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115th Congress   }                                 {    Rept. 115-1129
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 2d Session      }                                 {            Part 1

======================================================================



 
                     SPACE WEATHER COORDINATION ACT

                                _______
                                

January 3, 2019.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

     Mr. Smith of Texas, from the Committee on Science, Space, and 
                  Technology, submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                         [To accompany S. 141]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, to whom 
was referred the bill (S. 141) to improve understanding and 
forecasting of space weather events, and for other purposes, 
having considered the same, report favorably thereon with 
amendments and recommend that the bill as amended do pass.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
Committee Statement and Views....................................     7
Section-by-Section...............................................     9
Explanation of Amendments........................................    10
Committee Consideration..........................................    11
Roll Call Votes..................................................    11
Application of Law to the Legislative Branch.....................    13
Statement of Oversight Findings and Recommendations of the 
  Committee......................................................    13
Statement of General Performance Goals and Objectives............    13
Duplication of Federal Programs..................................    13
Disclosure of Directed Rule Makings..............................    13
Federal Advisory Committee Act...................................    13
Unfunded Mandate Statement.......................................    13
Earmark Identification...........................................    14
Committee Estimate...............................................    14
Budget Authority and Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate...    14
Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill as Reported.............    16

    The amendments are as follows:
  Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the 
following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

  This Act may be cited as the ``Space Weather Coordination Act''.

SEC. 2. SPACE WEATHER.

  (a) In General.--Subtitle VI of title 51, United States Code, is 
amended by adding after chapter 605 the following:

                      ``CHAPTER 606--SPACE WEATHER

``Sec.
``60601. Space weather findings; policy.
``60602. Space weather coordination.
``60603. Space weather priorities, plan, and research roadmap.
``60604. Space weather reports.
``60605. Pilot program for obtaining commercial sector space weather 
data.
``60606. Definitions.

``Sec. 60601. Space weather findings; policy

  ``(a) Findings.--Congress finds the following:
          ``(1) Space weather events pose a significant threat to 
        humans working in the space environment, to modern 
        technological systems, and critical terrestrial infrastructure.
          ``(2) The effects of severe space weather events on the 
        electric power grid, satellites and satellite communications, 
        services, orbits and information, airline operations, 
        astronauts living and working in space, and space based 
        position, navigation, and timing systems could have significant 
        societal, economic, national security, and health impacts.
          ``(3) Space weather observation and forecasting are essential 
        for the success of deep space exploration.
          ``(4) Earth and space observations provide crucial data 
        necessary to predict and warn about space weather events.
          ``(5) Clear roles and accountability of Federal departments 
        and agencies are critical for an efficient and effective 
        response to threats posed by space weather.
          ``(6) Observations and measurements closer to the sun and 
        advanced instrumentation would provide for more advanced 
        warning of solar activity resulting in space weather activity.
          ``(7) Coordination and collaboration between Federal 
        departments and agencies, international partners, the academic 
        community, and the commercial sector is necessary to improve 
        the Nation's ability to understand, prepare for, avoid, 
        mitigate, and respond to severe space weather events.
          ``(8) The commercial sector should be solicited to support 
        and enable Federal space weather activities and encouraged to 
        provide and separately invest in innovative space weather data 
        and services.
  ``(b) Statement of National Policy.--It is the policy of the United 
States that--
          ``(1) the United States should establish and maintain 
        baseline capabilities for space weather observation and 
        forecasting to protect civil aviation, space transportation, 
        national security, human life, critical infrastructure, 
        commercial enterprise, and economic vitality in the United 
        States;
          ``(2) the establishment and maintenance of such baseline 
        capabilities for space weather should, to the extent 
        practicable, leverage the space weather observation 
        capabilities, data, and services of the academic community and 
        commercial sector;
          ``(3) space weather observation and forecasting are not 
        exclusive functions of the Federal Government; and
          ``(4) the Federal Government should, as practicable, obtain 
        space weather data and services through contracts with the 
        commercial sector, when the data and services are available, 
        cost-effective, and add value.

``Sec. 60602. Space weather coordination

  ``(a) Sense of Congress.--
          ``(1) National space council.--It is the sense of Congress 
        that--
                  ``(A) members of the National Space Council are key 
                stakeholders of the Federal Government with respect to 
                space weather;
                  ``(B) the Users' Advisory Group of the National Space 
                Council should effectively and efficiently represent 
                and advocate on behalf of nongovernmental organizations 
                and the academic community within the Nation's space 
                weather enterprise; and
                  ``(C) the National Space Council is the appropriate 
                Federal entity to review, establish, and coordinate the 
                Nation's space weather priorities.
          ``(2) Office of science and technology policy.--It is the 
        sense of Congress that the Office of Science and Technology 
        Policy--
                  ``(A) efficiently and effectively identifies 
                opportunities and avenues to advance the leadership of 
                the United States in science and technology; and
                  ``(B) is well positioned to identify opportunities 
                for advancement in coordination of space weather 
                research-to-operations and operations-to-research.
  ``(b) Coordinating Authority.--The National Space Council shall 
oversee efforts and activities of the Federal Government--
          ``(1) to implement the Nation's space weather priorities; and
          ``(2) to prepare for, avoid, mitigate, and respond to space 
        weather events.
  ``(c) National Committee for Space Weather Observation and 
Forecasting.--
          ``(1) Establishment.--In order to address the Nation's space 
        weather priorities and further coordinate efforts to monitor, 
        prepare for, avoid, mitigate, and respond to space weather 
        events, the President shall, in consultation with the Chair of 
        the National Space Council--
                  ``(A) establish a committee with respect to space 
                weather observation and forecasting to be known as the 
                `National Committee for Space Weather Observation and 
                Forecasting' (in this chapter referred to as the 
                `National Committee'); and
                  ``(B) establish one advisory committee for the 
                purpose specified in paragraph (3)(B), the composition 
                of which shall be determined by the Co-Chairs of the 
                National Committee and shall include equal 
                representation from the academic community, commercial 
                sector, and space weather end users.
          ``(2) National committee composition.--The National Committee 
        shall--
                  ``(A) be co-chaired by the Administrator of the 
                National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the 
                Secretary of Defense, and the Secretary of Commerce, or 
                their designated representatives, provided that such 
                designated representatives are of the Under Secretary 
                or Assistant Secretary level or higher;
                  ``(B) include as permanent voting members all Federal 
                departments or agencies determined to be key space 
                weather stakeholders or otherwise necessary for 
                inclusion as such permanent voting members by the 
                President, with the agreement of the Chair of the 
                National Space Council; and
                  ``(C) be empowered, with the approval of the Chair of 
                the National Space Council, to allow a relevant, non-
                member Federal department or agency to participate in 
                meetings of the National Committee as either a non-
                permanent observer or semi-permanent liaison to the 
                National Committee.
          ``(3) Duties.--
                  ``(A) National committee.--The duties of the National 
                Committee are the following:
                          ``(i) To effectively and efficiently promote 
                        coordination between Federal agencies, the 
                        academic community, and the commercial sector 
                        to advance the Nation's space enterprise.
                          ``(ii) To coordinate the implementation of 
                        the national space weather plan developed under 
                        section 60603(b) across the Federal Government, 
                        in partnership with the academic community, 
                        international partners, and the commercial 
                        sector.
                          ``(iii) To collaborate with the Director of 
                        the Office of Science and Technology Policy to 
                        identify opportunities for the academic 
                        community and commercial sectors to advance the 
                        understanding of space weather.
                  ``(B) Advisory committees.--The duty of the advisory 
                committee established pursuant to paragraph (1)(B) 
                shall be to advise the National Committee with respect 
                to--
                          ``(i) the development and implementation of 
                        the national space weather plan established 
                        under section 60603(b); and
                          ``(ii) the capabilities of the academic 
                        community and the commercial sector to meet the 
                        national space weather priorities identified 
                        under section 60603(a).
  ``(d) User Survey.--
          ``(1) In general.--The Chair of the National Space Council, 
        in consultation with the heads of other relevant Federal 
        agencies, the academic community, and the commercial sector, 
        shall direct the Users' Advisory Group of the Council to 
        conduct a comprehensive survey to identify the space weather 
        observation, research, modeling, forecasting, and prediction 
        needs of the space weather user community.
          ``(2) Survey considerations.--The survey conducted under 
        paragraph (1) shall--
                  ``(A) assess the adequacy of current Federal 
                Government goals for lead time, accuracy, coverage, 
                timeliness, data rate, and data quality for space 
                weather observations and forecasting;
                  ``(B) identify options and methods to, in 
                consultation with the academic community and the 
                commercial sector, improve the goals specified in 
                subparagraph (A);
                  ``(C) identify opportunities for the generation of 
                new data to address the needs of the space weather user 
                community;
                  ``(D) identify methods to increase coordination of, 
                with respect to space weather, research-to-operations 
                and operations-to-research;
                  ``(E) identify the most efficient and effective 
                formal mechanism or mechanisms for the sharing of space 
                weather data, operational forecasting needs, research 
                needs, findings, models, and capabilities between the 
                Federal Government, the academic community, the 
                commercial sector, and the space weather user 
                community;
                  ``(F) identify opportunities for new technologies, 
                research, and instrumentation to aid in research, 
                understanding, monitoring, modeling, prediction, and 
                forecasting of space weather; and
                  ``(G) identify methods and technologies to improve 
                preparedness for potential space weather events.
  ``(e) Special Authority.--In order to better understand space 
weather, the National Space Council may leverage expertise from any 
Federal agency or partner, as deemed appropriate by the Chair of the 
National Space Council, including through the use of--
          ``(1) interagency agreements;
          ``(2) memoranda of understanding; and
          ``(3) shared personnel.

``Sec. 60603. Space weather priorities, plan, and research roadmap

  ``(a) National Space Weather Priorities.--The National Space Council, 
in consultation with the Users' Advisory Group of the National Space 
Council, the academic community, and the commercial sector, shall 
establish national priorities for space weather, with respect to--
          ``(1) the protection of life and property;
          ``(2) the support of the leadership, economic development, 
        and national security of the United States; and
          ``(3) the space weather prediction and forecasting needs of 
        end-users.
  ``(b) National Space Weather Plan.--The National Committee shall 
develop a national space weather plan to implement the priorities 
established under subsection (a). Such plan shall, with respect to 
activities carried out to meet such priorities--
          ``(1) delineate appropriate roles among Federal agencies;
          ``(2) consider small satellite options, hosted payloads, 
        public-private partnerships, and commercial options such as 
        data-buys, and other acquisition approaches, that maximize 
        Federal investment and minimize overall costs to the Federal 
        Government;
          ``(3) identify knowledge gaps and their resolution through 
        specific research and development activities to improve 
        operational space weather forecasting;
          ``(4) describe collaborative opportunities with stakeholders, 
        including the academic community, nongovernmental 
        organizations, the commercial sector, and foreign governments;
          ``(5) leverage the work conducted through the National Space 
        Weather Strategy and National Space Weather Action Plan of the 
        National Science and Technology Council before the date of the 
        enactment of this section;
          ``(6) include a formal mechanism to share operational needs 
        of space weather forecasters with Federal agencies engaged in 
        space weather research and development activities, the academic 
        community, and the commercial sector; and
          ``(7) appropriately prioritize the critical land-based, sea-
        based, air-based, or space-based observation capabilities.
  ``(c) National Space Weather Research Roadmap.--The Director of the 
Office of Science and Technology Policy shall issue a national space 
weather research roadmap that--
          ``(1) considers the national space weather priorities 
        established under subsection (a);
          ``(2) considers the national space weather plan issued under 
        subsection (b);
          ``(3) considers the National Academy of Sciences, 
        Engineering, and Medicine's decadal survey recommendations;
          ``(4) includes a formal mechanism that provides for the 
        sharing of the research needs, findings, models, and 
        capabilities with space weather operational forecasting 
        centers; and
          ``(5) enhances coordination between research modeling 
        centers, forecasting centers, and the commercial sector.

``Sec. 60604. Space weather reports

  ``(a) Survey and Priorities.--Not later than 180 days after the date 
of enactment of the Space Weather Coordination Act, the Chair of the 
National Space Council shall submit to the Committee on Science, Space, 
and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee on 
Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate, a report on--
          ``(1) the findings of the user survey under section 60602(d); 
        and
          ``(2) the recommended space weather priorities under section 
        60603(a).
  ``(b) National Space Weather Plan.--Not later than 270 days after the 
date of enactment of the Space Weather Coordination Act, the Chair of 
the National Space Council shall submit to the Committee on Science, 
Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee 
on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate, the national 
space weather plan developed under section 60603(b).
  ``(c) National Space Weather Research Roadmap.--Not later than one 
year after the date of enactment of the Space Weather Coordination Act, 
the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall 
submit to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House 
of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation of the Senate, the national space weather research 
roadmap issued under section 60603(c).
  ``(d) Revaluation of Content.--Not later than one year after the date 
on which each Presidential term begins, as well as when determined to 
be necessary by the Chair of the National Space Council during the 
intervening years, the applicable entities shall review and assess the 
content previously developed under this section and update and resubmit 
such content when appropriate.

``Sec. 60605. Pilot program for obtaining commercial sector space 
                    weather data

  ``(a) Pilot Program.--
          ``(1) Establishment.--Not later than one year after the date 
        of the enactment of the Space Weather Coordination Act, the 
        Secretary of Commerce, acting through the Under Secretary of 
        Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere (in this section referred to 
        as the `Secretary'), shall establish a pilot program under 
        which the Secretary will offer to enter into contracts with one 
        or more entities in the commercial sector for the provision to 
        the Secretary of space weather data generated by such an entity 
        that meets the standards and specifications published under 
        paragraph (2).
          ``(2) Data standards and specifications.--Not later than one 
        year after the date of the enactment of the Space Weather 
        Coordination Act, the Secretary shall publish standards and 
        specifications for ground-based, ocean-based, air-based, and 
        space-based commercial space weather data and metadata.
          ``(3) Contracts.--
                  ``(A) In general.--Not later than 18 months after the 
                date of enactment of the Space Weather Coordination 
                Act, the Secretary shall offer to enter, through an 
                open competition, into at least one contract with one 
                or more commercial sector entities capable of providing 
                space weather data that--
                          ``(i) meets the standards and specifications 
                        established by the Secretary for providing such 
                        data; and
                          ``(ii) is provided in a manner that allows 
                        the Secretary to calibrate and evaluate the 
                        data for use in space weather research and 
                        forecasting models of the National Oceanic and 
                        Atmospheric Administration.
                  ``(B) Assessment.--Not later than the date that is 3 
                years after the date on which the Secretary enters into 
                a contract under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall 
                assess, and submit to the Committee on Science, Space, 
                and Technology of the House of Representatives and the 
                Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of 
                the Senate a report on, the extent to which data 
                provided under such contract meet the standards and 
                specifications established under paragraph (1) and the 
                extent to which the pilot program has demonstrated--
                          ``(i) the viability of assimilating the 
                        commercially provided data into National 
                        Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration space 
                        weather research and forecasting models;
                          ``(ii) whether, and by how much, the data so 
                        provided add value to space weather forecasts 
                        of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
                        Administration; and
                          ``(iii) the accuracy, quality, timeliness, 
                        validity, reliability, usability, information 
                        technology security, and cost-effectiveness of 
                        obtaining commercial space weather data from 
                        commercial sector providers.
          ``(4) Authorization of appropriations.--There are authorized 
        to be appropriated to carry out this subsection $6,000,000 for 
        each of fiscal years 2019 through 2022, to remain available 
        until expended.
  ``(b) Data and Hosted Satellite Payloads.--Notwithstanding any other 
provision of law, the Secretary may enter into agreements for--
          ``(1) the purchase of space weather data through contracts 
        with commercial providers; and
          ``(2) the placement of space weather satellite instruments on 
        payloads co-hosted by the Federal Government and the commercial 
        sector.
  ``(c) Obtaining Future Data.--If an assessment under subsection 
(a)(3)(B) demonstrates the ability of commercial space weather data to 
meet data and metadata standards and specifications published under 
subsection (a)(2), the Secretary shall--
          ``(1) where appropriate, cost-effective, and feasible, obtain 
        space weather data from commercial sector providers;
          ``(2) as early as possible in the acquisition process for any 
        future National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration space 
        weather observational capability, consider whether a suitable, 
        cost-effective, commercial capability is or will be available 
        to meet the observational requirements by the planned 
        operational date of the system;
          ``(3) if a suitable, cost-effective, commercial capability is 
        or will be available as described in paragraph (2), determine 
        whether it is in the national interest to develop a 
        governmental observational capability; and
          ``(4) submit to the Committee on Science, Space, and 
        Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee on 
        Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report 
        detailing any determination made under paragraph (2) or (3).
  ``(d) Data Sharing Practices.--
          ``(1) In general.--The Secretary shall, to the extent 
        practicable, leverage United States leadership in space weather 
        observation and forecasting to incentivize international 
        partners to increase their space weather observational and 
        forecasting capabilities and contribute additional space 
        weather observations, data, models, predictions, and forecasts. 
        The Under Secretary shall continue to meet international data 
        sharing agreements entered into prior to the date of enactment 
        of this Act.
          ``(2) NASA and nsf data.--The Administrator of the National 
        Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Director of the 
        National Science Foundation shall each make space weather 
        related data obtained for scientific research purposes 
        available to space weather forecasters, operations centers, and 
        the commercial sector and support model development and model 
        applications for space weather forecasting.
          ``(3) NOAA data.--The Secretary shall work with the academic 
        community to make space weather related data obtained from 
        operational forecasting available for scientific research.
  ``(e) Research for Improved Space Weather Forecasting.--The 
Secretary, the Director of the National Science Foundation, and the 
Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
shall support basic and applied research which could improve space 
weather forecasting lead time and accuracy.

``Sec. 60606. Definitions

  ``In this chapter:
          ``(1) National space council.--The term `National Space 
        Council' means the National Space Council established under 
        Executive Order 13803, (82 Fed. Reg. 31429, relating to 
        establishment of National Space Council) or any successor 
        entities as determined by the President.''.
  (b) Technical and Conforming Amendments.--
          (1) Conforming repeal.--Section 809 of the National 
        Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 
        (42 U.S.C. 18388) and the item relating to that section in the 
        table of contents under section 1(b) of that Act (124 Stat. 
        2806) are repealed.
          (2) Table of chapters.--The table of chapters of title 51, 
        United States Code, is amended by adding after the item 
        relating to chapter 605 the following:

``606. Space Weather........................................   60601''.
    Amend the title so as to read:
    An Act to improve understanding and forecasting of space 
weather and promote coordination between stakeholders, and for 
other purposes.

                     Committee Statement and Views


                          PURPOSE AND SUMMARY

    The purpose of S. 141 is to direct the establishment of a 
national framework to address current and future space weather 
challenges and needs, to coordinate efforts to monitor, prepare 
for, avoid, mitigate, and respond to space weather events, and 
to improve the lead time, accuracy, coverage, and timeliness of 
space weather forecasts.

                  BACKGROUND AND NEED FOR LEGISLATION

    Space weather refers to the changing conditions of the 
interplanetary environment that arise from solar activity. In 
its natural state, the Sun expels a constant stream of 
magnetically-active, charged energetic particles and radiation, 
referred to as solar wind, outward in all directions. The 
strength of solar wind, and concentration of charged particles 
and radiation, is influenced by three common types of Sun 
phenomena--coronal mass ejections, coronal holes, and solar 
flares. While the Earth is constantly buffeted by solar wind, 
it is usually deflected and redirected around the planet by 
Earth's magnetosphere, a magnetic field that extends well 
beyond the atmosphere. During particularly severe space weather 
events, however, strong solar wind can and does enter Earth's 
atmosphere causing disruptions known as geomagnetic storms. 
These storms result in increased radiation and rapid changes in 
the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field, 
conditions which can negatively influence the performance and 
reliability of space-borne and ground-based technological 
systems and endanger human life and health.
    On the ground, geomagnetic storms can cause unexpected 
electric currents in long conductors like power lines and 
pipelines. In 1989, a strong geomagnetic storm set off a major 
power blackout in Canada that left six million people without 
electricity. Within Earth's atmosphere, commercial aviation 
flights, and their passengers, travelling at higher latitudes 
are also exposed to more radiation when space weather is 
severe. And disturbances in the Earth's ionosphere can 
interfere with Global Positioning System navigation and disrupt 
high frequency radio communications for days to weeks at a 
time. In space, when space weather is severe, satellites may 
experience radiation damage, memory upsets, phantom commands, 
and unplanned charging, and astronauts on the International 
Space Station can be exposed to dangerous amounts of radiation. 
Future human exploration beyond Earth's orbit will further 
expose astronauts to the negative effects of space weather.
    Government and private sector organizations concerned with 
communications, satellite operations, electric power grids, 
human space flight, and navigation rely heavily on space 
weather information bulletins and forecasting to inform their 
decision making. Currently, for civilian operations, several 
federal agencies under the Science Committee's jurisdiction, 
primarily the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 
(NOAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
(NASA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the U.S. 
Geological Survey, provide operational and research resources 
to forecast, model, and understand space weather and its 
effects. For the defense and intelligence communities, the 
Department of Defense, through the U.S. Air Force, provides 
operational resources to forecast and model space weather and 
its effects.
    In October 2015, the White House National Science and 
Technology Council (NSTC) released both the National Space 
Weather Strategy and the National Space Weather Action Plan, 
the result of a multiagency task force led by the Office of 
Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), NOAA, and the Department 
of Homeland Security seeking to enhance the integration of 
existing national efforts to understand, predict, prepare for, 
and mitigate space weather. In January 2018, the Space Weather 
Operations, Research, and Mitigation (SWORM) Subcommittee of 
the NSTC Committee on Homeland and National Security, released 
the Space Weather Phase 1 Benchmarks. Currently, SWORM 
coordinates many of the interagency efforts dealing with space 
weather and its effects. S. 141 would build upon these efforts 
and strengthen the ability of the federal government and 
private sector to coordinate operational planning and 
forecasting, in both the civilian and defense spaces, as well 
as direct and coordinate research activities to better 
understand the Sun-Earth system and improve forecasting lead-
time and accuracy.

                          LEGISLATIVE HISTORY

    Over the past six years, the House Committee on Science, 
Space, and Technology held two hearings and one markup relevant 
to this bill.

                            COMMITTEE VIEWS

    The Committee recognizes the ways in which severe space 
weather could adversely impact life on Earth and assets and 
activities in space. Accordingly, the Committee elevates the 
development, coordination, and implementation of federal 
efforts and activities in the space weather enterprise, 
specifically by directing the National Space Council to create 
priorities for the national space weather enterprise which are 
focused on the protection of life and property and advancing 
the leadership, economic development, and national security of 
the United States. Additionally, the Committee calls on the 
President to create a National Committee for Space Weather 
Observation and Forecasting, independent of the SWORM, which 
will be responsible for creating and helping implement a 
national space weather plan to meet the national space weather 
priorities. Finally, the Committee calls on the National Space 
Council, the National Committee, and OSTP to streamline efforts 
to coordinate public and private operational and research 
activities to mitigate space weather's impacts and increase our 
understanding of the Sun, and to survey the end users of space 
weather products to ensure their needs are being met.
    The Committee also recognizes that, as with terrestrial 
weather, there is a burgeoning commercial sector involved in 
space weather observation, research, and forecasting that could 
help meet the Nation's needs at a lower cost. Accordingly, the 
Committee authorizes the creation of a Commercial Space Weather 
Data Pilot program for the purchase of space weather data from 
the commercial sector to examine the possibility of using this 
data for operational forecasting.

                           Section-by-Section


Section 1. Short title

    This section establishes the short title of the bill as the 
``Space Weather Coordination Act.''

Section 2. Space weather

    This section amends subtitle VI of title 51, U.S. Code, by 
adding chapter 606, containing sections 60601 (space weather 
findings; policy), 60602 (space weather coordination), 60603 
(space weather priorities, plan, and research roadmap), 60604 
(space weather reports), 60605 (pilot program for obtaining 
commercial sector space weather data), and 60606 (definitions).
    Section 60601 presents the findings of Congress on: threats 
posed by space weather to human life, critical infrastructure, 
national security, and the economy; the need for coordination 
and collaboration between key stakeholders of the national 
space weather enterprise; the importance of thorough 
observation and advanced instrumentation in order to 
understand, prepare for, avoid, mitigate, and respond to severe 
space weather events; and the preference to solicit and engage 
the commercial sector to support and enable space weather 
activities.
    Additionally, section 60601 details that the policy of the 
United States is to: establish a baseline capability for space 
weather observation and forecasting to protect life, property, 
and economic vitality; leverage commercial and academic 
capabilities whenever practicable, including the use of 
contracts for the provision of data and services, in 
establishing that baseline; and operate with the mindset that 
space weather observation and forecasting are not exclusive 
functions of the Federal Government.
    Section 60602 outlines the coordinating efforts and 
activities of the Federal Government as it relates to 
promulgating national space weather priorities, as well as the 
identification of avenues to advance U.S. leadership in science 
and technology and the coordination of space weather research-
to-operations and operations-to-research.
    Additionally, this section creates the National Committee 
for Space Weather Observation and Forecasting (``National 
Committee''), co-chaired by the secretaries of Defense and 
Commerce and the NASA Administrator, to create and coordinate 
the implementation of a national space weather plan to meet 
national space weather priorities. This section also creates a 
Federal Advisory Committee to advise the National Committee on 
the development and implementation of the national space 
weather plan, including using the capabilities of the academic 
community and the commercial sector to meet the national space 
weather priorities. Finally, this section tasks the National 
Space Council's Users' Advisory Group with conducting a 
comprehensive survey to identify the space weather observation, 
research, modeling, forecasting, and prediction needs of the 
space weather user community.
    Section 60603 instructs the White House National Space 
Council to establish national space weather priorities, the 
National Committee to develop a national space weather plan to 
meet those priorities, and OSTP to develop a research roadmap 
that considers the priorities and plan to enhance coordination 
between research and forecasting centers and the commercial 
sector.
    Section 60604 establishes timelines for the issuance of 
reports and publication of the plan and research roadmap 
required under section 60603. This section also requires 
reevaluation of the priorities, plan, and research roadmap at 
least as often as at the beginning of every Presidential term 
and requires resubmission and republication of that content if 
updated.
    Section 60605 establishes a pilot program for the purchase 
of commercial space weather data and tasks the NOAA Under 
Secretary with developing data and metadata standards for the 
pilot program. Section 60605 requires a formal assessment of 
the quality of the data, the viability of assimilating the data 
into research and forecasting models, and whether and by how 
much the purchased data adds value to space weather forecasts.
    Section 60605 authorizes appropriations of $6 million for 
each of fiscal years 2019 through 2022, to remain available 
until expended, to carry out the pilot program. Additionally, 
this section requires the federal government to obtain 
commercial space weather data when it is appropriate, cost 
effective, and feasible, if the formal assessment of pilot 
program data demonstrates the ability for commercial space 
weather data to meet the standards and specifications set by 
the Under Secretary.
    Lastly, this section instructs: the Under Secretary to 
leverage American leadership in space weather to encourage 
international partners to increase their space weather 
observational and forecasting capabilities and sharing of data; 
the heads of NOAA, NASA, and NSF to make space weather data 
obtained for research available to space weather forecasting 
and operations centers, including the commercial sector, to 
support model development and application; and the heads of 
NOAA, NASA, and NSF to support research on observation, 
technologies, and instrumentation which could improve space 
weather forecasting lead time and accuracy.
    Section 60606 defines the term ``National Space Council.''

                       Explanation of Amendments

    An amendment in the nature of a substitute offered by 
Representative Ed Perlmutter was agreed to by voice vote. The 
amendment provides new text that elevates the National Space 
Council to coordinate federal agency responsibilities and 
implementation of space weather research and forecasting and 
encourages involvement with the academic community and 
commercial sector. The substitute text also removes language 
authorizing or directing activities of the Department of 
Transportation and the Federal Aviation Administration.
    A manager's amendment offered by Representative Ed 
Perlmutter was agreed to by voice vote. The amendment makes 
technical and clarifying improvements.
    An amendment in the nature of a substitute offered by 
Representative Eddie Bernice Johnson was defeated by a roll 
call vote of 13-19.

                        Committee Consideration

    On July 24, 2018, the Committee met in open session and 
ordered reported favorably the bill, S. 141, as amended, by 
voice vote, a quorum being present.

                            Roll Call Votes

[GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT]

              Application of Law to the Legislative Branch

    Section 102(b)(3) of Public Law 104-1 requires a 
description of the application of this bill to the legislative 
branch where the bill relates to the terms and conditions of 
employment or access to public services and accommodations. 
This bill establishes a coordinating framework for the creation 
and implementation of a national space weather plan. As such 
this bill does not relate to employment or access to public 
services and accommodations.
    Legislative branch employees and their families, to the 
extent that they are otherwise eligible for the benefits 
provided by this legislation, have equal access to its 
benefits.

  Statement of Oversight Findings and Recommendations of the Committee

    In compliance with clause 3(c)(1) of rule XIII and clause 
(2)(b)(1) of rule X of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives, the Committee's oversight findings and 
recommendations are reflected in the descriptive portions of 
this report.

         Statement of General Performance Goals and Objectives

    In accordance with clause 3(c)(4) of rule XIII of the Rules 
of the House of Representatives, the Committee's performance 
goals and objectives are reflected in the descriptive portions 
of this report.

                    Duplication of Federal Programs

    No provision of S. 141 establishes or reauthorizes a 
program of the Federal Government known to be duplicative of 
another Federal program, a program that was included in any 
report from the Government Accountability Office to Congress 
pursuant to section 21 of Public Law 111-139, or a program 
related to a program identified in the most recent Catalog of 
Federal Domestic Assistance.

                  Disclosure of Directed Rule Makings

    The Committee estimates that enacting S. 141 does not 
direct the completion of any specific rule makings within the 
meaning of 5 U.S.C. 551.

                     Federal Advisory Committee Act

    The Committee finds that the legislation establishes or 
authorizes the establishment of an advisory committee within 
the definition of 5 U.S.C. App., Section 5(b). The Committee 
estimates that the functions of the advisory committee are not 
and could not be performed by one or more agencies, by an 
advisory committee already in existence, or by enlarging the 
mandate of an existing advisory committee.

                       Unfunded Mandate Statement

    Section 423 of the Congressional Budget and Impoundment 
Control Act (as amended by Section 101(a)(2) of the Unfunded 
Mandate Reform Act, P.L. 104-4) requires a statement as to 
whether the provisions of the reported bill include unfunded 
mandates. In compliance with this requirement the Committee has 
received a letter from the Congressional Budget Office included 
herein.

                         Earmark Identification

    S. 141 does not include any congressional earmarks, limited 
tax benefits, or limited tariff benefits as defined in clause 9 
of rule XXI.

                           Committee Estimate

    Clause 3(d)(2) of rule XIII of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives requires an estimate and a comparison by the 
Committee of the costs that would be incurred in carrying out 
S. 141. However, clause 3(d)(3)(B) of that rule provides that 
this requirement does not apply when the Committee has included 
in its report a timely submitted cost estimate of the bill 
prepared by the Director of the Congressional Budget Office 
under section 402 of the Congressional Budget Act.

     Budget Authority and Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate

    With respect to the requirements of clause 3(c)(2) of rule 
XIII of the Rules of the House of Representatives and section 
308(a) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 and with respect 
to requirements of clause (3)(c)(3) of rule XIII of the Rules 
of the House of Representatives and section 402 of the 
Congressional Budget Act of 1974, the Committee has received 
the following cost estimate for S. 141 from the Director of 
Congressional Budget Office:

                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                   Washington, DC, October 2, 2018.
Hon. Lamar Smith,
Chairman, Committee on Science, Space, and Technology,
House of Representatives, Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for S. 141, the Space 
Weather Coordination Act.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Robert Reese.
            Sincerely,
                                                Keith Hall,
                                                          Director.
    Enclosure.

S. 141--Space Weather Coordination Act

    Summary: S. 141 would authorize the annual appropriation of 
$6 million over the 2019-2022 period for the National Oceanic 
and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to implement a pilot 
program to gather data on space weather. The legislation also 
would transfer the responsibility to coordinate inter-agency 
activities related to space weather from the Office of Science 
and Technology Policy (OSTP) to the National Space Council 
(NSC). CBO estimates that implementing S. 141 would cost $23 
million over the 2019-2023 period, assuming appropriation of 
the authorized amounts.
    Enacting S. 141 would not affect direct spending or 
revenues; therefore, pay-as-you-go procedures do not apply.
    CBO estimates that enacting S. 141 would not increase net 
direct spending or on-budget deficits in any of the four 
consecutive 10-year periods beginning in 2029.
    S. 141 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA).
    Estimated cost to the Federal Government: The estimated 
budgetary effect of S. 141 is shown in the following table. The 
costs of the legislation fall within budget functions 300 
(natural resources and environment) and 800 (general 
government).

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                               By fiscal year, in millions of dollars--
                                                    ------------------------------------------------------------
                                                       2019      2020      2021      2022      2023    2019-2023
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 INCREASES IN SPENDING SUBJECT TO APPROPRIATION
 
Authorization Level................................         6         6         6         6         0         24
Estimated Outlays..................................         4         5         6         6         2         23
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Basis of estimate: For this estimate, CBO assumes that S. 
141 will be enacted in 2019 and that the authorized amounts 
will be appropriated each year.
    S. 141 would authorize the appropriation of $6 million 
annually over the 2019-2022 period for NOAA to implement a 
pilot program to procure space weather data from private 
entities. Based on historical spending patterns for similar 
activities, CBO estimates implementing that program would cost 
$23 million over the 2019-2023 period.
    S. 141 also would codify existing space weather activities 
and transfer the responsibility for inter-agency coordination 
from the OSTP to the NSC. In addition, the legislation would 
require the OSTP to develop a roadmap for space weather 
research, and would direct the NSC to oversee the development 
of a national space weather plan. CBO expects that plan would 
be similar to the national space weather action plan that was 
released in 2015. Based on the costs of similar tasks, CBO 
estimates that implementing those provisions would cost less 
than $500,000; such spending would be subject to the 
availability of appropriated funds.
    Pay-As-You-Go considerations: None.
    Increase in long-term direct spending and deficits: CBO 
estimates that enacting S. 141 would not increase net direct 
spending or on-budget deficits in any of the four consecutive 
10-year periods beginning in 2029.
    Mandates: S. 141 contains no intergovernmental or private-
sector mandates as defined in UMRA.
    Previous CBO estimate: On February 24, 2017, CBO 
transmitted a cost estimate of S. 141, the Space Weather 
Research and Forecasting Act, as ordered reported by the Senate 
Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation on January 
24, 2017. The two versions of the legislation have different 
provisions; accordingly, CBO's estimates of their budgetary 
effects differ.
    Estimate prepared by: Federal costs: Robert Reese and 
Janani Shankaran, Mandates: Jon Sperl.
    Estimate reviewed by: Kim P. Cawley, Chief, Natural and 
Physical Resources Cost Estimates Unit; H. Samuel Papenfuss, 
Deputy Assistant Director for Budget Analysis.

         Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported

  In compliance with clause 3(e) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, changes in existing law made by 
the bill, as reported, are shown as follows (existing law 
proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new 
matter is printed in italic, and existing law in which no 
change is proposed is shown in roman):

                      TITLE 51, UNITED STATES CODE



                           Subtitle I--General

Chap.                                                               Sec.
      Definitions..................................................10101
     * * * * * * *

                     Subtitle VI--Earth Observations

     * * * * * * *
60601pace Weather.....................................................

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Subtitle VI--EARTH OBSERVATIONS

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                       CHAPTER 606--SPACE WEATHER

Sec.
60601. Space weather findings; policy.
60602. Space weather coordination.
60603. Space weather priorities, plan, and research roadmap.
60604. Space weather reports.
60605. Pilot program for obtaining commercial sector space weather data.
60606. Definitions.

Sec. 60601. Space weather findings; policy

  (a) Findings.--Congress finds the following:
          (1) Space weather events pose a significant threat to 
        humans working in the space environment, to modern 
        technological systems, and critical terrestrial 
        infrastructure.
          (2) The effects of severe space weather events on the 
        electric power grid, satellites and satellite 
        communications, services, orbits and information, 
        airline operations, astronauts living and working in 
        space, and space based position, navigation, and timing 
        systems could have significant societal, economic, 
        national security, and health impacts.
          (3) Space weather observation and forecasting are 
        essential for the success of deep space exploration.
          (4) Earth and space observations provide crucial data 
        necessary to predict and warn about space weather 
        events.
          (5) Clear roles and accountability of Federal 
        departments and agencies are critical for an efficient 
        and effective response to threats posed by space 
        weather.
          (6) Observations and measurements closer to the sun 
        and advanced instrumentation would provide for more 
        advanced warning of solar activity resulting in space 
        weather activity.
          (7) Coordination and collaboration between Federal 
        departments and agencies, international partners, the 
        academic community, and the commercial sector is 
        necessary to improve the Nation's ability to 
        understand, prepare for, avoid, mitigate, and respond 
        to severe space weather events.
          (8) The commercial sector should be solicited to 
        support and enable Federal space weather activities and 
        encouraged to provide and separately invest in 
        innovative space weather data and services.
  (b) Statement of National Policy.--It is the policy of the 
United States that--
          (1) the United States should establish and maintain 
        baseline capabilities for space weather observation and 
        forecasting to protect civil aviation, space 
        transportation, national security, human life, critical 
        infrastructure, commercial enterprise, and economic 
        vitality in the United States;
          (2) the establishment and maintenance of such 
        baseline capabilities for space weather should, to the 
        extent practicable, leverage the space weather 
        observation capabilities, data, and services of the 
        academic community and commercial sector;
          (3) space weather observation and forecasting are not 
        exclusive functions of the Federal Government; and
          (4) the Federal Government should, as practicable, 
        obtain space weather data and services through 
        contracts with the commercial sector, when the data and 
        services are available, cost-effective, and add value.

Sec. 60602. Space weather coordination

  (a) Sense of Congress.--
          (1) National space council.--It is the sense of 
        Congress that--
                  (A) members of the National Space Council are 
                key stakeholders of the Federal Government with 
                respect to space weather;
                  (B) the Users' Advisory Group of the National 
                Space Council should effectively and 
                efficiently represent and advocate on behalf of 
                nongovernmental organizations and the academic 
                community within the Nation's space weather 
                enterprise; and
                  (C) the National Space Council is the 
                appropriate Federal entity to review, 
                establish, and coordinate the Nation's space 
                weather priorities.
          (2) Office of science and technology policy.--It is 
        the sense of Congress that the Office of Science and 
        Technology Policy--
                  (A) efficiently and effectively identifies 
                opportunities and avenues to advance the 
                leadership of the United States in science and 
                technology; and
                  (B) is well positioned to identify 
                opportunities for advancement in coordination 
                of space weather research-to-operations and 
                operations-to-research.
  (b) Coordinating Authority.--The National Space Council shall 
oversee efforts and activities of the Federal Government--
          (1) to implement the Nation's space weather 
        priorities; and
          (2) to prepare for, avoid, mitigate, and respond to 
        space weather events.
  (c) National Committee for Space Weather Observation and 
Forecasting.--
          (1) Establishment.--In order to address the Nation's 
        space weather priorities and further coordinate efforts 
        to monitor, prepare for, avoid, mitigate, and respond 
        to space weather events, the President shall, in 
        consultation with the Chair of the National Space 
        Council--
                  (A) establish a committee with respect to 
                space weather observation and forecasting to be 
                known as the ``National Committee for Space 
                Weather Observation and Forecasting'' (in this 
                chapter referred to as the ``National 
                Committee''); and
                  (B) establish one advisory committee for the 
                purpose specified in paragraph (3)(B), the 
                composition of which shall be determined by the 
                Co-Chairs of the National Committee and shall 
                include equal representation from the academic 
                community, commercial sector, and space weather 
                end users.
          (2) National committee composition.--The National 
        Committee shall--
                  (A) be co-chaired by the Administrator of the 
                National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 
                the Secretary of Defense, and the Secretary of 
                Commerce, or their designated representatives, 
                provided that such designated representatives 
                are of the Under Secretary or Assistant 
                Secretary level or higher;
                  (B) include as permanent voting members all 
                Federal departments or agencies determined to 
                be key space weather stakeholders or otherwise 
                necessary for inclusion as such permanent 
                voting members by the President, with the 
                agreement of the Chair of the National Space 
                Council; and
                  (C) be empowered, with the approval of the 
                Chair of the National Space Council, to allow a 
                relevant, non-member Federal department or 
                agency to participate in meetings of the 
                National Committee as either a non-permanent 
                observer or semi-permanent liaison to the 
                National Committee.
          (3) Duties.--
                  (A) National committee.--The duties of the 
                National Committee are the following:
                          (i) To effectively and efficiently 
                        promote coordination between Federal 
                        agencies, the academic community, and 
                        the commercial sector to advance the 
                        Nation's space enterprise.
                          (ii) To coordinate the implementation 
                        of the national space weather plan 
                        developed under section 60603(b) across 
                        the Federal Government, in partnership 
                        with the academic community, 
                        international partners, and the 
                        commercial sector.
                          (iii) To collaborate with the 
                        Director of the Office of Science and 
                        Technology Policy to identify 
                        opportunities for the academic 
                        community and commercial sectors to 
                        advance the understanding of space 
                        weather.
                  (B) Advisory committees.--The duty of the 
                advisory committee established pursuant to 
                paragraph (1)(B) shall be to advise the 
                National Committee with respect to--
                          (i) the development and 
                        implementation of the national space 
                        weather plan established under section 
                        60603(b); and
                          (ii) the capabilities of the academic 
                        community and the commercial sector to 
                        meet the national space weather 
                        priorities identified under section 
                        60603(a).
  (d) User Survey.--
          (1) In general.--The Chair of the National Space 
        Council, in consultation with the heads of other 
        relevant Federal agencies, the academic community, and 
        the commercial sector, shall direct the Users' Advisory 
        Group of the Council to conduct a comprehensive survey 
        to identify the space weather observation, research, 
        modeling, forecasting, and prediction needs of the 
        space weather user community.
          (2) Survey considerations.--The survey conducted 
        under paragraph (1) shall--
                  (A) assess the adequacy of current Federal 
                Government goals for lead time, accuracy, 
                coverage, timeliness, data rate, and data 
                quality for space weather observations and 
                forecasting;
                  (B) identify options and methods to, in 
                consultation with the academic community and 
                the commercial sector, improve the goals 
                specified in subparagraph (A);
                  (C) identify opportunities for the generation 
                of new data to address the needs of the space 
                weather user community;
                  (D) identify methods to increase coordination 
                of, with respect to space weather, research-to-
                operations and operations-to-research;
                  (E) identify the most efficient and effective 
                formal mechanism or mechanisms for the sharing 
                of space weather data, operational forecasting 
                needs, research needs, findings, models, and 
                capabilities between the Federal Government, 
                the academic community, the commercial sector, 
                and the space weather user community;
                  (F) identify opportunities for new 
                technologies, research, and instrumentation to 
                aid in research, understanding, monitoring, 
                modeling, prediction, and forecasting of space 
                weather; and
                  (G) identify methods and technologies to 
                improve preparedness for potential space 
                weather events.
  (e) Special Authority.--In order to better understand space 
weather, the National Space Council may leverage expertise from 
any Federal agency or partner, as deemed appropriate by the 
Chair of the National Space Council, including through the use 
of--
          (1) interagency agreements;
          (2) memoranda of understanding; and
          (3) shared personnel.

Sec. 60603. Space weather priorities, plan, and research roadmap

  (a) National Space Weather Priorities.--The National Space 
Council, in consultation with the Users' Advisory Group of the 
National Space Council, the academic community, and the 
commercial sector, shall establish national priorities for 
space weather, with respect to--
          (1) the protection of life and property;
          (2) the support of the leadership, economic 
        development, and national security of the United 
        States; and
          (3) the space weather prediction and forecasting 
        needs of end-users.
  (b) National Space Weather Plan.--The National Committee 
shall develop a national space weather plan to implement the 
priorities established under subsection (a). Such plan shall, 
with respect to activities carried out to meet such 
priorities--
          (1) delineate appropriate roles among Federal 
        agencies;
          (2) consider small satellite options, hosted 
        payloads, public-private partnerships, and commercial 
        options such as data-buys, and other acquisition 
        approaches, that maximize Federal investment and 
        minimize overall costs to the Federal Government;
          (3) identify knowledge gaps and their resolution 
        through specific research and development activities to 
        improve operational space weather forecasting;
          (4) describe collaborative opportunities with 
        stakeholders, including the academic community, 
        nongovernmental organizations, the commercial sector, 
        and foreign governments;
          (5) leverage the work conducted through the National 
        Space Weather Strategy and National Space Weather 
        Action Plan of the National Science and Technology 
        Council before the date of the enactment of this 
        section;
          (6) include a formal mechanism to share operational 
        needs of space weather forecasters with Federal 
        agencies engaged in space weather research and 
        development activities, the academic community, and the 
        commercial sector; and
          (7) appropriately prioritize the critical land-based, 
        sea-based, air-based, or space-based observation 
        capabilities.
  (c) National Space Weather Research Roadmap.--The Director of 
the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall issue a 
national space weather research roadmap that--
          (1) considers the national space weather priorities 
        established under subsection (a);
          (2) considers the national space weather plan issued 
        under subsection (b);
          (3) considers the National Academy of Sciences, 
        Engineering, and Medicine's decadal survey 
        recommendations;
          (4) includes a formal mechanism that provides for the 
        sharing of the research needs, findings, models, and 
        capabilities with space weather operational forecasting 
        centers; and
          (5) enhances coordination between research modeling 
        centers, forecasting centers, and the commercial 
        sector.

Sec. 60604. Space weather reports

  (a) Survey and Priorities.--Not later than 180 days after the 
date of enactment of the Space Weather Coordination Act, the 
Chair of the National Space Council shall submit to the 
Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of 
Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation of the Senate, a report on--
          (1) the findings of the user survey under section 
        60602(d); and
          (2) the recommended space weather priorities under 
        section 60603(a).
  (b) National Space Weather Plan.--Not later than 270 days 
after the date of enactment of the Space Weather Coordination 
Act, the Chair of the National Space Council shall submit to 
the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of 
Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation of the Senate, the national space weather plan 
developed under section 60603(b).
  (c) National Space Weather Research Roadmap.--Not later than 
one year after the date of enactment of the Space Weather 
Coordination Act, the Director of the Office of Science and 
Technology Policy shall submit to the Committee on Science, 
Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the 
Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the 
Senate, the national space weather research roadmap issued 
under section 60603(c).
  (d) Revaluation of Content.--Not later than one year after 
the date on which each Presidential term begins, as well as 
when determined to be necessary by the Chair of the National 
Space Council during the intervening years, the applicable 
entities shall review and assess the content previously 
developed under this section and update and resubmit such 
content when appropriate.

Sec. 60605. Pilot program for obtaining commercial sector space weather 
                    data

  (a) Pilot Program.--
          (1) Establishment.--Not later than one year after the 
        date of the enactment of the Space Weather Coordination 
        Act, the Secretary of Commerce, acting through the 
        Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere 
        (in this section referred to as the ``Secretary''), 
        shall establish a pilot program under which the 
        Secretary will offer to enter into contracts with one 
        or more entities in the commercial sector for the 
        provision to the Secretary of space weather data 
        generated by such an entity that meets the standards 
        and specifications published under paragraph (2).
          (2) Data standards and specifications.--Not later 
        than one year after the date of the enactment of the 
        Space Weather Coordination Act, the Secretary shall 
        publish standards and specifications for ground-based, 
        ocean-based, air-based, and space-based commercial 
        space weather data and metadata.
          (3) Contracts.--
                  (A) In general.--Not later than 18 months 
                after the date of enactment of the Space 
                Weather Coordination Act, the Secretary shall 
                offer to enter, through an open competition, 
                into at least one contract with one or more 
                commercial sector entities capable of providing 
                space weather data that--
                          (i) meets the standards and 
                        specifications established by the 
                        Secretary for providing such data; and
                          (ii) is provided in a manner that 
                        allows the Secretary to calibrate and 
                        evaluate the data for use in space 
                        weather research and forecasting models 
                        of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
                        Administration.
                  (B) Assessment.--Not later than the date that 
                is 3 years after the date on which the 
                Secretary enters into a contract under 
                subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall assess, 
                and submit to the Committee on Science, Space, 
                and Technology of the House of Representatives 
                and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
                Transportation of the Senate a report on, the 
                extent to which data provided under such 
                contract meet the standards and specifications 
                established under paragraph (1) and the extent 
                to which the pilot program has demonstrated--
                          (i) the viability of assimilating the 
                        commercially provided data into 
                        National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
                        Administration space weather research 
                        and forecasting models;
                          (ii) whether, and by how much, the 
                        data so provided add value to space 
                        weather forecasts of the National 
                        Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; 
                        and
                          (iii) the accuracy, quality, 
                        timeliness, validity, reliability, 
                        usability, information technology 
                        security, and cost-effectiveness of 
                        obtaining commercial space weather data 
                        from commercial sector providers.
          (4) Authorization of appropriations.--There are 
        authorized to be appropriated to carry out this 
        subsection $6,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2019 
        through 2022, to remain available until expended.
  (b) Data and Hosted Satellite Payloads.--Notwithstanding any 
other provision of law, the Secretary may enter into agreements 
for--
          (1) the purchase of space weather data through 
        contracts with commercial providers; and
          (2) the placement of space weather satellite 
        instruments on payloads co-hosted by the Federal 
        Government and the commercial sector.
  (c) Obtaining Future Data.--If an assessment under subsection 
(a)(3)(B) demonstrates the ability of commercial space weather 
data to meet data and metadata standards and specifications 
published under subsection (a)(2), the Secretary shall--
          (1) where appropriate, cost-effective, and feasible, 
        obtain space weather data from commercial sector 
        providers;
          (2) as early as possible in the acquisition process 
        for any future National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
        Administration space weather observational capability, 
        consider whether a suitable, cost-effective, commercial 
        capability is or will be available to meet the 
        observational requirements by the planned operational 
        date of the system;
          (3) if a suitable, cost-effective, commercial 
        capability is or will be available as described in 
        paragraph (2), determine whether it is in the national 
        interest to develop a governmental observational 
        capability; and
          (4) submit to the Committee on Science, Space, and 
        Technology of the House of Representatives and the 
        Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of 
        the Senate a report detailing any determination made 
        under paragraph (2) or (3).
  (d) Data Sharing Practices.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary shall, to the extent 
        practicable, leverage United States leadership in space 
        weather observation and forecasting to incentivize 
        international partners to increase their space weather 
        observational and forecasting capabilities and 
        contribute additional space weather observations, data, 
        models, predictions, and forecasts. The Under Secretary 
        shall continue to meet international data sharing 
        agreements entered into prior to the date of enactment 
        of this Act.
          (2) NASA and nsf data.--The Administrator of the 
        National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the 
        Director of the National Science Foundation shall each 
        make space weather related data obtained for scientific 
        research purposes available to space weather 
        forecasters, operations centers, and the commercial 
        sector and support model development and model 
        applications for space weather forecasting.
          (3) NOAA data.--The Secretary shall work with the 
        academic community to make space weather related data 
        obtained from operational forecasting available for 
        scientific research.
  (e) Research for Improved Space Weather Forecasting.--The 
Secretary, the Director of the National Science Foundation, and 
the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration shall support basic and applied research which 
could improve space weather forecasting lead time and accuracy.

Sec. 60606. Definitions

  In this chapter:
          (1) National space council.--The term ``National 
        Space Council'' means the National Space Council 
        established under Executive Order 13803, (82 Fed. Reg. 
        31429, relating to establishment of National Space 
        Council) or any successor entities as determined by the 
        President.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

                              ----------                              


NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION AUTHORIZATION ACT OF 2010

SEC. 1. SHORT TITLE; TABLE OF CONTENTS.

  (a) Short Title.--This Act may be cited as the ``National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 
2010''.
  (b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents for this Act is 
as follows:

Sec. 1. Short title; table of contents.
     * * * * * * *

                        TITLE VIII--SPACE SCIENCE

     * * * * * * *
Sec. 801. Technology development.
     * * * * * * *
[Sec. 809. Space weather.]

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


TITLE VIII--SPACE SCIENCE

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


[SEC. 809. SPACE WEATHER.

  [(a) Findings.--The Congress finds the following:
          [(1) Space weather events pose a significant threat 
        to modern technological systems.
          [(2) The effects of severe space weather events on 
        the electric power grid, telecommunications and 
        entertainment satellites, airline communications during 
        polar routes, and space-based position, navigation and 
        timing systems could have significant societal, 
        economic, national security, and health impacts.
          [(3) Earth and Space Observing satellites, such as 
        the Advanced Composition Explorer, Geostationary 
        Operational Environmental Satellites, Polar Operational 
        Environmental Satellites, and Defense Meteorological 
        Satellites, provide crucial data necessary to predict 
        space weather events.
  [(b) Action Required.--The Director of OSTP shall--
          [(1) improve the Nation's ability to prepare, avoid, 
        mitigate, respond to, and recover from potentially 
        devastating impacts of space weather events;
          [(2) coordinate the operational activities of the 
        National Space Weather Program Council members, 
        including the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center and 
        the U.S. Air Force Weather Agency; and
          [(3) submit a report to the appropriate committees of 
        Congress within 180 days after the date of enactment of 
        this Act that--
                  [(A) details the current data sources, both 
                space- and ground-based, that are necessary for 
                space weather forecasting; and
                  [(B) details the space- and ground-based 
                systems that will be required to gather data 
                necessary for space weather forecasting for the 
                next 10 years.]

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