (7 
U.S.C. 3101 et seq.); the Equity in Educational Land-Grant 
Status Act of 1994 (7 U.S.C. 301 note); the Agricultural 
Research, Extension and Education Reform Act of 1998 (Public 
Law 105-185), as amended; the Food, Agriculture, Conservation 
and Trade Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-624); the Farm Security 
and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Public Law 107-171); and the 
Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008 (Public Law 110-246). 
Through these authorities, USDA participates with State and 
other cooperators to encourage and assist the State 
institutions in the conduct of agricultural research and 
education through the State Agricultural Experiment Stations of 
the 50 States and the territories; by approved Schools of 
Forestry; the 1890 Land-Grant Institutions and Tuskegee 
University and West Virginia State University; 1994 Land-Grant 
Institutions; by Colleges of Veterinary Medicine; and other 
eligible institutions. The appropriated funds provide Federal 
support for research and education programs at these 
institutions.
    The research and education programs participate in a 
nationwide system of agricultural research program planning and 
coordination among the State institutions, U.S. Department of 
Agriculture, and the agricultural industry of America.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $898,535,000 
for research and education activities of the National Institute 
of Food and Agriculture.
    The following table summarizes the Committee's 
recommendations for research and education activities:

                  NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE--RESEARCH AND EDUCATION ACTIVITIES
                                             [Dollars in thousands]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                    Committee
               Program/Activity                                  Authorization                    recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hatch Act.....................................  7 U.S.C. 361a-i................................          243,701
McIntire-Stennis Cooperative Forestry Act.....  16 U.S.C. 582a through a-7.....................           36,000
Research at 1890 Institutions (Evans-Allen      7 U.S.C. 3222..................................           54,185
 Program).
Payments to the 1994 Institutions.............  534(a)(1) of Public Law 103-382................            3,439
Education Grants for 1890 Institutions........  7 U.S.C. 3152(b)...............................           19,336
Education Grants for Hispanic-Serving           7 U.S.C. 3241..................................            9,219
 Institutions.
Education Grants for Alaska Native and Native   7 U.S.C. 3156..................................            3,194
 Hawaiian-Serving Institutions.
Research Grants for 1994 Institutions.........  536 of Public Law 103-382......................            3,801
Capacity Building for Non Land-Grant Colleges   7 U.S.C. 3319i.................................            5,000
 of Agriculture.
Resident Instruction and Distance Education     7 U.S.C. 3362 and 3363.........................            2,000
 Grants for Insular Areas.
Agriculture and Food Research Initiative......  7 U.S.C. 450i(b)...............................          405,000
Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment............  7 U.S.C. 3151a.................................            8,000
Veterinary Services Grant Program.............  7 U.S.C. 3151b.................................            3,000
Continuing Animal Health and Disease Research   7 U.S.C. 3195..................................            4,000
 Program.
Supplemental and Alternative Crops............  7 U.S.C. 3319d.................................            1,000
Multicultural Scholars, Graduate Fellowship     7 U.S.C. 3152(b)...............................            9,000
 and Institutions Challenge Grants.
Secondary and 2-year Post-Secondary Education.  7 U.S.C. 3152(j)...............................              900
Aquaculture Centers...........................  7 U.S.C. 3322..................................            5,000
Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education  7 U.S.C. 5811, 5812, 5831, and 5832............           37,000
Farm Business Management......................  7 U.S.C. 5925f.................................            2,000
Sun Grant Program.............................  7 U.S.C. 8114..................................            3,000
Minor Crop Pest Management (IR-4).............  7 U.S.C. 450i(c)...............................           11,913
Alfalfa Forage and Research Program...........  7 U.S.C. 5925..................................            3,000
Special Research Grants:7 U.S.C. 450i(c):
    Global Change/UV Monitoring...............  ...............................................            1,405
    Potato Research...........................  ...............................................            2,750
    Aquaculture Research......................  ...............................................            2,000
                                                                                                ----------------
        Total, Special Research Grants........  ...............................................            6,155
                                                                                                ================
Necessary Expenses of Research and Education
 Activities:
    Grants Management System..................  ...............................................            7,830
    Federal Administration--Other Necessary     ...............................................           11,862
     Expenses for Research and Education
     Activities.
                                                                                                ----------------
        Total, Necessary Expenses.............  ...............................................           19,692
                                                                                                ================
        Total, Research and Education           ...............................................          898,535
         Activities.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Agricultural Research Enhancement Awards.--The Committee 
remains determined to see that quality research and enhanced 
human resources development in the agricultural and related 
sciences be a nationwide commitment. Therefore, the Committee 
continues its direction that not less than 15 percent of the 
competitive research grant funds be used for USDA's 
agricultural research enhancement awards program, including 
USDA-EPSCoR.
    Agriculture and Food Research Initiative.--The Committee 
recommendation includes $405,000,000 for the Agriculture and 
Food Research Initiative [AFRI].
    Section 7406 of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 
2008 specifies priority areas within the Agriculture and Food 
Research Initiative [AFRI], including an emphasis on 
conventional (classical) plant and animal breeding. The 
Committee notes the importance of this requirement to provide 
farmers nationwide with greater access to cultivars that are 
locally and regionally adapted to their soils, climates and 
farming systems. Because of the agency's lack of progress in 
prioritizing this effort, the Committee directs the agency to 
make regionally adapted, publicly held cultivar development a 
distinct funding priority within AFRI for fiscal year 2019, and 
directs the agency to take steps to improve its tracking of 
public cultivar projects within AFRI and report its progress in 
meeting this goal.
    Agriculture Technology.--The Committee encourages USDA to 
support research and development of agricultural robotics, 
particularly to increase yields in vertically stacked farming 
production.
    Alfalfa and Forage Research.--The Committee notes that 
research into alfalfa and forage holds the potential to 
increase alfalfa and forage yields, increase milk production, 
and improve forage genetics to increase biomass for the 
production of cellulosic ethanol. The Committee recommendation 
includes $3,000,000 to support research into the improvement of 
yields, water conservation, creation of new uses of alfalfa and 
forage for bioenergy, and the development of new storage and 
harvest systems.
    Algae Applications in Agriculture Research.--The Committee 
encourages NIFA to support research on algae and algae 
application in agriculture.
    Aquaculture Disease Research.--The Committee encourages 
USDA to support aquaculture disease and vaccine research, 
including research on coldwater aquaculture vaccines. There is 
currently no national facility for pathogen testing. Research 
into finfish vaccines and pathogens has the potential to 
accelerate the growth of sustainable U.S. aquaculture, reduce 
the trade deficit attributable to imported seafood, and reduce 
the pressure on overfished species.
    Aquaculture Research.--The Committee recognizes the 
importance of the domestic aquaculture industry to the U.S. 
economy. The Committee recommendation includes $2,000,000 for 
aquaculture research to address issues related to genetics, 
disease, systems, and economics.
    Brucellosis Research.--Federal and State animal health 
officials have made eradicating livestock disease with 
significant reservoirs a national animal health priority. This 
need was reflected in the Agricultural Act of 2014, which made 
the research and development of surveillance methods, vaccines, 
vaccination delivery systems or diagnostics tests a priority 
research area under the Competitive, Special, and Facilities 
Research Grant Act particularly for bovine brucellosis and 
bovine tuberculosis. The Committee recognizes the need for this 
research and encourages the agency to make competitive grants 
available to study improved management tools for zoonotic 
livestock diseases with significant wildlife reservoirs.
    Cereal Crop Research.--Research on cereal crops has 
historically been conducted by USDA and public universities, 
and the Committee recognizes the importance of continuing 
investment in cereal crop research. The Committee strongly 
encourages USDA to provide funding for cereal crop research in 
the areas of genetic and genomic research, plant pest research, 
and improved production systems.
    Childhood Obesity.--The Committee encourages USDA to 
support innovative efforts to address the unique challenges 
faced in addressing obesity among children and youth in urban, 
minority low-income populations through a combination of family 
education and clinical studies.
    Citrus Disease Research Program.--The 2014 Farm Bill 
established the Emergency Citrus Disease Research and Extension 
Program, which is intended to discover and develop tools for 
early detection, control, and eradication of diseases and pests 
that threaten domestic citrus production and processing, and 
provided $25,000,000 per year in mandatory funding for the 
program through the Specialty Crop Research Initiative. The 
Committee believes research projects funded under this 
authority should be prioritized based on the critical threat of 
citrus greening and encourages NIFA, to the maximum extent 
practicable, to follow the recommendations of the National 
Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Advisory 
Board's citrus disease subcommittee and to collaborate with the 
HLB-MAC group.
    Community College Centers of Excellence in Agribusiness 
Workforce Training.--The Committee encourages NIFA to designate 
Community College Centers of Excellence in Agribusiness 
Workforce Training, to include a limited number of 2-year 
community and technical colleges with a demonstrated capability 
to provide training and education for Agribusiness. The Centers 
of Excellence will seek to develop model programs in 
Agribusiness and promote economic development.
    Countering Seafood Fraud.--The Committee remains concerned 
about countering economic fraud and improving food safety of 
the U.S. food supply. The Committee is concerned that adequate 
technology is not yet available to provide for appropriate 
sampling of the food supply. The Committee believes NIFA should 
conduct research to develop technologies that will provide 
rapid, portable and facile screening of fish species at port 
sites, wholesale, and retail centers.
    Diversification in Agriculture.--The Committee recognizes 
the rapid evolution of U.S. agriculture, including the 
diversification of practices, markets, and technologies as 
farms transition to one generation from another, and encourages 
NIFA to prioritize investments that deliver hands-on technical 
education in diversified agriculture and food systems and 
support technical colleges seeking to establish beginning 
farmer programs serving diversified agriculture, and aid in 
supporting farm viability.
    Dual Use/Dual Benefit.--The Dual Purpose with Dual Benefit: 
Research in Biomedicine and Agriculture Using Agriculturally 
Important Domestic Species is an interagency partnership grants 
program funded by the National Institute of Child Health and 
Human Development [NICHD] and USDA. The Committee strongly 
urges continuation of this partnership because it sponsors use 
of farm animals as dual purpose models to better understand 
developmental origins of disease, fat regulation and obesity, 
stem cell biology, assisted reproductive technologies, and 
infectious disease, which directly benefits both agriculture 
and biomedicine. This program also strengthens ties between 
human medicine, veterinary medicine, and animal sciences, which 
is key to success of the One Health Initiative.
    Food Safety.--The Committee recommends that NIFA prioritize 
research on funding for new food safety technologies relating 
to the Nation's meat supply that helps researchers, producers, 
and manufacturers.
    Food Safety and Defense Technology.--The Committee is 
concerned that insufficient progress is being made in the 
development of detection technology in the food safety sector. 
The ability to rapidly, accurately, and cost effectively detect 
pathogens or contaminants throughout the food supply chain is 
critical to protecting the United States from food-borne 
illnesses and malicious acts. As such, the Committee encourages 
NIFA to increase research of novel biodetection technologies 
and the implementation of mobile biodetection platforms in 
real-world conditions. The Department should consider 
technologies currently in use or under development in other 
fields, such as medicine or homeland security, to determine 
whether the technology can meet the needs in either high volume 
food production or mobile food defense monitoring.
    Foodborne Illness Prevention.--The Committee understands 
the significant threats to public health and to the economic 
viability of communities impacted by foodborne illness, and 
believes that coordinated and targeted resources are needed to 
understand the risks and to develop effective strategies for 
control. The Committee encourages NIFA, in coordination with 
the FDA, to establish a Center of Excellence for Foodborne 
Illness to coordinate a research program to reduce the risk of 
Listeria monocytogenes.
    Genomes to Phenomes.--The Committee is supportive of the 
multi-university crop research initiative known as Genomes to 
Phenomes, and encourages NIFA to support the development of 
tools and datasets that can be used across multiple crop 
species to improve the output and efficiency of agriculture.
    Lowbush Blueberries.--The Committee directs NIFA to work 
with research institutions to develop and refine predictive 
models and monitoring technologies for native and invasive 
pests for incorporation into integrated pest management 
programs for naturally seeded, native berry crops to increase 
the margin of food safety and product quality.
    Multi-trophic Aquaculture Research.--Nearly half the 
seafood consumed across the world is the result of aquaculture, 
and the aquaculture industry is a critical and growing part of 
the U.S. economy. However, less than 1 percent of worldwide 
production comes from U.S. producers. The Committee is 
concerned that inefficient production technologies hinder the 
ability of the domestic aquaculture industry to compete on a 
global scale. The Committee supports development and 
demonstration of an integrated aquaculture system that would 
contain at one site a highly competitive and sustainable system 
having a low environmental footprint and be primarily self-
contained. The Committee supports the development of a ``Beta'' 
model that would focus on developing, building, operating, 
demonstrating and teaching around this intensified, integrated, 
bio-secure production technology for feed, fish-plant and 
energy products.
    Oak Mites.--The Committee directs NIFA to study the recent 
infestation of oak mites and focus on suppression and 
eradication possibilities.
    Organic Research.--USDA's National Organic Standards Board 
[NOSB] has identified key organic research priorities, many of 
which would help to address challenges that have limited the 
growth in organic production in this country. The Committee 
encourages NIFA to give strong consideration to the NOSB 
organic research priorities when crafting the fiscal year 2019 
RFAs for AFRI and the Organic Transition Program. Given the 
growing demand for organic products, the Committee also 
encourages USDA to increase the number of organic research 
projects funded under AFRI and Specialty Crop Research 
Initiative [SCRI].
    Protein Functionality.--The Committee encourages USDA to 
support research projects that characterize protein from crop 
plants such as chickpeas, sorghum, lentils, fava beans, lupin, 
rice, oats, mushrooms, and water lentils to assess their 
suitability for use in food products. The Committee is 
particularly interested in research projects involving plants 
that can be easily cultivated in the U.S. and that are 
sustainably grown and produced (in terms of factors such as 
water usage or fertilizer and pesticide requirements).
    Public Plant and Animal Breeding.--The Committee is 
concerned about the decline in public plant and animal breeding 
programs at our nation's land-grant institutions over the last 
25 years, and encourages LGUs to take steps to foster the next 
generation of public plant and animal breeders by placing a 
higher priority on the development of publicly available, 
regionally adapted cultivars and breeds. For all regions of our 
nation to optimize their productive capacity in an 
environmentally sustainable manner, it is critical that the 
farmers of the region have access to the most up-to-date 
cultivars and breeds to meet ever-changing conditions.
    Regional Research Priorities.--The Committee encourages 
NIFA to consider providing funding within AFRI to assist with 
State and regional research priorities, with USDA oversight and 
review.
    Seafood.--The Committee encourages USDA, in partnership 
with universities with established domestic shrimp farming 
programs, to support the development of a domestic industry 
that will help ensure the safety and quality of the Nation's 
seafood supply, promote environmentally sustainable 
aquaculture, create new opportunities for U.S. agriculture, and 
forge new markets for U.S. grain and oilseed products and 
technology services.
    Small Fruits Research.--The Committee encourages USDA to 
support research to promote sustainable production of berry and 
grape crops with the goal of reducing pesticide use and 
improving quality and yield. Additionally, the Committee 
encourages USDA to support research to improve the ability to 
forecast pest and disease spread, and implement precision 
management strategies.
    Specialty Crop Research Initiative.--The Committee 
emphasizes the important role of the Specialty Crop Research 
Initiative in addressing the critical needs of the specialty 
crop industry through research and extension activities, and 
encourages NIFA to prioritize proposals for and enhance its 
overall commitment to identifying and addressing threats to 
pollinators from pests and diseases.
    Supplemental and Alternative Crops.--The Committee 
recognizes the importance of nationally coordinated, regionally 
managed canola research and extension programs. The Committee 
encourages the Secretary to continue to seek input from 
stakeholders and to give priority consideration to proposals in 
the peer review process that address research needs in 
production areas with the greatest potential to expand as well 
as those where canola production is established and needs to be 
maintained.
    Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education.--The 
Committee is strongly supportive of the SARE program and 
directs USDA to ensure that research, education and extension 
activities carried out within SARE remain intact.
    The Committee believes that it is important for NIFA to 
evaluate the performance of each of its regional SARE Host 
Institutions on a regular basis; however the Committee is 
concerned that the recent change in practice for NIFA to 
broadly solicit competitive Host Institution proposals at least 
every 5 years may interfere with the ability of the regional 
Host to retain qualified staff, and to establish a stable 
operating base, hindering rather than enhancing SARE program 
delivery. Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Secretary shall report to the Committees on 
Appropriations on whether frequent open competitions for SARE 
Host Institutions optimizes the delivery of the SARE program, 
as compared to previous performance reviews and competitive 
solicitations that were performed every 10 years.
    Unmanned Aerial Systems in Agriculture.--The Committee 
encourages USDA to support regional institutes focused on the 
development of Unmanned Aerial Systems [UAS] and fostering new 
innovations in agriculture and cybersecurity. UAS is a tool to 
obtain data in a wide variety of application areas including 
energy, agriculture, power infrastructure, and transportation, 
all critical to rural States. The Committee encourages NIFA to 
support the research, development, and expansion of the use of 
UAS and high performance computing.
    Veterinary Corps.--Veterinarians fulfilling the terms of a 
contract under USDA's Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment 
Program, authorized by the National Veterinary Medical Services 
Act, shall be members of the National Veterinary Medical 
Services Corps and members who have fulfilled the terms of 
their contract shall be alumni of the Corps.

              NATIVE AMERICAN INSTITUTIONS ENDOWMENT FUND

Appropriations, 2018....................................     $11,880,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................      11,857,000
Committee recommendation................................      11,880,000

    The Native American Institutions Endowment Fund authorized 
by Public Law 103-382, the Equity in Educational Land-Grant 
Status Act, provides an endowment for the 1994 land-grant 
institutions (34 tribally controlled colleges). This program 
will enhance educational opportunity for Native Americans by 
building educational capacity at these institutions in the 
areas of student recruitment and retention, curricula 
development, faculty preparation, instruction delivery systems, 
and scientific instrumentation for teaching. Income funds are 
also available for facility renovation, repair, construction, 
and maintenance. On the termination of each fiscal year, the 
Secretary shall withdraw the income from the endowment fund for 
the fiscal year, and after making adjustments for the cost of 
administering the endowment fund, distribute the adjusted 
income as follows: 60 percent of the adjusted income from these 
funds shall be distributed among the 1994 land-grant 
institutions on a pro rata basis, the proportionate share being 
based on the Indian student count; and 40 percent of the 
adjusted income shall be distributed in equal shares to the 
1994 land-grant institutions.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $11,880,000 
for the Native American Institutions Endowment Fund.

                          EXTENSION ACTIVITIES

Appropriations, 2018....................................    $483,626,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................     450,185,000
Committee recommendation................................     486,692,000

    Cooperative extension work was established by the Smith-
Lever Act of May 8, 1914, as amended. The Department of 
Agriculture is authorized to provide, through the land-grant 
colleges, cooperative extension work that consists of the 
development of practical applications of research knowledge and 
the giving of instruction and practical demonstrations of 
existing or improved practices or technologies in agriculture 
and related subjects, and to encourage the application of such 
information by demonstrations, publications, through 4-H clubs, 
and other means to persons not in attendance or resident at the 
colleges.
    To fulfill the requirements of the Smith-Lever Act, State 
and county extension offices in each State, the District of 
Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American 
Samoa, the Northern Marianas, and Micronesia conduct 
educational programs to improve American agriculture and 
strengthen the Nation's families and communities.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $486,692,000 
for extension activities of the National Institute of Food and 
Agriculture.
    The following table summarizes the Committee's 
recommendations for extension activities:

                        NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE--EXTENSION ACTIVITIES
                                             [Dollars in thousands]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                    Committee
               Program/Activity                                  Authorization                    recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Smith-Lever Act, Section 3(b) and (c) and       7 U.S.C. 343(b) and (c) and 208(c) of Public             300,000
 Cooperative Extension.                          Law 93-471.
Extension Services at 1890 Institutions.......  7 U.S.C. 3221..................................           45,620
Extension Services at 1994 Institutions.......  7 U.S.C. 343(b)(3).............................            6,446
Facility Improvements at 1890 Institutions....  7 U.S.C. 3222b.................................           19,730
Renewable Resources Extension Act.............  16 U.S.C. 1671 et seq..........................            4,060
Rural Health and Safety Education Programs....  7 U.S.C. 2662(i)...............................            3,000
Food and Animal Residue Avoidance Database      7 U.S.C. 7642..................................            2,500
 Program.
Women and Minorities in STEM Fields...........  7 U.S.C. 5925..................................              400
Food Safety Outreach Program..................  7 U.S.C. 7625..................................            8,000
Food and Agriculture Service Learning.........  7 U.S.C. 7633..................................            1,000
Smith-LeverAct, Section 3(d):
    Food and Nutrition Education..............  7 U.S.C. 343(d)................................           70,000
    Farm Safety and Youth Farm Safety           7 U.S.C. 343(d)................................            4,610
     Education Programs.
    New Technologies for Agricultural           7 U.S.C. 343(d)................................            1,550
     Extension.
    Children, Youth, and Families at Risk.....  7 U.S.C. 343(d)................................            8,395
    Federally Recognized Tribes Extension       7 U.S.C. 343(d)................................            3,039
     Program.
                                               -----------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, Section 3(d).....................  ...............................................           87,594
Necessary Expenses of Research and Education
 Activities:
    Agriculture in the K-12 Classroom.........  ...............................................              552
    Federal Administration--Other Necessary     ...............................................            7,790
     Expenses for Research and Education
     Activities.
                                               -----------------------------------------------------------------
        Total, Necessary Expenses.............  ...............................................            8,342
        Total, Extension Activities...........  ...............................................          486,692
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Farmer Stress Assistance Network.--The Committee is deeply 
concerned by the high rate of suicides among agriculture 
workers, which is the highest overall suicide rate among all 
occupations according to the Department of Health and Human 
Services. The Committee provides $2,000,000 in a general 
provision for a pilot program to provide competitive grants to 
State departments of agriculture, State cooperative extension 
services, and nonprofit organizations to carry out programs to 
address farmer stress and suicide. The Secretary is directed to 
submit a report on implementation within 60 days of enactment.
    Food and Nutrition Education.--The Committee recognizes the 
importance of the Expanded Food Nutrition Education Program 
[EFNEP] and encourages the Secretary to support a special pilot 
expansion of EFNEP to provide for an evaluation of improved 
food resource management and diet quality in populations not 
now served, including the elderly, households living below 185 
percent of the poverty level, and low-income households with 
children of any age.
    Minority Outreach.--The Committee is concerned that 
extension service resources do not reach minority, socially 
disadvantaged, and tribal communities in proportion to their 
participation in the agricultural sector. All institutions that 
receive extension activity funding should seek to ensure that 
an equitable percentage of their overall extension work reaches 
minority, socially disadvantaged, and tribal communities. The 
Committee directs NIFA to evaluate distribution of extension 
resources to these three populations and report to the 
Committee no later than 90 days after enactment of this Act.

                         INTEGRATED ACTIVITIES

Appropriations, 2018....................................     $37,000,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................      13,037,000
Committee recommendation................................      38,000,000

    Section 406, as amended, of the Agricultural Research, 
Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998 authorizes an 
integrated research, education, and extension competitive 
grants program.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $38,000,000 
for integrated activities of the National Institute of Food and 
Agriculture.
    The following table summarizes the Committee's 
recommendations for integrated activities:

                        NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE--INTEGRATED ACTIVITIES
                                             [Dollars in thousands]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                    Committee
               Program/Activity                                  Authorization                    recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Methyl Bromide Transition Program.............  7 U.S.C. 7626..................................            2,000
Organic Transition Program....................  7 U.S.C. 7626..................................            6,000
Regional Rural Development Centers............  7 U.S.C. 450i(c)...............................            2,000
Food and Agriculture Defense Initiative.......  7 U.S.C. 3351..................................            8,000
Crop Protection/Pest Management...............  7 U.S.C. 343(d)................................           20,000
                                                                                                ----------------
      Total, Integrated Activities............  ...............................................           38,000
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Food and Agriculture Defense Initiative.--The Committee 
supports the important work being done through the publicly 
funded diagnostic laboratory network and encourages NIFA to 
prioritize funding to strengthen animal health diagnostic 
laboratories, taking into consideration the degree to which the 
capacity for surveillance, monitoring, response, and capacity 
is enhanced; the concentration of human and animal populations 
that are directly at risk; trade, tourism, and cultural 
considerations; geography, ecology, and climate; evidence of 
active collaboration with, and support of, the State animal 
health officials; those States with highest risk for the 
introduction of foreign and emerging pests and diseases; and 
evidence of stakeholder support and engagement.
    Potato Research.--To minimize the application of pesticides 
and to maximize the yield and quality of harvested potatoes, 
the Committee directs the Secretary to support pest management 
programs in potato growing States. Such programs help 
scientists track potential pest outbreaks and provide growers 
and industry professionals with current information on specific 
and timely treatments. Additionally, the programs help identify 
serious diseases, such as late blight disease, in their early 
stages, allowing for preventive measures to be put into place 
quickly to avoid crop losses.

  Office of the Under Secretary for Marketing and Regulatory Programs

Appropriations, 2018....................................        $901,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................         800,000
Committee recommendation................................         901,000

    The Office of the Under Secretary for Marketing and 
Regulatory Programs provides direction and coordination in 
carrying out laws with respect to the Department's marketing, 
grading, and standardization activities related to grain; 
competitive marketing practices of livestock, marketing orders, 
and various programs; veterinary services; and plant protection 
and quarantine. The Office has oversight and management 
responsibilities for the Animal and Plant Health Inspection 
Service; Agricultural Marketing Service; and Grain Inspection, 
Packers and Stockyards Administration.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $901,000 for 
the Office of the Under Secretary for Marketing and Regulatory 
Programs.

               Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service


                         SALARIES AND EXPENSES

Appropriations, 2018....................................    $981,893,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................     739,151,000
Committee recommendation................................   1,000,493,000

    The Secretary of Agriculture established the Animal and 
Plant Health Inspection Service [APHIS] on April 2, 1972, under 
the authority of reorganization plan No. 2 of 1953, and other 
authorities. The major objectives of APHIS are to protect the 
animal and plant resources of the Nation from diseases and 
pests. These objectives are carried out under the major areas 
of activity, as follows:
    Safeguarding and Emergency Preparedness/Response.--The 
agency monitors plant and animal health worldwide, and sets 
import polices to prevent the introduction of foreign plant and 
animal pests and diseases. Domestically, the agency works 
cooperatively to conduct plant and animal health monitoring 
programs, pursue eradication, or limit the spread of the 
threat. The agency also conducts diagnostic laboratory 
activities that support disease prevention, detection, control, 
and eradication programs. In addition, the agency protects 
agriculture from detrimental animal predators, and through its 
regulatory structure helps advance genetic research while 
protecting against the release of harmful organisms.
    Safe Trade and International Technical Assistance.--The 
agency helps resolve technical trade issues to ensure the 
smooth and safe movement of agricultural commodities into and 
out of the United States. The agency negotiates animal and 
plant health certification requirements and assists U.S. 
exporters meet foreign regulatory demands. In addition, the 
agency assists developing countries in improving their 
safeguarding systems, to protect the United States from 
emerging plant and animal pests and diseases.
    Animal Care.--The agency conducts regulatory activities 
that ensure the humane care and treatment of animals and horses 
as the Animal Welfare and Horse Protection Acts require. These 
activities include inspection of certain establishments that 
handle animals intended for research, exhibition, and as pets, 
and monitoring certain horse shows.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $1,000,493,000 
for salaries and expenses of the Animal and Plant Health 
Inspection Service.
    The following table reflects the Committee's specific 
recommendations for the Animal and Plant Health Inspection 
Service:

                                   ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE
                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                  Fiscal year
                                                                 Fiscal year      2019 budget       Committee
                                                                 2018 enacted       request       recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Safeguarding and International Technical Assistance:
    Animal Health Technical Services.........................           37,857           30,272           37,857
    Aquatic Animal Health....................................            2,253  ...............            2,253
    Avian Health.............................................           62,840           33,881           62,840
    Cattle Health............................................           96,500           86,326           96,500
    Equine, Cervid and Small Ruminant Health.................           20,000           16,500           20,000
    National Veterinary Stockpile............................            5,725            3,965            5,725
    Swine Health.............................................           24,800           19,753           24,800
    Veterinary Biologics.....................................           16,417           16,386           16,417
    Veterinary Diagnostics...................................           39,540           42,030           50,140
    Zoonotic Disease Management..............................           16,523           15,775           16,523
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal, Animal Health................................          322,455          264,888          333,055
                                                              ==================================================
    Agricultural Quarantine Inspection (Appropriated)........           31,330  ...............           32,330
    Cotton Pests.............................................           11,520            7,000           11,520
    Field Crop & Rangeland Ecosystems Pests..................            9,326            7,809           11,826
    Pest Detection...........................................           27,446           22,394           27,446
    Plant Protection Methods Development.....................           20,686           15,647           20,686
    Specialty Crop Pests.....................................          178,170          139,500          178,170
    Tree & Wood Pests........................................           56,000           25,000           60,000
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal, Plant Health.................................          334,478          217,350          341,978
                                                              ==================================================
    Wildlife Damage Management...............................          108,376           46,331          108,376
    Wildlife Services Methods Development....................           18,856           18,820           18,856
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal, Wildlife Services............................          127,232           65,151          127,232
                                                              ==================================================
    Animal & Plant Health Regulatory Enforcement.............           16,224           16,193           16,224
    Biotechnology Regulatory Services........................           18,875           18,839           18,875
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal, Regulatory Services..........................           35,099           35,032           35,099
                                                              ==================================================
    Contingency Fund.........................................              470              469              470
    Emergency Preparedness & Response........................           40,966           40,688           41,466
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal, Emergency Management.........................           41,436           41,157           41,936
                                                              ==================================================
      Subtotal, Safeguarding and Emergency Preparedness/               860,700          623,578          879,300
       Response..............................................
                                                              ==================================================
Safe Trade and International Technical Assistance:
    Agriculture Import/Export................................           15,599           15,070           15,599
    Overseas Technical & Trade Operations....................           22,115           22,072           22,115
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal, Safe Trade...................................           37,714           37,142           37,714
                                                              ==================================================
Animal Welfare:
    Animal Welfare...........................................           30,810           28,356           30,810
    Horse Protection.........................................              705              696              705
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal, Animal Welfare...............................           31,515           29,052           31,515
                                                              ==================================================
Agency Management:
    APHIS Information Technology Infrastructure..............            4,251            4,243            4,251
    Physical/Operational Security............................            5,146            5,136            5,146
    Rent and DHS security payments...........................           42,567           40,000           42,567
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal, Agency Management............................           51,964           49,379           51,964
                                                              ==================================================
      Total, Direct Appropriation............................          981,893          739,151        1,000,493
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Agricultural Quarantine Inspection.--The Committee 
recognizes that prevention of infestations of pests and 
diseases is much more cost effective than subsequent control or 
eradication. This is an important Federal responsibility and 
the Committee provides $32,330,000 for the agricultural 
quarantine inspections [AQI] function, including pre-departure 
and interline inspections.
    The Committee is concerned that new fee regulations under 
the AQI program may not be equitable to small commercial 
aircraft. The Committee looks forward to seeing the report on 
AQI user fees as required by Public Law 115-141.
    The Committee notes that assessing AQI treatment monitoring 
fees on a per-enclosure basis imposes disproportionate impacts 
on industry and user groups at certain key ports of entry, 
including ports along the southeast United States. USDA is 
encouraged to continue conducting a study that specifically 
outlines the actual costs of treatments, examines the 
disproportionate impact the fee has on airports and seaports in 
different regions of the U.S., and evaluates alternative and 
equitable funding mechanisms. Such report should also 
incorporate due consideration of the recommendations of the 
Treatment Fee Working Group's September 27, 2016 ``Report to 
APHIS''. USDA shall brief the Committee on the status of such 
study and other efforts to ensure equitable collection of 
revenues for vital AQI treatment monitoring efforts.
    Animal Care.--The Committee is concerned about dog breeders 
selling dogs, including dogs sold over the Internet and through 
other outlets, who refuse to obtain a license and comply with 
the Animal Welfare Act's humane care and treatment requirements 
and urges the Department to focus outreach, compliance 
assistance, and enforcement resources to these actors.
    Avian Influenza.--The Committee recognizes the extreme 
economic hardship posed to gamebird and egg farmers when flocks 
are determined to be infected by high and low pathogenic avian 
influenza, and acknowledges the severe limitations on 
controlled marketing available to producers of live game birds, 
as well as the income loss from egg production. The Committee 
encourages APHIS to provide full indemnity coverage for 
gamebird and egg operations and cease attempts to limit 
coverage.
    Bee Pests.--The Committee remains concerned with declining 
bee populations and the tragic implications for pollination of 
U.S. agriculture. The Committee directs the agency to continue 
priority work with other Federal and State agencies and the 
public to manage, suppress, and eradicate varroa mites, small 
hive beetles, and other pests and diseases contributing to 
colony collapse disorder.
    Cattle Fever Ticks.--The Committee appreciates the 
commitment by APHIS, including recent additional funding, to 
respond to the most recent outbreak of cattle fever ticks. The 
Committee encourages the agency to maintain this focus and 
provide adequate funding for all activities under the Cattle 
Fever Tick Eradication Program [CFTEP]; heighten efforts to 
coordinate the response with the Department of Interior on 
national wildlife refuges; and provide sufficient funding for 
research and scientific tools to be developed that concentrate 
on the following: new systematic cattle fever tick treatment 
products with longer treatment intervals for cattle; new cattle 
fever tick treatment products for wildlife, especially nilgai 
antelope; and new or improved cattle fever tick preventative 
therapies, such as vaccines, for both cattle and wildlife 
hosts.
    Chronic Wasting Disease.--The Committee provides no less 
than $3,500,000 for cervid health activities. Within the funds 
provided, APHIS should give consideration to indemnity payments 
if warranted.
    Citrus Health Response Program [CHRP].--CHRP is a national 
effort to maintain a viable citrus industry within the United 
States, maintain producer's continued access to export markets, 
and safeguard citrus producing states against a variety of 
invasive pests and diseases. These funds are designed to 
partner with state departments of agriculture and industry 
groups to address the challenges of citrus pests and diseases. 
In addition to the funds provided in this account, the 
Committee encourages APHIS to utilize the funds available in 
the Plant Pest and Disease Management and Disaster Prevention 
Programs account to the greatest extent possible in an attempt 
to sustain the economic viability of the citrus industry.
    Coconut Rhinoceros Beetle.--The Secretary is directed to 
continue efforts to control and eradicate the coconut 
rhinoceros beetle in the Pacific to prevent the spread of the 
beetle to the U.S. mainland, and may, if appropriate, provide 
additional surge funding to match Department of Defense 
spending for this purpose.
    Cogongrass Management and Control.--The Committee is 
concerned about the rapid spread of cogongrass and its impact 
on forest productivity, wildlife habitat and private 
landowners. The Committee provides $2,000,000 for APHIS to 
partner with state departments of agriculture and forestry 
commissions in states considered to be the epicenter of 
infestations, to assist with the control and treatment of 
cogongrass in order to slow the advancing front of this 
invasive plant-pest species.
    Huanglongbing Emergency Response.--The Committee maintains 
the increased funding levels for Huanglongbing Emergency 
Response within the Specialty Crop Pests line item included in 
fiscal year 2018. The Committee encourages APHIS to allocate 
sufficient resources in order to continue vital management, 
control, and associated activities to address citrus greening. 
The disease, for which there is no cure, has caused a reduction 
in citrus production by over 60 percent since 2007 in Florida 
alone. All citrus producing counties in Texas are under 
quarantine, and California has detected the disease in some 
backyard trees in the Los Angeles basin. The spread of this 
disease has called the domestic citrus industry's future into 
question, costing thousands of jobs and millions in lost 
revenue and increased production costs per acre. In addition, 
the agency is encouraged to support priorities and strategies 
identified by the Huanglongbing Multi-Agency Coordination [HLB-
MAC] Group which will benefit the citrus industry. The agency 
should appropriately allocate resources based on critical need 
and maximum effect to the citrus industry. The Committee 
maintains the fiscal year 2018 funding level for citrus health 
to support priorities and strategies identified by the HLB-MAC 
group. The MAC is focused on short-term solutions to help the 
citrus industry, and the cooperative nature of Federal, state, 
and industry representatives in this group is expected to 
result in the development of tools and techniques to address 
this devastating disease. Helping growers explore new possible 
solutions, the MAC has been an effective resource. The agency 
should appropriately allocate resources based on critical need 
and maximum impact to the citrus industry. These citrus health 
activities directly protect citrus production on approximately 
765,000 acres in the United States worth more than 
$11,000,000,000 in total.
    Huanglongbing Multi-Agency Coordination [HLB-MAC] Group.--
The Committee recognizes the significant economic impact of 
this disease on the citrus industry, which is especially acute 
in Florida and a growing concern in both Texas and California. 
The Committee also understands that growers are requesting the 
right to try treatments that have begun to show success in 
early stages of testing. The Committee encourages the HLB-MAC 
group to explore and identify new methods to expedite the 
delivery of promising treatments directly to growers. Finally, 
the Committee expects any funds which are redirected from 
existing HLB-MAC projects be repurposed to other priority HLB-
MAC projects that are showing promising results to ensure these 
critical funds remain committed to help facilitate the design 
and implementation of the rapid delivery pathway to growers.
    Invasive Tree Pests.--The Committee recognizes that the 
forests products industry and family forest owners are under 
increasing threat from a growing number of invasive forest 
pests. It is essential that APHIS carry out a comprehensive 
program to counter the spread of invasive species and work 
towards complete eradication of the Asian long-horned beetle. 
The Secretary is directed to report to the Committee regarding 
the steps being taken to eradicate the Asian long-horned beetle 
and spotted lanternfly and to minimize the spread of other 
pests such as the polyphagous and Kuroshio shot hole borers. As 
the emerald ash borer continues to spread, APHIS shall continue 
to assist states that have recent detections of emerald ash 
borer where assistance will enable states to fully monitor the 
insect and to inform and manage public and private land owner 
issues.
    National Bio and Agro-Defense Human Capital Development.--
The Committee notes that significant resources have been 
invested in the new National Bio and Agro-Defense Facility 
[NBAF] and is concerned about projected staffing shortages of 
qualified veterinary diagnosticians and scientists for the 
NBAF, which is slated for full operation in 2022. The Committee 
provides $3,000,000 to APHIS to ensure necessary steps are 
taken to develop a qualified workforce that are subject matter 
experts in foreign, emerging and zoonotic diseases capable of 
developing, validating and conducting needed diagnostics, 
performing epidemiologic studies, and completing bioinformatics 
analyses.
    Non-Lethal Strategies.--The Committee is aware that 
Wildlife Services has deployed the use of non-lethal 
strategies--including fladry, electric fencing, livestock 
guardian dogs, alarm systems and lighting--which have 
effectively reduced predator depredation on livestock in many 
cases. The Committee encourages Wildlife Services when 
applicable to (1) proactively work with agricultural producers 
to implement and evaluate the effectiveness of preventive non-
lethal control actions, (2) assess patterns of depredation 
events and (3) provide deterrent training for agricultural 
producers, landowners and Wildlife Services and other agency 
personnel in non-lethal management strategies in collaboration 
with the National Wildlife Research Center.
    Pacific Ants Prevention Plan.--The Secretary is encouraged 
to lead the revision of the Pacific Ants Prevention Plan, in 
collaboration with U.S. and international partners. The plan 
should include: research; the development of technologies and 
methodologies for prevention, eradication, and control of 
invasive ants; and the collaborative implementation of projects 
to prevent, monitor, and control invasive ants in affected 
Pacific Islands.
    Peer-Reviewed Accreditation.--The Committee notes APHIS's 
collaboration with accrediting organizations in the 
establishment and operation of the Zoo and Aquarium Hazards 
Preparedness, Response and Recovery Fusion Center. The Center's 
role in facilitating and enhancing collaboration between the 
emergency management community and the greater managed wildlife 
community will assist in emergency preparedness and response 
for a wide range of circumstances including natural disasters 
and animal disease outbreaks. This effort is commended and is 
expected and encouraged to continue.
    Regional Biosecurity Plan for Micronesia and Hawaii.--The 
Secretary is directed to submit a report to this Committee on 
USDA activities to implement the Regional Biosecurity Plan for 
Micronesia and Hawaii [RBP]. The report shall include an update 
on agencies' activities to date to implement the RBP, and 
agencies' planned activities for further implementation.
    Roseau Cane.--The Committee is concerned with the invasive 
species scale insect pest that is destroying Roseau cane in the 
Mississippi River's Delta region along the Gulf of Mexico. An 
estimated 225,000 acres of wetlands in the Delta have been 
affected with the die-off, and Roseau cane is important in 
maintaining a healthy marsh and preventing erosion. The 
Committee directs APHIS to work with the Agricultural Research 
Service [ARS] and stakeholders and provides an additional 
$500,000 to develop an integrated management program for 
control of the Roseau cane scale insect pest infestation.
    Sudden Oak Death.--The European strain 1 [EU1] and the 
North American strain 1 [NA1] of the sudden oak death pathogen 
are major threats to western Douglas-fir/tanoak forests, 
resulting in quarantine restrictions that threaten U.S. forests 
and export markets for log shipments and lily bulbs. The 
Committee recommendation includes no less than the fiscal year 
2018 funding level to improve understanding of the European 
Strain 1 and North American Strain 1 of the sudden oak death 
pathogen and treatment methods to inform control and management 
techniques in wildlands.
    West Nile Virus.--The Committee remains concerned with the 
threats to human and animal health posed by West Nile virus and 
recognizes that a critical strategy for addressing these 
threats is necessary to prevent the infection and transmission 
by known vectors, including farm-raised alligators. The 
Committee encourages APHIS to further investigate West Nile 
virus and other infectious diseases affecting farm raised 
alligators and develop treatments and methods to prevent 
infection and transmission.
    Wildlife Damage Management.--APHIS is responsible for 
providing Federal leadership in managing problems caused by 
wildlife. The Committee provides $108,376,000 for wildlife 
damage control to maintain priority initiatives, including 
preventing the transport of invasive snakes and other harmful 
species. No less than $250,000 should be available for the 
agency to reduce blackbird depredation in the Northern Great 
Plains.
    The Committee maintains support for assistance to catfish 
producers to help mitigate wildlife depredation, particularly 
as it pertains to fish-eating and disease-carrying birds. The 
Committee provides no less than the fiscal year 2018 level for 
damage management efforts and the development of methods to 
assist producers in combatting the persistent threat and 
economic hardship caused by cormorants, pelicans, and other 
birds.
    The Committee recognizes the importance of the National 
Feral Swine Damage Management Program in reducing adverse 
ecological and economic impacts caused by feral swine. The 
Committee provides no less than the fiscal year 2018 level in 
support of APHIS efforts to decrease these invasive pests' 
damage and risk to agriculture, natural resources, and 
property.
    The Committee provides $28,000,000 for the National Rabies 
Management Program to fortify existing barriers and advance 
prevention and eradication efforts.
    Given the shared and complementary goals of Wildlife Damage 
Management and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services to 
sustainably integrate wildlife into natural habitats while 
protecting livestock, the Secretary is directed to coordinate 
with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services on innovative 
strategies to provide predator management and reduce predator-
livestock conflict. The Secretary is further directed to report 
to this Committee on how the two agencies can work together to 
improve wildlife management.
    Wildlife Services Education and Training.--The Committee is 
aware of the wide range of hazardous procedures and materials 
utilized by APHIS personnel in the conduct of daily duties. In 
addition, a recent comprehensive study noted the critical need 
to provide standardized safety training, certification, and 
database management for tracking, to ensure the safest working 
environment possible. As such, the Committee provides 
$2,000,000 within Wildlife Damage Management to maintain a 
National Training Academy focused on those areas of greatest 
concern such as pyrotechnics, firearms, hazardous materials, 
immobilization and euthanasia drugs, pesticides, animal care 
and handling, land vehicles, watercraft, and zoonotic diseases.
    Wildlife Services Methods Development.--The Committee 
appreciates the important work done by the National Wildlife 
Research Center and its affiliated field locations to resolve 
problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and society. 
The Committee provides $18,856,000 to ensure continued 
development of technical and scientific information on wildlife 
damage management.

                        BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES

Appropriations, 2018....................................      $3,175,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................       2,852,000
Committee recommendation................................       3,175,000

    The APHIS appropriation for ``Buildings and Facilities'' 
funds major nonrecurring construction projects in support of 
specific program activities and recurring construction, 
alterations, preventive maintenance, and repairs of existing 
APHIS facilities.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommendation includes an appropriation of 
$3,175,000 for buildings and facilities of the Animal and Plant 
Health Inspection Service. This funding is necessary to allow 
APHIS to maintain existing facilities, and perform critically 
needed repairs to and replacements of building components, such 
as heating, ventilation and air-conditioning on a prioritized 
basis at APHIS facilities. The Committee notes that due to the 
environmentally sensitive nature of many APHIS facilities, 
closure of a facility could result if APHIS is unable to 
complete the required repairs.

                     Agricultural Marketing Service


                           MARKETING SERVICES

Appropriations, 2018....................................    $151,595,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................     118,617,000
Committee recommendation................................     155,845,000

    The Agricultural Marketing Service [AMS] was established by 
the Secretary of Agriculture on April 2, 1972. AMS carries out 
programs authorized by more than 50 different statutory 
authorities, the primary ones being the Agricultural Marketing 
Act of 1946 (7 U.S.C. 1621-1627, 1635-1638); the U.S. Cotton 
Standards Act (7 U.S.C. 51-65); the Cotton Statistics and 
Estimates Act (7 U.S.C. 471-476); the Tobacco Inspection Act (7 
U.S.C. 511-511q); the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act 
(7 U.S.C. 499a-499t); the Egg Products Inspection Act (21 
U.S.C. 1031-1056); and section 32 of the Act of 1935 (Public 
Law 74-320, 7 U.S.C. 612c).
    Programs administered by this agency include the market 
news services, standardization, grading, classing, shell egg 
surveillance services, transportation services, wholesale 
farmers and alternative market development, grant payments to 
States for marketing activities, the Federal administration of 
marketing agreements and orders, commodity purchases, 
Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act, the Plant Variety 
Protection Act (7 U.S.C. 2321 et seq.), and market protection 
and promotion activities.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $155,845,000 
for Marketing Services of the Agricultural Marketing Service.
    National Organic Program.--The Committee provides 
$15,094,000 for the National Organic Program [NOP], an increase 
of $3,000,000. A healthy market for organic products requires a 
clear product distinction backed by a trusted, verified, and 
enforced label. The Committee recognizes that the NOP, which 
enforces the organic regulations and ensures they evolve to 
keep pace with consumer expectations, is essential. In light of 
recent reports of inadequate enforcement of organic standards, 
the Committee directs USDA to provide all resources needed for 
the NOP to deliver the strongest possible oversight before 
allowing the USDA organic seal to be granted to domestic and 
international operations and products.
    Organic Dairy.--The Committee is disappointed by continued 
reports of inconsistencies in the enforcement and 
interpretation of regulations that apply to organic dairy 
farms. The Committee directs the NOP to resolve these issues, 
and eliminate any inconsistencies in applying and enforcing 
regulations relating to the transition of livestock to organic 
dairy production, and also dry matter intake during the grazing 
season for organic dairy cattle. The Secretary must ensure that 
organic inspectors, certification file review staff, and NOP 
Organic Certification staff have documented training and 
experience in livestock nutrition and grazing on organic 
dairies with more than 1,000 milking cows if they are 
certifying operations of that size, and also that separate dry 
matter intake calculations are made for each category of dairy 
cow and not averaged among milking and dry cows, and that 
inspections are conducted during the grazing season.
    Organic Data Initiative.--The Committee includes $250,000 
for AMS to coordinate with NASS for activities related to 
expanding organic price reporting and organic data collection.

                 LIMITATION ON ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES

Limitation, 2018........................................     $61,227,000
Budget limitation, 2019.................................      60,982,000
Committee recommendation................................      60,982,000

    The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981 (Public Law 
97-35) initiated a system of user fees for the cost of grading 
and classing cotton, and tobacco. These activities, authorized 
under the U.S. Cotton Standards Act (7 U.S.C. 51 et seq.), the 
Tobacco Inspection Act (7 U.S.C. 511 et seq.), and other 
provisions of law are designed to facilitate commerce and 
protect participants in the industry.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends a limitation of $60,982,000 on 
administrative expenses of the Agricultural Marketing Service.

    FUNDS FOR STRENGTHENING MARKETS, INCOME, AND SUPPLY (SECTION 32)

                     (including transfers of funds)

Appropriations, 2018....................................     $20,705,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................      20,489,000
Committee recommendation................................      20,489,000

    Under section 32 of the Act of August 24, 1935, (7 U.S.C. 
612c), an amount equal to 30 percent of customs receipts 
collected during each preceding calendar year and unused 
balances are available for encouraging the domestic consumption 
and exportation of agricultural commodities. An amount equal to 
30 percent of receipts collected on fishery products is 
transferred to the Department of Commerce. Additional transfers 
to the child nutrition programs of the Food and Nutrition 
Service have been provided in recent appropriations Acts.
    The following table reflects the status of this fund for 
fiscal years 2018-2019:

              ESTIMATED TOTAL FUNDS AVAILABLE AND BALANCE CARRIED FORWARD-- FISCAL YEARS 2018-2019
                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            Fiscal year 2018  Fiscal year 2019      Committee
                                                                 enacted       budget request    recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Appropriation (30% of Customs Receipts)...................        10,370,878        10,624,198        10,624,198
Less Transfers:
    Food and Nutrition Service............................        -8,872,010        -9,092,217        -9,092,217
    Commerce Department...................................          -154,868          -157,980          -157,980
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
      Total, Transfers....................................        -9,026,878        -9,250,197        -9,250,197
 
Prior Year Appropriation Available, Start of Year.........           125,000           125,000           125,000
Transfer of Prior Year Funds to FNS (F&V).................          -125,000          -125,000          -125,000
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
      Budget Authority, Farm Bill.........................         1,344,000         1,374,000         1,374,000
Rescission of Current Year Funds..........................  ................          -337,000  ................
Appropriations Temporarily Reduced--Sequestration.........           -77,418           -74,400           -74,400
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
      Budget Authority, Appropriations Act................         1,266,582           962,600         1,299,600
                                                           =====================================================
Less Obligations:
    Child Nutrition Programs (Entitlement Commodities)....           465,000           465,000           485,000
    State Option Contract.................................             5,000             5,000             5,000
    Removal of Defective Commodities......................             2,500             2,500             2,500
    Disaster Relief.......................................            36,000             5,000             5,000
    Additional Fruits, Vegetables, and Nuts Purchases.....           206,000           206,000           206,000
    Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program.....................           171,000           174,000           174,000
    Estimated Future Needs................................           354,524            48,758            48,758
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
      Total, Commodity Procurement........................         1,210,024           906,258           926,258
 
Administrative Funds:
    Commodity Purchase Support............................            35,853            35,853            35,853
    Marketing Agreements and Orders.......................            20,705            20,489            20,489
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
      Total, Administrative Funds.........................            56,558            56,342            56,342
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
      Total Obligations...................................         1,266,582           962,600           982,600
                                                           =====================================================
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends a transfer from section 32 funds 
of $20,489,000 for the formulation and administration of 
marketing agreements and orders.
    Section 32 Authorities.--Under the authority described in 
clause 3 of 7 U.S.C. 612c, the Secretary is able to direct 
funds from the section 32 account to increase the purchasing 
power of producers. This practice has been used on various 
occasions to provide direct assistance to producers when market 
forces or natural conditions adversely affect the financial 
condition of farmers and ranchers. The Committee notes the 
importance of the ability of the Secretary to utilize this 
authority, but believes that communication between the 
Department and the Congress should be improved when this 
practice is used. Therefore, the Committee directs the 
Secretary to provide notification to the Appropriations 
Committee in advance of any public announcement or release of 
section 32 funds under the specific authorities cited above.

                   PAYMENTS TO STATES AND POSSESSIONS

Appropriations, 2018....................................      $1,235,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................       1,109,000
Committee recommendation................................       1,235,000

    The Federal-State Marketing Improvement Program [FSMIP] is 
authorized by section 204(b) of the Agricultural Marketing Act 
of 1946 and is also funded from appropriations. Matching grants 
are awarded on a competitive basis to State marketing agencies 
to identify and test market alternative farm commodities, 
determine methods of providing more reliable market 
information, and develop better commodity grading standards. 
This program has made possible many types of projects, such as 
electronic marketing and agricultural product diversification. 
Current projects are focused on the improvement of marketing 
efficiency and effectiveness, and seeking new outlets for 
existing farm produced commodities. The legislation grants the 
U.S. Department of Agriculture authority to establish 
cooperative agreements with State departments of agriculture or 
similar State agencies to improve the efficiency of the 
agricultural marketing chain. The States perform the work or 
contract it to others, and must contribute at least one-half of 
the cost of the projects.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $1,235,000 for 
Payments to States and Possessions for Federal-State marketing 
projects and activities.

        LIMITATION ON INSPECTION AND WEIGHING SERVICES EXPENSES

Limitation, 2018........................................     $55,000,000
Budget limitation, 2019.................................      80,000,000
Committee recommendation................................      55,000,000

    The agency provides an official grain inspection and 
weighing system under the U.S. Grain Standards Act [USGSA], and 
official inspection of rice and grain-related products under 
the Agricultural Marketing Act [AMA] of 1946. The USGSA was 
amended in 1981 to require the collection of user fees to fund 
the costs associated with the operation, supervision, and 
administration of Federal grain inspection and weighing 
activities.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends a limitation of $55,000,000 on 
inspection and weighing services expenses.

             Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety

Appropriations, 2018....................................        $800,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................         800,000
Committee recommendation................................         800,000

    The Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety provides 
direction and coordination in carrying out the laws enacted by 
the Congress with respect to the Department's inspection of 
meat, poultry, and processed egg products. The Office has 
oversight and management responsibilities for the Food Safety 
and Inspection Service.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $800,000 for 
the Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety.

                   Food Safety and Inspection Service

Appropriations, 2018....................................  $1,056,844,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................   1,032,273,000
Committee recommendation................................   1,049,344,000

    The major objectives of the Food Safety and Inspection 
Service are to assure that meat and poultry products are 
wholesome, unadulterated, and properly labeled and packaged, as 
required by the Federal Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et 
seq.) and the Poultry Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 451 et 
seq.); and to provide continuous in-plant inspection to egg 
processing plants under the Egg Products Inspection Act.
    The Food Safety and Inspection Service was established on 
June 17, 1981, by Secretary's Memorandum No. 1000-1, issued 
pursuant to Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1953.
    The inspection program of the Food Safety and Inspection 
Service provides in-plant inspection of all domestic plants 
preparing meat, poultry or egg products for sale or 
distribution; reviews foreign inspection systems and 
establishments that prepare meat or poultry products for export 
to the United States; and provides technical and financial 
assistance to States which maintain meat and poultry inspection 
programs.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $1,049,344,000 
for the Food Safety and Inspection Service [FSIS].
    Humane Slaughter.--The Committee directs FSIS to continue 
to provide annual reports to the Committee on the 
implementation of objective scoring methods undertaken by FSIS 
to enforce the Humane Methods of Slaughter Act.
    The Committee also directs FSIS to ensure that personnel 
hired with funding previously provided specifically for Humane 
Methods of Slaughter Act enforcement focus their attention on 
overseeing compliance with humane handling rules for live 
animals as they arrive and are offloaded and handled in pens, 
chutes, and stunning areas and that all inspectors receive 
robust training.
    The following table represents the Committee's specific 
recommendations for the Food Safety and Inspection Service as 
compared to the fiscal year 2018 and budget request levels:

                            FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE SALARIES AND EXPENSES
                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                    Fiscal year
                                                                    Fiscal year     2019 budget      Committee
                                                                   2018 enacted       request     recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Food safety inspection:
    Federal.....................................................         943,824         920,403         936,324
    State.......................................................          61,682          61,150          61,682
    International...............................................          16,758          16,375          16,758
    PHDCIS......................................................          34,580          34,345          34,580
                                                                 -----------------------------------------------
      Total.....................................................       1,056,844       1,032,273       1,049,344
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                TITLE II

               FARM PRODUCTION AND CONSERVATION PROGRAMS

   Office of the Under Secretary for Farm Production and Conservation

Appropriations, 2018....................................        $901,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................         875,000
Committee recommendation................................         901,000

    The Office of the Under Secretary for Farm Production and 
Conservation provides direction and coordination in carrying 
out the laws enacted by the Congress with respect to the 
Department's commodity programs, farm loans, disaster 
assistance, crop insurance, natural resources conservation and 
environment programs, and some energy programs. The Office has 
oversight and management responsibilities for the Farm Service 
Agency (including the Commodity Credit Corporation), Risk 
Management Agency, and the Natural Resources Conservation 
Service.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $901,000 for 
the Office of the Under Secretary for Farm Production and 
Conservation.
    Emergency Response.--The Committee directs USDA to produce 
a report outlining the average and longest length of time it 
takes USDA to provide reimbursement under the following 
emergency assistance programs: crop insurance; Noninsured Crop 
Disaster Assistance Program [NAP]; Livestock Indemnity Program 
[LIP]; Livestock Forage Disaster Program [LFP]; Emergency 
Assistance for Livestock, Honey Bees, and Farm-Raised Fish 
Program [ELAP]; Tree Assistance Program [TAP]; Emergency 
Conservation Program; and Emergency Forest Restoration Program 
[EFRP]. USDA is also directed to include in the report any 
barriers to implementing a more efficient reimbursement process 
and recommendations to the Committee on potential improvements.

            Farm Production and Conservation Business Center

Appropriations, 2018....................................      $1,028,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................     196,402,000
Committee recommendation................................       1,028,000

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $1,028,000 for 
the Farm Production and Conservation Business Center.
    The Committee notes that USDA has yet to finalize and 
submit a design plan for the Farm Production and Conservation 
(FPAC) Business Center, and the true cost estimates and 
staffing requirements for implementation for fiscal year 2019 
are still unknown. While the Committee supports the streamlined 
efficiencies of the FPAC mission area and provided funding 
accordingly in fiscal year 2018, the proposed budget increase 
for the Business Center is premature until a final design plan 
is completed. The Committee further notes that the Secretary 
maintains interchange authority in the interim.

                          Farm Service Agency

    The Farm Service Agency [FSA] was established October 13, 
1994, pursuant to the Federal Crop Insurance Reform and 
Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994, Public 
Law 103-354. The FSA administers a variety of activities, such 
as the commodity price support and production adjustment 
programs financed by the Commodity Credit Corporation; the 
Conservation Reserve Program [CRP]; the Emergency Conservation 
Program; the Commodity Operation Programs including the 
warehouse examination function; farm ownership, farm operating, 
emergency disaster, and other loan programs; and the Noninsured 
Crop Disaster Assistance Program [NAP], which provides crop 
loss protection for growers of many crops for which crop 
insurance is not available. In addition, FSA currently provides 
certain administrative support services to the Foreign 
Agricultural Service [FAS] and to the Risk Management Agency 
[RMA].

                         SALARIES AND EXPENSES

                     (INCLUDING TRANSFERS OF FUNDS)

                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                 Transfers from    Total, FSA,
                                                                Appropriations      program        salaries and
                                                                                    accounts         expenses
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Appropriations, 2018.........................................        1,202,146          317,610        1,519,756
Budget estimate, 2019........................................          920,490          266,913        1,187,403
Committee recommendation.....................................        1,202,146          317,603        1,519,749
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The account Salaries and Expenses, Farm Service Agency, 
funds the administrative expenses of program administration and 
other functions assigned to FSA. The funds consist of 
appropriations and transfers from the CCC export credit 
guarantees, Food for Peace loans, and Agricultural Credit 
Insurance Fund program accounts, and miscellaneous advances 
from other sources. All administrative funds used by FSA are 
consolidated into one account. The consolidation provides 
clarity and better management and control of funds, and 
facilitates accounting, fiscal, and budgetary work by 
eliminating the necessity for making individual allocations and 
allotments and maintaining and recording obligations and 
expenditures under numerous separate accounts.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $1,519,749,000 
for salaries and expenses of the Farm Service Agency, including 
a direct appropriation of $1,202,146,000. The Committee 
supports the mission of FSA and the important services that 
they provide across the country; therefore, the Committee does 
not accept the full decrease for information technology as 
proposed in the budget. The Committee provides $5,000,000 for 
the Farm Production and Conservation Business Center 
information portal.
    Continuous Conservation Reserve Program.--The Secretary is 
strongly encouraged to, within the total acreage made available 
for enrollment in the conservation reserve program and without 
reducing the periodic availability of general signup, enroll, 
to the maximum extent practicable, acreage for activities 
included in the State Acres for Wildlife Enhancement practice 
or other similar administratively established wetland and 
habitat practices that benefit priority fish and wildlife 
species identified in State, regional, and national 
conservation initiatives with a priority for initiatives that 
provide large blocks of cover ideal for wildlife nesting.
    Information Technology.--The Committee remains dedicated to 
ensuring FSA has reliable and functioning IT systems because it 
is critical that farmers and ranchers have access to the tools 
they need to succeed. The Committee has invested significant 
taxpayer dollars to modernize outdated systems and continues to 
provide resources above the budget request. The Committee 
continues statutory language that allows funds for IT to be 
obligated only after the Secretary meets certain reporting 
requirements. The Committee has reviewed the third-party IT 
analysis and expects the agency to follow the recommendations 
where applicable.
    National Agriculture Imagery Program.--The Committee 
recommends that funding shall be allocated to purchase imagery 
products to meet programmatic requirements.
    Non-Insured Crop Disaster Assistance.--The Committee is 
concerned that the Department is failing to provide adequate 
risk protection through the Non-insured Crop Assistance Program 
for farmers producing hay forage with legume grass mixes. These 
crops often suffer quality loses resulting in adverse economic 
impacts, yet these farms have no meaningful source of risk 
protection. The Committee encourages the Secretary to establish 
within the Non-insured Crop Assistance Program an additional 
Forage Category to reflect the relative feed value, and the 
potential for quality loss, of legume grass mix forage.

                         STATE MEDIATION GRANTS

Appropriations, 2018....................................      $3,904,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................       3,228,000
Committee recommendation................................       3,904,000

    This program is authorized under title V of the 
Agricultural Credit Act of 1987 (7 U.S.C. 5101 et seq.). 
Originally designed to address agricultural credit disputes, 
the program was expanded by the Federal Crop Insurance Reform 
and Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994 
(Public Law 103-354) to include other agricultural issues such 
as wetland determinations, conservation compliance, rural water 
loan programs, grazing on National Forest System lands, and 
pesticides. Grants are made to States whose mediation programs 
have been certified by the FSA. Grants will be solely for 
operation and administration of the State's agricultural 
mediation program.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $3,904,000 for 
State Mediation Grants.

               GRASSROOTS SOURCE WATER PROTECTION PROGRAM

Appropriations, 2018....................................      $6,500,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................................
Committee recommendation................................       6,500,000

    This program is intended to assist in the protection of 
groundwater through State rural water associations.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $6,500,000 for 
Grassroots Source Water Protection.

                        DAIRY INDEMNITY PROGRAM

                     (INCLUDING TRANSFERS OF FUNDS)

Appropriations, 2018....................................        $500,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................         500,000
Committee recommendation................................         500,000

    Under the program, the Department makes indemnification 
payments to dairy farmers and manufacturers of dairy products 
who, through no fault of their own, suffer income losses 
because they are directed to remove their milk from commercial 
markets due to contamination of their products by registered 
pesticides. The program also authorizes indemnity payments to 
dairy farmers for losses resulting from the removal of cows or 
dairy products from the market due to nuclear radiation or 
fallout.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of such sums as 
may be necessary, estimated in fiscal year 2019 to be $500,000, 
for indemnity payments to dairy farmers.

           AGRICULTURAL CREDIT INSURANCE FUND PROGRAM ACCOUNT

                     (INCLUDING TRANSFERS OF FUNDS)

    The Agricultural Credit Insurance Fund Program Account is 
used to provide direct and guaranteed farm ownership, farm 
operating, conservation, Indian highly fractioned land, and 
emergency loans to individuals, as well as the following types 
of loans to associations: irrigation and drainage, grazing, 
Indian tribe land acquisition, and boll weevil eradication.
    FSA is also authorized to provide financial assistance to 
borrowers by guaranteeing loans made by private lenders having 
a contract of guarantee from FSA as approved by the Secretary 
of Agriculture and to establish Beginning Farmer and Rancher 
Individual Development grant accounts.
    The following programs are financed through this fund:
    Boll Weevil Eradication Loans.--Made to assist foundations 
in financing the operations of the boll weevil eradication 
programs provided to farmers.
    Credit Sales of Acquired Property.--Property is sold out of 
inventory and is made available to an eligible buyer by 
providing FSA loans.
    Emergency Loans.--Made to producers to aid recovery from 
production and physical losses due to drought, flooding, other 
natural disasters, or quarantine. The loans may be used to: 
restore or replace essential property; pay all or part of 
production costs associated with the disaster year; pay 
essential family living expenses; reorganize the farming 
operation; and refinance certain debts.
    Farm Operating Loans.--Provide short-to-intermediate term 
production or chattel credit to farmers who cannot obtain 
credit elsewhere, to improve their farm and home operations, 
and to develop or maintain a reasonable standard of living. The 
term of the loan varies from 1 to 7 years.
    Farm Ownership Loans.--Made to borrowers who cannot obtain 
credit elsewhere to restructure their debts, improve or 
purchase farms, refinance nonfarm enterprises which supplement 
but do not supplant farm income, or make additions to farms. 
Loans are made for 40 years or less.
    Indian Tribe Land Acquisition Loans.--Made to any Indian 
tribe recognized by the Secretary of the Interior or tribal 
corporation established pursuant to the Indian Reorganization 
Act (Public Law 93-638) which does not have adequate 
uncommitted funds to acquire lands or interest in lands within 
the tribe's reservation or Alaskan Indian community, as 
determined by the Secretary of the Interior, for use of the 
tribe or the corporation or the members thereof.
    Indian Highly Fractionated Land Loans.--Made to Indian 
tribal members to purchase highly fractionated lands, as 
authorized by the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends a total loan level of 
$8,017,668,000 for programs within the Agricultural Credit 
Insurance Fund Program Account.
    Loan Programs.--The Committee continues to support FSA loan 
programs that ensure farmers and ranchers have access to credit 
to maintain and improve their operations. The Committee is 
aware of the heightened operating loan activity in fiscal year 
2018 and notes the statutory authority allowing program level 
increases that do not require additional budget authority. The 
Committee will continue to monitor program demand in the coming 
months and directs FSA to provide timely estimates for future 
needs.
    The following table reflects the program levels for farm 
credit programs administered by the Farm Service Agency 
recommended by the Committee, as compared to the fiscal year 
2018 and the budget request levels:

                                    AGRICULTURAL CREDIT PROGRAMS--LOAN LEVELS
                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                  Fiscal year
                                                                 Fiscal year      2019 budget       Committee
                                                                 2018 enacted       request       recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Farm Ownership:
    Direct...................................................        1,500,000        1,500,000        1,500,000
    Guaranteed...............................................        2,750,000        2,750,000        2,750,000
Farm Operating:
    Direct...................................................        1,530,000        1,500,000        1,530,000
    Guaranteed unsubsidized..................................        1,960,000        1,600,000        1,960,000
Emergency Loans..............................................           25,610           37,668           37,668
Indian Tribe Land Acquisition................................           20,000           20,000           20,000
Conservation Loans:
    Guaranteed...............................................          150,000          150,000          150,000
Indian Highly Fractionated Land Loans........................           10,000  ...............           10,000
Boll Weevil Eradication......................................           60,000           60,000           60,000
        Total, Loan Authorizations...........................        8,005,610        7,617,668        8,017,668
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990 established the 
program account. Appropriations to this account are used to 
cover the lifetime subsidy costs associated with the direct 
loans obligated and loan guarantees committed, as well as for 
administrative expenses.
    The following table reflects the cost of programs under 
credit reform:

                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                  Fiscal year
                                                                 Fiscal year      2019 budget       Committee
                                                                 2018 enacted       request       recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Farm Operating:
    Direct...................................................           61,812           58,500           59,670
    Guaranteed unsubsidized..................................           21,756           17,280           21,168
Emergency Loans..............................................            1,260            1,567            1,567
Indian Highly Fractionated Land Loans........................            2,272  ...............            2,134
    Total, Loan Subsidies....................................           87,100           77,347           84,539
ACIF Expenses:
    Salaries and Expenses....................................          314,998          226,436          314,998
    Administrative Expenses..................................           10,070           10,070           10,070
        Total, ACIF Expenses.................................          325,068          292,587          325,068
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                         Risk Management Agency


                         SALARIES AND EXPENSES

Appropriations, 2018....................................     $74,829,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................      37,942,000
Committee recommendation................................      74,829,000

    The Risk Management Agency performs administrative 
functions relative to the Federal crop insurance program that 
is authorized by the Federal Crop Insurance Act (7 U.S.C. 
1508), as amended by the Agricultural Risk Protection Act of 
2000 [ARPA], Public Law 106-224, and the Agricultural Act of 
2014 (Public Law 113-79).
    ARPA authorized significant changes in the crop insurance 
program. This act provides higher government subsidies for 
producer premiums to make coverage more affordable; expands 
research and development for new insurance products and under-
served areas through contracts with the private sector; and 
tightens compliance. Functional areas of risk management are: 
research and development; insurance services; and compliance, 
whose functions include policy formulation and procedures and 
regulations development.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $74,829,000 
for Risk Management Agency, Salaries and Expenses.
    The Committee recognizes that there are many research 
priorities that competitive funding may be used to address, 
including the feasibility of insurance programs to cover 
business interruption due to integrator bankruptcy and 
catastrophic loss in the poultry industry. The Committee 
encourages RMA to support research into these priorities.

                 Natural Resources Conservation Service

    The Natural Resources Conservation Service [NRCS] was 
established pursuant to Public Law 103-354, the Department of 
Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994 (7 U.S.C. 6962). The 
NRCS works with conservation districts, watershed groups, and 
Federal and State agencies to bring about physical adjustments 
in land use that will conserve soil and water resources, 
provide for agricultural production on a sustained basis, and 
reduce flood damage and sedimentation.

                        CONSERVATION OPERATIONS

Appropriations, 2018....................................    $874,107,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................     669,033,000
Committee recommendation................................     879,107,000

    Conservation operations are authorized by Public Law 74-46 
(16 U.S.C. 590a-590f). Activities include:
    Conservation Technical Assistance provides assistance to 
district cooperators and other land users in the planning and 
application of conservation treatments to control erosion and 
improve the quantity and quality of soil resources, improve and 
conserve water, enhance fish and wildlife habitat, conserve 
energy, improve woodland, pasture and range conditions, and 
reduce upstream flooding; all to protect and enhance the 
natural resource base.
    Resource appraisal and program development ensures that 
programs administered by the Secretary of Agriculture for the 
conservation of soil, water, and related resources shall 
respond to the Nation's long-term needs.
    Plant Materials Centers assemble, test, and encourage 
increased use of plant species which show promise for use in 
the treatment of conservation problem areas.
    Snow Survey and Water Forecasting provides estimates of 
annual water availability from high mountain snow packs and 
relates to summer stream flow in the Western States and Alaska. 
Information is used by agriculture, industry, and cities in 
estimating future water supplies.
    Soil Surveys inventory the Nation's basic soil resources 
and determine land capabilities and conservation treatment 
needs. Soil survey publications include interpretations useful 
to cooperators, other Federal agencies, State, and local 
organizations.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $879,107,000 
for Conservation Operations. The Committee recommendation 
includes $773,844,000 for Conservation Technical Assistance, 
$80,802,000 for Soil Surveys, $9,380,000 for Snow Survey and 
Water Forecasting, and $9,481,000 for Plant Materials Centers.
    Acre-for-Acre Wetlands Mitigation.--The Secretary is 
encouraged to use mitigation with the conversion of a natural 
wetland and equivalent wetlands functions at a ratio not to 
exceed a ratio of 1-to-1 acreage.
    Agricultural Management Assistance.--In carrying out the 
programs under section 524(b) of the Federal Crop Insurance 
Act, the Secretary is encouraged to establish multi-year pilot 
projects to provide financial and technical assistance to farms 
regulated under the FSMA Produce Safety Rule, for capital 
improvements required to comply with the rule and otherwise 
enhance food safety practices at the production level. Payment 
limits and other provisions of the AMA program will apply.
    Conservation Practices.--The Committee encourages USDA's 
Natural Resources Conservation Service to prioritize funding 
Environmental Quality Incentives Program practices that score 
highly on the Conservation Practices Physical Effects [CPPE] 
matrix.
    NRCS Staffing.--NRCS is directed to provide an update on 
staffing levels at NRCS offices across the country, including 
vacancies that have remained unfilled for more than 6 months, 
and plans to fill those vacancies. The Committee is concerned 
that unfilled state-level positions are creating delays in 
application approval and the deployment of important 
conservation funding.
    Program Duplication.--The Committee directs NRCS to provide 
a report within 90 days of enactment of this Act on actions it 
will take to eliminate program duplication as identified in IG 
reports.
    Technical Assistance.--The Committee directs NRCS to 
maintain a record of total technical assistance dollars for the 
past 3 years and annually in the future, and provide the data 
to the Appropriations Subcommittee on Agriculture, and the 
Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry. This report 
should differentiate mandatory and discretionary allocations.

               WATERSHED AND FLOOD PREVENTION OPERATIONS

Appropriations, 2018....................................    $150,000,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................................
Committee recommendation................................     150,000,000

    The Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act (Public 
Law 566, 83d Cong.) (16 U.S.C. 1000-1005, 1007-1009) provides 
for cooperation between the Federal Government and the States 
and their political subdivisions in a program to prevent 
erosion, floodwater, and sediment damages in the watersheds or 
rivers and streams and to further the conservation, 
development, utilization, and disposal of water, and to further 
the conservation and proper utilization of land in authorized 
watersheds.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $150,000,000 
for the Watershed and Flood Prevention Operations Program.
    The Committee recognizes the critical challenges facing 
rural water resource management and protection and supports 
needed investments in watershed operations. These Federal-
State-local partnerships are uniquely positioned to identify 
critical watershed protection and flood prevention needs in 
rural communities and implement projects that deliver multiple 
streams of benefits for homes, businesses, transportation 
infrastructure, and natural resources. In selecting projects 
for funding, the Committee expects the agency to balance the 
needs of addressing the project backlog, remediation of 
existing structures, and new projects.

                    WATERSHED REHABILITATION PROGRAM

Appropriations, 2018....................................     $10,000,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................................
Committee recommendation................................................

    The Watershed Rehabilitation Program account provides for 
technical and financial assistance to carry out rehabilitation 
of structural measures, in accordance with section 14 of the 
Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act, approved August 
4, 1954 (16 U.S.C. 1012, U.S.C. 1001, et seq.), as amended by 
section 313 of Public Law 106-472, November 9, 2000, and by 
section 2803 of Public Law 110-246.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee does not recommend an appropriation for the 
Watershed Rehabilitation Program.

                              CORPORATIONS


                Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Fund

Appropriations, 2018....................................  $8,913,000,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................   8,687,000,000
Committee recommendation................................   8,687,000,000

    The Federal Crop Insurance Act, as amended by the Federal 
Crop Insurance Reform Act of 1994, authorizes the payment of 
expenses which may include indemnity payments, loss adjustment, 
delivery expenses, program-related research and development, 
startup costs for implementing this legislation such as 
studies, pilot projects, data processing improvements, public 
outreach, and related tasks and functions.
    All program costs, except for Federal salaries and 
expenses, are mandatory expenditures subject to appropriation.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of such sums as 
may be necessary, estimated to be $8,687,000,000 in fiscal year 
2019 for the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Fund.

                   Commodity Credit Corporation Fund

    The Commodity Credit Corporation [CCC] is a wholly owned 
Government corporation created in 1933 to stabilize, support, 
and protect farm income and prices; to help maintain balanced 
and adequate supplies of agricultural commodities, including 
products, foods, feeds, and fibers; and to help in the orderly 
distribution of these commodities. CCC was originally 
incorporated under a Delaware charter and was reincorporated 
June 30, 1948, as a Federal corporation within the Department 
of Agriculture by the Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act, 
approved June 29, 1948 (15 U.S.C. 714).
    The Commodity Credit Corporation engages in buying, 
selling, lending, and other activities with respect to 
agricultural commodities, their products, food, feed, and 
fibers. Its purposes include stabilizing, supporting, and 
protecting farm income and prices; maintaining the balance and 
adequate supplies of selected commodities; and facilitating the 
orderly distribution of such commodities. In addition, the 
Corporation makes available materials and facilities required 
in connection with the storage and distribution of such 
commodities. The Corporation also disburses funds for sharing 
of costs with producers for the establishment of approved 
conservation practices on environmentally sensitive land and 
subsequent rental payments for such land for the duration of 
Conservation Reserve Program contracts.
    Corporation activities are primarily governed by the 
following statutes: the Commodity Credit Corporation Charter 
Act (Public Law 80-806), as amended; the Agricultural Act of 
1949 (Public Law 81-439), as amended (1949 Act); the 
Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 (Public Law 75-430), as 
amended (the 1938 Act); the Food Security Act of 1985 (Public 
Law 99-198), as amended (1985 Act); the Food, Conservation, and 
Energy Act of 2008 (Public Law 110-246); and the Agricultural 
Act of 2014 (Public Law 113-79).
    Management of the Corporation is vested in a board of 
directors, subject to the general supervision and direction of 
the Secretary of Agriculture, who is an ex officio director and 
chairman of the board. The board consists of seven members, in 
addition to the Secretary, who are appointed by the President 
of the United States with the advice and consent of the Senate. 
Officers of the Corporation are designated according to their 
positions in the Department of Agriculture.
    The activities of the Corporation are carried out mainly by 
the personnel and through the facilities of the Farm Service 
Agency [FSA] and the Farm Service Agency State and county 
committees. The Foreign Agricultural Service, the General Sales 
Manager, other agencies and offices of the Department, and 
commercial agents are also used to carry out certain aspects of 
the Corporation's activities.
    Under Public Law 87-155 (15 U.S.C. 713a-11, 713a-12), 
annual appropriations are authorized for each fiscal year, 
commencing with fiscal year 1961. These appropriations are to 
reimburse the Corporation for net realized losses.

                 REIMBURSEMENT FOR NET REALIZED LOSSES

                     (INCLUDING TRANSFERS OF FUNDS)

Appropriations, 2018.................................... $14,284,847,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................  15,410,000,000
Committee recommendation................................  15,410,000,000

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of such sums as 
may be necessary, estimated in fiscal year 2019 to be 
$15,410,000,000, for the payment to reimburse the Commodity 
Credit Corporation for net realized losses.
    CRP Wetland Restoration and Wildlife Enhancement.--The 
Committee notes that agricultural commodity crops, if left 
unharvested, may help reduce degradation of wetlands and 
improve sediment trapping, surface and ground water supply, 
erosion control, and wildlife habitat while providing winter 
food for waterfowl and other wildlife. The Committee directs 
the Commodity Credit Corporation, within 60 days of enactment, 
to amend its program policies and guidelines for CRP 
conservation practices CP23 and CP23A, to provide that current 
and future participants are permitted to plant--but not 
harvest--agricultural commodity crops as wildlife food plots on 
up to 10 percent of the enrolled land to enhance waterfowl and 
upland bird food and habitat.

                       HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT

                        (LIMITATION ON EXPENSES)

Limitation, 2018........................................      $5,000,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................       5,000,000
Committee recommendation................................       5,000,000

    The Commodity Credit Corporation's [CCC] hazardous waste 
management program is intended to ensure compliance with the 
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and 
Liability Act (42 U.S.C. 9601 et seq.) and the Resource 
Conservation and Recovery Act (42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq.). The CCC 
funds operations and maintenance costs as well as site 
investigation and cleanup expenses. Investigative and cleanup 
costs associated with the management of CCC hazardous waste are 
also paid from USDA's hazardous waste management appropriation.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends a limitation of $5,000,000 for the 
Commodity Credit Corporation's hazardous waste management 
program.

                               TITLE III

                       RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS

    The Federal Crop Insurance Reform and Department of 
Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994 (Public Law 103-354) 
abolished the Farmers Home Administration, Rural Development 
Administration, and Rural Electrification Administration and 
replaced those agencies with the Rural Housing and Community 
Development Service, (currently, the Rural Housing Service), 
Rural Business and Cooperative Development Service (currently, 
the Rural Business--Cooperative Service), and Rural Utilities 
Service and placed them under the oversight of the Under 
Secretary for Rural Economic and Community Development, 
(currently, Rural Development). These agencies deliver a 
variety of programs through a network of State and field 
offices.

                           Rural Development

                         SALARIES AND EXPENSES

                     (INCLUDING TRANSFERS OF FUNDS)

                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                  Fiscal year
                                                                 Fiscal year      2019 budget       Committee
                                                                 2018 enacted       request       recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Appropriation................................................          230,835          156,054          232,835
Transfer from:
    Rural Housing Insurance Fund Loan Program Account........          412,254          244,249          412,254
    Rural Electrification and Telecommunications Program                33,270           38,027           33,270
     Account.................................................
    Rural Development Loan Program Account...................            4,468  ...............            4,468
    Community Facilities Program Account.....................  ...............          147,591  ...............
    Distance Learning, Telemedicine and Broadband Program      ...............            8,057  ...............
     Account.................................................
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Total, Rural Development salaries and expenses.........          680,827          612,127          682,827
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    These funds are used to administer the loan and grant 
programs of the Rural Utilities Service, the Rural Housing 
Service, and the Rural Business--Cooperative Service, including 
reviewing applications, making and collecting loans and 
providing technical assistance and guidance to borrowers; and 
to assist in extending other Federal programs to people in 
rural areas.
    Under credit reform, administrative costs associated with 
loan programs are appropriated to the program accounts. 
Appropriations to the salaries and expenses account will be for 
costs associated with grant programs.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends $682,827,000 for salaries and 
expenses of Rural Development.
    Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels.--The Committee is 
concerned with the interim rule proposed by the Department 
under the Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels program 
(section 9005 of the Energy title of the farm bill, Public Law 
113-79), which is intended to promote the development of 
different qualifying advanced fuel categories. The Committee is 
concerned that the allocation formula for distribution of 
section 9005 funds among the qualified fuel categories is 
inequitable, disproportionate, and inconsistent with the 
purpose and intent of the section 9005 program. The Committee 
urges the Department to administer the section 9005 program in 
a way that is fuel and technology-neutral. Consistent with 
these objectives, the Committee directs USDA to propose 
amendments to the interim rule to ensure that any final rule to 
implement section 9005 provides for a more equitable and 
proportional allocation of funding among the qualified advanced 
biofuels and the energy pathways they represent.
    Valuing Collateral.--The Committee directs RD to provide 
technical assistance to participating lenders in valuing 
collateral, including but not limited to telecommunications 
infrastructure, for the purposes of the Rural Development loan 
guarantee programs.

                         Rural Housing Service

    The Rural Housing Service [RHS] was established under the 
Federal Crop Insurance Reform and Department of Agriculture 
Reorganization Act of 1994, dated October 13, 1994.

              RURAL HOUSING INSURANCE FUND PROGRAM ACCOUNT

                     (INCLUDING TRANSFERS OF FUNDS)

Appropriations, 2018 (budget authority).................    $483,716,000
Budget estimate, 2019 (budget authority)................     244,249,000
Committee recommendation (budget authority).............     493,945,000

    This fund was established in 1965 (Public Law 89-117) 
pursuant to section 517 of title V of the Housing Act of 1949 
(42 U.S.C. 517(d)), as amended. This fund may be used to insure 
or guarantee rural housing loans for single-family homes, 
rental and cooperative housing, farm labor housing, and rural 
housing sites. Rural housing loans are made to construct, 
improve, alter, repair, or replace dwellings and essential farm 
service buildings that are modest in size, design, and cost. 
Rental housing insured loans are made to individuals, 
corporations, associations, trusts, or partnerships to provide 
low-cost rental housing and related facilities in rural areas. 
These loans are repayable in terms up to 30 years.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $493,945,000 
for the Rural Housing Insurance Fund Program Account [RHIF].
    The Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-508) 
established the RHIF program account. Appropriations to this 
account will be used to cover the lifetime subsidy costs 
associated with the direct loans obligated and loan guarantees 
committed in 2019, as well as for administrative expenses. The 
following table presents the loan subsidy levels as compared to 
the 2018 levels and the 2019 budget request:

                                  RURAL HOUSING INSURANCE FUND PROGRAM ACCOUNT
                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                  Fiscal year
                                                                 Fiscal year      2019 budget       Committee
                                                                 2018 enacted       request       recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Loan Levels:
    Single-Family Housing (sec. 502):
        Direct...............................................        1,100,000  ...............        1,100,000
        Guaranteed...........................................       24,000,000       24,000,000       24,000,000
    Housing repair (sec. 504)................................           28,000  ...............           28,000
    Direct rental housing (sec. 515).........................           40,000  ...............           40,000
    Guaranteed rental housing (sec. 538).....................          230,000          250,000          230,000
    Site development loans (sec. 524)........................            5,000  ...............            5,000
    Credit sales of acquired property........................           10,000           10,000           10,000
    Self help land development loans (sec. 523)..............            5,000  ...............            5,000
    Farm labor housing loans (sec. 514)......................           23,855  ...............           23,855
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Total, loan levels.....................................       25,441,855       24,260,000       25,441,855
                                                              ==================================================
Loan Subsidies and Grants:
    Single-Family Housing (sec. 502):
        Direct...............................................           42,350  ...............           53,900
    Housing repair (sec. 504)................................            3,452  ...............            3,419
    Direct rental housing (sec. 515).........................           10,524  ...............            9,484
    Site development (sec. 524)..............................               58  ...............              176
    Self help land development (sec. 523)....................              368  ...............              431
    Farm labor housing loans (sec. 514)......................            6,374  ...............            5,945
    Farm labor housing grants (sec. 516).....................            8,336  ...............            8,336
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Total, loan subsidies and grants.......................           71,462  ...............           81,691
                                                              ==================================================
Administrative expenses......................................          412,254          244,249          412,254
                                                              ==================================================
      Total, loan subsidies and administrative expenses......          483,716          244,249          493,945
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Energy Efficiency.--The Committee recognizes opportunities 
to reduce costs for rural housing and save taxpayer money by 
embracing energy efficiency standards in rural housing, with 
measures such as air sealing, and installing insulation, window 
films, and roofs.
    Maturing Mortgages.--The Committee remains concerned about 
the alarming number of multi-family housing mortgages scheduled 
to mature in the next few years. As these mortgages mature, 
projects and units will be removed from USDA's affordable rural 
housing program, placing very low income rural residents in 
jeopardy of untenable rent increases and possible eviction.
    The Secretary is directed to engage affordable housing 
advocates, project owners, tenants, and others as practicable, 
to find acceptable and effective long term solutions that will 
retain projects in the affordable rural housing program.
    Rural Housing.--The Committee is concerned that Rural 
Housing Service resources do not reach minority, socially 
disadvantaged, and tribal communities in proportion to their 
rural populations. For example in fiscal year 2016, of the 
7,113 direct loans made nationally by the Rural Housing 
Service, only 12 went to American Indians or Alaska Natives on 
tribal land. The Committee believes that the use of Rural 
Housing loans or funding should support minority, socially 
disadvantaged, tribal communities, and all other eligible 
applicants, so as to ensure they have equal access to Rural 
Housing programs. The Committee directs the Secretary to work 
with tribal governments and native community development 
financial institutions (Native CDFIs) to better prepare 
American Indians or Alaska Natives applicants on tribal land. 
The Committee further directs USDA Rural Housing Service to 
report to the Committee on the distribution of loans and 
resources to these three populations no later than 90 days 
after enactment of this act.

                       RENTAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM

Appropriations, 2018....................................  $1,345,293,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................   1,331,400,000
Committee recommendation................................   1,331,400,000

    Rental assistance is authorized under section 521(a)(2) of 
the Housing Act of 1949, as amended (42 U.S.C. 1490a). The 
objective of the program is to reduce rents paid by low-income 
families living in Rural Housing Service financed rental 
projects and farm labor housing projects. Under this program, 
low-income tenants will contribute the higher of: (1) 30 
percent of monthly adjusted income; (2) 10 percent of monthly 
income; or (3) designated housing payments from a welfare 
agency.
    Payments from the fund are made to the project owner for 
the difference between the tenant's payment and the approved 
rental rate established for the unit.
    The program is administered in tandem with the Rural 
Housing Service section 515 rural rental housing program and 
the farm labor loan and grant programs. Priority is given to 
existing projects for units occupied by rent over-burdened low-
income families and projects experiencing financial 
difficulties beyond the control of the owner.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $1,331,400,000 
for the Rental Assistance Program.

          MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING REVITALIZATION PROGRAM ACCOUNT

Appropriations, 2018....................................     $47,000,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................................
Committee recommendation................................      50,000,000

    The Rural Housing Voucher Program was authorized under the 
Housing Act of 1949 (42 U.S.C. 1940r) to assist very low income 
families and individuals who reside in rental housing in rural 
areas. Housing vouchers may be provided to residents of rental 
housing projects financed by section 515 loans that have been 
prepaid after September 30, 2005. Voucher amounts reflect the 
difference between comparable market rents and tenant-paid rent 
prior to loan prepayment. Vouchers allow tenants to remain in 
existing projects or move to other rental housing.
    The Multi-family Housing Revitalization Program includes 
funding for housing vouchers and a demonstration program for 
the preservation and revitalization of affordable multi-family 
housing projects. Rural Development's multi-family housing 
portfolio faces dual pressures for loan prepayments and repair/
rehabilitation stemming from inadequate reserves resulting in 
deferred property maintenance.
    Provision of affordable rental housing can be accomplished 
more economically by revitalizing existing housing stock rather 
than funding new construction. The Multi-family Housing 
Revitalization Program includes revitalization tools for 
maintenance of existing units and vouchers to protect tenants 
in those projects that prepay. Flexibility is provided to allow 
Rural Development to utilize funding to meet the most urgent 
local needs for tenant protection and project revitalization.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $50,000,000 
for the Multi-family Housing Revitalization Program, including 
$26,000,000 for vouchers and $24,000,000 for a housing 
preservation demonstration program.
    Multi-Family Housing Preservation.--The Committee directs 
the Secretary to provide a report within 120 days of enactment 
of this Act to estimate the cost of providing rural housing 
vouchers to all low income households currently receiving USDA 
rental assistance and residing in a property financed with a 
Section 515 loan that are set to mature in the subsequent 
fiscal year and subsequent ten fiscal years. In addition, the 
Secretary is directed to provide quarterly reports to the 
Committee on transfers between vouchers and the housing 
preservation demonstration program within the Multi-Family 
Housing Revitalization Program Account.

                  MUTUAL AND SELF-HELP HOUSING GRANTS

Appropriations, 2018....................................     $30,000,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................................
Committee recommendation................................      30,000,000

    The Mutual and Self-Help Housing Grants Program is 
authorized by title V of the Housing Act of 1949. Grants are 
made to local organizations to promote the development of 
mutual or self-help programs under which groups of usually 6 to 
10 families build their own homes by mutually exchanging labor. 
Funds may be used to pay the cost of construction supervisors 
who work with families in the construction of their homes and 
for administrative expenses of the organizations providing the 
self-help assistance.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $30,000,000 
for Mutual and Self-Help Housing Grants.

                    RURAL HOUSING ASSISTANCE GRANTS

Appropriations, 2018....................................     $40,000,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................................
Committee recommendation................................      40,000,000

    The Rural Housing Assistance Grants Program consolidates 
funding for rural housing grant programs. This consolidation of 
housing grant funding provides greater flexibility to tailor 
financial assistance to applicant needs.
    Very Low-Income Housing Repair Grants.--The Very Low-Income 
Housing Repair Grants Program is authorized under section 504 
of title V of the Housing Act of 1949. The rural housing repair 
grant program is carried out by making grants to very low-
income families to make necessary repairs to their homes in 
order to make such dwellings safe and sanitary, and remove 
hazards to the health of the occupants, their families, or the 
community.
    These grants may be made to cover the cost of improvements 
or additions, such as repairing roofs, providing toilet 
facilities, providing a convenient and sanitary water supply, 
supplying screens, repairing or providing structural supports 
or making similar repairs, additions, or improvements, 
including all preliminary and installation costs in obtaining 
central water and sewer service. A grant can be made in 
combination with a section 504 very low-income housing repair 
loan.
    No assistance can be extended to any one individual in the 
form of a loan, grant, or combined loans and grants in excess 
of $27,500, and grant assistance is limited to persons, or 
families headed by persons who are 62 years of age or older.
    Supervisory and Technical Assistance Grants.--Supervisory 
and technical assistance grants are made to public and private 
nonprofit organizations for packaging loan applications for 
housing assistance under sections 502, 504, 514/516, 515, and 
533 of the Housing Act of 1949. The assistance is directed to 
very low-income families in underserved areas where at least 20 
percent of the population is below the poverty level and at 
least 10 percent or more of the population resides in 
substandard housing. In fiscal year 1994 a Homebuyer Education 
Program was implemented under this authority. This program 
provides low-income individuals and families education and 
counseling on obtaining and/or maintaining occupancy of 
adequate housing and supervised credit assistance to become 
successful homeowners.
    Compensation for Construction Defects.--Compensation for 
construction defects provides funds for grants to eligible 
section 502 borrowers to correct structural defects, or to pay 
claims of owners arising from such defects on a newly 
constructed dwelling purchased with RHS financial assistance. 
Claims are not paid until provisions under the builder's 
warranty have been fully pursued. Requests for compensation for 
construction defects must be made by the owner of the property 
within 18 months after the date financial assistance was 
granted.
    Rural Housing Preservation Grants.--Rural housing 
preservation grants (section 533) of the Housing and Urban-
Rural Recovery Act of 1983 (42 U.S.C. 1490m) authorizes the 
Rural Housing Service to administer a program of home repair 
directed at low- and very low-income people.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $40,000,000 
for the Rural Housing Assistance Grants Program.
    The following table compares the grant program levels 
recommended by the Committee to the fiscal year 2018 levels and 
the budget request:

                                         RURAL HOUSING ASSISTANCE GRANTS
                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                  Fiscal year
                                                                 Fiscal year      2019 budget       Committee
                                                                 2018 enacted       request       recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Very low-income housing repair grants........................           30,000  ...............           30,000
Housing preservation grants..................................           10,000  ...............           10,000
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Total..................................................           40,000  ...............           40,000
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The Committee recommends that the Rural Housing Service 
prioritize funding for communities with unique weather patterns 
in need of replacing antiquated heating systems with more 
efficient technologies.

               Rural Community Facilities Program Account


                     (including transfers of funds)

Appropriations, 2018....................................     $48,627,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................................
Committee recommendation................................      52,063,000

    Community facility loans were created by the Rural 
Development Act of 1972 (7 U.S.C. 1926 et seq.) to finance a 
variety of rural community facilities. Loans are made to 
organizations, including certain Indian tribes and corporations 
not operated for profit and public and quasi-public agencies, 
to construct, enlarge, extend, or otherwise improve community 
facilities providing essential services to rural residents. 
Such facilities include those providing or supporting overall 
community development, such as fire and rescue services, 
healthcare, transportation, traffic control, and community, 
social, cultural, and recreational benefits. Loans are made for 
facilities which primarily serve rural residents of open 
country and rural towns and villages of not more than 20,000 
people. Healthcare, fire and rescue facilities, and educational 
facilities are the priorities of the program and receive the 
majority of available funds.
    The Community Facility Grant Program authorized in the 
Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (Public 
Law 104-127), is used in conjunction with the existing direct 
and guaranteed loan programs for the development of community 
facilities, such as hospitals, fire stations, and community 
centers. Grants are targeted to the lowest income communities. 
Communities that have lower population and income levels 
receive a higher cost-share contribution through these grants, 
to a maximum contribution of 75 percent of the cost of 
developing the facility.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $52,063,000 
for the Rural Community Facilities Program Account.
    The following table provides the Committee's 
recommendations, as compared to the fiscal year 2018 and budget 
request levels:

                                   RURAL COMMUNITY FACILITIES PROGRAM ACCOUNT
                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                  Fiscal year
                                                                 Fiscal year      2019 budget       Committee
                                                                 2018 enacted       request       recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Loan levels:
    Community facilities direct loans........................        2,800,000        3,500,000        3,000,000
    Community facilities guaranteed loans....................          148,287  ...............          148,287
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Total loan levels......................................        2,948,287        3,500,000        3,148,287
                                                              ==================================================
Budget authority:
    Community facilities guaranteed loans....................            4,849  ...............            4,285
    Community facilities grants..............................           30,000  ...............           32,000
    Economic initiative grants...............................            5,778  ...............            5,778
    Rural community development initiative...................            4,000  ...............            6,000
    Tribal college grants....................................            4,000  ...............            4,000
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Total budget authority.................................           48,627  ...............           52,063
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Community Facilities Program Priorities.--The Secretary is 
encouraged to prioritize Community Facilities program awards to 
applications that develop facilities to provide prevention, 
treatment, or recovery services for substance abuse disorder 
and for rural communities facing severe wildfire risk.

                  Rural Business--Cooperative Service

    The Rural Business--Cooperative Service [RBS] was 
established by Public Law 103-354, Federal Crop Insurance 
Reform and Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 
1994, dated October 13, 1994. Its programs were previously 
administered by the Rural Development Administration, the Rural 
Electrification Administration, and the Agricultural 
Cooperative Service.

                     RURAL BUSINESS PROGRAM ACCOUNT

                     (INCLUDING TRANSFERS OF FUNDS)

Appropriations, 2018....................................     $77,342,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................................
Committee recommendation................................      69,619,000

    The Rural Business and Industry Loan Program was created by 
the Rural Development Act of 1972, and finances a variety of 
rural industrial development loans. Loans are made for rural 
industrialization and rural community facilities under Rural 
Development Act amendments to the Consolidated Farm and Rural 
Development Act (7 U.S.C. 1932 et seq.) authorities. Business 
and industrial loans are made to public, private, or 
cooperative organizations organized for profit, to certain 
Indian tribes, or to individuals for the purpose of improving, 
developing or financing business, industry, and employment or 
improving the economic and environmental climate in rural 
areas. Such purposes include financing business and industrial 
acquisition, construction, enlargement, repair or 
modernization, financing the purchase and development of land, 
easements, rights-of-way, buildings, payment of startup costs, 
and supplying working capital.
    Rural business development grants were authorized by the 
Agricultural Act of 2014 and can be made to governmental and 
nonprofit entities, and Indian tribes. Up to 10 percent of 
appropriated funds may be used to: identify and analyze 
business opportunities; identify, train, and provide technical 
assistance to existing or prospective rural entrepreneurs and 
managers; assist in the establishment of new rural businesses 
and the maintenance of existing businesses; conduct economic 
development planning, coordination and leadership development; 
and establish centers for training, technology, and trade. The 
balance of appropriated funding may be used for projects that 
support the development of business enterprises that finance or 
facilitate: the development of small and emerging private 
business enterprise; the establishment, expansion, and 
operation of rural distance learning networks; the development 
of rural learning programs; and the provision of technical 
assistance and training to rural communities for the purpose of 
improving passenger transportation.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $69,619,000 
for the Rural Business Program Account.
    The following table provides the Committee's 
recommendations, as compared to the fiscal year 2018 and budget 
request levels:

                                         RURAL BUSINESS PROGRAM ACCOUNT
                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                  Fiscal year
                                                                 Fiscal year      2019 budget       Committee
                                                                 2018 enacted       request       recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Loan levels:
    Business and industry guaranteed loans loan levels.......          919,765  ...............          919,765
Budget authority:
    Business and industry guaranteed loans...................           37,342  ...............           21,339
    Rural business development grants........................           34,000  ...............           40,280
    DRA, NBRC, and ARC.......................................            6,000  ...............            8,000
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Total budget authority.................................           77,342  ...............           69,619
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Regional Food Hubs.--The Committee encourages USDA to 
partner with States and other interested partners to build and 
refurbish food hub and food distribution centers that serve 
rural farmers but are located in urban areas through programs 
like the Business and Industry guaranteed loan program.
    Rural Business Development Grants.--Rural coastal economies 
have often been economically disadvantaged by the loss of 
natural resource-related jobs and have been the first rural 
communities to feel the negative effects of a changing climate. 
As these rural coastal communities continue to have 
agriculture-related economic opportunity such as value-added 
seafood processing as well as new opportunities, the use of 
Rural Business Development grants may be prioritized in rural 
coastal communities to support innovation and job growth within 
all sectors, including for related infrastructure. Particular 
priority should be given in the case of public-private 
partnerships and cross-jurisdictional efforts.
    Rural Business Program Account.--The Committee recommends 
$500,000 for transportation technical assistance.
    The Committee directs that of the $4,000,000 recommended 
for grants to benefit Federally Recognized Native American 
Tribes, $250,000 shall be used to implement an American Indian 
and Alaska Native passenger transportation development and 
assistance initiative.

              INTERMEDIARY RELENDING PROGRAM FUND ACCOUNT

                     (INCLUDING TRANSFER OF FUNDS)

                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            Fiscal year 2018  Fiscal year 2019      Committee
                                                                 enacted       budget request    recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Estimated loan level......................................            18,889  ................            18,889
Direct loan subsidy.......................................             4,361  ................             4,157
Administrative expenses...................................             4,468  ................             4,468
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
      Total, loan subsidies and administrative expenses...             8,829  ................             8,625
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The rural development intermediary relending loan program 
was originally authorized by the Economic Opportunity Act of 
1964 (Public Law 88-452). The making of rural development loans 
by the Department of Agriculture was reauthorized by Public Law 
113-79, the Agricultural Act of 2014.
    Loans are made to intermediary borrowers (small investment 
groups) who in turn will reloan the funds to rural businesses, 
community development corporations, private nonprofit 
organizations, public agencies, et cetera, for the purpose of 
improving business, industry, community facilities, and 
employment opportunities and diversification of the economy in 
rural areas.
    The Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990 established the 
program account. Appropriations to this account will be used to 
cover the lifetime subsidy costs associated with the direct 
loans obligated in 2019, as well as for administrative 
expenses.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $8,625,000 for 
the Intermediary Relending Program Fund.

            RURAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT LOANS PROGRAM ACCOUNT

                        [In thousands of dollars]
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                          Estimated loan
                                                              level
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Fiscal year 2018 level.................................           45,000
Fiscal year 2019 request...............................  ...............
Committee recommendation...............................           45,000
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The Rural Economic Development Loans program was 
established by the Reconciliation Act of December 1987 (Public 
Law 100-203), which amended the Rural Electrification Act of 
1936 (Act of May 20, 1936), by establishing a new section 313. 
This section of the Rural Electrification Act (7 U.S.C. 901) 
established a cushion of credit payment program and created the 
rural economic development subaccount. The Administrator of RUS 
is authorized under the Act to utilize funds in this program to 
provide zero interest loans to electric and telecommunications 
borrowers for the purpose of promoting rural economic 
development and job creation projects, including funding for 
feasibility studies, startup costs, and other reasonable 
expenses for the purpose of fostering rural economic 
development.

                        COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATION

    The Committee recommends a loan program level of 
$45,000,000, to be funded from earnings on the Cushion of 
Credit and fees on guaranteed underwriting loans made pursuant 
to section 313A of the Rural Electrification Act of 1936.

                  RURAL COOPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT GRANTS

Appropriations, 2018....................................     $27,550,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................................
Committee recommendation................................      30,050,000

    Rural cooperative development grants are authorized under 
section 310B(e) of the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development 
Act, as amended. Grants are made to fund the establishment and 
operation of centers for rural cooperative development with 
their primary purpose being the improvement of economic 
conditions in rural areas. Grants may be made to nonprofit 
institutions or institutions of higher education. Grants may be 
used to pay up to 75 percent of the cost of the project and 
associated administrative costs. The applicant must contribute 
at least 25 percent from non-Federal sources, except 1994 
institutions, which only need to provide 5 percent. Grants are 
competitive and are awarded based on specific selection 
criteria.
    Cooperative research agreements are authorized by 7 U.S.C. 
2204b. The funds are used for cooperative research agreements, 
primarily with colleges and universities, on critical 
operational, organizational, and structural issues facing 
cooperatives.
    Cooperative agreements are authorized under 7 U.S.C. 2201 
to any qualified State departments of agriculture, university, 
and other State entity to conduct research that will strengthen 
and enhance the operations of agricultural marketing 
cooperatives in rural areas.
    The Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Areas [ATTRA] 
program was first authorized by the Food Security Act of 1985. 
The program provides information and technical assistance to 
agricultural producers to adopt sustainable agricultural 
practices that are environmentally friendly and lower 
production costs.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $30,050,000 
for Rural Cooperative Development Grants.
    Of the funds recommended, $3,750,000 is for the Appropriate 
Technology Transfer for Rural Areas program, with $500,000 to 
be used for veterans' training in agriculture.
    The Committee has included language in the bill that not 
more than $3,000,000 shall be made available to cooperatives or 
associations of cooperatives whose primary focus is to provide 
assistance to small, minority producers.
    Value Added.--The Committee recommends $17,500,000 for 
value-added agricultural product market development grants. Of 
this amount, the Secretary is directed to make $2,500,000 for 
Agriculture Innovation Center funding available as grants to 
States authorized to host, and that have previously hosted a 
USDA Agriculture Innovation Center and where the State 
continues to demonstrate support, and provide non-Federal grant 
funding to producers developing, producing, and marketing 
value-added agricultural and food products.

                    RURAL ENERGY FOR AMERICA PROGRAM

Appropriations, 2018....................................        $293,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................................
Committee recommendation................................         338,000

    The Rural Energy for America Program is authorized under 
section 9007 of the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 
2002 (7 U.S.C. 8107). This program may fund energy audits, 
direct loans, loan guarantees, and grants to farmers, ranchers, 
and small rural businesses for the purchase of renewable energy 
systems and for energy efficiency improvements.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $338,000 for 
the Rural Energy for America Program.
    The following table provides the Committee's recommendation 
as compared to the fiscal year 2018 and budget request levels:

                                        RURAL ENERGY FOR AMERICA PROGRAM
                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                    Fiscal year
                                                                    Fiscal year     2019 budget      Committee
                                                                   2018 enacted       request     recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Estimated loan level............................................           7,576  ..............           7,576
Guaranteed loan subsidy.........................................             293  ..............             338
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Biogas System Development.--The Secretary is encouraged, in 
coordination with other Federal agencies, to support biogas 
system development with financial and technical assistance 
through existing energy programs, and to prioritize the 
collection and analysis of related environmental, technical, 
and economic performance data.
    Energy Efficiency Coordination.--The Committee directs 
increased coordination and cooperation among USDA agencies and 
offices to better utilize the energy efficiency and renewable 
energy programs available through the Rural Energy for America 
program. Additionally, no later than 120 days after enactment 
of this Act, USDA is directed to submit a report to the 
Committee detailing how the agencies make information about its 
energy programs accessible to rural communities and how funds 
are being leveraged for energy efficiency investments in rural 
areas.
    Energy Storage Technologies.--The Secretary is directed to 
clarify that energy storage technologies are eligible for Rural 
Energy for America program funding.

                        Rural Utilities Service

    The Rural Utilities Service [RUS] was established under the 
Federal Crop Insurance Reform and Department of Agriculture 
Reorganization Act of 1994 (Public Law 103-354), October 13, 
1994. RUS administers the electric and telephone programs of 
the former Rural Electrification Administration and the water 
and waste programs of the former Rural Development 
Administration.

             RURAL WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAM ACCOUNT

                     (INCLUDING TRANSFERS OF FUNDS)

Appropriations, 2018....................................    $560,263,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................................
Committee recommendation................................     558,183,000

    The water and waste disposal program is authorized by 
sections 306, 306A, 309A, 306C, 306D, 306E, and 310B of the 
Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act (7 U.S.C. 1921 et 
seq., as amended). This program makes loans for water and waste 
development costs. Development loans are made to associations, 
including corporations operating on a nonprofit basis, 
municipalities and similar organizations, generally designated 
as public or quasi-public agencies, that propose projects for 
the development, storage, treatment, purification, and 
distribution of domestic water or the collection, treatment, or 
disposal of waste in rural areas. Such grants may not exceed 75 
percent of the development cost of the projects and can 
supplement other funds borrowed or furnished by applicants to 
pay development costs.
    The solid waste grant program is authorized under section 
310B(b) of the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act. 
Grants are made to public bodies and private nonprofit 
organizations to provide technical assistance to local and 
regional governments for the purpose of reducing or eliminating 
pollution of water resources and for improving the planning and 
management of solid waste disposal facilities.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $558,183,000 
for the Rural Water and Waste Disposal Program Account.
    The Committee recommends $68,000,000 for water and waste 
disposal systems grants for Native Americans, including Native 
Alaskans, and the Colonias. The Committee recognizes the 
special needs and problems for delivery of basic services to 
these populations, and encourages the Secretary to distribute 
these funds in line with the fiscal year 2014 distribution, to 
the degree practicable. In addition, the Committee makes up to 
$19,000,000 available for the circuit rider program.
    The Committee is concerned about raw sewage discharge in 
some rural communities in the mid-south, particularly 
historically impoverished communities that have had difficulty 
utilizing Rural Development programs. The Committee is aware of 
the unique challenges faced by these communities and directs 
the Department to develop a pilot program to coordinate with a 
regional university to solve untreated raw sewage issues with 
innovative technologies and strategic management and regulatory 
models. The pilot should address rural wastewater management 
including: county needs assessments, testing wastewater 
options, defining funding mechanisms for remediation and 
developing regulatory guidance.
    The following table provides the Committee's 
recommendations, as compared to the fiscal year 2018 and budget 
request levels:

                                 RURAL WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAM ACCOUNT
                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            Fiscal year 2018  Fiscal year 2019      Committee
                                                                 enacted       budget request    recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Loan levels:
    Water and waste disposal direct loans.................         1,200,000         1,200,000         1,200,000
    Water and waste disposal guaranteed loans.............            50,000  ................            50,000
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
      Total loan levels...................................         1,250,000         1,200,000         1,250,000
                                                           =====================================================
Budget authority:
    Water and waste disposal direct loans.................             2,040  ................  ................
    Water and waste disposal guaranteed loans.............               230  ................               190
    Water and waste disposal grants.......................           400,000  ................           400,000
    Solid waste management grants.........................             4,000  ................             4,000
    Water well systems grants.............................               993  ................               993
    Colonias, AK and Native American grants...............            68,000  ................            68,000
    Water and waste water revolving funds.................             1,000  ................             1,000
    High energy cost grants...............................            10,000  ................            10,000
    Circuit rider.........................................            19,000  ................            19,000
    Emergency community water assistance grants...........            15,000  ................            15,000
    Technical assistance grants...........................            40,000  ................            40,000
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
      Total, budget authority.............................           560,263  ................           558,183
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

   RURAL ELECTRIFICATION AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS LOANS PROGRAM ACCOUNT

                     (INCLUDING TRANSFERS OF FUNDS)

    The Rural Electrification Act of 1936 (7 U.S.C. 901 et 
seq.) provides the statutory authority for the electric and 
telecommunications programs.
    The Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-508) 
established the program account. An appropriation to this 
account will be used to cover the lifetime subsidy costs 
associated with the direct loans obligated and loan guarantees 
committed in fiscal year 2019, as well as for administrative 
expenses.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The following table reflects the Committee's recommendation 
for the Rural Electrification and Telecommunications Loans 
Program Account, the loan subsidy and administrative expenses, 
as compared to the fiscal year 2018 and budget request levels:

                       RURAL ELECTRIFICATION AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS LOANS PROGRAM ACCOUNT
                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                  Fiscal year
                                                                 Fiscal year      2019 budget       Committee
                                                                 2018 enacted       request       recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Loan authorizations:
    Electric:
        Direct FFB...........................................        5,500,000        5,500,000        5,500,000
        Guaranteed underwriting..............................          750,000  ...............          750,000
    Telecommunications:
        Direct, Treasury Rate................................          345,000          172,600          345,000
        Direct, FFB..........................................          345,000          517,400          345,000
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Total loan authorization...............................        6,940,000        6,190,000        6,940,000
                                                              ==================================================
      Total budget authority.................................              863              863            1,725
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Cyber and Electric Grid Security.--The Secretary is 
encouraged to prioritize Rural Utilities Service electric 
program loan awards for cyber and electric grid security 
improvements.
    Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program 
Oversight.--The Committee is concerned that the Energy 
Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program does not yet have 
performance measures in place, as highlighted by a 2016 
Inspector General report. The Committee directs USDA to 
institute such measures prior to awarding any additional 
funding through the program, or no later than 180 days from 
enactment of this Act.

                             DISTANCE LEARNING, TELEMEDICINE, AND BROADBAND PROGRAM
                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                  Fiscal year
                                                                 Fiscal year      2019 budget       Committee
                                                                 2018 enacted       request       recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Loan and grant levels:
    Distance learning and Telemedicine Program:
        Grants...............................................           32,000           23,600           33,000
Broadband program:
    Treasury rate loans......................................           29,851           23,149           29,851
    Treasury rate loans budget authority.....................            5,000            4,521            5,830
    Grants...................................................           30,000           30,000           30,000
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Total DLT and Broadband Program level..................           91,851           76,749           92,851
                                                              ==================================================
      Total DLT and Broadband Budget authority...............           67,000           58,121           68,830
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    The Distance Learning, Telemedicine, and Broadband Program 
is authorized by the Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade 
Act of 1990 (7 U.S.C. 950aaa et seq.), as amended by the 
Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (Public 
Law 104-127). This program provides incentives to improve the 
quality of phone services, to provide access to advanced 
telecommunications services and computer networks, and to 
improve rural opportunities.
    This program provides the facilities and equipment to link 
rural education and medical facilities with more urban centers 
and other facilities providing rural residents access to better 
healthcare through technology and increasing educational 
opportunities for rural students. These funds are available for 
loans and grants.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $68,830,000 
for the Distance Learning, Telemedicine, and Broadband Program. 
Funds recommended for the RUS broadband program are intended to 
promote broadband availability in those areas where there is 
not otherwise a business case for private investment in a 
broadband network. The Committee encourages RUS to focus 
expenditures on projects that bring broadband service to 
currently unserved households.
    The Committee recommendation includes $3,000,000 to address 
critical healthcare needs, as authorized by section 379G of the 
Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act.
    Broadband Grants.--Of the funds recommended, $30,000,000 in 
grants shall be made available to support broadband 
transmission for rural areas.
    Broadband Infrastructure.--The Committee recognizes the 
importance of access to high speed broadband to promote job 
creation and income generation in remote rural areas. For these 
reasons, a broadband infrastructure initiative was begun in 
fiscal year 2018. The Committee recommendation provides 
additional funding for this initiative, and encourages the 
Department to implement the pilot program as promptly as is 
feasible. The Committee notes that it is the policy of RUS to 
avoid duplication of efforts when financing telecommunications 
infrastructure via its programs; however, the Committee is 
concerned that this policy does not extend to the deployment of 
broadband-capable infrastructure. In order to prevent 
duplication of services, the Committee directs RUS to implement 
operational changes and report back to the Committee on 
administrative efforts to eliminate duplicative or over 
building of broadband technology.
    Determination of Sufficient Access to Broadband.--This 
Committee has provided substantial funding to extend high speed 
broadband access to remote rural areas. The Secretary was 
directed to reevaluate, on an annual basis, the criteria for 
broadband sufficient access. The Secretary is encouraged to 
coordinate with the Federal Communications Commission and other 
relevant Federal entities when making determinations of 
sufficient access, to ensure the most accurate and up-to-date 
broadband coverage data are used, while being cognizant of 
potential problems of overbuilding.
    Locating Existing Infrastructure.--The Secretary is 
encouraged to utilize appropriate grant program funds to locate 
buried, antiquated infrastructure facilities prior to 
construction of new utilities infrastructure financed by the 
Rural Utilities Service.
    Multi-Strand Fiber Optic Cable.--The Committee recommends 
that, within these funds, the Secretary explore a pilot grant 
program to demonstrate the use of multi-strand fiber optic 
cable that exist as part of electrical transmission 
infrastructure to provide state-of-the-art broadband services 
to currently underserved rural schools and medical centers 
within a mile of the existing cable.
    RUS Grants and Loans for Open Access Infrastructure 
Projects.--The Committee is aware that public entities have 
invested in open access fiber infrastructure that is 
facilitating the delivery of high-speed broadband services by 
licensed telecommunications providers, including the model 
pioneered by public port authorities. The Committee understands 
that while particular open access fiber projects may be 
eligible for RUS grants and loans, more generally, there exist 
significant barriers to government backing for these types of 
open access investments. The Committee believes RUS programs 
should support financially-feasible open access infrastructure 
projects that meet program goals. The Committee urges RUS to 
ensure the agency's criteria and application processes provide 
for fair consideration of open access projects by accounting 
for the unique structures and opportunities such projects 
present in advancing broadband deployment in unserved and 
underserved communities.

                                TITLE IV

                         DOMESTIC FOOD PROGRAMS

    Office of the Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer 
                                Services

Appropriations, 2018....................................        $800,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................         800,000
Committee recommendation................................         800,000

    The Office of the Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition and 
Consumer Services provides direction and coordination in 
carrying out the laws enacted by the Congress with respect to 
the Department's nutrition assistance activities. The Office 
has oversight and management responsibilities for the Food and 
Nutrition Service.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $800,000 for 
the Office of the Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition and 
Consumer Services.
    Food Security in Frontier Communities.--The Committee 
appreciates the intent of the Food and Nutrition Service to 
focus on implementing locally-designed initiatives to increase 
food security in frontier communities within its area of 
responsibility. Helping these communities to adapt to changing 
growing conditions and subsistence food availability and to 
develop the capacity to grow more food locally will improve 
their tenuous food security and provide opportunities for 
economic development in extremely low-income regions. The 
Committee therefore strongly encourages the Food and Nutrition 
Service to finalize plans to work with relevant stakeholders to 
develop and implement the plans that were initiated in the past 
year.
    Nutrition Program Efficiency.--The Committee encourages the 
Secretary to focus process and technology improvement grants 
within the Food and Nutrition Service [FNS] to expand public-
private partnerships to increase food security in a cost-
efficient and accountable manner.

                       Food and Nutrition Service

    The Food and Nutrition Service represents an organizational 
effort to eliminate hunger and malnutrition in this country. 
Nutrition assistance programs provide access to a nutritionally 
adequate diet for families and persons with low incomes and 
encourage better eating patterns among the Nation's children. 
These programs include:
    Child Nutrition Programs.--The National School Lunch and 
School Breakfast, Summer Food Service, and Child and Adult Care 
Food programs provide funding to the States, Puerto Rico, the 
Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and Guam for use in serving 
nutritious lunches and breakfasts to children attending schools 
of high school grades and under, to children of preschool age 
in child care centers, and to children in other institutions in 
order to improve the health and well-being of the Nation's 
children, and broaden the markets for agricultural food 
commodities. Through the Special Milk Program, assistance is 
provided to the States for making reimbursement payments to 
eligible schools and child care institutions which institute or 
expand milk service in order to increase the consumption of 
fluid milk by children. Funds for this program are provided by 
direct appropriation and transfer from section 32.
    Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, 
and Children [WIC].--This program safeguards the health of 
pregnant, postpartum, and breast-feeding women, infants, and 
children up to age 5 who are at nutritional risk because of 
inadequate nutrition and income by providing supplemental 
foods. The delivery of supplemental foods may be done through 
health clinics, vouchers redeemable at retail food stores, or 
other approved methods which a cooperating State health agency 
may select. Funds for this program are provided by direct 
appropriation.
    Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.--This program 
seeks to improve nutritional standards of needy persons and 
families. Assistance is provided to eligible households to 
enable them to obtain a better diet by increasing their food 
purchasing capability, usually by furnishing benefits in the 
form of electronic access to funds. The program also includes 
Nutrition Assistance to Puerto Rico.
    The program also includes the Food Distribution Program on 
Indian Reservations, which provides nutritious agricultural 
commodities to low-income persons living on or near Indian 
reservations who choose not to participate in the Supplemental 
Nutrition Assistance Program.
    Commodity Assistance Program [CAP].--This program provides 
funding for the Commodity Supplemental Food Program [CSFP], the 
Farmers' Market Nutrition Program, Disaster Assistance, Pacific 
Island Assistance, and administrative expenses for TEFAP.
    CSFP provides supplemental foods to low-income elderly 
persons age 60 and over.
    TEFAP provides commodities and grant funds to State 
agencies to assist in the cost of storage and distribution of 
donated commodities.
    Nutritious agricultural commodities are provided to 
residents of the Federated States of Micronesia and the 
Marshall Islands. Cash assistance is provided to distributing 
agencies to assist them in meeting administrative expenses 
incurred. It also provides funding for use in non-
presidentially declared disasters, and for FNS' administrative 
costs in connection with relief for all disasters. Funds for 
this program are provided by direct appropriation.
    Nutrition Programs Administration.--Most salaries and 
Federal operating expenses of the Food and Nutrition Service 
are funded from this account. Also included is the Center for 
Nutrition Policy and Promotion [CNPP] which oversees 
improvements in and revisions to the food guidance systems, and 
serves as the focal point for advancing and coordinating 
nutrition promotion and education policy to improve the health 
of all Americans.

                        CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS

                     (INCLUDING TRANSFERS OF FUNDS)

Appropriations, 2018.................................... $24,254,139,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................  23,146,940,000
Committee recommendation................................  23,184,012,000

    The Child Nutrition Programs, authorized by the Richard B. 
Russell National School Lunch Act (Public Law 79-396) and the 
Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (Public Law 89-642), provide 
Federal assistance to State agencies in the form of cash and 
commodities for use in preparing and serving nutritious meals 
to children while they are attending school, residing in 
service institutions, or participating in other organized 
activities away from home. The purpose of these programs is to 
help maintain the health and proper physical development of 
America's children. Milk is provided to children either free or 
at a low cost, depending on their family income level. FNS 
provides cash subsidies to States for administering the 
programs and directly administers the program in the States 
which choose not to do so. Grants are also made for nutritional 
training and surveys and for State administrative expenses. 
Under current law, most of these payments are made on the basis 
of reimbursement rates established by law and applied to 
lunches and breakfasts actually served by the States. The 
reimbursement rates are adjusted annually to reflect changes in 
the Consumer Price Index for food away from home.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends $23,184,012,000 for the Child 
Nutrition Programs.
    Administrative Reviews.--The Committee understands the 
importance of the formal administrative reviews state agencies 
conduct as required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act. 
However, the Committee encourages the Secretary to return to 
the 5-year inspection cycle for schools that consistently 
comply with Federal standards to allow state agencies more 
flexibility in performing their oversight and on-sight 
technical assistance roles. High-risk schools that do not 
consistently comply with Federal regulations should continue to 
be reviewed on a more frequent basis. The Committee also 
encourages FNS to assist state agencies in collaborating with 
one another when identifying risk factors to ensure that the 
administrative review process is effective and consistent 
nationwide.
    Buy American.--The Committee remains supportive of existing 
laws requiring school food authorities to purchase domestic 
commodities or products to serve in school meal programs. The 
Committee recognizes that despite this statutory requirement, 
there has been an alarming increase of foreign products served 
in our schools. The Committee encourages the Secretary to fully 
define and enforce all applicable Buy American provisions 
within the Secretary's jurisdiction. Further, the Secretary 
shall report on all actions taken to comply with this directive 
within 180 days of enactment of this Act.
    Farm to School Program.--Successful implementation of Farm 
to School programs requires broad-based knowledge of best 
practices regarding coordination among farmers, processors, 
distributers, students, teachers, dietary and food preparation 
staff, and USDA professionals. Of the grant funds provided, the 
Committee directs the Secretary to use at least $150,000 to 
coordinate with established entities, such as regional Farm to 
School institutes, for the creation and dissemination of 
information on farm to school program development, and to 
provide practitioner education and training, and ongoing school 
year coaching and technical assistance.
    Innovation in School Meals.--The Committee is aware that 
there are many new, innovative, and healthy products available 
that meet the National School Lunch Program and School 
Breakfast Program nutrition standards. The Committee is 
concerned about FNS' interpretation of current policies that 
does not allow schools to get credit for serving any such 
product unless it visibly represents the food component in its 
natural or recognizable form. The Committee encourages the 
Secretary to allow innovative food products made from fruits, 
vegetables, or legumes that meet nutrition standards for school 
feeding programs. The Committee understands that many of these 
foods are already in the retail market and encourages FNS to 
educate children about the many ways these nutritious foods can 
be served and enjoyed.
    Pulse Crops.--The Committee recognizes the nutritional 
value of pulse crops for children and encourages FNS to support 
school food authorities in sourcing and serving pulse crops.
    Summer Food Service Program.--The Committee recognizes that 
in many rural and frontier areas of the country where homes are 
widely scattered, children and youth are unable to access 
congregate feeding sites that participate in the Summer Food 
Service Program and that existing mobile food delivery efforts 
are not able to meet the need. The Committee supports the Food 
and Nutrition Service allowing State Agencies to enable Summer 
Food Service Program service institutions that serve such areas 
where eligible children and youth have barriers to access or 
limited access to a congregate feeding site to use their 
customary reimbursement payments to develop and implement 
innovative methods to deliver or otherwise make available foods 
to eligible children and youth by non-congregate means or in 
non-congregate settings. In addition, the Committee requests 
USDA submit a report within 1 year of enactment describing how 
many Summer Food Service Program grantees, in which states, put 
in place innovative methods of food delivery by non-congregate 
means and in non-congregate settings, what innovative methods 
were used, and how many additional youth were served as a 
result.
    Vegetables in the School Breakfast Program.--Current 
regulations regarding the substitution of starchy and non-
starchy vegetables for fruit in the School Breakfast Program 
are creating undue burdens for school food authorities. To 
encourage vegetable consumption at breakfast, the Committee 
encourages FNS to allow any variety of vegetable to be 
substituted for fruit in the School Breakfast Program.
    Whole Grain Waivers.--The Committee encourages FNS to 
simplify the process for School Food Authorities applying for a 
whole grain waiver to make the process faster and more user-
friendly.
    The Committee's recommendation provides for the following 
annual rates for the child nutrition programs.

                      TOTAL OBLIGATIONAL AUTHORITY
                        [In thousands of dollars]
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                          Fiscal year
       Child nutrition programs           2019 budget       Committee
                                            request       recommendation
------------------------------------------------------------------------
School Lunch Program..................       11,713,000       11,713,000
School Breakfast Program..............        5,081,770        5,081,770
Child and Adult Care Food Program.....        3,933,393        3,933,393
Summer Food Service Program...........          519,461          519,461
Special Milk Program..................            8,777            8,777
State Administrative Expenses.........          302,906          302,906
Commodity Procurement.................        1,473,874        1,473,874
Team Nutrition/HUSSC/CMS..............           15,475           17,004
Food Safety Education.................            2,929            2,929
Coordinated Review....................           10,000           10,000
Computer Support......................           12,124           12,124
Training and Technical Assistance.....           13,935           13,935
CNP Studies and Evaluation............           21,639           21,639
Farm to School Team...................            3,497            3,997
Payment Accuracy......................           11,203           11,203
School Meal Equipment Grants..........  ...............           30,000
Summer EBT Demonstration..............           22,957           28,000
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The Committee expects FNS to utilize the National Food 
Service Management Institute to carry out the food safety 
education program.

SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS, AND CHILDREN 
                                 [WIC]

Appropriations, 2018....................................  $6,175,000,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................   5,750,000,000
Committee recommendation................................   6,150,000,000

    The special supplemental nutrition program for women, 
infants, and children [WIC] is authorized by section 17 of the 
Child Nutrition Act of 1966. Its purpose is to safeguard the 
health of pregnant, breast-feeding and postpartum women and 
infants, and children up to age 5 who are at nutritional risk 
because of inadequate nutrition and inadequate income.
    The WIC program food packages are designed to provide foods 
which studies have demonstrated are lacking in the diets of the 
WIC program target population. The authorized supplemental 
foods are iron-fortified breakfast cereal, fruit or vegetable 
juice which contains vitamin C, dry beans, peas, and peanut 
butter.
    There are three general types of delivery systems for WIC 
foods: (1) retail purchase in which participants obtain 
supplemental foods through retail stores; (2) home delivery 
systems in which food is delivered to the participant's home; 
and (3) direct distribution systems in which participants pick 
up food from a distribution outlet. The food is free of charge 
to all participants.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $6,150,000,000 
for the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, 
and Children [WIC].
    The Committee recommendation fully funds estimated WIC 
participation in fiscal year 2019. The Committee recommendation 
includes $60,000,000 for breastfeeding support initiatives and 
$19,000,000 for infrastructure. The Committee recognizes new 
technologies, including telemedicine, that support 
breastfeeding mothers through access to professional 
breastfeeding and nutrition consultants. The Committee provides 
$5,000,000 for competitive grants to allow breastfeeding 
mothers the ability to interact with International Board 
Certified Lactation Consultants and all participants access to 
Registered Dietitians or WIC nutritionists, consistent with the 
goal of WIC to promote breastfeeding and nutritional health.
    WIC Food Package.--The Committee appreciates the work of 
the National Academies of Science to review and make 
recommendations for updating the WIC food packages to reflect 
current science and cultural factors. The Committee notes, 
however, that while all revised packages now allow some fish, 
the amounts remain low compared to the recommendations of 
authoritative agencies such as the World Health Organization 
and in some cases, sporadic. The Committee strongly encourages 
the Department to prioritize the health and cultural benefits 
of fish consumption as regulations are revised to implement the 
NAS recommendations and to increase the amount of healthful 
fish above the amounts recommended by the NAS. The Committee 
also strongly encourages the Department to allow States to 
prioritize fish over legumes and peanut butter to respond to 
the cultural preferences of WIC participants in States like 
Alaska.

               SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM

Appropriations, 2018.................................... $74,013,499,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................  73,218,276,000
Committee recommendation................................  73,219,274,000

    The Food Stamp Program was reauthorized through fiscal year 
2012 and renamed the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program 
[SNAP] in the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008. The 
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program attempts to alleviate 
hunger and malnutrition among low-income persons by increasing 
their food purchasing power. Eligible households receive SNAP 
benefits with which they can purchase food through regular 
retail stores.
    Other programs funded through SNAP include Nutrition 
Assistance to Puerto Rico and American Samoa, the Food 
Distribution Program on Indian Reservations, the Emergency Food 
Assistance Program, and the Community Food Projects program.
    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program is currently 
in operation in all 50 States, the District of Columbia, the 
Virgin Islands, and Guam. Participating households receive food 
benefits, the value of which is determined by household size 
and income. The cost of the benefits is paid by the Federal 
Government. As required by law, the Food and Nutrition Service 
annually revises household benefit allotments to reflect 
changes in the cost of the thrifty food plan.
    Administrative Costs.--All direct and indirect 
administrative costs incurred for certification of households, 
issuance of benefits, quality control, outreach, and fair 
hearing efforts are shared by the Federal Government and the 
States on a 50-50 basis.
    State Antifraud Activities.--Under the provisions of the 
Food and Nutrition Act of 2008, States are eligible to be 
reimbursed for 50 percent of the costs of their fraud 
investigations and prosecutions.
    States are required to implement an employment and training 
program for the purpose of assisting members of households 
participating in SNAP in gaining skills, training, or 
experience that will increase their ability to obtain regular 
employment. The Department of Agriculture has implemented a 
grant program to States to assist them in providing employment 
and training services.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends $73,219,274,000 for the 
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program. Of the amount 
recommended, $3,000,000,000 is made available as a contingency 
reserve.
    Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations [FDPIR] 
Food Package.--The Committee commends the Department for 
convening the FDPIR Food Package Review Work Group, which 
includes tribal representatives and staff from FNS, to increase 
the amount and variety of traditional foods included in FDPIR 
food packages and to increase the amount of foods purchased 
from American Indian and Alaska Native producers and 
businesses. The Committee directs the Department to provide a 
report detailing its plans to include a greater variety of 
traditional foods as regular components of FDPIR food baskets; 
its plans to identify additional Native American and Alaska 
Native producers of traditional foods, including wild salmon, 
caribou, reindeer, elk, and other foods; and its plans to 
purchase additional traditional foods from a greater number of 
indigenous producers and businesses.
    SNAP Farmers Markets.--The Committee is concerned that 
there are unnecessary barriers and added costs for 
organizations that manage farmers markets in multiple 
locations. The Secretary shall permit such organizations to 
become a SNAP-authorized retailer at the level of the 
organization, provided that the organization notifies FNS of 
all market locations at which it will accept SNAP benefits. The 
SNAP-authorized organization will continue to bear legal 
responsibility for SNAP compliance at all locations it 
oversees, including exercising proper oversight of SNAP 
implementation at each participating market location.
    SNAP Fraud.--A January 2017 OIG report entitled ``Detecting 
Potential SNAP Trafficking Using Data Analysis'' found that FNS 
lacked methods to reconcile data discrepancies across their 
administration systems, and that retailers were providing 
benefits to individuals using fraudulent credentials. The 
Committee directs FNS to provide an update on the 
implementation of controls to address these problems, as well 
as data demonstrating whether the controls have reduced error 
rates.
    State SNAP Implementation.--The Committee is concerned 
about implementation of the SNAP program in certain states 
where states are failing to meet the required deadlines for 
processing applications. USDA is encouraged to work closely 
with States to remedy program deficiency and be aggressive in 
combating any falsification of SNAP implementation data.

                      COMMODITY ASSISTANCE PROGRAM

Appropriations, 2018....................................    $322,139,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................      55,471,000
Committee recommendation................................     322,139,000

    The Commodity Assistance Program includes funding for the 
Commodity Supplemental Food Program and funding to pay expenses 
associated with the storage and distribution of commodities 
through The Emergency Food Assistance Program.
    The Commodity Supplemental Food Program [CSFP].--Authorized 
by section 4(a) of the Agricultural and Consumer Protection Act 
of 1973 (7 U.S.C. 612c note), as amended in 1981 by Public Law 
97-98 and in 2014 by Public Law 113-79, this program provides 
supplemental food to low-income senior citizens and in some 
cases low-income infants and children up to age six, low-income 
pregnant and postpartum women. The Agricultural Act of 2014 
discontinued the admission of new pregnant and postpartum women 
and children into the program. Those already in the program can 
continue to receive assistance until they are no longer 
eligible.
    The foods for CSFP are provided by the Department of 
Agriculture for distribution through State agencies. The 
authorized commodities include: iron-fortified infant formula, 
rice cereal, cheese, canned juice, evaporated milk and/or 
nonfat dry milk, canned vegetables or fruits, canned meat or 
poultry, egg mix, dehydrated potatoes, farina, and peanut 
butter and dry beans. Elderly participants may receive all 
commodities except iron-fortified infant formula and rice 
cereal.
    The Emergency Food Assistance Program [TEFAP].--Authorized 
by the Emergency Food Assistance Act of 1983 (7 U.S.C. 7501 et 
seq.), as amended, the program provides nutrition assistance to 
low-income people through prepared meals served on site and 
through the distribution of commodities to low-income 
households for home consumption. The commodities are provided 
by USDA to State agencies for distribution through State-
established networks. State agencies make the commodities 
available to local organizations, such as soup kitchens, food 
pantries, food banks, and community action agencies, for their 
use in providing nutrition assistance to those in need.
    Funds are administered by FNS through grants to State 
agencies which operate commodity distribution programs. 
Allocation of the funds to States is based on a formula which 
considers the States' unemployment rate and the number of 
persons with income below the poverty level.
    Farmers' Market Nutrition Program.--The Farmers' Market 
Nutrition Program [FMNP] provides WIC or WIC-eligible 
participants with coupons to purchase fresh, nutritious, 
unprepared foods, such as fruits and vegetables, from farmers' 
markets. This benefits both participants and local farmers by 
increasing the awareness and use of farmers' markets by low-
income households.
    Pacific Island and Disaster Assistance.--This program 
provides funding for assistance to the nuclear-affected islands 
in the form of commodities and administrative funds. It also 
provides funding for use in non-presidentially declared 
disasters and for FNS' administrative costs in connection with 
relief for all disasters.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $322,139,000 
for the Commodity Assistance Program. The Committee continues 
to encourage the Department to distribute Commodity Assistance 
Program funds equitably among the States, based on an 
assessment of the needs and priorities of each State and the 
State's preference to receive commodity allocations through 
each of the programs funded under this account.
    Commodity Supplemental Food Program.--The Committee 
recommends $238,120,000 for the Commodity Supplemental Food 
Program. This amount fully funds participation in fiscal year 
2019.
    Farmers' Market Nutrition Program.--The Committee is aware 
that the Farmers' Market Nutrition Program provides fresh 
fruits and vegetables to low-income mothers and children, 
benefiting not only WIC participants, but local farmers as 
well. Therefore, the Committee recommends $18,548,000 for the 
Farmers' Market Nutrition Program and directs the Secretary to 
obligate these funds within 45 days.
    The Emergency Food Assistance Program.--The Agricultural 
Act of 2014 provides $294,000,000 for TEFAP commodities to be 
purchased with Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program funds. 
The Committee recommendation includes $64,401,000 for TEFAP 
transportation, storage, and program integrity. In addition, 
the Committee recommendation grants the Secretary authority to 
transfer up to an additional 10 percent from TEFAP commodities 
for this purpose and urges the Secretary to use this authority.
    The Committee encourages the Secretary to identify 
opportunities for increasing the supply of TEFAP commodities in 
the coming fiscal year through bonus and specialty crop 
purchases. The Department shall make available to the States 
domestically produced catfish fillets for distribution to local 
agencies.

                   NUTRITION PROGRAMS ADMINISTRATION

Appropriations, 2018....................................    $153,841,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................     160,838,000
Committee recommendation................................     164,688,000

    The Nutrition Programs Administration appropriation 
provides for most of the Federal operating expenses of the Food 
and Nutrition Service, which includes the Child Nutrition 
Programs; Special Milk Program; Special Supplemental Nutrition 
Program for Women, Infants, and Children [WIC]; Supplemental 
Nutrition Assistance Program; Nutrition Assistance for Puerto 
Rico; the Commodity Assistance Program, including the Commodity 
Supplemental Food Program and the Emergency Food Assistance 
Program; and Farmers' Market Nutrition Program and Pacific 
Island and Disaster Assistance.
    The major objective of Nutrition Programs Administration is 
to efficiently and effectively carry out the nutrition 
assistance programs mandated by law. This is to be accomplished 
by the following: (1) giving clear and consistent guidance and 
supervision to State agencies and other cooperators; (2) 
assisting the States and other cooperators by providing 
program, managerial, financial, and other advice and expertise; 
(3) measuring, reviewing, and analyzing the progress being made 
toward achieving program objectives; and (4) carrying out 
regular staff support functions.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $164,688,000 
for Nutrition Programs Administration. The Committee 
recommendation includes $12,297,000 for the development and 
dissemination of the 2020 version of the Dietary Guidelines for 
Americans.

                                TITLE V

                FOREIGN ASSISTANCE AND RELATED PROGRAMS

   Office of the Under Secretary for Trade and Foreign Agricultural 
                                Affairs

Appropriations, 2018....................................        $875,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................         875,000
Committee recommendation................................         875,000

    The Office of the Under Secretary for Trade and Foreign 
Agricultural Affairs provides direction and coordination in 
carrying out the laws enacted by the Congress with respect to 
the Department's international affairs (except for foreign 
economic development). The Office has oversight and management 
responsibilities for the Foreign Agricultural Service.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriations of $875,000 for 
the Office of the Under Secretary for Trade and Foreign 
Agricultural Affairs.
    Food Chain Systems.--The Committee is aware that the lack 
of comprehensive cold food chain systems is one of the main 
causes of food loss and results in a significant percentage of 
food spoilage from farm-to-market. Preventing food loss and 
implementing a robust cold food chain results in substantial 
benefits such as increased nutrition, a safer food supply, 
greater economic opportunity, and increased resilience. In 
order to maximize the benefit investment in the agricultural 
productivity of the developing world, the Committee encourages 
the Department to give strong consideration to the use of cold 
chain technologies and include the development of appropriate 
cooling technologies in programs, policies, and strategic plans 
aimed at hunger prevention and food security in developing 
agricultural markets.

                      OFFICE OF CODEX ALIMENTARIUS

Appropriations, 2018....................................      $3,796,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................       3,796,000
Committee recommendation................................       3,976,000

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $3,976,000 for 
the Office of Codex Alimentarius. Funding was previously 
provided through the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

                      Foreign Agricultural Service


                         SALARIES AND EXPENSES

                     (INCLUDING TRANSFERS OF FUNDS)

                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                 Transfers from
                                                                Appropriations   loan accounts        Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Appropriations, 2018.........................................          199,666            6,382          206,048
Budget estimate, 2019........................................          193,085            6,382          199,467
Committee recommendation.....................................          212,230            6,382          218,612
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The Foreign Agricultural Service [FAS] was established 
March 10, 1953, by Secretary's Memorandum No. 1320, supplement 
1. Public Law 83-690, approved August 28, 1954, transferred the 
agricultural attaches from the Department of State to the 
Foreign Agricultural Service.
    The mission of FAS overseas is to represent U.S. 
agricultural interests, to promote export of domestic farm 
products, improve world trade conditions, and report on 
agricultural production and trade in foreign countries. FAS 
staff are stationed at 98 offices around the world where they 
provide expertise in agricultural economics and marketing, as 
well as provide attache services.
    FAS carries out several export assistance programs to 
counter the adverse effects of unfair trade practices by 
competitors on U.S. agricultural trade. The Market Access 
Program [MAP] conducts both generic and brand-identified 
promotional programs in conjunction with nonprofit agricultural 
associations and private firms financed through reimbursable 
CCC payments.
    The General Sales Manager was established pursuant to 
section 5(f) of the charter of the Commodity Credit Corporation 
and 15 U.S.C. 714-714p. The funds allocated to the General 
Sales Manager are used for conducting the following programs: 
(1) CCC Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-102), including 
facilities financing guarantees; (2) Food for Peace; (3) 
section 416b Overseas Donations Program; (4) Market Access 
Program; and (5) programs authorized by the Commodity Credit 
Corporation Charter Act including barter, export sales of most 
CCC-owned commodities, export payments, and other programs as 
assigned to encourage and enhance the export of U.S. 
agricultural commodities.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends $218,612,000 for the Foreign 
Agricultural Service, including a direct appropriation of 
$212,230,000.
    The Committee recommendation includes $3,187,000 for 
Capital Security Cost Sharing; $1,537,000 for International 
Cooperative Administrative Support Services; and $10,000,000 
for trade activities.
    Borlaug Fellows Program.--The Committee recommendation 
includes $3,500,000 for the Borlaug International Agricultural 
Science and Technology Fellows Program. This program provides 
training for international scientists and policymakers from 
selected developing countries. The fellows work closely with 
U.S. specialists in their fields of expertise and apply that 
knowledge in their home countries. The Committee recognizes the 
importance of this program in helping developing countries 
strengthen their agricultural practices and food security.
    Cochran Fellowship Program.--The Committee recommendation 
includes $6,500,000 for the Cochran Fellowship Program. The 
Committee encourages the Secretary to continue to provide 
additional support for the program through the Commodity Credit 
Corporation Emerging Markets Program.
    Foreign Market Development Cooperator Program.--The 
Committee expects the FAS to fund the Foreign Market 
Development Cooperator Program.
    Market Access Program.--The Committee continues the full 
mandatory funding for the Market Access Program and expects the 
Department to administer the program as authorized in 7 U.S.C. 
5623, without changing the eligibility requirements for 
participation of cooperative organizations, small businesses, 
trade associations, and other entities.

  FOOD FOR PEACE TITLE I DIRECT CREDIT AND FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM 
                                ACCOUNT

                     (INCLUDING TRANSFER OF FUNDS)

Appropriations, 2018....................................        $149,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................         142,000
Committee recommendation................................         142,000

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $142,000 for 
administrative expenses to continue servicing existing Food for 
Peace title I agreements.

                     FOOD FOR PEACE TITLE II GRANTS

Appropriations, 2018....................................  $1,600,000,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................................
Committee recommendation................................   1,716,000,000

    Commodities Supplied in Connection With Dispositions Abroad 
(Title II) (7 U.S.C. 1721-1726).--Commodities are supplied 
without cost through foreign governments to combat malnutrition 
and to meet famine and other emergency requirements. 
Commodities are also supplied for nonemergencies through public 
and private agencies, including intergovernmental 
organizations. The Commodity Credit Corporation pays ocean 
freight on shipments under this title, and may also pay 
overland transportation costs to a landlocked country, as well 
as internal distribution costs in emergency situations. The 
funds appropriated for title II are made available to private 
voluntary organizations and cooperatives to assist these 
organizations in meeting administrative and related costs.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $1,716,000,000 
for Food for Peace title II grants.

  MCGOVERN-DOLE INTERNATIONAL FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD NUTRITION 
                             PROGRAM GRANTS

Appropriations, 2018....................................    $207,626,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................................
Committee recommendation................................     210,255,000

    The McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and 
Child Nutrition Program helps support education, child 
development, and food security for some of the world's poorest 
children. The program provides for donations of U.S. 
agricultural products, as well as financial and technical 
assistance, for school feeding and maternal and child nutrition 
projects in low-income, food-deficit countries that are 
committed to universal education. Commodities made available 
for donation through agreements with private voluntary 
organizations, cooperatives, intergovernmental organizations, 
and foreign governments may be donated for direct feeding or 
for local sale to generate proceeds to support school feeding 
and nutrition projects.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $210,255,000 
for the McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and 
Child Nutrition Program.
    Local and Regional Procurement.--The Committee provides an 
appropriation of $15,000,000 for efforts to build long-term 
agriculture sustainability and establish a local investment in 
school feeding programs. With direct U.S. commodity 
contributions, projects supported by the McGovern-Dole Food for 
Education Program have significantly improved the attendance, 
nourishment, and learning capacity of school-aged children in 
low-income countries throughout the impoverished world. New 
funding authorities would enable school feeding programs to 
proactively transition from direct commodity assistance to 
locally sourced agriculture products. The Committee directs the 
Secretary to conduct the Local and Regional Food Aid 
Procurement Project Program in accordance with the priorities 
of the McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child 
Nutrition Program.

              COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION EXPORT (LOANS)

                    CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAM ACCOUNT

                     (INCLUDING TRANSFERS OF FUNDS)

                        [In thousands of dollars]
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                        Guaranteed loan   Administrative
                                             levels          expenses
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Appropriations, 2018..................        5,500,000            8,845
Budget estimate, 2019.................        5,500,000            6,717
Committee recommendation..............        5,500,000            8,845
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    In 1980, the Commodity Credit Corporation [CCC] instituted 
the Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-102) under its charter 
authority. With this program, CCC guarantees, for a fee, 
payments due U.S. exporters under deferred payment sales 
contracts (up to 36 months) for defaults due to commercial as 
well as noncommercial risks. The risk to CCC extends from the 
date of export to the end of the deferred payment period 
covered in the export sales contract and covers only that 
portion of the payments agreed to in the assurance agreement. 
Operation of this program is based on criteria which will 
assure that it is used only where it is determined that it will 
develop new market opportunities and maintain and expand 
existing world markets for U.S. agricultural commodities. The 
program encourages U.S. financial institutions to provide 
financing to those areas where the institutions would be 
unwilling to provide financing in the absence of the CCC 
guarantees. CCC also provides facilities financing guarantees.
    The Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990 establishes the 
program account. The subsidy costs of the CCC export guarantee 
programs are exempt from the requirement of advance 
appropriations of budget authority according to section 
504(c)(2) of the Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990, Public Law 
101-508. Appropriations to this account will be used for 
administrative expenses.

                                TITLE VI

            RELATED AGENCY AND FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION

                Department of Health and Human Services

                      FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION

    The Food and Drug Administration [FDA] is a scientific 
regulatory agency whose mission is to promote and protect the 
public health and safety of Americans. FDA's work is a blend of 
science and law. The Food and Drug Administration Amendments 
Act of 2007 [FDAAA] (Public Law 110-85) reaffirmed the 
responsibilities of the FDA: to ensure safe and effective 
products reach the market in a timely way, and to monitor 
products for continued safety while they are in use. In 
addition, FDA is entrusted with two critical functions in the 
Nation's war on terrorism: preventing willful contamination of 
all regulated products, including food, and improving the 
availability of medications to prevent or treat injuries caused 
by biological, chemical, radiological, or nuclear agents.
    The FDA Foods program has the primary responsibility for 
assuring that the food supply, quality of foods, food 
ingredients and dietary supplements are safe, sanitary, 
nutritious, wholesome, and honestly labeled, and that cosmetic 
products are safe and properly labeled. The variety and 
complexity of the food supply has grown dramatically while new 
and more complex safety issues, such as emerging microbial 
pathogens, natural toxins, and technological innovations in 
production and processing, have developed. This program plays a 
major role in keeping the United States food supply among the 
safest in the world.
    In January 2011, the Food Safety Modernization Act was 
signed into law. This law enables FDA to better protect public 
health by strengthening the food safety system. It enables FDA 
to focus more on preventing food safety and feed problems 
rather than relying primarily on reacting to problems after 
they occur. The law also provides FDA with new enforcement 
authorities designed to achieve higher rates of compliance with 
prevention- and risk-based food and feed safety standards and 
to better respond to and contain problems when they do occur. 
The law also gives FDA important new tools to hold imported 
food and feed to the same standards as domestic food and feed 
and directs FDA to build an integrated national food safety 
system in partnership with State and local authorities.
    The FDA Drugs programs are comprised of four separate 
areas, Human Drugs, Animal Drugs, Medical Devices and 
Biologics. FDA is responsible for the lifecycle of products, 
including premarket review and postmarket surveillance of human 
and animal drugs, medical devices and biological products to 
ensure their safety and effectiveness. For Human Drugs this 
includes assuring that all drug products used for the 
prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease are safe and 
effective. Additional procedures include the review of 
investigational new drug applications; evaluation of market 
applications for new and generic drugs, labeling and 
composition of prescription and over-the-counter drugs; 
monitoring the quality and safety of products manufactured in, 
or imported into, the United States; and, regulating the 
advertising and promotion of prescription drugs. The Animal 
Drugs and Feeds Program ensures only safe and effective 
veterinary drugs, intended for the treatment and/or prevention 
of diseases in animals and the improved production of food-
producing animals, are approved for marketing.
    The FDA Biologics program assures that blood and blood 
products, blood test kits, vaccines, and therapeutics are pure, 
potent, safe, effective, and properly labeled. The program 
inspects blood banks and blood processors, licenses and 
inspects firms collecting human source plasma, evaluates and 
licenses biologics manufacturing firms and products; lot 
releases licensed products; and monitors adverse events 
associated with vaccine immunization, blood products, and other 
biologics.
    The FDA Devices and Radiological program ensures the safety 
and effectiveness of medical devices and eliminates unnecessary 
human exposure to manmade radiation from medical, occupational, 
and consumer products. In addition, the program enforces 
quality standards under the Mammography Quality Standards Act 
(Public Law 108-365). Medical devices include thousands of 
products from thermometers and contact lenses to heart 
pacemakers, hearing aids, and MRIs. Radiological products 
include items such as microwave ovens and video display 
terminals.
    FDA's National Center for Toxicological Research in 
Jefferson, Arkansas, serves as a specialized resource, 
conducting peer-review scientific research that provides the 
basis for FDA to make sound science-based regulatory decisions 
through its premarket review and postmarket surveillance. The 
research is designed to define and understand the biological 
mechanisms of action underlying the toxicity of products and 
lead to developing methods to improve assessment of human 
exposure, susceptibility and risk of those products regulated 
by FDA.
    In 2009, Congress granted FDA new authority to regulate the 
manufacture, distribution, and marketing of tobacco products. 
FDA exercises this responsibility by protecting the public 
health from the health effects of tobacco, setting scientific 
standards and standards for tobacco product review, conducting 
compliance activities to enforce its authority over tobacco, 
and conducting public education and outreach about the health 
effects of tobacco products.

                         SALARIES AND EXPENSES

                        [In thousands of dollars]
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               Appropriation    User fees       Total
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Appropriations, 2018.........      2,800,078     2,337,963     5,138,041
Budget estimate, 2019........      3,171,920     2,460,221     5,632,141
Committee recommendation.....      2,959,078     2,460,221     5,419,299
------------------------------------------------------------------------

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $2,959,078,000 
for FDA salaries and expenses. The Committee also recommends 
$2,460,221,000 in definite user fees, including: $960,568,000 
in Prescription Drug User Fee Act user fee collections; 
$196,668,000 in Medical Device User Fee and Modernization Act 
user fee collections; and $30,331,000 in Animal Drug User Fee 
Act user fee collections; $18,336,000 in Animal Generic Drug 
User Fee Act user fee collections; $712,000,000 in Tobacco 
Product user fee collections; $501,396,000 in Generic Drug User 
Fee Act user fee collections; and $40,922,000 in Biosimilar 
User Fee Act user fee collections. The Committee also 
recommends $58,346,000 in permanent, indefinite user fees, 
including: $5,300,000 in Voluntary Qualified Importer Program 
collections; $1,434,000 in food and feed recall collections; 
$6,414,000 in food reinspection collections; $20,522,000 in 
Mammography Quality Standards Act fee collections; $10,062,000 
in color certification collections; $7,686,000 in Pediatric 
Disease Priority Review Voucher collections; $712,000 in third-
party auditor collections; $1,520,000 in outsourcing facility 
collections; and $4,696,000 in export and certification fees, 
as assumed in the President's budget. The Committee 
recommendation includes bill language which prohibits FDA from 
developing, establishing, or operating any program of user fees 
authorized by 31 U.S.C. 9701.
    The Committee recommendation does not include proposed user 
fees for food facility registration and inspection, food 
import, food contact substance notification, cosmetics, and 
international courier imports. None of these user fee proposals 
have been authorized by Congress. The Committee will continue 
to monitor any action by the appropriate authorizing Committees 
regarding these proposed user fees.
    The Committee expects FDA to continue all projects, 
activities, laboratories, and programs as included in fiscal 
year 2018 unless otherwise specified. The Committee does not 
support $29,400,000 of the proposed reductions; however it does 
accept the $2,500,000 reduction for compounding (which was 
intended for one-time use) and the $1,500,000 reduction for 
consumer education and outreach regarding agricultural 
biotechnology.
    The Committee recommendation includes an increase of 
$163,000,000 for medical product and food safety activities 
requested in the budget. Included in this funding is $5,000,000 
to fully fund the Oncology Center of Excellence; $37,600,000 to 
modernize the generic drug review process; $20,000,000 for 
investment and innovation for rare diseases; $11,700,000 to 
promote domestic manufacturing; $8,200,000 for a new platform 
for drug development; $6,000,000 for MedTech manufacturing, 
$7,200,000 for FSMA cooperative agreements; $2,800,000 for food 
import safety; $5,000,000 to address food safety outbreaks; 
$500,000 to test antibiotic resistance in imported seafood; and 
$59,000,000 for opioid prevention activities.
    The following table reflects the Committee's 
recommendations, as compared to the fiscal year 2018 and budget 
request levels:

                               FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION SALARIES AND EXPENSES
                                            [In thousands of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                  Fiscal year
                                                                 Fiscal year      2019 budget       Committee
                                                                 2018 enacted       request       recommendation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Centers and related field activities:
    Foods....................................................        1,041,615        1,029,863        1,052,315
        Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition [CFSAN].          316,606          315,494          320,106
        Field Activities.....................................          725,009          714,369          732,209
    Human Drugs..............................................          495,603          686,364          555,403
        Center for Drug Evaluation and Research [CDER].......          359,396          548,388          419,196
        Field Activities.....................................          136,207          137,976          136,207
    Biologics................................................          215,443          251,854          218,443
        Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research [CBER]..          174,052          210,755          177,052
        Field Activities.....................................           41,391           41,099           41,391
    Animal Drugs.............................................          172,552          180,284          173,052
        Center for Veterinary Medicine [CVM].................          107,905          115,673          108,405
        Field Activities.....................................           64,647           64,611           64,647
    Medical and radiological devices.........................          330,064          455,442          336,064
        Center for Devices and Radiological Health...........          246,319          372,588          252,319
        Field Activities.....................................           83,745           82,854           83,745
    National Center for Toxicological Research...............           63,331           65,200           65,531
Other Activities.............................................          196,275          198,565          273,075
Rent and related activities..................................          114,987          135,927          114,987
Rental Payments to GSA.......................................          170,208          168,421          170,208
                                                              --------------------------------------------------
      Total, FDA salaries and expenses, new budget authority.        2,800,078        3,171,920        2,959,078
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Added Sugar Labeling.--The Committee remains concerned 
about potential consumer confusion over the new FDA nutritional 
labeling requirements for added sugar for single ingredient 
products like maple syrup and honey, where sugar is naturally 
occurring in the product rather than added to the product. The 
Committee is aware that the FDA has had discussions with maple 
and honey producers regarding their concerns that the labeling 
requirement as currently drafted could mislead consumers to 
think that sugar has been added to a pure single-ingredient 
maple or honey product. The Committee directs the FDA to 
continue working with the pure maple syrup and honey industries 
to ensure appropriate labeling for those single-ingredient 
products where sugar is naturally occurring in the product 
rather than added to the product. The Committee is aware of a 
proposed alternative Nutrition Facts labeling approach that 
would clearly delineate between ``Added Sugars'' and 
``Naturally Occurring Sugars'' in a product, as well as another 
proposed alternative that would permit labeling denoting ``No 
Added Sugars'' on applicable products, and directs the FDA to 
evaluate such proposals. The Committee further directs the FDA 
to submit a report within 60 days of enactment of this Act 
describing the research that was conducted prior to issuance of 
a final rule updating the Nutrition Facts label for packaged 
foods on May 27, 2016, to determine consumer perception 
regarding mandatory ``added sugar'' labeling on single 
ingredient products in which no sugar is added during 
processing, including pure maple syrup and honey.
    ADUFA Reporting.--The Committee supports the collection and 
reporting of accurate and validated data of antimicrobial drug 
use for food-producing animals, but is concerned that 
antimicrobial sales and distribution data currently reported 
under ADUFA 105 have been equated with actual antimicrobial use 
data. In order for ADUFA reporting to promote public 
understanding in a meaningful and accurate way, FDA should 
ensure that such reporting clearly describe the limitations of 
sales data, including that they do not represent actual use. 
Therefore, the Committee encourages the Agency to seek 
alternative methods to better identify and reduce inappropriate 
antimicrobial drug uses.
    Alzheimer's Drug Development.--The Committee applauds FDA 
for revising guidance on Alzheimer's drug development that 
supports the use of an endpoint on cognition as a biomarker for 
Alzheimer's disease clinical trials. We are optimistic that 
this approach will help advance Alzheimer's drug development, 
particularly evaluation of candidate therapies in patients who 
are asymptomatic. The Committee encourages FDA to continue 
supporting innovative approaches to Alzheimer's drug 
development, including biomarkers development platforms 
involving industry, academic researchers and patient preference 
tools.
    Animal Feed Ingredients.--The Committee is concerned with 
the slow pace of review and approval of ingredients for feed 
for animals. The Committee urges FDA to dedicate additional 
personnel to speed the review and approval process.
    Anti-counterfeiting Techniques.--The Committee directs the 
FDA to report back on the benefits and costs of incorporating 
multi-layering and covert technologies with barcoding 
technology in meeting the provisions of the DQSA for 
pharmaceutical products within 90 days of the enactment of this 
Act.
    Autoantibody Qualification.--The appearance of certain 
islet autoantibodies in the serum of individuals increases the 
chance of developing type 1 diabetes at some point in the 
future. Therefore the Committee encourages the FDA to work with 
the Type 1 diabetes community on the assessment of potential 
diabetes biomarkers related to islet autoimmunity, which might 
help inform the design of clinical studies.
    Biomanufacturing Innovation.--The Committee supports FDA 
participation in public-private partnerships to accelerate 
biomanufacturing innovation and encourages FDA to provide 
funding for this purpose from within available resources.
    Breast Density.--The Committee recognizes the importance of 
patients receiving their own personal medical information and 
directs the Food and Drug Administration to ensure that 
mammography reports and summaries received by patients and 
their providers include appropriate information about breast 
density specified by the Secretary, including, at a minimum, 
the effect of breast density in masking the presence of breast 
cancer on a mammogram, the qualitative assessment of the 
provider who interpreted the mammogram, and a reminder to 
patients that individuals with dense breast tissue should talk 
with their providers if they have any questions or concerns 
about their summary.
    Cancer Immunotherapy Clinical Trials.--The Committee is 
aware of the remarkable promise of cancer immunotherapy and 
encouraged by the FDA's recent approval of new treatments that 
harness this approach to fighting cancer. More than 1,500 
immuno-oncology clinical trials are in some stage of 
development. As more patients turn to immune-based treatments, 
and more clinical trials are conducted to evaluate them, 
understanding how to recognize and manage the side effects of 
cancer immunotherapies will become increasingly important. 
Currently, however, standard parameters for reporting cancer 
immunotherapy-related adverse events in clinical trials are 
lacking, and this makes comparisons and management across 
studies challenging. The Committee, therefore, urges the FDA to 
work with the research community and the pharmaceutical 
industry to develop standardized templates for reporting 
toxicities in cancer immunotherapy clinical trials.
    Center for Safety and Nutrition Centers of Excellence.--The 
Committee is aware of the important contribution of the FDA 
Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Centers of 
Excellence [COEs] program in supporting critical basic research 
as well as facilitating the implementation of the FDA Food 
Safety Modernization Act. The Committee encourages the Agency 
to continue to fully utilize the COEs to accomplish these 
goals, and instructs that it enhance its level of support for 
FDA Food Safety Modernization Act activities.
    Clinical Trials.--The Committee acknowledges the 
responsibilities of FDA to protect public health and advance 
medical innovation and encourages FDA to continue its efforts 
to improve the effectiveness of the clinical trial process.
    The Committee is encouraged by the development of novel 
digital technologies to facilitate the use of virtual clinical 
trials that would make it easier for patients to participate in 
trials regardless of where they live. Through telemedicine, 
connected sensors, patient engagement applications, and direct 
data capture tools, virtual trials are conducted geographically 
near the patient. Direct contact with the patient is still 
maintained remotely, but reducing or eliminating on-site visits 
has the potential to increase patient convenience and lower 
study costs. The Committee recommends that the FDA develop the 
necessary framework to advance the use of virtual trials while 
still maintaining quality data necessary for FDA approval. The 
FDA shall report to the Committee on their activities to 
advance digital technologies and the impact on patient access 
to clinical trials.
    Computational Medicine.--The Committee appreciates FDA's 
continued support for and use of modeling and simulation in 
clinical trials, as well as its work toward the establishment 
of an affiliation agreement with an academic institution with 
expertise in this field. This partnership will allow for the 
development of personalized medical interventions, optimizes 
the regulatory process with in silico clinical trials and 
bridges gaps in the current regulatory infrastructure. The 
Committee directs FDA to formalize this important function in 
improving outcomes and reducing costs inherent to drug and 
device discovery.
    Contact Lens Safety.--The Committee is aware that 
counterfeit versions of FDA-regulated medical devices exist and 
is concerned that certain foreign manufactured entrants in the 
marketplace are providing patients with mishandled or 
mislabeled versions of FDA-approved contact lenses. The 
Committee is also concerned about reports of online sales of 
counterfeit contact lenses. Therefore, the Committee directs 
the FDA to provide a report that includes a summary of foreign 
contact lens manufacturing facilities findings, domestic 
counterfeit contact lens retailer investigations, inspection 
activities, and any agency oversight and enforcement activities 
related to imported or re-imported counterfeit contact lens 
meant for domestic sales.
    Cotton Ginning.--The Committee is concerned about the 
impact of the ``Current Good Manufacturing Practice, Hazard 
Analysis, and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for Food for 
Animals'' final rule (80 FR 56170; September 17, 2015) on the 
cotton industry. The Committee notes post-harvest activity of 
ginning cotton does not transform the resulting cottonseed into 
a ``processed food,'' and thus, cottonseed should fall within 
the definition of a ``raw agricultural commodity'' for purposes 
of rules promulgated pursuant to the FSMA. In addition, the 
Committee is concerned about the rationale for the definitions 
of ``primary production farm'' and ``secondary activities 
farm'' and how these definitions factor into the determination 
of operations either being exempt from or covered by certain 
requirements of the final rule. Therefore, the Committee 
directs the FDA to provide outreach and technical assistance to 
cotton ginning operations to assist them in complying with the 
final rule or subsequent guidance documents.
    Dietary Fiber.--The Committee is concerned that the FDA has 
not issued final guidance regarding the definition of dietary 
fiber, and encourages the FDA to issue these final guidance 
documents and provide sufficient time for food manufacturers to 
comply.
    Dietary Supplements.--More than half of Americans take at 
least one dietary supplement each day, with use particularly 
prevalent among older persons and in children. While dietary 
supplements enter the market under the assumption that they are 
safe, the FDA has documented that some products are 
contaminated, either intentionally or unintentionally, with 
inherently unsafe ingredients, including active pharmaceutical 
ingredients. These products violate the Dietary Supplement 
Health and Education Act [DSHEA] and pose potential risks to 
consumers. The Committee applauds FDA's inspection of and 
enforcement actions against manufacturers with dietary 
supplement products that contain ingredients that are 
potentially harmful or otherwise noncompliant with the law. FDA 
has indicated it conducts roughly 500 inspections a year and 
issues approximately 70-80 warning letters on Current Good 
Manufacturing Practice [CGMP] violations. In order to better 
detect dangerous products in the market, FDA is encouraged to 
continue to invest resources into oversight and inspection of 
manufacturing plants that produce dietary supplements. The 
Committee has been pleased with the interagency collaboration 
and urges FDA to continue working with the Department of 
Justice to remove illegal dietary supplements from the market 
and directs increased resources toward enforcement of DSHEA, 
including inspection and enforcement activities. The Committee 
urges the FDA to issue guidance on new dietary ingredients 
[NDIs) for dietary supplements that is consistent with the 
DSHEA while continuing to use current statutory authorities to 
remove unsafe ingredients and products. The Committee further 
encourages the FDA to take industry standards and marketplace 
disruption into consideration when issuing any guidance on 
NDIs. In addition, the Committee directs FDA to submit, not 
later than 180 days after enactment of this Act, a report that 
includes the number of enforcement actions FDA brought against 
dietary supplement manufacturers and marketers; the 
manufacturers and marketers of products claiming to be dietary 
supplements; the number of dietary supplement good 
manufacturing practice inspections FDA conducted in 2017; the 
number of FTEs dedicated to dietary supplement inspections; and 
the number of serious adverse events that were reported to FDA 
from 2016 to 2017.
    Digital Health Products.--The Committee is encouraged by 
the FDA's efforts to implement section 3030 of the 21st Century 
Cures Act regarding low-risk medical software and launch of the 
Digital Health Software Precertification [Pre-Cert] Program to 
learn from software developers about their products and quality 
processes. The Committee believes that digital health 
technologies are extremely promising and that consumers should 
have assurances that the products work as claimed. The 
Committee is supportive of FDA efforts to increase oversight 
and enforcement over digital health products to assure that 
they are compliant with the appropriate regulatory frameworks.
    Drug Shortages.--The Committee acknowledges the strides 
that the FDA has made in reducing the amount of time for review 
of Generic Drug [ANDAs] applications, but remains concerned 
about the number of drugs in shortage that providers and 
patients rely on for care. The Committee encourages FDA to 
expand upon its current work to offer priority review to ANDAs 
to reduce the number and severity of drug shortages. The 
Committee directs the FDA to report to the Committee on how the 
agency is prioritizing ANDAs in order to mitigate the recent 
drug shortages, as well as what additional authorities the 
agency may need to alleviate drug shortages in the future.
    Food Contact Notification User Fees.--The Committee 
recommendation does not include proposed user fees.
    Food Safety Mission.--The Committee directs the FDA Foods 
Program to report to the Committee all activities and resources 
spent on nutrition-related activities for the Center for Food 
Safety and Applied Nutrition [CFSAN], associated field offices 
[ORA], and support components.
    Foreign High Risk Inspections.--The Committee has provided 
robust funding for this initiative over the last several years 
and directs the FDA to provide an update on these efforts, 
including estimated efficiencies and concerns, and plans to 
continue or expand this effort in the future.
    FSMA Clarification for Small Farms.--The Committee directs 
the FDA to provide further clarification to small farms on the 
requirements for compliance with the Food Safety Modernization 
Act, including information on the qualified exemptions 
available to small and very small farms and the actions 
required to achieve compliance under these exemptions. The 
Committee also urges the Food and Drug Administration to 
communicate with (including through appropriate guidance) and 
offer technical assistance to assist small farms with 
compliance.
    FSMA Cooperative Agreements.--The Committee is aware that 
some states that have entered into cooperative agreements under 
the State Produce Implementation Cooperative Agreement Program 
to provide education, outreach, and technical assistance have 
or are considering changing the state agency responsible for 
implementing these agreements. The Food and Drug Administration 
is directed to work with any state that designates a new 
implementing agency to ensure it can continue to receive 
funding under existing cooperative agreements without delay or 
loss of funding.
    Glass Packaging Technologies.--The Committee encourages the 
FDA to develop and issue draft guidance to industry to 
streamline chemistry, manufacturing, and control reporting 
requirements in order to expedite adoption and remove barriers 
for the use of innovative glass packaging technologies or 
processes with the capacity to improve product quality, reduce 
product recalls, reduce drug shortages, and improve public 
health.
    Guidance for Stakeholder Input.--The FDA Center for 
Veterinary Medicine [CVM] recently updated its list of guidance 
topics to include possible new topics for consideration as well 
as revisions to existing FDA CVM guidance documents. In 
addition to providing the traditional opportunities for public 
review and comment, the Committee encourages FDA to seek input 
from relevant industry stakeholders and appropriate scientific 
experts who can assist FDA in the development of and any 
revisions to guidance documents prior to a public comment 
period.
    Human Drug Review Committee.--The Committee strongly 
encourages the FDA to fully utilize its authorities under 18 
U.S.C. 208(b)(3) to include no less than two members with an 
expertise in the indication for which the drug is meant to 
treat on each Advisory Committee when that Committee is 
reviewing a drug that has been designated as an Orphan Drug.
    Improving Import Review.--FDA shall report to the Committee 
how FDA is monitoring the impact of the reorganization under 
Program Alignment Group, and if such reorganization has 
improved the consistency of facility inspections and timeliness 
reviewing imports.
    Intentional Adulteration.--The Committee supports the 
important role of food defense plans to protect the food supply 
from acts intended to cause wide-scale harm to public health. 
The Committee encourages the FDA to work with businesses to 
provide clarity on food defense practices that will most 
effectively protect public health and to take into account 
appropriate food defense practices businesses have in place, 
including data supporting such practices.
    Medical Gas Rulemaking.--The Committee is pleased that the 
FDA has begun the process to develop separate regulations for 
medical gases. However, the Committee is concerned that the FDA 
has missed the statutory deadlines for rulemaking in section 
1112 of Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act 
[FDASIA] and section 756 of the fiscal year 2017 Consolidated 
Appropriations Act. The FDA committed to complete separate 
regulations for medical gases in 1978 in its final rule on 
current good manufacturing practices, and the Committee 
believes that now is the appropriate time to complete that 
commitment for a separate section of regulations for medical 
gases. Therefore, the FDA shall issue final regulations 
required by the fiscal year 2017 Consolidated Appropriations 
Act no later than December 31, 2018.
    Medically Necessary Foods.--The Committee is aware that 
patients with significant medical need for physician-directed 
medical foods continue to face access challenges resulting from 
misperceptions on the part of some pharmacy benefit managers 
and insurance providers who are classifying these products as 
over-the-counter in direct contravention of established law, 
FDA guidance, and FAQs. These challenges continue to underscore 
the timeliness of clarifying the important pathway for review 
and oversight of quality medical foods. The Committee looks 
forward to working with FDA in this regard and requests 
feedback on how FDA can address the current access challenges 
as well as work to enhance this important category as it 
becomes an increasingly essential part of the healthcare 
system.
    Misleading Maple Marketing.--The Committee is concerned 
about the explosion of products marketed using the word maple 
and related iconography, which intentionally misleads consumers 
who perceive the use of the word maple and related iconography 
to mean that a food product contains some measurable quantity 
of maple syrup to flavor or sweeten the product, which 
consumers identify as a characterizing ingredient. The 
Committee directs the FDA to perform a detailed analysis of 
consumer perception of foods marketed with the word maple or 
related iconography.
    Nanotechnology.--The Committee recognizes the increased 
capabilities that FDA has developed to study environment, 
health, and safety of nanomaterials within FDA's Jefferson 
Laboratory Campus, including the National Center for 
Toxicological Research, and its consolidated headquarters at 
White Oak, Maryland. The Committee expects FDA to continue to 
support collaborative research with universities and industry 
on the toxicology of nanotechnology products and processes in 
accordance with the National Nanotechnology Initiative 
Environment, Health, and Safety Research Strategy as updated in 
October 2011.
    National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System.--The 
Committee recommendation includes $11,300,000 for the National 
Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. The Committee 
directs that no less than $500,000 shall be used to conduct one 
or more pilot studies to assess types and levels of antibiotic 
resistance in zoonotic bacteria on food products of species not 
currently tested by NARMS, such as imported seafood.
    New Animal Drug Process.--The Committee is concerned about 
the agency's approval process for genetically engineered 
animals for human consumption, particularly finfish. Thus, the 
Committee directs the agency to undertake a review of the 
process and report to Congress within 90 days of enactment of 
this Act on how the ``New Animal Drug'' process, created to 
approve drugs intended for use in animals, can be used as the 
approval process for genetically engineered animals for human 
consumption.
    Olive Oil.--Because of the substantial interest in and 
consumption of olive oil throughout the United States, driven 
in part by the significant scientifically-confirmed health 
benefits of these oils and the fact that the United States has 
become a globally-important producer of olive oils, especially 
extra virgin olive oil, the Committee directs the FDA to 
establish a separate U.S. Standard of Identity for different 
grades of olive oil (e.g. refined, virgin and extra virgin) and 
olive-pomace oils.
    The Committee is particularly concerned with the number of 
different state standards for olive oils in the U.S. Because 
the health benefits of olive oil vary by grade, it is important 
to establish a uniform set of the standards to better inform 
and protect consumers. Extra virgin olive oil is the highest 
quality of olive oil and provides the greatest health benefits 
for consumers. The FDA is directed to consult and meet with 
domestic producers and importers of olive oil to develop a 
science-based Standard of Identity for extra virgin olive oil 
and olive oil best suited to ensure the integrity of these 
products for U.S. consumers.
    Opioids.--The Committee remains deeply concerned about the 
opioid abuse epidemic that has taken the lives of more than 
350,000 Americans from 1999-2016, including more than 42,000 in 
2016. As such, the Committee recommendation includes 
$59,000,000 for FDA to continue its increased activities 
related to the crisis. This funding is for the FDA to better 
identify and target firms and organizations importing illicit 
drugs into the U.S.; maintain increased staffing to inspect 
packages and the number of packages being inspected; maintain 
enhanced criminal investigation resources; and maintain 
increased staff and equipment to efficiently screen imported 
products.
    As the agency that oversees the approval of these drugs, 
the FDA has a responsibility to consider the public health 
impact of opioid misuse, abuse, diversion, and overdose death, 
while considering the needs of patients with chronic conditions 
who require regular use of opioid therapies to properly manage 
their debilitating condition. The Committee supports FDA's 
commitment to addressing this crisis through all available 
authorities, and continues to encourages them to continue 
implementation of the Opioid Action Plan to determine how 
innovative changes in opioid packaging, distribution, and 
medication disposal procedures can help mitigate the national 
opioid crisis, including working to support ongoing efforts at 
the state and regional level.
    The Committee continues its directive for FDA to refer any 
drug application for an opioid to an advisory committee for 
their recommendations prior to approval, unless the FDA finds 
that holding such advisory committee is not in the interest of 
protecting and promoting public health.
    The Committee is concerned about marketed opioid products 
that pose disproportionate overdose risk due to their 
formulation in which the daily recommended dosage far exceeds 
the CDC's threshold for dangerous daily opioid intake. The 
Committee directs the FDA to examine existing data and filings 
from leading medical and health societies, and remove from the 
market any ultra-high-dose opioids that the FDA finds are 
unsafe and pose a public health hazard.
    The Committee notes that, even with recent decreases, 
opioid prescribing rates dramatically exceed current standards 
for accepted and effective medical use, with nearly 14 billion 
opioid doses put on the United States market each year. 
Therefore, the Committee believes that it is imperative that 
FDA, consistent with its own Advisory Committee 
recommendations, take any and all steps necessary to require 
continuing medical education, aligned with the most recent 
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Guidelines for 
Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain, for providers who write 
opioid prescriptions, including through the Risk Evaluations 
and Mitigation Strategy.
    The Committee is aware that 80 percent of individuals with 
opioid use disorder were introduced to opioids via prescription 
and notes that a growing body of evidence indicates the co-
prescription of naloxone along with certain prescriptions has 
the potential to reduce overdose deaths and opioid overdose 
related healthcare costs. The Committee directs the 
Commissioner to seek recommendations from the Drug Safety and 
Risk Management Advisory Committee regarding a framework for 
the inclusion of information in the labeling and/or REMS of 
drugs that are opioids or used in Medically-Assisted Treatment 
relating to the co-prescription of opioid overdose reversal 
drugs along with opioids prescribed to patients that meet CDC 
guidelines as at risk for overdose.
    Oversight Activities.--The Committee recommendation 
includes $1,500,000 for the HHS Office of Inspector General 
specifically for oversight of FDA activities.
    Patient Experience.--The Committee is aware of FDA's 
implementation of policies to promote public access to 
information about how patient experience information factored 
into the review of approved products. The Committee supports 
this step forward and encourages FDA to continue refining the 
instrument and ways to improve its visibility. The Committee 
also requests that FDA consider ways to include patient-
experience information in relevant labeling and accompanying 
documentation to inform patient/provider decisionmaking and 
payer determinations.
    Patient-Focused Drug Development.--The Committee is 
appreciative of the steps the FDA has taken to implement 
subtitle A of title III within the 21st Century Cures Act to 
better incorporate patient experience in the drug development 
and approval processes and requests a status report from FDA on 
implementation of these provisions including any challenges or 
impediments being faced.
    Pediatric Device Consortia Grants.--The Committee is 
pleased that the seven FDA-funded Pediatric Device Consortia 
have assisted in the development of more than 1,000 potential 
pediatric medical devices since its inception in 2009, as well 
as promoting job-growth in the healthcare sector, and as such, 
continues to support this critical effort. The program funds 
consortia to assist innovators in developing medical and 
surgical devices designed for the unique needs of children that 
often go unmet by devices currently available on the market. 
The Committee recommendation includes no less than the fiscal 
year 2018 funding level for Pediatric Device Consortia Grants.
    Polypharmacy.--The routine usage of five or more 
prescription medications within the same period is becoming 
increasingly prevalent among older adults, elevating risk 
factors for drug-drug interactions and adverse events. The 
Committee directs the FDA to assess potential impacts of 
polypharmacy, which might help inform the design of clinical 
studies.
    Ready To Eat Foods.--The Committee is aware that FDA is in 
the process of finalizing guidance regarding Listeria 
monocytogenes [Lm] in RTE foods. Reducing incidents of 
listeriosis is an important health goal and the Committee 
supports efforts to accomplish this objective. The Committee 
urges FDA to complete a comprehensive risk assessment to ensure 
any final guidance document is realistic and fully based in 
science prior to making any changes to the action level of Lm 
in RTE foods.
    Seafood Advisory.--The Committee remains concerned that the 
FDA published final seafood advice for pregnant and nursing 
women on January 18, 2017, without going through the necessary 
interagency review, consumer focus group testing, or the 
opportunity for the public to comment on the scientific peer 
review. Therefore, the Committee directs the FDA to reissue the 
final ``Advice About Eating Fish'' (published in 82 Fed. Reg. 
6571 (January 19, 2017)) in a manner that is consistent with 
the FDA's nutrition science on the net effects of seafood 
consumption.
    Shellfish Safety.--The Committee urges FDA to complete the 
single laboratory validation of the liquid chromatography mass 
spectrometry [LC-MS]-based method for detecting brevetoxins 
associated with neurotoxic shellfish poisoning in molluscan 
shellfish. The Committee encourages adoption by the Interstate 
Shellfish Sanitation Conference of FDA's proposal for the LC-MS 
method for brevetoxin testing of shellfish as an Approved 
Method under the National Shellfish Sanitation Program.
    Sunscreen Labeling Regulations.--The Committee remains 
significantly concerned that the FDA has not approved a new 
over-the-counter [OTC] sunscreen ingredient since 
implementation of the Sunscreen Innovation Act, which improved 
the process by which the FDA reviews sunscreen ingredients and 
required the FDA to finalize an effective sunscreen monograph 
within 5 years. The Committee directs the FDA to meet with 
sponsors regarding the development of a testing regimen for 
sunscreen ingredients, consistent with current scientific 
standards, that appropriately balances the benefit of 
additional skin cancer prevention tools versus the risk of skin 
cancer. The Committee also directs FDA to maintain funding for 
agency efforts to clear this backlog of sunscreen applications.
    In addition, the Committee is disappointed that FDA has not 
yet finalized a rule limiting the maximum Sun Protection Factor 
[SPF] to ``50'' or ``50+'' as directed by the fiscal year 2018 
Consolidated Appropriations Act, and as such the Committee 
directs FDA to finalize the rule immediately. The Committee is 
also disappointed that FDA failed to issue a proposed rule to 
establish testing and labeling standards for sunscreen sprays 
and directs FDA to do so immediately.
    User Fee Negotiations.--The Committee affirms the important 
role of user fees to support programs across the FDA, and 
supports the negotiations between the agency and regulated 
industry partners to compose goals letter establishing clear 
expectations for both parties regarding timelines and processes 
associated with implementation of the law. Historically these 
goals letters are added to the Congressional Record, unedited 
by Congress, and referenced in the law authorizing the 
collection of such fees. The Committee is concerned that recent 
user fee negotiations between FDA and regulated industries have 
resulted in goals letters submitted to Congress containing 
policy changes that require statutory changes, and presume that 
Congress will adopt suggested statutory changes. While the 
Committee encourages the agency to continue to provide 
suggested statutory changes in a timely manner to Congress that 
can help the agency meet its mission, the Committee finds that 
it is inappropriate for the agency and its regulated industry 
partners to negotiate statutory or other legal changes as part 
of user fee goals letters.
    Vibrio.--The Committee is aware of the public health 
challenge related to the naturally occurring bacteria called 
Vibrio parahaemolyticus that can accumulate in shellfish and 
believes that more scientific research is necessary to develop 
proper controls that will reduce the risk to consumers and 
sustain a healthy domestic shellfish industry. The Committee 
encourages the Food and Drug Administration [FDA] to increase 
funding for research into Vibrio illnesses associated with the 
consumption of raw molluscan shellfish, improve risk assessment 
models, and develop improved rapid detection methods for 
virulent Vibrio strains.
    White Oak Expansion.--The Committee is aware of the need 
for FDA facilities to accommodate an anticipated expanded 
workforce due to broader missions related to food safety and 
other mandates in legislation over the last few years. In the 
Committee's report for fiscal year 2016, the Committee 
requested a feasibility study to update and issue a revised 
Master Plan for land inside and contiguous to the White Oak 
Campus in order to address its expanded workforce and the 
facilities needed to accommodate them. The Committee directs 
FDA to complete this study as soon as possible. Due to the 
challenging fiscal environment, the Committee encourages the 
FDA and GSA to consider innovative financing options and 
partnership opportunities with non-federal government entities 
that provide reasonable cost options contiguous to the White 
Oak campus.
    Youth Tobacco Use Prevention.--While FDA has recently 
announced a new Youth Tobacco Prevention Plan to attempt to 
curb the use of e-cigarettes among youth, the Committee is 
concerned with the irresponsible marketing by some 
manufacturers, as well as the role characterizing flavors play 
in youth initiation of tobacco products. In March 2018, FDA 
issued an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to examine 
regulatory options for tobacco product flavorings. The 
Committee strongly encourages the agency to complete the 
regulatory process in an expeditious manner, ideally within 1 
year, and in a way that supports prevention of youth tobacco 
initiation. The agency is instructed to provide the Committee 
with a timeframe for when the regulatory process will be 
completed. Additionally, the Committee is concerned that FDA is 
not fully enforcing their prohibition of new or changed e-
cigarettes and other nicotine products after August 8, 2016, 
without prior FDA review and authorization. Therefore, the 
Committee directs FDA to order the removal of any ``deemed 
tobacco products'' introduced after the August 8, 2016 deadline 
without first seeking the required FDA authorization. Finally, 
the Committee is concerned about the lack of adequate age 
verification rules to prevent Internet sales of e-cigarette 
tobacco products to children, and directs FDA to establish 
these rules within 1 year, both at the time of sale and 
delivery of the product.

                        BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES

Appropriations, 2018....................................     $11,788,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................      11,788,000
Committee recommendation................................      11,788,000

    FDA maintains offices and staff in 49 States and in the 
District of Columbia and Puerto Rico, including field 
laboratories and specialized facilities, as well as the 
National Center for Toxicological Research complex. Repairs, 
modifications, improvements, and construction to FDA 
headquarters and field facilities must be made to preserve the 
properties, ensure employee safety, meet changing program 
requirements, and permit the agency to keep its laboratory 
methods up to date.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends an appropriation of $11,788,000 
for FDA buildings and facilities. This funding shall be used to 
upgrade FDA facilities and laboratories which are currently 
below public safety standards and incapable of performing 
agency requirements.

                   FDA Innovation Account, Cures Act

Appropriations, 2018....................................     $60,000,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................      70,000,000
Committee recommendation................................      70,000,000

    The Committee recommends $70,000,000 for the FDA as 
authorized in the 21st Century Cures Act.

                           INDEPENDENT AGENCY


                       Farm Credit Administration


                 LIMITATION ON ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES

Limitation, 2018........................................     $70,600,000
Budget estimate, 2019...................................      74,600,000
Committee recommendation................................      74,600,000

    The Farm Credit Administration [FCA] is the independent 
agency in the executive branch of the Government responsible 
for the examination and regulation of the banks, associations, 
and other institutions of the Farm Credit System.
    Activities of the Farm Credit Administration include the 
planning and execution of examinations of Farm Credit System 
institutions and the preparation of examination reports. FCA 
also promulgates regulations, establishes standards, enforces 
rules and regulations, and approves certain actions of the 
institutions.
    The administration and the institutions under its 
jurisdiction now operate under authorities contained in the 
Farm Credit Act of 1971, Public Law 92-181, effective December 
10, 1971. Public Law 99-205, effective December 23, 1985, 
restructured FCA and gave the agency regulatory authorities and 
enforcement powers.
    The Act provides for the farmer-owned cooperative system to 
make sound, adequate, and constructive credit available to 
farmers and ranchers and their cooperatives, rural residences, 
and associations and other entities upon which farming 
operations are dependent, and to modernize existing farm credit 
law to meet current and future rural credit needs.
    The Agricultural Credit Act of 1987 authorized the 
formation of the Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation 
[FAMC] to operate a secondary market for agricultural and rural 
housing mortgages. The Farm Credit Administration, under 
section 8.11 of the Farm Credit Act of 1971, as amended, is 
assigned the responsibility of regulating this entity and 
assuring its safe and sound operation.
    Expenses of the Farm Credit Administration are paid by 
assessments collected from the Farm Credit System institutions 
and by assessments to the Federal Agricultural Mortgage 
Corporation.

                       COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS

    The Committee recommends a limitation of $74,600,000 on 
administrative expenses of the Farm Credit Administration.

                               TITLE VII

                           GENERAL PROVISIONS

             (INCLUDING RESCISSIONS AND TRANSFERS OF FUNDS)

    The Committee recommends the following provisions:
    Section 701. This section makes funds available for the 
purchase, replacement, and hire of passenger motor vehicles.
    Section 702. This section gives the Secretary of 
Agriculture authority to transfer unobligated balances to the 
Working Capital Fund and clarifies longstanding practices 
associated with the Fund.
    Section 703. This section limits the funding provided in 
the bill to 1 year, unless otherwise specified.
    Section 704. This section limits negotiated indirect costs 
on cooperative agreements between the Department of Agriculture 
and nonprofit organizations to 10 percent.
    Section 705. This section makes appropriations to the 
Department of Agriculture for the cost of direct guaranteed 
loans available until expended to disperse obligations for 
certain Rural Development programs.
    Section 706. This section prohibits the purchase of new 
information technology equipment in excess of $25,000 without 
the prior approval of the Chief Information Officer.
    Section 707. This section makes funds for certain 
conservation programs available until expended to disburse 
certain obligations made in the current fiscal year.
    Section 708. This section makes certain former Rural 
Utilities Service borrowers eligible for the Rural Economic 
Development loan and grant program.
    Section 709. This section provides funds for Rural 
Development and the Farm Service Agency information technology 
expenses.
    Section 710. This section includes language regarding 
first-class travel.
    Section 711. This section includes language regarding the 
Commodity Credit Corporation.
    Section 712. This section makes funds available for the 
expenses and activities of certain advisory committees, panels, 
commissions, and task forces at the Department of Agriculture.
    Section 713. This section includes language regarding the 
limitation on direct costs for grants awarded by the National 
Institute of Food and Agriculture.
    Section 714. This section includes language regarding 
information technology systems.
    Section 715. This section includes language regarding the 
availability of funds for certain Department of Agriculture 
programs.
    Section 716. This section prohibits the use of funds for 
user fee proposals that fail to provide sufficient budget 
impact information.
    Section 717. This section prohibits the reprogramming of 
funds for programs, projects, or activities in excess of 
$500,000 or 10 percent, whichever is less without the prior 
notification of the Committee on Appropriations.
    Section 718. This section includes language for the 
establishment of a fee under the business and industry loan 
program.
    Section 719. This section prohibits the Department of 
Agriculture and the Department of Health and Human Services 
from transmitting questions or responses as a result of the 
appropriations hearing process to non-Department employees.
    Section 720. This section includes language regarding 
prepackaged news.
    Section 721. This section requires Department of 
Agriculture agencies to provide reimbursement to other 
Department of Agriculture agencies for employees detailed for 
longer than 60 days.
    Section 722. This section includes language regarding 
farmer stress.
    Section 723. This section includes language regarding 
spending plans.
    Section 724. This section includes language regarding a 
rescission of funds.
    Section 725. This section includes language regarding 
section 502 single family direct loans.
    Section 726. This section includes language regarding loans 
and loan guarantees.
    Section 727. This section includes language regarding 
credit card refunds.
    Section 728. This section includes language regarding the 
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.
    Section 729. This section includes language regarding 
industrial hemp.
    Section 730. This section includes language regarding the 
Agriculture and Food Research Initiative.
    Section 731. This section includes language regarding 
housing loan programs.
    Section 732. This section includes language regarding 
disclosure of information for pharmaceuticals.
    Section 733. This section includes language regarding gene 
editing.
    Section 734. This section includes language regarding dried 
spent grain products.
    Section 735. This section includes language regarding 
Geographically Disadvantaged Farmers.
    Section 736. This section includes language regarding 
partially hydrogenated oils.
    Section 737. This section includes language regarding the 
Rural Utilities Service.
    Section 738. This section includes language regarding 
hiring authorities.
    Section 739. This section includes language regarding the 
Conservation Reserve Program.
    Section 740. This section includes language regarding FDA 
regulation.
    Section 741. This section includes language regarding the 
Water Bank Program.
    Section 742. This section includes language regarding 
domestic preference.
    Section 743. This section includes language regarding Rural 
Economic Area Partnership zones.
    Section 744. This section includes language regarding Rural 
Development programs.
    Section 745. This section provides funding for a pilot 
program through the Rural Housing Service.
    Section 746. This section includes language regarding 
lobbying.
    Section 747. This section includes language regarding the 
Agriculture Risk Coverage program.
    Section 748. This section includes language regarding 
housing programs.
    Section 749. This section includes language regarding Farm 
to School programs.
    Section 750. This section includes language regarding 
sodium reduction
    Section 751. This section includes language regarding the 
Healthy Food Financing Initiative.
    Section 752. This section includes language regarding 
citrus greening.
    Section 753. This section includes language regarding FDA 
regulation.
    Section 754. This section includes language Distance 
Learning and Telemedicine programs.
    Section 755. This section includes language regarding the 
National Institute of Food and Agriculture.
    Section 756. This section includes language regarding rural 
broadband.
    Section 757. This section includes language regarding water 
and waste programs.

                     PROGRAM, PROJECT, AND ACTIVITY

    During fiscal year 2019, for purposes of the Balanced 
Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (Public Law 
99-177) or the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control 
Reaffirmation Act of 1987 (Public Law 100-119), the following 
information provides the definition of the term ``program, 
project, and activity'' for departments and agencies under the 
jurisdiction of the Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and 
Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Subcommittee. The 
term ``program, project, and activity'' shall include the most 
specific level of budget items identified in the Agriculture, 
Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related 
Agencies Appropriations Act, 2019, and the accompanying Senate 
Report.
    If a sequestration order is necessary, in implementing the 
Presidential order, departments and agencies shall apply any 
percentage reduction required for fiscal year 2019 pursuant to 
the provisions of Public Law 99-177 or Public Law 100-119 to 
all items specified in the explanatory notes submitted to the 
Committees on Appropriations of the House and Senate in support 
of the fiscal year 2019 budget estimates, as amended, for such 
departments and agencies, as modified by congressional action, 
and in addition:
    For the Agricultural Research Service the definition shall 
include specific research locations as identified in the 
explanatory notes.
    For the Natural Resources Conservation Service the 
definition shall include individual flood prevention projects 
as identified in the explanatory notes and individual 
operational watershed projects as summarized in the notes.
    For the Farm Service Agency the definition shall include 
individual, regional, State, district, and county offices.

  COMPLIANCE WITH PARAGRAPH 7, RULE XVI OF THE STANDING RULES OF THE 
                                 SENATE

    Paragraph 7 of rule XVI requires that Committee reports 
accompanying general appropriations bills identify each 
recommended amendment which proposes an item of appropriation 
which is not made to carry out the provisions of an existing 
law, a treaty stipulation, or an act or resolution previously 
passed by the Senate during that session.
    The Committee is filing an original bill, which is not 
covered under this rule, but reports this information in the 
spirit of full disclosure.
    The Committee recommends funding for the following programs 
or activities which currently lack authorization for fiscal 
year 2019:
      Broadband Telecommunications Grants
      Child Nutrition Program State Administrative Expenses
      Farmers Market Nutrition Program
      Multi-family Housing Revitalization Program
      National School Lunch Act - Information Clearinghouse
      School Meals Program - Compliance and Accountability
      Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants 
        and Children
      Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
      Summer Food Service Program

COMPLIANCE WITH PARAGRAPH 7(c), RULE XXVI OF THE STANDING RULES OF THE 
                                 SENATE

    Pursuant to paragraph 7(c) of rule XXVI, on May 24, 2018, 
the Committee ordered favorably reported an original bill (S. 
2976) making appropriations for Agriculture, Rural Development, 
Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies programs for 
the fiscal year ending September 30, 2019, and for other 
purposes, provided, that the bill be subject to amendment and 
that the bill be consistent with its budget allocation, and 
provided that the Chairman of the Committee or his designee be 
authorized to offer the substance of the original bill as a 
Committee amendment in the nature of a substitute to the House 
companion measure, by a recorded vote of 31-0, a quorum being 
present. The vote was as follows:
        Yeas                          Nays
Chairman Shelby
Mr. McConnell
Mr. Alexander
Ms. Collins
Ms. Murkowski
Mr. Graham
Mr. Blunt
Mr. Moran
Mr. Hoeven
Mr. Boozman
Mrs. Capito
Mr. Lankford
Mr. Daines
Mr. Kennedy
Mr. Rubio
Mrs. Hyde-Smith
Mr. Leahy
Mrs. Murray
Mrs. Feinstein
Mr. Durbin
Mr. Reed
Mr. Tester
Mr. Udall
Mrs. Shaheen
Mr. Merkley
Mr. Coons
Mr. Schatz
Ms. Baldwin
Mr. Murphy
Mr. Manchin
Mr. Van Hollen

 COMPLIANCE WITH PARAGRAPH 12, RULE XXVI OF THE STANDING RULES OF THE 
                                 SENATE

    Paragraph 12 of rule XXVI requires that Committee reports 
on a bill or joint resolution repealing or amending any statute 
or part of any statute include ``(a) the text of the statute or 
part thereof which is proposed to be repealed; and (b) a 
comparative print of that part of the bill or joint resolution 
making the amendment and of the statute or part thereof 
proposed to be amended, showing by stricken-through type and 
italics, parallel columns, or other appropriate typographical 
devices the omissions and insertions which would be made by the 
bill or joint resolution if enacted in the form recommended by 
the Committee.''[----If there is no compliance (Cordon 
rule), use the statement below----]
    In compliance with this rule, no changes to existing law 
are displayed because this bill proposes no changes. deg.
    In compliance with this rule, changes in existing law 
proposed to be made by the bill are shown as follows: existing 
law to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets; new matter is 
printed in italic; and existing law in which no change is 
proposed is shown in roman.

                TITLE 42--THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE


                   Chapter 13--School Lunch Programs


Sec. 1758. Program requirements

(a) Nutritional requirements

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

(h) Food safety

  (1) In general

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  (3) Audits and reports by States

    [For fiscal year 2018] For fiscal year 2019, each State 
shall annually--

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

  (4) Audit by the Secretary

    [For fiscal year 2018] For fiscal year 2019, the Secretary 
shall annually audit State reports of food safety inspections 
of schools submitted under paragraph (3).

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 1769g. Information clearinghouse

(a) In general

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

(d) Funding

    Out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise 
appropriated, the Secretary of the Treasury shall pay to the 
Secretary to provide to the organization selected under this 
section, to establish and maintain the information 
clearinghouse, $200,000 for each of fiscal years 1995 and 1996, 
$150,000 for fiscal year 1997, $100,000 for fiscal year 1998, 
$166,000 for each of fiscal years 1999 through 2004, and 
$250,000 for each of fiscal years [2010 through 2018] 2010 
through 2019. The Secretary shall be entitled to receive the 
funds and shall accept the funds, without further 
appropriation.

                        BUDGETARY IMPACT OF BILL


  PREPARED IN CONSULTATION WITH THE CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET OFFICE PURSUANT TO SEC. 308(A), PUBLIC LAW 93-344, AS
                                                     AMENDED
                                            [In millions of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                               Budget authority                 Outlays
                                                         -------------------------------------------------------
                                                            Committee    Amount  in     Committee    Amount  in
                                                           allocation       bill       allocation       bill
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Comparison of amounts in the bill with the subcommittee
 allocation for 2019: Subcommittee on Agriculture, Rural
 Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related
 Agencies:
    Mandatory...........................................      107,124       107,124        98,764     \1\98,764
    Discretionary.......................................       23,235        23,235        24,446     \1\24,446
        Security........................................  ............  ............  ............           NA
        Nonsecurity.....................................       23,235        23,235            NA            NA
Projection of outlays associated with the
 recommendation:
    2019................................................  ............  ............  ............   \2\104,603
    2020................................................  ............  ............  ............        6,170
    2021................................................  ............  ............  ............        1,433
    2022................................................  ............  ............  ............          743
    2023 and future years...............................  ............  ............  ............          529
Financial assistance to State and local governments for            NA        40,173            NA     \2\33,321
 2019...................................................
 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\Includes outlays from prior-year budget authority.
\2\Excludes outlays from prior-year budget authority.
 
NA: Not applicable.
 
NOTE.--Pursuant to section 1002(b)(3)(B) of the 21st Century Cures Act (Public Law 114-255), $70 million in
  budget authority and the resulting outlays do not count for the purposes of estimates under the Congressional
  Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 or the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985.


  COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF NEW BUDGET (OBLIGATIONAL) AUTHORITY FOR FISCAL YEAR 2018 AND BUDGET ESTIMATES AND AMOUNTS RECOMMENDED IN THE BILL FOR FISCAL
                                                                        YEAR 2019
                                                                [In thousands of dollars]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                         Senate Committee recommendation
                                                                                                                             compared with (+ or -)
                                Item                                       2018       Budget estimate     Committee    ---------------------------------
                                                                      appropriation                     recommendation        2018
                                                                                                                         appropriation   Budget estimate
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   TITLE I--AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMS
 
                Processing, Research, and Marketing
 
                      Office of the Secretary
 
Office of the Secretary............................................           5,051            4,850            5,051   ...............            +201
Assistant to the Secretary for Rural Development...................             800              800              800   ...............  ...............
Office of Homeland Security........................................           1,496            1,448            1,496   ...............             +48
Office of Partnerships and Public Engagement.......................           4,711            1,672            4,711   ...............          +3,039
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Administration...............             804              875              804   ...............             -71
Departmental Administration........................................          22,301           22,501           22,301   ...............            -200
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal, Departmental Administration........................          23,105           23,376           23,105   ...............            -271
 
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Congressional Relations......           3,869            3,091            3,869   ...............            +778
Office of Communications...........................................           7,500            7,261            7,500   ...............            +239
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, Office of the Secretary...............................          46,532           42,498           46,532   ...............          +4,034
                                                                    ====================================================================================
Executive Operations:
    Office of the Chief Economist..................................          19,786           19,487           19,786   ...............            +299
    Office of Hearings and Appeals.................................          15,222           14,183           15,222   ...............          +1,039
    Office of Budget and Program Analysis..........................           9,525            8,631            9,525   ...............            +894
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal, Executive Operations...............................          44,533           42,301           44,533   ...............          +2,232
 
Office of the Chief Information Officer............................          58,950           62,524           63,950           +5,000           +1,426
Office of the Chief Financial Officer..............................           6,028            5,536            6,028   ...............            +492
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights.................             901              800              901   ...............            +101
Office of Civil Rights.............................................          24,206           22,345           24,206   ...............          +1,861
 
Building and Facilities:
    Agriculture Buildings and Facilities...........................          64,414           58,330           58,330           -6,084   ...............
Hazardous materials management.....................................           3,503            3,463            3,503   ...............             +40
Office of Inspector General........................................          98,208           87,436           98,208   ...............         +10,772
Office of the General Counsel......................................          44,546           41,717           45,146             +600           +3,429
Office of Ethics...................................................           4,136            2,897            4,136   ...............          +1,239
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, Departmental Administration...........................         395,957          369,847          395,473             -484          +25,626
                                                                    ====================================================================================
Office of the Under Secretary for Research, Education, and                      800              800              800   ...............  ...............
 Economics.........................................................
Economic Research Service..........................................          86,757           45,000           86,757   ...............         +41,757
National Agricultural Statistics Service...........................         191,717          165,000          174,767          -16,950           +9,767
    Census of Agriculture..........................................         (63,350)         (45,300)         (45,300)        (-18,050)  ...............
 
Agricultural Research Service:
    Salaries and expenses..........................................       1,202,766        1,018,991        1,300,966          +98,200         +281,975
    Buildings and facilities.......................................         140,600   ...............  ...............        -140,600   ...............
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, Agricultural Research Service.........................       1,343,366        1,018,991        1,300,966          -42,400         +281,975
                                                                    ====================================================================================
National Institute of Food and Agriculture:
    Research and education activities..............................         887,171          794,479          898,535          +11,364         +104,056
    Native American Institutions Endowment Fund....................         (11,880)         (11,857)         (11,880)  ...............            (+23)
    Extension activities...........................................         483,626          450,185          486,692           +3,066          +36,507
    Integrated activities..........................................          37,000           13,037           38,000           +1,000          +24,963
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, National Institute of Food and Agriculture............       1,407,797        1,257,701        1,423,227          +15,430         +165,526
                                                                    ====================================================================================
Office of the Under Secretary for Marketing and Regulatory Programs             901              800              901   ...............            +101
 
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service:
    Salaries and expenses..........................................         981,893          739,151        1,000,493          +18,600         +261,342
    Buildings and facilities.......................................           3,175            2,852            3,175   ...............            +323
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service............         985,068          742,003        1,003,668          +18,600         +261,665
                                                                    ====================================================================================
Agricultural Marketing Service:
    Marketing Services.............................................         151,595          118,617          155,845           +4,250          +37,228
        Standardization activities (user fees).....................         (65,000)  ...............  ...............        (-65,000)  ...............
    (Limitation on administrative expenses, from fees collected)...         (61,227)         (60,982)         (60,982)           (-245)  ...............
    Funds for strengthening markets, income, and supply (section
     32):
        Permanent, section 32......................................       1,344,000        1,374,000        1,374,000          +30,000   ...............
            Marketing agreements and orders (transfer from section          (20,705)         (20,489)         (20,489)           (-216)  ...............
             32)...................................................
    Payments to States and Possessions.............................           1,235            1,109            1,235   ...............            +126
    Limitation on inspection and weighing services.................         (55,000)         (80,000)         (55,000)  ...............        (-25,000)
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, Agricultural Marketing Service program................       1,613,057        1,634,708        1,647,062          +34,005          +12,354
                                                                    ====================================================================================
Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety......................             800              800              800   ...............  ...............
Food Safety and Inspection Service.................................       1,056,844        1,032,273        1,049,344           -7,500          +17,071
    Lab accreditation fees.........................................          (1,000)          (1,000)          (1,000)  ...............  ...............
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, Processing, Research, and Marketing...................       6,966,837        6,126,941        6,967,783             +946         +840,842
                                                                    ====================================================================================
      Total, Title I, Agricultural Programs........................       6,966,837        6,126,941        6,967,783             +946         +840,842
          (By transfer)............................................         (20,705)         (20,489)         (20,489)           (-216)  ...............
          (Loan authorization).....................................  ...............  ...............  ...............  ...............  ...............
          (Limitation on administrative expenses)..................        (116,227)        (140,982)        (115,982)           (-245)        (-25,000)
                                                                    ====================================================================================
        TITLE II--FARM PRODUCTION AND CONSERVATION PROGRAMS
 
                      Farm Production Programs
 
Office of the Under Secretary for Farm Production and Conservation.             901              875              901   ...............             +26
Farm Production and Conservation Business Center...................           1,028          196,402            1,028   ...............        -195,374
    (Transfer from ACIF)...........................................  ...............         (16,081)  ...............  ...............        (-16,081)
 
Farm Service Agency:
    Salaries and expenses..........................................       1,202,146          920,490        1,202,146   ...............        +281,656
    (Transfer from Food for Peace (Public Law 480))................            (149)            (142)            (142)             (-7)  ...............
    (Transfer from export loans)...................................          (2,463)            (335)          (2,463)  ...............         (+2,128)
    (Transfer from ACIF)...........................................        (314,998)        (266,436)        (314,998)  ...............        (+48,562)
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal, transfers from program accounts....................        (317,610)        (266,913)        (317,603)             (-7)        (+50,690)
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, Salaries and expenses.................................      (1,519,756)      (1,187,403)      (1,519,749)             (-7)       (+332,346)
                                                                    ====================================================================================
    State mediation grants.........................................           3,904            3,228            3,904   ...............            +676
    Grassroots source water protection program.....................           6,500   ...............           6,500   ...............          +6,500
    Dairy indemnity program........................................             500              500              500   ...............  ...............
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal, Farm Service Agency................................       1,213,050          924,218        1,213,050   ...............        +288,832
 
    Agricultural Credit Insurance Fund [ACIF] Program Account:
        Loan authorizations:
            Farm ownership loans:
                Direct.............................................      (1,500,000)      (1,500,000)      (1,500,000)  ...............  ...............
                Guaranteed.........................................      (2,750,000)      (2,750,000)      (2,750,000)  ...............  ...............
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                  Subtotal.........................................      (4,250,000)      (4,250,000)      (4,250,000)  ...............  ...............
 
            Farm operating loans:
                Direct.............................................      (1,530,000)      (1,500,000)      (1,530,000)  ...............        (+30,000)
                Unsubsidized guaranteed............................      (1,960,000)      (1,600,000)      (1,960,000)  ...............       (+360,000)
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                  Subtotal.........................................      (3,490,000)      (3,100,000)      (3,490,000)  ...............       (+390,000)
 
            Emergency loans........................................         (25,610)         (37,668)         (37,668)        (+12,058)  ...............
            Indian tribe land acquisition loans....................         (20,000)         (20,000)         (20,000)  ...............  ...............
            Conservation loans:
                Guaranteed.........................................        (150,000)        (150,000)        (150,000)  ...............  ...............
            Indian highly fractionated land loans..................         (10,000)  ...............         (10,000)  ...............        (+10,000)
            Boll weevil eradication loans..........................         (60,000)         (60,000)         (60,000)  ...............  ...............
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Total, Loan authorizations...........................      (8,005,610)      (7,617,668)      (8,017,668)        (+12,058)       (+400,000)
                                                                    ====================================================================================
        Loan subsidies:
            Farm operating loans:
                Direct.............................................          61,812           58,500           59,670           -2,142           +1,170
                Unsubsidized guaranteed............................          21,756           17,280           21,168             -588           +3,888
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                  Subtotal.........................................          83,568           75,780           80,838           -2,730           +5,058
 
            Emergency Loans........................................           1,260            1,567            1,567             +307   ...............
            Indian highly fractionated land loans..................           2,272   ...............           2,134             -138           +2,134
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Total, Loan subsidies and grants.....................          87,100           77,347           84,539           -2,561           +7,192
                                                                    ====================================================================================
        ACIF administrative expenses:
            Salaries and expenses (transfer to FSA)................         314,998          266,436          314,998   ...............         +48,562
            Administrative expenses................................          10,070           10,070           10,070   ...............  ...............
            Administrative expenses (transfer to FPAC Business       ...............          16,081   ...............  ...............         -16,081
             Center)...............................................
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Total, ACIF expenses.................................         325,068          292,587          325,068   ...............         +32,481
                                                                    ====================================================================================
          Total, Agricultural Credit Insurance Fund................         412,168          369,934          409,607           -2,561          +39,673
              (Loan authorization).................................      (8,005,610)      (7,617,668)      (8,017,668)        (+12,058)       (+400,000)
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Total, Farm Service Agency...............................       1,627,147        1,491,429        1,624,586           -2,561         +133,157
                                                                    ====================================================================================
Risk Management Agency (RMA):
    RMA Salaries and expenses......................................          74,829           37,942           74,829   ...............         +36,887
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal, Risk Management Agency.............................          74,829           37,942           74,829   ...............         +36,887
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, Farm Production Programs..............................       1,701,976        1,529,371        1,699,415           -2,561         +170,044
                                                                    ====================================================================================
Natural Resources Conservation Service:
    Private Lands Conservation Operations..........................         874,107          669,033          879,107           +5,000         +210,074
        Transfer...................................................  ...............  ...............  ...............  ...............  ...............
        Farm Security and Rural Investment program (transfer         ...............        (850,200)  ...............  ...............       (-850,200)
         authority)................................................
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Total, Conservation operations...........................         874,107          669,033          879,107           +5,000         +210,074
                                                                    ====================================================================================
    Watershed flood and prevention operations......................         150,000   ...............         150,000   ...............        +150,000
    Watershed rehabilitation program...............................          10,000   ...............  ...............         -10,000   ...............
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, Natural Resources Conservation Service................       1,034,107          669,033        1,029,107           -5,000         +360,074
                                                                    ====================================================================================
                            Corporations
 
Federal Crop Insurance Corporation:
    Federal crop insurance corporation fund........................       8,913,000        8,687,000        8,687,000         -226,000   ...............
 
Commodity Credit Corporation Fund:
    Reimbursement for net realized losses..........................      14,284,847       15,410,000       15,410,000       +1,125,153   ...............
    Hazardous waste management (limitation on expenses)............          (5,000)          (5,000)          (5,000)  ...............  ...............
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, Corporations..........................................      23,197,847       24,097,000       24,097,000         +899,153   ...............
                                                                    ====================================================================================
      Total, Title II, Farm Production and Conservation Programs...      25,933,930       26,295,404       26,825,522         +891,592         +530,118
                                                                    ====================================================================================
                    TITLE III--RURAL DEVELOPMENT
 
Rural Development:
    Rural development expenses:
        Salaries and expenses......................................         230,835          156,054          232,835           +2,000          +76,781
        (Transfer from RHIF).......................................        (412,254)        (244,249)        (412,254)  ...............       (+168,005)
        (Transfer from RCFP).......................................  ...............        (147,591)  ...............  ...............       (-147,591)
        (Transfer from RDLFP)......................................          (4,468)  ...............          (4,468)  ...............         (+4,468)
        (Transfer from RETLP)......................................         (33,270)         (38,027)         (33,270)  ...............         (-4,757)
        (Transfer from DLTBP)......................................  ...............          (8,057)  ...............  ...............         (-8,057)
        (Transfer from RWWDP)......................................  ...............         (18,149)  ...............  ...............        (-18,149)
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Subtotal, Transfers from program accounts................        (449,992)        (456,073)        (449,992)  ...............         (-6,081)
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Total, Rural development expenses........................        (680,827)        (612,127)        (682,827)         (+2,000)        (+70,700)
                                                                    ====================================================================================
Rural Housing Service:
    Rural Housing Insurance Fund Program Account:
        Loan authorizations:
            Single family direct (Sec. 502)........................      (1,100,000)  ...............      (1,100,000)  ...............     (+1,100,000)
                Unsubsidized guaranteed............................     (24,000,000)     (24,000,000)     (24,000,000)  ...............  ...............
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                  Subtotal, Single family..........................     (25,100,000)     (24,000,000)     (25,100,000)  ...............     (+1,100,000)
 
            Housing repair (Sec. 504)..............................         (28,000)  ...............         (28,000)  ...............        (+28,000)
            Rental housing (Sec. 515)..............................         (40,000)  ...............         (40,000)  ...............        (+40,000)
            Multi-family housing guarantees (Sec. 538).............        (230,000)        (250,000)        (230,000)  ...............        (-20,000)
            Site development loans (Sec. 524)......................          (5,000)  ...............          (5,000)  ...............         (+5,000)
            Single family housing credit sales.....................         (10,000)         (10,000)         (10,000)  ...............  ...............
            Self-help housing land development housng loans (Sec.            (5,000)  ...............          (5,000)  ...............         (+5,000)
             523)..................................................
            Farm Labor Housing (Sec. 514)..........................         (23,855)  ...............         (23,855)  ...............        (+23,855)
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Total, Loan authorizations...........................     (25,441,855)     (24,260,000)     (25,441,855)  ...............     (+1,181,855)
                                                                    ====================================================================================
        Loan subsidies:
            Single Family Direct (Sec. 502)........................          42,350   ...............          53,900          +11,550          +53,900
            Housing repair (Sec. 504)..............................           3,452   ...............           3,419              -33           +3,419
            Rental housing (Sec. 515)..............................          10,524   ...............           9,484           -1,040           +9,484
            Farm labor housing (Sec. 514)..........................           6,374   ...............           5,945             -429           +5,945
            Self-Help Land Devleopment Housing Loans (Sec. 523)....             368   ...............             431              +63             +431
            Site Development Loans (Sec. 524)......................              58   ...............             176             +118             +176
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Total, Loan subsidies................................          63,126   ...............          73,355          +10,229          +73,355
                                                                    ====================================================================================
        Farm labor housing grants..................................           8,336   ...............           8,336   ...............          +8,336
        RHIF administrative expenses (transfer to RD)..............         412,254          244,249          412,254   ...............        +168,005
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Total, Rural Housing Insurance Fund program..........         483,716          244,249          493,945          +10,229         +249,696
                (Loan authorization)...............................     (25,441,855)     (24,260,000)     (25,441,855)  ...............     (+1,181,855)
                                                                    ====================================================================================
    Rental Assistance Program:
        Rental assistance (Sec. 521)...............................       1,345,293        1,331,400        1,331,400          -13,893   ...............
 
Multi-Family Housing Revitalization Program Account:
    Rural Housing Voucher Program..................................          25,000           20,000           26,000           +1,000           +6,000
    Multi-Family Housing Revitalization Program....................          22,000   ...............          24,000           +2,000          +24,000
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, Multi-family housing revitalization...................          47,000           20,000           50,000           +3,000          +30,000
 
    Mutual and self-help housing grants............................          30,000   ...............          30,000   ...............         +30,000
    Rural housing assistance grants................................          40,000   ...............          40,000   ...............         +40,000
    Rural Community Facilities Program Account:
        Loan authorizations:
            Community facility:
                Direct.............................................      (2,800,000)      (3,500,000)      (3,000,000)       (+200,000)       (-500,000)
                Guaranteed.........................................        (148,287)  ...............        (148,287)  ...............       (+148,287)
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                  Total, Loan authorizations.......................      (2,948,287)      (3,500,000)      (3,148,287)       (+200,000)       (-351,713)
                                                                    ====================================================================================
        Loan subsidies and grants:
            Community facility:
                Guaranteed.........................................           4,849   ...............           4,285             -564           +4,285
                Grants.............................................          30,000   ...............          32,000           +2,000          +32,000
            Rural community development initiative.................           4,000   ...............           6,000           +2,000           +6,000
            Economic impact initiative grants......................           5,778   ...............           5,778   ...............          +5,778
            Tribal college grants..................................           4,000   ...............           4,000   ...............          +4,000
        RCFP administrative expenses (transfer to RD)..............  ...............         147,591   ...............  ...............        -147,591
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
            Total, RCFP Loan subsidies and grants..................          48,627          147,591           52,063           +3,436          -95,528
                                                                    ====================================================================================
      Subtotal, grants and payments................................         118,627          147,591          122,063           +3,436          -25,528
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, Rural Housing Service.................................       1,994,636        1,743,240        1,997,408           +2,772         +254,168
          (Loan authorization).....................................     (28,390,142)     (27,760,000)     (28,590,142)       (+200,000)       (+830,142)
                                                                    ====================================================================================
Rural Business--Cooperative Service:
    Rural Business Program Account:
        (Guaranteed business and industry loans)...................        (919,765)  ...............        (919,765)  ...............       (+919,765)
        Loan subsidies and grants:
            Guaranteed business and industry subsidy...............          37,342   ...............          21,339          -16,003          +21,339
                Rural business development grants..................          34,000   ...............          40,280           +6,280          +40,280
                DRA,NBRC, and ARC..................................           6,000   ...............           8,000           +2,000           +8,000
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Total, RBP loan subsidies and grants.....................          77,342   ...............          69,619           -7,723          +69,619
                                                                    ====================================================================================
    Intermediary Relending Program Fund Account:
        (Loan authorization).......................................         (18,889)  ...............         (18,889)  ...............        (+18,889)
        Loan subsidy...............................................           4,361   ...............           4,157             -204           +4,157
        Administrative expenses (transfer to RD)...................           4,468   ...............           4,468   ...............          +4,468
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Total, IRP Fund..........................................           8,829   ...............           8,625             -204           +8,625
                                                                    ====================================================================================
    Rural Economic Development Loans Program Account:
        (Loan authorization).......................................         (45,000)  ...............         (45,000)  ...............        (+45,000)
 
    Rural Cooperative Development Grants:
        Cooperative development....................................           5,800   ...............           5,800   ...............          +5,800
        Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Areas............           2,750   ...............           3,750           +1,000           +3,750
        Grants to assist minority producers........................           3,000   ...............           3,000   ...............          +3,000
        Value-added agricultural product market development........          16,000   ...............          17,500           +1,500          +17,500
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Total, Rural Cooperative Development grants..............          27,550   ...............          30,050           +2,500          +30,050
                                                                    ====================================================================================
    Rural Energy for America Program:
        (Loan authorization).......................................          (7,576)  ...............          (7,576)  ...............         (+7,576)
        Loan subsidy and grants....................................             293   ...............             338              +45             +338
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Total, Rural Energy for America Program..................             293   ...............             338              +45             +338
                                                                    ====================================================================================
      Total, Rural Business-Cooperative Service....................         114,014   ...............         108,632           -5,382         +108,632
          (Loan authorization).....................................        (991,230)  ...............        (991,230)  ...............       (+991,230)
                                                                    ====================================================================================
Rural Utilities Service:
    Rural water and waste disposal program account:
        Loan authorizations:
            Direct.................................................      (1,200,000)      (1,200,000)      (1,200,000)  ...............  ...............
            Guaranteed.............................................         (50,000)  ...............         (50,000)  ...............        (+50,000)
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Total, Loan authorization............................       1,250,000        1,200,000        1,250,000   ...............         +50,000
                                                                    ====================================================================================
        Loan subsidies and grants:
            Direct subsidy.........................................           2,040   ...............  ...............          -2,040   ...............
            Guaranteed subsidy.....................................             230   ...............             190              -40             +190
            Water and waste revolving fund.........................           1,000   ...............           1,000   ...............          +1,000
            Water well system grants...............................             993   ...............             993   ...............            +993
            Colonias and AK/HI grants..............................          68,000   ...............          68,000   ...............         +68,000
            Water and waste technical assistance...................          40,000   ...............          40,000   ...............         +40,000
            Circuit rider program..................................          19,000   ...............          19,000   ...............         +19,000
            Solid waste management grants..........................           4,000   ...............           4,000   ...............          +4,000
            High energy cost grants................................          10,000   ...............          10,000   ...............         +10,000
            Water and waste disposal grants........................         400,000   ...............         400,000   ...............        +400,000
            306A(i)(2) grants......................................          15,000   ...............          15,000   ...............         +15,000
            WWDP Administrative expenses (transfer to RD)..........  ...............          18,149   ...............  ...............         -18,149
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Total, Loan subsidies and grants.....................         560,263           18,149          558,183           -2,080         +540,034
                                                                    ====================================================================================
    Rural Electrification and Telecommunications Loans Program
     Account:
        Loan authorizations:
            Electric:
                Direct, FFB........................................      (5,500,000)      (5,500,000)      (5,500,000)  ...............  ...............
                Guaranteed underwriting............................        (750,000)  ...............        (750,000)  ...............       (+750,000)
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                  Subtotal, Electric...............................      (6,250,000)      (5,500,000)      (6,250,000)  ...............       (+750,000)
 
            Telecommunications:
                Direct, Treasury rate..............................        (345,000)        (172,600)        (345,000)  ...............       (+172,400)
                Direct, FFB........................................        (345,000)        (517,400)        (345,000)  ...............       (-172,400)
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                  Subtotal, Telecommunications.....................        (690,000)        (690,000)        (690,000)  ...............  ...............
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Total, Loan authorizations...........................      (6,940,000)      (6,190,000)      (6,940,000)  ...............       (+750,000)
                                                                    ====================================================================================
        Loan Subsidy:
            Telecommunications Direct, Treasury Rate...............             863              863            1,725             +862             +862
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Total, Loan subsidies................................             863              863            1,725             +862             +862
                                                                    ====================================================================================
        RETLP administrative expenses (transfer to RD).............          33,270           38,027           33,270   ...............          -4,757
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Total, Rural Electrification and Telecommunications Loans          34,133           38,890           34,995             +862           -3,895
           Program Account.........................................
                (Loan authorization)...............................      (6,940,000)      (6,190,000)      (6,940,000)  ...............       (+750,000)
                                                                    ====================================================================================
    Broadband Program:
        Loan authorizations:
            Broadband telecommunications...........................         (29,851)         (23,149)         (29,851)  ...............         (+6,702)
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Total, Loan authorizations...........................         (29,851)         (23,149)         (29,851)  ...............         (+6,702)
                                                                    ====================================================================================
        Loan subsidies and grants:
            Distance learning and telemedicine:
                Grants.............................................          32,000           23,600           33,000           +1,000           +9,400
            Broadband telecommunications:
                Direct.............................................           5,000            4,521            5,830             +830           +1,309
                Grants.............................................          30,000           30,000           30,000   ...............  ...............
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                  Total, Loan subsidies and grants.................          67,000           58,121           68,830           +1,830          +10,709
                                                                    ====================================================================================
        DLTBP administrative expenses (transfer to RD).............  ...............           8,057   ...............  ...............          -8,057
                                                                    ====================================================================================
      Total, Rural Utilities Service...............................         661,396          123,217          662,008             +612         +538,791
          (Loan authorization).....................................      (8,219,851)      (7,413,149)      (8,219,851)  ...............       (+806,702)
                                                                    ====================================================================================
      Total, Title III, Rural Development Programs.................       3,000,881        2,022,511        3,000,883               +2         +978,372
          (By transfer)............................................        (449,992)        (456,073)        (449,992)  ...............         (-6,081)
          (Loan authorization).....................................     (37,601,223)     (35,173,149)     (37,801,223)       (+200,000)     (+2,628,074)
                                                                    ====================================================================================
                  TITLE IV--DOMESTIC FOOD PROGRAMS
 
Office of the Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition and Consumer                  800              800              800   ...............  ...............
 Services..........................................................
 
Food and Nutrition Service:
    Child nutrition programs.......................................      24,196,139       23,123,983       23,126,012       -1,070,127           +2,029
        School breakfast program equipment grants..................          30,000   ...............          30,000   ...............         +30,000
        Demonstration projects (Summer EBT)........................          28,000           22,957           28,000   ...............          +5,043
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Total, Child nutrition programs..........................      24,254,139       23,146,940       23,184,012       -1,070,127          +37,072
                                                                    ====================================================================================
    Special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and        6,175,000        5,750,000        6,150,000          -25,000         +400,000
     children (WIC)................................................
    Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program:
        (Food stamp program).......................................      71,012,501       70,218,276       70,218,276         -794,225   ...............
            Reserve................................................       3,000,000        3,000,000        3,000,000   ...............  ...............
            FDPIR nutrition education services.....................             998   ...............             998   ...............            +998
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Total, Food stamp program............................      74,013,499       73,218,276       73,219,274         -794,225             +998
                                                                    ====================================================================================
                Fiscal year 2018...................................     (74,013,499)     (73,218,276)     (73,219,274)       (-794,225)           (+998)
    Commodity Assistance Program:
        Commodity Supplemental Food Program........................         238,120   ...............         238,120   ...............        +238,120
        Farmers Market Nutrition Program...........................          18,548   ...............          18,548   ...............         +18,548
        Emergency Food Assistance Program..........................          64,401           54,401           64,401   ...............         +10,000
        Pacific island and disaster assistance.....................           1,070            1,070            1,070   ...............  ...............
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Total, Commodity Assistance Program......................         322,139           55,471          322,139   ...............        +266,668
 
    Nutrition Programs Administration..............................         153,841          160,838          164,688          +10,847           +3,850
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, Food and Nutrition Service............................     104,918,618      102,331,525      103,040,113       -1,878,505         +708,588
          Fiscal year 2018.........................................    (104,918,618)    (102,331,525)    (103,040,113)     (-1,878,505)       (+708,588)
      Total, Title IV, Domestic Food Programs......................     104,919,418      102,332,325      103,040,913       -1,878,505         +708,588
                                                                    ====================================================================================
          Fiscal year 2018.........................................    (104,918,618)    (102,331,525)    (103,040,113)     (-1,878,505)       (+708,588)
                                                                    ====================================================================================
          TITLE V--FOREIGN ASSISTANCE AND RELATED PROGRAMS
 
Office of the Under Secretary for Trade and Foreign Agricultural                875              875              875   ...............  ...............
 Affairs...........................................................
Office Codex Alimentarius..........................................           3,796            3,796            3,976             +180             +180
 
                    Foreign Agricultural Service
 
Salaries and expenses..............................................         199,666          193,085          212,230          +12,564          +19,145
    (Transfer from export loans)...................................          (6,382)          (6,382)          (6,382)  ...............  ...............
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, Salaries and expenses.................................         206,048          199,467          218,612          +12,564          +19,145
                                                                    ====================================================================================
Food for Peace Title I Direct Credit and Food for Progress Program
 Account, Administrative Expenses:
 
    Farm Service Agency, Salaries and expenses (transfer to FSA)...             149              142              142               -7   ...............
 
Food for Peace Title II Grants:
    Expenses.......................................................       1,600,000   ...............       1,716,000         +116,000       +1,716,000
 
Commodity Credit Corporation Export Loans Program Account
 (administrative expenses):
    Salaries and expenses (Export Loans):
        Foreign Agriculture Service, S&E (transfer to FAS).........           6,382            6,382            6,382   ...............  ...............
        Farm Service Agency S&E (transfer to FSA)..................           2,463              335            2,463   ...............          +2,128
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Total, CCC Export Loans Program Account..................           8,845            6,717            8,845   ...............          +2,128
                                                                    ====================================================================================
McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition          207,626   ...............         210,255           +2,629         +210,255
 program grants....................................................
                                                                    ====================================================================================
      Total, Title V, Foreign Assistance and Related Programs......       2,020,957          204,615        2,152,323         +131,366       +1,947,708
          (By transfer)............................................          (6,382)          (6,382)          (6,382)  ...............  ...............
                                                                    ====================================================================================
    TITLE VI--RELATED AGENCIES AND FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION
 
              DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
 
                    Food and Drug Administration
 
Salaries and expenses, direct appropriation........................       2,800,078        3,171,920        2,959,078         +159,000         -212,842
    Prescription drug user fees....................................        (911,346)        (960,568)        (960,568)        (+49,222)  ...............
    Medical device user fees.......................................        (193,291)        (196,668)        (196,668)         (+3,377)  ...............
    Human generic drug user fees...................................        (493,600)        (501,396)        (501,396)         (+7,796)  ...............
    Biosimilar biological products user fees.......................         (40,214)         (40,922)         (40,922)           (+708)  ...............
    Animal drug user fees..........................................         (18,093)         (30,331)         (30,331)        (+12,238)  ...............
    Animal generic drug user fees..................................          (9,419)         (18,336)         (18,336)         (+8,917)  ...............
    Tobacco product user fees......................................        (672,000)        (712,000)        (712,000)        (+40,000)  ...............
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal, user fees, enacted and definite....................      (2,337,963)      (2,460,221)      (2,460,221)       (+122,258)  ...............
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal (including user fees)...............................      (5,138,041)      (5,632,141)      (5,419,299)       (+281,258)       (-212,842)
 
    Mammography user fees..........................................         (20,522)         (20,522)         (20,522)  ...............  ...............
    Export and color certification user fees.......................         (14,758)         (14,758)         (14,758)  ...............  ...............
    Food and Feed Recall user fees.................................          (1,434)          (1,434)          (1,434)  ...............  ...............
    Food Reinspection fees.........................................          (6,414)          (6,414)          (6,414)  ...............  ...............
    Voluntary qualified importer program fees......................          (5,300)          (5,300)          (5,300)  ...............  ...............
    Pharmacy compounding fees (CBO estimate).......................          (1,446)          (1,520)          (1,446)  ...............            (-74)
    Priority review vouchers (PRV) pediatric disease...............          (7,686)          (7,686)          (7,686)  ...............  ...............
    Third party auditor............................................          (1,400)            (712)            (712)           (-688)  ...............
    Over-the-Counter Monograph fees (legislative proposal).........  ...............         (22,000)  ...............  ...............        (-22,000)
    Increased export certification fees............................  ...............          (4,280)  ...............  ...............         (-4,280)
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal, FDA user fees......................................      (2,396,923)      (2,544,847)      (2,518,493)       (+121,570)        (-26,354)
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Subtotal, FDA (including user fees)..........................      (5,197,001)      (5,716,767)      (5,477,571)       (+280,570)       (-239,196)
 
Buildings and facilities...........................................          11,788           11,788           11,788   ...............  ...............
FDA Innovation account.............................................          60,000           70,000           70,000          +10,000   ...............
Offset of appropriation pursuant to Section 1002(b)(3)(B) of the            -60,000          -70,000          -70,000          -10,000   ...............
 21st Century Cures Act (Public Law114-255)........................
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, FDA (w/user fees, including proposals)................      (5,208,789)      (5,728,555)      (5,489,359)       (+280,570)       (-239,196)
      Total, FDA (w/enacted user fees only)........................      (5,208,789)      (5,728,555)      (5,489,359)       (+280,570)       (-239,196)
      Total, FDA (excluding user fees).............................       2,811,866        3,183,708        2,970,866         +159,000         -212,842
                                                                    ====================================================================================
                        INDEPENDENT AGENCIES
 
Farm Credit Administration (limitation on administrative expenses).         (70,600)         (74,600)         (74,600)         (+4,000)  ...............
                                                                    ====================================================================================
      Total, Title VI, Related Agencies and Food and Drug                 2,811,866        3,183,708        2,970,866         +159,000         -212,842
       Administration..............................................
                                                                    ====================================================================================
                   TITLE VII--GENERAL PROVISIONS
 
Limit Dam Rehab (Sec. 714(1))......................................  ...............         -46,150   ...............  ...............         +46,150
Limit Environmental Quality Incentives Program (Sec. 714(2)).......  ...............        -136,260   ...............  ...............        +136,260
Limit Rural Energy for America Program (Sec. 714 (2)) (rescission).  ...............  ...............  ...............  ...............  ...............
Limit Biomass Crop Assistance Program (Sec. 714(3))................         -21,000   ...............  ...............         +21,000   ...............
Limit Biorefinery Assistance (Sec. 714(4)).........................  ...............  ...............  ...............  ...............  ...............
Limit Ag Management Assistance (Sec. 714 (5))......................  ...............          -9,380   ...............  ...............          +9,380
Limit Biorefinery Assistance (Sec. 714 (4)) (cancellation).........  ...............  ...............  ...............  ...............  ...............
Section 32 (Sec. 715) (rescission).................................  ...............        -342,000   ...............  ...............        +342,000
APHIS B&F--Fruit Fly Rearing (Sec. 743)............................  ...............  ...............  ...............  ...............  ...............
WIC (rescission)...................................................        -800,000         -215,000         -400,000         +400,000         -185,000
Limit CSP (Sec. 730)...............................................  ...............         -27,000   ...............  ...............         +27,000
Rural Water Waste Disposal (Sec. 726)..............................  ...............         -51,000   ...............  ...............         +51,000
RCFP (Sec. 727)....................................................  ...............          -3,046   ...............  ...............          +3,046
FAS S&E (Sec. 729).................................................  ...............         -18,000   ...............  ...............         +18,000
TEFAP (Sec. 748)...................................................  ...............  ...............  ...............  ...............  ...............
Water and Waste....................................................         500,000   ...............         400,000         -100,000         +400,000
Emergency livestock assistance program (Sec. 756)..................  ...............  ...............  ...............  ...............  ...............
Citrus Greening....................................................           7,500   ...............           7,500   ...............          +7,500
NIFA, Research & Education.........................................  ...............  ...............  ...............  ...............  ...............
RD balances (Sec. 758) (rescission)................................  ...............  ...............  ...............  ...............  ...............
Healthy Food Financing Initiative..................................           1,000   ...............           1,000   ...............          +1,000
RD unobligated balances (rescission)...............................  ...............  ...............  ...............  ...............  ...............
ARS B&F unobligated balances (rescission)..........................  ...............  ...............  ...............  ...............  ...............
Hardwood Trees (Reforestation Pilot Program).......................             600   ...............  ...............            -600   ...............
Water Bank program.................................................           4,000   ...............           4,000   ...............          +4,000
Geographic Disadvantaged farmers...................................           1,996   ...............           1,996   ...............          +1,996
Emergency Conservation Program.....................................  ...............  ...............  ...............  ...............  ...............
Food for Peace.....................................................         116,000   ...............  ...............        -116,000   ...............
Rural Energy Savings Program.......................................           8,000   ...............          10,000           +2,000          +10,000
Maturing mortgage pilot............................................           1,000   ...............           1,000   ...............          +1,000
FSA ARC pilot......................................................           5,000   ...............           5,000   ...............          +5,000
NIFA Military Veteran Grants.......................................           5,000   ...............           5,000   ...............          +5,000
Conservation Reserve Program Pilot.................................           1,000   ...............           1,000   ...............          +1,000
Child Nutrition Training pilot.....................................           2,000   ...............  ...............          -2,000   ...............
Broadband Pilot....................................................         600,000   ...............         425,000         -175,000         +425,000
Opioid Enforcement and Surveillance................................          94,000   ...............  ...............         -94,000   ...............
Electric Loan Refinancing..........................................           5,000   ...............  ...............          -5,000   ...............
Distance Learning Telemedicine.....................................          20,000   ...............          20,000   ...............         +20,000
Farm to School.....................................................           5,000   ...............           5,000   ...............          +5,000
NIFA Leasing.......................................................           6,000   ...............  ...............          -6,000   ...............
Tree Assistance Program............................................          15,000   ...............  ...............         -15,000   ...............
Farmer Stress......................................................  ...............  ...............           2,000           +2,000           +2,000
                                                                    ====================================================================================
      Total, Title VII, General Provisions.........................         577,096         -847,836          488,496          -88,600       +1,336,332
                                                                    ====================================================================================
                        OTHER APPROPRIATIONS
 
 SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS FOR DISASTER RELIEF REQUIREMENTS, 2017
 
Office of the Secretary (emergency)................................       2,360,000   ...............  ...............      -2,360,000   ...............
Office of Inspector General (emergency)............................           3,000   ...............  ...............          -3,000   ...............
ARS, Buildings and Facilities (emergency)..........................          22,000   ...............  ...............         -22,000   ...............
Emergency Conservation Program (emergency).........................         400,000   ...............  ...............        -400,000   ...............
Watershed and Flood and Prevention Operations (emergency)..........         541,000   ...............  ...............        -541,000   ...............
Rural Housing Insurance Fund Program Account (emergency)...........          19,000   ...............  ...............         -19,000   ...............
Rural Water and Waste Disposal Program Account (emergency).........         165,000   ...............  ...............        -165,000   ...............
Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and               14,000   ...............  ...............         -14,000   ...............
 Children (WIC) (emergency)........................................
Commodity Assistance Program (emergency)...........................          24,000   ...............  ...............         -24,000   ...............
FDA, Buildings and Facilities (emergency)..........................           8,000   ...............  ...............          -8,000   ...............
Sec. 20101(a) LIP (emergency)......................................           3,000   ...............  ...............          -3,000   ...............
Sec. 20101(b) ELAP (emergency).....................................          30,000   ...............  ...............         -30,000   ...............
Sec. 20101(c) TAP (emergency)......................................           7,000   ...............  ...............          -7,000   ...............
Sec. 20101(d) payment limitations (emergency)......................           2,000   ...............  ...............          -2,000   ...............
Sec. 60101 Cotton/ Dariy (emergency)...............................          47,000   ...............  ...............         -47,000   ...............
                                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Total, Supplemental Appropriations for Disaster Relief              3,645,000   ...............  ...............      -3,645,000   ...............
       Requirements (Public Law 115-56)............................
                                                                    ====================================================================================
     ADDITIONAL SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS FOR DISASTER RELIEF
                       REQUIREMENTS ACT, 2017
 
Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program (emergency)............       1,270,000   ...............  ...............      -1,270,000   ...............
                                                                    ====================================================================================
      Total, Other Appropriations..................................       4,915,000   ...............  ...............      -4,915,000   ...............
          (Emergency)..............................................       4,915,000   ...............  ...............      -4,915,000   ...............
                                                                    ====================================================================================
      Grand total..................................................     151,145,985      139,317,668      145,446,786       -5,699,199       +6,129,118
          Appropriations fiscal year 2018..........................    (147,030,985)    (139,874,668)    (145,846,786)     (-1,184,199)     (+5,972,118)
          Emergency appropriations.................................      (4,915,000)  ...............  ...............     (-4,915,000)  ...............
          Disaster relief..........................................  ...............  ...............  ...............  ...............  ...............
          Rescissions..............................................       (-800,000)       (-557,000)       (-400,000)       (+400,000)       (+157,000)
          Advance appropriations, fiscal year 2019.................  ...............  ...............  ...............  ...............  ...............
        (By transfer)..............................................        (794,689)        (765,938)        (794,466)           (-223)        (+28,528)
        (Loan authorization).......................................     (45,606,833)     (42,790,817)     (45,818,891)       (+212,058)     (+3,028,074)
        (Limitation on administrative expenses)....................        (191,827)        (220,582)        (195,582)         (+3,755)        (-25,000)
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