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115th Congress   }                                           {    Report
                         HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 2d Session      }                                           {  115-1102

======================================================================



 
NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION AUTHORIZATION ACT OF 2018

                                _______
                                

 December 21, 2018.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on 
            the State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

     Mr. Smith of Texas, from the Committee on Science, Space, and 
                  Technology, submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                        [To accompany H.R. 5503]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, to whom 
was referred the bill (H.R. 5503) to authorize the programs of 
the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for fiscal 
years 2018 and 2019, and for other purposes, having considered 
the same, report favorably thereon with an amendment and 
recommend that the bill as amended do pass.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
Committee Statement and Views....................................    16
Section-by-Section...............................................    31
Explanation of Amendments........................................    39
Committee Consideration..........................................    40
Roll Call Votes..................................................    40
Application of Law to the Legislative Branch.....................    43
Statement of Oversight Findings and Recommendations of the 
  Committee......................................................    43
Statement of General Performance Goals and Objectives............    43
Duplication of Federal Programs..................................    43
Disclosure of Directed Rule Makings..............................    43
Federal Advisory Committee Act...................................    43
Unfunded Mandate Statement.......................................    43
Earmark Identification...........................................    44
Committee Estimate...............................................    44
Budget Authority and Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate...    44
Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill as Reported.............    48

    The amendment is as follows:
  Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the 
following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE; TABLE OF CONTENTS.

  (a) Short Title.--This Act may be cited as the ``National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2018''.
  (b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents for this Act is the 
following:

Sec. 1. Short title; table of contents.
Sec. 2. Definitions.

                TITLE I--AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS

Sec. 101. Fiscal year 2018.
Sec. 102. Fiscal year 2019.

                      TITLE II--HUMAN EXPLORATION

Sec. 201. Space facilities beyond low-Earth orbit.
Sec. 202. ISS transition.
Sec. 203. Human spaceflight research.
Sec. 204. Critical path redundancy for human spaceflight.
Sec. 205. Space suits.
Sec. 206. Mobile launch platform and interim cryogenic propulsion 
stage.
Sec. 207. Mars 2033.

                           TITLE III--SCIENCE

                       Subtitle A--Earth Science

Sec. 301. Reimbursable basis for development of sensors and 
instruments.
Sec. 302. Earth observations study.
Sec. 303. Land imaging.
Sec. 304. Landsat data policy.
Sec. 305. Earth science missions.
Sec. 306. Goddard Institute for Space Studies Inspector General report.

                 Subtitle B--Astronomy and Astrophysics

Sec. 311. Search for the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of 
life in the universe.
Sec. 312. Wide-Field Infrared Space Telescope.

                     Subtitle C--Planetary Science

Sec. 321. Near-Earth Object Survey.
Sec. 322. Space nuclear power.

                         TITLE IV--AERONAUTICS

Sec. 401. Supersonic research.
Sec. 402. Unmanned aircraft systems research.
Sec. 403. 21st Century Aeronautics Research Capabilities Initiative.
Sec. 404. Experimental plane program.
Sec. 405. Hypersonic Technology project.
Sec. 406. Report.

                          TITLE V--COMMERCIAL

Sec. 501. Commercial supply of space products.
Sec. 502. Space services and in-space infrastructure.
Sec. 503. Preference for launch vehicles manufactured in the United 
States.
Sec. 504. Studies on industrial base.
Sec. 505. Enhanced-use leasing.
Sec. 506. Satellite servicing.

                            TITLE VI--POLICY

Sec. 601. NASA-funded institutes.
Sec. 602. Baseline and cost controls.
Sec. 603. Reports to Congress.
Sec. 604. International technical and operational standards.
Sec. 605. NASA contractor responsibility watch list.
Sec. 606. Human space exploration risk.
Sec. 607. NASA launch support and infrastructure modernization program.
Sec. 608. Reaffirmations on orbital debris.
Sec. 609. Federal-State partnerships.
Sec. 610. Security management of foreign national access.

SEC. 2. DEFINITIONS.

  In this Act:
          (1) Administrator.--The term ``Administrator'' means the 
        Administrator of NASA.
          (2) Cis-lunar space.--The term ``cis-lunar space'' means the 
        region of space from the Earth out to and including the region 
        around the surface of the Moon.
          (3) ISS.--The term ``ISS'' means the International Space 
        Station.
          (4) NASA.--The term ``NASA'' means the National Aeronautics 
        and Space Administration.
          (5) Near-earth object.--The term ``near-Earth object'' means 
        an asteroid or comet with a perihelion distance of less than 
        1.3 Astronomical Units from the Sun.
          (6) Nonprofit organization.--The term ``nonprofit 
        organization'' means an organization determined by the 
        Secretary of the Treasury to be an organization described in 
        section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 
        U.S.C. 501(c)(3)) which is exempt from taxation under section 
        501(a) of such Code.
          (7) Orion.--The term ``Orion'' means the multipurpose crew 
        vehicle described under section 303 of the National Aeronautics 
        and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 
        18323).
          (8) Space launch system.--The term ``Space Launch System'' 
        has the meaning given the term in section 3 of the National 
        Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 
        (42 U.S.C. 18302).

                TITLE I--AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS

SEC. 101. FISCAL YEAR 2018.

  There are authorized to be appropriated to NASA for fiscal year 2018, 
$20,736,140,000, as follows:
          (1) For Science, $6,221,500,000, of which--
                  (A) $1,921,000,000 is for Earth Science;
                  (B) $2,227,900,000 is for Planetary Science;
                  (C) $850,400,000 is for Astrophysics;
                  (D) $533,700,000 is for the James Webb Space 
                Telescope; and
                  (E) $688,500,000 is for Heliophysics.
          (2) For Aeronautics, $685,000,000.
          (3) For Space Technology, $760,000,000.
          (4) For Exploration, $4,790,000,000, of which--
                  (A) $1,350,000,000 is for Orion and associated 
                program and other necessary support;
                  (B) $2,150,000,000 is for the Space Launch System and 
                associated program and other necessary support;
                  (C) $895,000,000 is for Exploration Ground Systems, 
                including $350,000,000 for a second mobile launch 
                platform and associated Space Launch System activities; 
                and
                  (D) $395,000,000 is for Exploration Research and 
                Development.
          (5) For Space Operations, $4,751,500,000.
          (6) For Education, $100,000,000, of which--
                  (A) $18,000,000 is for the Established Program to 
                Stimulate Competitive Research; and
                  (B) $40,000,000 is for the National Space Grant 
                College and Fellowship Program.
          (7) For Safety, Security, and Mission Services, 
        $2,826,900,000.
          (8) For Construction and Environmental Compliance and 
        Restoration, $562,240,000.
          (9) For Inspector General, $39,000,000.

SEC. 102. FISCAL YEAR 2019.

  There are authorized to be appropriated to NASA for fiscal year 2019, 
$21,207,140,000, as follows:
          (1) For Deep Space Exploration Systems, $4,929,000,000, of 
        which--
                  (A) $4,040,000,000 is for Exploration Systems 
                Development, of which--
                          (i) $1,350,000,000 is for Orion and 
                        associated program and other necessary support;
                          (ii) $2,150,000,000 is for the Space Launch 
                        System and associated program and other 
                        necessary support; and
                          (iii) $540,000,000 is for Exploration Ground 
                        Systems; and
                  (B) $889,000,000 is for Advanced Exploration Systems, 
                of which--
                          (i) $504,300,000 is for the Lunar Orbital 
                        Platform-Gateway and associated program and 
                        other necessary support;
                          (ii) $116,500,000 is for Advanced Cislunar 
                        and Surface Capabilities; and
                          (iii) $268,200,000 is for Exploration 
                        Advanced Systems.
          (2) For Exploration and Research Technology, $1,017,700,000, 
        of which--
                  (A) $108,500,000 is for Early Stage Innovation and 
                Partnerships;
                  (B) $216,500,000 if for Technology Maturation, of 
                which $75,000,000 is for nuclear fission and cryogenic 
                fluid management development;
                  (C) $332,700,000 is for Technology Demonstration.
                  (D) $140,000,000 is for Human Research Program; and
                  (E) $205,000,000 is for Small Business Innovation 
                Research and Small Business Technology Transfer.
          (3) For Low-Earth Orbit and Spaceflight Operations, 
        $4,624,600,000, of which--
                  (A) $1,462,200,000 is for the International Space 
                Station;
                  (B) $2,108,700,000 is for Space Transportation;
                  (C) $903,700,000 is for Space Flight Support; and
                  (D) $150,000,000 is for Commercial Low-Earth Orbit 
                Development.
          (4) For Science, $6,623,600,000, of which--
                  (A) $1,921,000,000 is for Earth Science;
                  (B) $2,636,500,000 is for Planetary Science;
                  (C) $1,375,400,000 is for Astrophysics; and
                  (D) $690,700,000 is for Heliophysics.
          (5) For Aeronautics, $685,000,000.
          (6) For Education, $100,000,000, of which--
                  (A) $18,000,000 is for the Established Program to 
                Stimulate Competitive Research; and
                  (B) $40,000,000 is for National Space Grant College 
                and Fellowship Program.
          (7) For Safety, Security, and Mission Services, 
        $2,749,700,000.
          (8) For Construction and Environmental Compliance and 
        Restoration, $438,200,000.
          (9) For Inspector General, $39,300,000.

                      TITLE II--HUMAN EXPLORATION

SEC. 201. SPACE FACILITIES BEYOND LOW-EARTH ORBIT.

  (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that space 
facilities for use beyond low-Earth orbit play a significant role in 
NASA's long-term pursuit of its exploration goals under section 202(a) 
of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act 
of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18312(a)).
  (b) Crewed and Crew-Tended Space Facilities Report.--
          (1) In general.--Not later than 90 days after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall submit to the 
        Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of 
        Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
        Transportation of the Senate a report on the potential 
        development of space facilities for use beyond low-Earth orbit.
          (2) Contents.--The report required under paragraph (1) shall 
        include a description of--
                  (A) how each such space facility can advance, enable, 
                or complement human exploration of the Solar System, 
                including of the atmosphere and the surface of 
                celestial bodies;
                  (B) the role of the space facility as a staging, 
                logistics, and operations hub in exploration 
                architecture;
                  (C) how the space facility can support the research, 
                development, testing, validation, operation, and launch 
                of space exploration systems and technologies;
                  (D) opportunities and strategies for commercial 
                operation or public-private partnerships that protect 
                taxpayer interests and foster competition; and
                  (E) the role of such a space facility in making, 
                developing, and refining the case for further crewed 
                and uncrewed exploration investments.

SEC. 202. ISS TRANSITION.

  (a) Findings.--Congress finds the following:
          (1) The ISS is a valuable national asset that can continue to 
        produce worthwhile scientific research and technology.
          (2) The ISS mission should be to carry out microgravity 
        research and development, research in support of deep space 
        human exploration, and low-Earth orbit commercialization.
          (3) In addition to the priorities under paragraph (2), the 
        United States has a larger and broader need and use for further 
        microgravity research.
          (4) The ISS is the best platform currently available to 
        conduct certain types of research needed for NASA's deep space 
        human exploration program with such research currently 
        scheduled to be completed by the end of fiscal year 2024.
          (5) The ISS transition report, submitted pursuant to section 
        50111(c)(2) of title 51, United States Code, provides an 
        explanation of NASA's plans to foster the development of 
        private industry capabilities and private demand with a goal of 
        ending direct NASA support for ISS operations by the end of 
        fiscal year 2024.
          (6) The plans laid out in the ISS transition report are 
        conditionally flexible and require feedback to inform next 
        steps. In addition, the feasibility of ending direct NASA 
        support for ISS operations by the end of fiscal year 2024 is 
        dependent on many factors, some of which are indeterminate 
        until the Administration carries out the initial phases of the 
        ISS transition plan.
          (7) The value of any in-space facility, such as the ISS, 
        depends both on its contributions to further expansion of human 
        presence throughout the solar system, pursuant to section 202 
        of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
        Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18312) and to making 
        existing presence self-sustaining.
          (8) As the United States moves towards a commitment to a 
        human presence off the surface of the Earth, other Government 
        agencies should seek to benefit from and capitalize upon the 
        ongoing human presence in space.
  (b) In General.--The Administration shall support the Johnson Space 
Center as a center of innovation and leadership in developing human 
operations, including on surfaces of celestial bodies, beyond Earth, to 
the cis-lunar region, the Moon, Mars, and beyond.
  (c) ISS Operation.--
          (1) In general.--NASA shall continue operation of the ISS for 
        such time as Congress authorizes its operations.
          (2) International agreements.--NASA shall pursue 
        international agreements to provide maximum flexibility for ISS 
        utilization.
          (3) Low-earth orbit.--NASA shall pursue a step-wise 
        transition of low-Earth orbit human spaceflight operations from 
        a Government-directed activity to a model where private 
        industry is responsible for how to meet and execute NASA's 
        requirements.
          (4) Transition report.--NASA shall carry out activities in 
        fiscal year 2019 as proposed in the ISS transition report, 
        delivered pursuant to section 50111(c) of title 51, United 
        States Code.
  (d) Reporting.--In addition to the biennial reporting requirement 
under section 50111(c) of title 51, United States Code, the 
Administrator shall brief the Committee on Science, Space, and 
Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee on 
Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate quarterly, 
beginning on the date that is 90 days after the date of enactment of 
this Act, on the status of, and all progress, changes, and other 
developments related to carrying out the plans in the ISS transition 
report.
  (e) Authorized Funding.--Subject to the availability of 
appropriations, the Administrator shall make available at least 
$150,000,000 for fiscal year 2019 for commercial low-Earth orbit 
development out of the Low Earth Orbit and Spaceflight Operations 
account.

SEC. 203. HUMAN SPACEFLIGHT RESEARCH.

  (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
          (1) in line with the National Space Council Policy Directive 
        1, as implemented by the President's memo of December 11, 2017, 
        the United States should lead the return of humans to the Moon 
        for long-term exploration and utilization, followed by human 
        missions to Mars and other destinations;
          (2) the benefits derived from the peaceful use of space 
        depend on the extent to which ground-based space 
        infrastructure, facilities, and research are well-integrated; 
        and
          (3) NASA Johnson Space Center has the expertise and 
        facilities to support the development of the major 
        technological innovations necessary to enable and support the 
        nation's ongoing commitment to human spaceflight, exploration, 
        and continued human presence in space.
  (b) Johnson Space Center Research Office.--
          (1) Establishment.--The Administrator shall establish a 
        research office at Johnson Space Center to build upon the 
        Center's existing expertise in human space flight missions for 
        future challenges.
          (2) Research director.--The head of the research office shall 
        be the research director, who shall report directly to the 
        Director of Johnson Space Center.
          (3) Duties.--The research director shall have, at a minimum, 
        the following duties:
                  (A) Oversee a research portfolio focused on human 
                space flight.
                  (B) Recommend infrastructure and equipment necessary 
                to carry out a research mission.
                  (C) Oversee professional development and continuing 
                education, as necessary and appropriate, for the civil 
                workforce as the research and innovation focus of the 
                center increases.
          (4) Scope of research.--The research office shall focus on 
        aspects of research that are directly relevant to the endeavor 
        of human space flight, including problems of human spaceflight 
        and robotics supporting human space exploration.
          (5) Support for human spaceflight activities.--Johnson Space 
        Center shall, consistent with its primary responsibilities to 
        NASA and other government customers, endeavor to make the 
        fullest possible use of its facilities and infrastructure to 
        support all U.S. human spaceflight activities, including those 
        of the private sector.
  (c) Report.--Not later than 180 days after the enactment of this Act, 
NASA and Johnson Space Center shall submit to the Committee on Science, 
Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee 
on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report on 
NASA's progress on, and other developments related to, carrying out the 
requirements of this section.
  (d) Authorized Funding.--Subject to the availability of 
appropriations, the Administrator shall make available at least 
$15,000,000 in fiscal year 2019 out of the Exploration Research and 
Technology account to carry out this section.

SEC. 204. CRITICAL PATH REDUNDANCY FOR HUMAN SPACEFLIGHT.

  (a) Findings.--Congress finds that NASA, in cooperation with private 
sector and international partners, has facilitated the development of a 
wide array of cargo and crew transportation options for operations in 
low-Earth orbit and beyond.
  (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that the 
availability of a multitude of launch vehicles and crew and cargo 
vehicles provides critical path redundancy.
  (c) GAO Report on Metrics for Logistical and Transport Redundancy.--
          (1) In general.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the Comptroller General of the United 
        States shall submit to the Committee on Science, Space, and 
        Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee on 
        Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report 
        that contains an evaluation of appropriate technical benchmarks 
        and metrics on the suitability and performance, including cost, 
        reliability, and availability of--
                  (A) all available crew and cargo vehicles for 
                destinations in low-Earth orbit, cis-lunar space, and 
                beyond; and
                  (B) all available launch vehicles that are capable of 
                deploying more than 20 tons to low-Earth orbit and 
                beyond, to support exploration and scientific missions, 
                particularly to outer planets.
          (2) Inclusion in nasa analysis.--The Administrator shall 
        consider the Comptroller General's report findings on 
        benchmarks and metrics as part of NASA's analysis of logistical 
        and transport redundancy.

SEC. 205. SPACE SUITS.

  (a) Findings.--Congress finds the following:
          (1) Space suits and associated extravehicular activity (in 
        this section, referred to as ``EVA'') technologies are critical 
        space exploration technologies.
          (2) The NASA civil service workforce at the Johnson Space 
        Center possesses unique capabilities to integrate, design, and 
        validate space suits and associated EVA technologies.
          (3) Maintaining a strong core competency in the design, 
        development, manufacture, and operation of space suits and 
        related technologies allows NASA to be an informed purchaser of 
        competitively awarded commercial space suits and associated EVA 
        technologies.
          (4) NASA should fully utilize the International Space Station 
        by 2025 to test future space suits and associated EVA 
        technologies to reduce risk and improve safety.
  (b) Space Suits.--
          (1) In general.--NASA shall develop space suits and 
        associated EVA technologies.
          (2) Management.--The Johnson Space Center shall manage the 
        space suit and EVA programs of NASA.
          (3) Private sector.--In carrying out this subsection, the 
        Administrator may enter into agreements with the private sector 
        as the Administrator considers appropriate.

SEC. 206. MOBILE LAUNCH PLATFORM AND INTERIM CRYOGENIC PROPULSION 
                    STAGE.

  Consistent with NASA's appropriation for fiscal year 2018, the 
Administrator shall pursue the following:
          (1) The expeditious development of a new-build, second Mobile 
        Launch Platform specifically designed to support the launch of 
        Space Launch System configurations that use the Exploration 
        Upper Stage.
          (2) The procurement of a second Interim Cryogenic Propulsion 
        Stage.

SEC. 207. MARS 2033.

  (a) Finding.--Congress finds that human exploration of Mars is an 
important objective in NASA's human exploration agenda.
  (b) Prioritization.--The Administrator shall prioritize timelines for 
fulfillment of the engineering, science, and safety requirements to 
reduce mission risk and ensure mission completion when evaluating human 
exploration of Mars by 2033, if not sooner.

                           TITLE III--SCIENCE

                       Subtitle A--Earth Science

SEC. 301. REIMBURSABLE BASIS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF SENSORS AND 
                    INSTRUMENTS.

  Chapter 605 of title 51, United States Code, is amended by adding at 
the end the following:

``Sec. 60507. Reimbursable basis for development of sensors and 
                    instruments

  ``Any work undertaken by the Administration for the benefit of 
another agency shall be conducted on a reimbursable basis that accounts 
for the full cost of the work, including work undertaken for the 
development of operational Earth science systems, including satellite, 
sensor, or instrument development, acquisition, and operations, as well 
as product development and data analysis.''.
          (1) Technical amendment.--The table of sections for chapter 
        605 of title 51, United States Code, is amended by adding at 
        the end the following:

``60507. Reimbursable basis for development of sensors and 
instruments.''.

SEC. 302. EARTH OBSERVATIONS STUDY.

  Section 702 of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18371) is amended--
          (1) by striking ``The Director of'' and inserting the 
        following:
  ``(a) In General.--The Director of''; and
          (2) by adding at the end the following:
  ``(b) Consideration.--In carrying out the strategic implementation 
plan under subsection (a), the Director shall take into account and 
incorporate into such plan, as appropriate, purchasing Earth 
observation data and services from the private sector or through 
public-private partnerships to meet Earth observation requirements.''.

SEC. 303. LAND IMAGING.

  (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
          (1) the continuous collection and utilization of land remote 
        sensing data from space are of major benefit in studying and 
        understanding human impacts on the global environment, in 
        managing the Earth's natural resources, in carrying out 
        national security functions, and in planning and conducting 
        many other activities of scientific, economic, and social 
        importance; and
          (2) to the greatest extent practicable, the United States 
        should foster the development of U.S. private sector remote 
        sensing capabilities and analyses that can satisfy the public 
        interest in long-term continuous collection of medium-
        resolution land remote sensing data.
  (b) Continuous Land Remote Sensing Data Collection.--
          (1) In general.--Subchapter IV of chapter 601 of title 51, 
        United States Code, is amended by adding at the end the 
        following new section:

``Sec. 60135. Continuous land remote sensing data collection

  ``(a) Policy.--It is the policy of the United States to--
          ``(1) ensure, to the greatest extent practicable, the 
        continuous collection of space-based, medium-resolution 
        observations of the Earth's land cover;
          ``(2) ensure that the collected data are made available in 
        such ways as to facilitate the widest possible use; and
          ``(3) foster, to the greatest extent practicable the 
        development of U.S. private sector remote sensing capabilities 
        and analyses that can satisfy the public interest in long-term 
        continuous collection of medium-resolution land remote sensing 
        data.
  ``(b) Coordination.--The National Space Council, in consultation with 
other relevant Federal agencies, shall coordinate United States 
Government activities described under paragraphs (1) through (3) of 
subsection (a).''.
          (2) Conforming amendment.--The table of sections for 
        subchapter IV of chapter 601 of title 51, United States Code, 
        is amended by adding at the end the following new section:

``60135. Continuous land remote sensing data collection.''.

SEC. 304. LANDSAT DATA POLICY.

  (a) In General.--
          (1) Limitation on use of funds.--No funds may be obligated or 
        expended for Landsat 11 or any other subsequent Landsat system 
        until the Administrator has completed a study assessing which 
        aspects of Landsat system observations and associated science 
        requirements can be provided by purchasing data from the 
        private sector or through public-private partnerships.
          (2) Report.--Not later than 1 year after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall transmit to the 
        Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of 
        Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
        Transportation of the Senate, a report containing the results 
        of the study required under paragraph (1).
  (b) Definition of Landsat System.--In this section, the term 
``Landsat system'' has the meaning given that term in section 60101 of 
title 51, United States Code.

SEC. 305. EARTH SCIENCE MISSIONS.

  The Administrator shall continue to restructure the Earth science 
portfolio of NASA to reduce overall costs, support innovative and 
sustainable programs and missions with commercial and international 
partners, and align with the recommendations of the National Academy of 
Sciences included in the publication published in 2018 titled 
``Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth 
Observation from Space'' to ensure that the Earth science portfolio is 
focused on the highest priority missions for the science and 
applications communities within a balanced, comprehensive Earth science 
program.

SEC. 306. GODDARD INSTITUTE FOR SPACE STUDIES INSPECTOR GENERAL REPORT.

  Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the 
Administrator shall transmit to the Committee on Science, Space, and 
Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee on 
Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate, a report 
containing the results of NASA's implementation of the recommendations 
identified in the report published by the NASA Office of Inspector 
General on April 5, 2018, titled ``NASA's Management of GISS: The 
Goddard Institute for Space Studies''.

                 Subtitle B--Astronomy and Astrophysics

SEC. 311. SEARCH FOR THE ORIGIN, EVOLUTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND FUTURE OF 
                    LIFE IN THE UNIVERSE.

  (a) Policy.--Section 20102(d)(10) of title 51, United States Code, 
includes the search for life's origin, evolution, distribution, and 
future in the universe as an objective of U.S. aeronautical and space 
activities.
  (b) In General.--NASA shall partner with the private sector and 
philanthropic organizations to the maximum extent practicable to search 
for technosignatures, such as radio transmissions, in order to meet the 
NASA objective to search for life's origin, evolution, distribution, 
and future in the universe.
  (c) Report.--Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Administrator shall submit to the Committee on Science, 
Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee 
on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report, 
produced in consultation with industry and academia, on all NASA 
programs, including partnerships with the private sector and 
philanthropic organizations, that contribute to the search for life's 
origin, evolution, distribution, and future in the universe.
  (d) Authorized Funding.--Subject to the availability of 
appropriations, the Administrator shall make available at least 
$10,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2018 and 2019 for the search for 
technosignatures.

SEC. 312. WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SPACE TELESCOPE.

  (a) Findings.--Congress finds the following:
          (1) Concurrent flagship programs challenge significantly 
        NASA's program management capacity, especially during later 
        stages of the program management process.
          (2) The Wide-Field Infrared Space Telescope (hereinafter 
        referred to as ``WFIRST'') was cancelled in the President's 
        fiscal year 2019 budget request.
          (3) WFIRST was funded in the amount of $150,000,000 in NASA's 
        appropriation for fiscal year 2018.
          (4) Pursuant to direction in NASA's appropriation for fiscal 
        year 2018, NASA is conducting a preliminary life-cycle cost 
        estimate, including any additions needed to achieve Class A 
        classification, along with a year-by-year breakout of 
        development costs.
          (5) Until such preliminary life-cycle cost estimate is 
        complete, Congress has insufficient information to judge 
        whether or not WFIRST should be authorized to proceed in fiscal 
        year 2019.
  (b) Total Cost.--The total formulation and development cost, as such 
term is defined in section 30104 of title 51, United States Code, for 
the Wide-Field Infrared Space Telescope shall not exceed 
$3,200,000,000.
  (c) Budget.--The Administrator shall include in the budget for fiscal 
year 2020 a 5-year funding profile necessary to achieve the goal in 
subsection (b).
  (d) Limitation.--The Administrator shall not procure a launch vehicle 
for the Wide-Field Infrared Space Telescope until the James Webb Space 
Telescope is operational in space.

                     Subtitle C--Planetary Science

SEC. 321. NEAR-EARTH OBJECT SURVEY.

  (a) Findings.--Congress finds the following:
          (1) The George E. Brown, Jr. Near-Earth Object Survey Act 
        (Public Law 109-155) established the Near-Earth Object Survey 
        program to detect, track, and catalogue the physical 
        characteristics of near-Earth objects equal to or greater than 
        140 meters in diameter in order to assess the threat of such 
        objects to Earth.
          (2) The goal of the Survey program is to achieve 90 percent 
        completion of the near-Earth project catalogue (based on 
        statistically predicted populations of near-Earth objects) not 
        later than 15 years after the date of the enactment of the 
        George E. Brown, Jr. Near-Earth Object Survey Act.
          (3) NASA has been successful finding more than 90 percent of 
        the near-Earth asteroids larger than one kilometer but has only 
        found about 30 percent of the near-Earth objects larger than 
        140 meters.
          (4) The vast majority of near-Earth object discoveries have 
        been made by NASA-supported ground-based telescopic surveys.
  (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
          (1) in order to meet the statutory requirements of the George 
        E Brown, Jr. Near-Earth Object Survey Act (Public Law 109-155), 
        a space-based telescope mission should be fully funded and 
        supported by NASA and carried out by the Planetary Defense 
        Coordination Office; and
          (2) the space-based telescope Near-Earth Object Camera 
        mission, or a similar infrared telescope concept optimized for 
        near-Earth object search and characterization, could discover 
        and characterize most of the potentially hazardous asteroids 
        that are near the Earth.

SEC. 322. SPACE NUCLEAR POWER.

  (a) Finding.--Congress finds that in-space nuclear fission power 
complements the use of Plutonium-238 radioisotope thermoelectric 
generators (in this section referred to as ``RTG'') for spacecraft 
power needs.
  (b) Policy.--It is the policy of the United States--
          (1) to continue the development of in-space nuclear fission 
        technology, as necessary, for purposes including--
                  (A) in-space power generation for advanced in-space 
                propulsion;
                  (B) onboard power generation to replace or supplement 
                RTG systems;
                  (C) power generation on the surface of celestial 
                bodies;
                  (D) extraction and processing of in situ resources; 
                and
                  (E) nuclear thermal and nuclear electric propulsion 
                able to transport crew or cargo among Earth and other 
                celestial bodies much more rapidly than is practical 
                with non-nuclear systems;
          (2) that research and development of in-space nuclear fission 
        power should be carried out as part of a portfolio that 
        appropriately balances development of power systems at 
        different sizes and maturities, with an emphasis on early 
        development of mature, operational systems; and
          (3) that NASA should continually seek to streamline the 
        process for space launch approval of nuclear materials, 
        eliminate redundant and unneeded processes, and regularize the 
        process for efficient, regular functioning, and toward that 
        end, the Administrator should update the launch approval 
        process and seek to establish a licensing process for private 
        nuclear power sources in space.
  (c) Space Nuclear Power Report.--
          (1) In general.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall submit to the 
        Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of 
        Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
        Transportation of the Senate a report, produced in consultation 
        with industry and academia, on the use and role of nuclear 
        fission power in space.
          (2) Contents.--The report required under paragraph (1) shall 
        include--
                  (A) an assessment of the prospects for in-space 
                nuclear fission reactors, describing particular roles 
                and missions for which nuclear power is uniquely well-
                suited;
                  (B) a description of the convergence between NASA's 
                existing Plutonium-238 RTG programs and ongoing nuclear 
                thermal propulsion and nuclear power generation 
                development programs;
                  (C) a detailed plan for encouraging convergence 
                between NASA's various nuclear power and propulsion 
                efforts;
                  (D) an identification of key infrastructure and 
                facilities needed for the development of in-space 
                nuclear fission power reactors;
                  (E) an identification of particular legal issues, 
                including regulatory challenges, that must be addressed 
                for the use of nuclear fission power systems;
                  (F) how small in-space nuclear fission reactors can 
                complement or replace existing and planned radioisotope 
                thermal generator capabilities;
                  (G) information on very low cost, high reliability 
                designs that can be made operational quickly; and
                  (H) a cost analysis, including long-term and security 
                costs, of the use of highly enriched uranium versus 
                low-enriched uranium in power generation in space 
                applications, including surface power and in-space 
                propulsion.
  (d) Demonstration.--NASA should demonstrate a nuclear power reactor 
for use in space using existing authorized funding levels and within a 
schedule made possible by appropriated funding.

                         TITLE IV--AERONAUTICS

SEC. 401. SUPERSONIC RESEARCH.

  (a) Policy.--It is the policy of the United States to reduce 
Government barriers to the development of civil supersonic 
transportation.
  (b) Research.--Section 40112(a) of title 51, United States Code, is 
amended--
          (1) by striking ``The Administrator'' and inserting the 
        following:
          ``(1) In general.--The Administrator''; and
          (2) by adding at the end the following:
          ``(2) Research.--The Administrator, in consultation with the 
        Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration, shall 
        undertake research on supersonic transport to inform and 
        accelerate the promulgation of domestic regulations and 
        international standards and recommended practices that will 
        open up the U.S. civil airspace to civil supersonic 
        transport.''.

SEC. 402. UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS RESEARCH.

  (a) In General.--
          (1) Title 51.--Chapter 315 of title 51, United States Code, 
        is amended by adding at the end the following:

``Sec. 31506. Unmanned aircraft systems research

  ``The Administrator, in consultation with the Administrator of the 
Federal Aviation Administration and other Federal agencies, shall 
conduct research on facilitating the safe integration of unmanned 
aircraft systems into the national airspace system, including--
          ``(1) positioning and navigation systems;
          ``(2) sense-and-avoid capabilities;
          ``(3) secure data and communication links;
          ``(4) flight recovery systems; and
          ``(5) human systems integration.''.
          (2) Conforming amendment.--The table of sections for chapter 
        315 of title 51, United States Code, is amended by adding at 
        the end the following new item:

``31506. Unmanned aircraft systems research.''.

  (b) Cooperative Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Activities.--Section 31504 of 
title 51, United States Code, is amended by adding at the end the 
following: ``Operational flight data derived from such cooperative 
agreements shall be made available, in appropriate and usable formats, 
to the Administration and the Federal Aviation Administration for the 
development of regulatory standards.''.

SEC. 403. 21ST CENTURY AERONAUTICS RESEARCH CAPABILITIES INITIATIVE.

  (a) Establishment.--The Administrator shall establish an initiative 
to be known as the 21st Century Aeronautics Research Capabilities 
Initiative, funded through the Construction of Facilities account, to 
ensure that NASA possesses the infrastructure capabilities and 
computational tools necessary to conduct flight demonstration projects 
across the range of NASA aeronautics interests.
  (b) Activities.--In carrying out the 21st Century Aeronautics 
Research Capabilities Initiative, the Administrator shall--
          (1) upgrade and create facilities for civil and national 
        security aeronautics research; and
          (2) support flight testing activities.
  (c) Operating Model.--In carrying out the 21st Century Aeronautics 
Research Capabilities Initiative, the Administrator shall, to the 
greatest extent practicable, build on NASA's work on developing its 
Operating Model and the results of the Technical Capabilities 
Assessment Team.
  (d) Report.--
          (1) Report required.--Not later than 120 days after the date 
        of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall submit to the 
        Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of 
        Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
        Transportation of the Senate a report containing a 5-year plan 
        for the implementation of the 21st Century Aeronautics Research 
        Capabilities Initiative.
          (2) Elements.--The report required under this subsection 
        shall include--
                  (A) a description of proposed projects;
                  (B) a description of how the projects align with the 
                Aeronautics Strategic Implementation Plan; and
                  (C) a timetable for carrying out activities and 
                initiatives authorized under this section.
  (e) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated $50,000,000, funded through the Construction of Facilities 
account, for fiscal year 2019 to carry out this section.

SEC. 404. EXPERIMENTAL PLANE PROGRAM.

  (a) Policy.--It is the policy of the United States to maintain the 
role of the United States as a world leader in aeronautical science and 
technology.
  (b) Objective.--One of the fundamental objectives of NASA aeronautics 
research is the steady progression and expansion of high-speed flight 
research and capabilities, including the science and technology of 
critical underlying disciplines and competencies, the most important of 
which are computational-based analytical and predictive tools and 
methodologies, aero thermodynamics, high-speed flight propulsion, high-
temperature structures and materials, and flight controls.

SEC. 405. HYPERSONIC TECHNOLOGY PROJECT.

  (a) Findings.--Congress finds that--
          (1) the development of new hypersonic flight technologies is 
        important to the United States;
          (2) though hypersonic flight technologies are likely to be 
        applied to enhance defense systems in the near-term, in the 
        long-term, application of such technologies may expand to 
        include improved access-to-space capabilities that benefit 
        NASA; and
          (3) NASA maintains specialized facilities and experts who 
        will focus on research areas that explore challenges in 
        hypersonic flight.
  (b) Policy.--In carrying out the Hypersonic Technology Project, NASA 
should focus research and development efforts on high-speed propulsion 
systems, reusable vehicle technologies, high-temperature materials, and 
systems analysis.
  (c) Authorized Funding.--Subject to the availability of 
appropriations, the Administrator shall make available at least 
$30,000,000 for fiscal year 2019 for the Hypersonic Technology Project 
from the Aeronautics account.

SEC. 406. REPORT.

  The Administrator shall submit to the Committee a report on the 
development of the Low-Boom Flight Demonstration aircraft, including 
the following:
          (1) NASA's planned coordination with other executive agencies 
        to ensure developmental and operational testing infrastructure 
        availability during flight demonstration.
          (2) NASA's acquisition strategy to ensure availability of 
        chase aircraft for flight demonstration.

                          TITLE V--COMMERCIAL

SEC. 501. COMMERCIAL SUPPLY OF SPACE PRODUCTS.

  (a) In General.--Subchapter II of chapter 501 of title 51, United 
States Code, is amended by adding at the end the following:

``Sec. 50117. Commercial supply of space products

  ``(a) In General.--In planning and carrying out space exploration 
missions, the Administrator shall, to the greatest extent practicable, 
prioritize the acquisition and use of space products provided by a 
United States commercial provide.
  ``(b) Space Product Defined.--In this section, the term `space 
product' means a tangible good, including a finished good, or 
commodity, including a propellant, water, oxygen, or gas, that--
          ``(1) is required for space exploration activities; and
          ``(2) originates in outer space.
  ``(c) Commodities Used in Space.--
          ``(1) List of commodities.--In planning a space exploration 
        mission, the Administrator shall create a list of commodities 
        to be used during such mission. The list shall include 
        specification of each commodity, anticipated quantity, and the 
        location and timeframe of need.
          ``(2) Commodity cost basis.--For each commodity listed 
        pursuant paragraph (1), NASA shall establish a commodity cost 
        basis that shall represent the lesser of--
                  ``(A) the estimated cost to procure the commodity on 
                Earth and deliver the commodity to the location of use; 
                and
                  ``(B) the estimated cost for the Government to 
                procure the equivalent commodity that is a space 
                product.
          ``(3) Publication.--The Administrator shall annually publish 
        the information compiled under paragraphs (1) and (2) during 
        the previous calendar year.
  ``(d) Exceptions.--The Administrator shall not be required to 
prioritize the acquisition of space products for the purposes described 
in subsection (a) if, on a case-by-case basis--
          ``(1) the Administrator determines that--
                  ``(A) cost-effective space products that meet 
                specific mission requirements would not be reasonably 
                available from United States commercial providers when 
                required;
                  ``(B) the use of space products from United States 
                commercial providers poses an unacceptable mission 
                risk; or
                  ``(C) the use of space products is inconsistent with 
                international agreements for international 
                collaborative efforts relating to science and 
                technology; or
          ``(2) the Secretary of the Air Force determines that the use 
        of space commodities from United States commercial providers is 
        inconsistent with national security objectives.
  ``(e) Agreements With Foreign Entities.--Nothing in this section 
shall prevent the Administrator from planning or negotiating agreements 
with foreign governmental entities for the provision of space 
products.''.
  (b) Conforming Amendment.--Subchapter II of chapter 501 of title 51, 
United States Code, is amended by adding at the end the following:

``50117. Commercial supply of space products.''.

SEC. 502. SPACE SERVICES AND IN-SPACE INFRASTRUCTURE.

  (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that there exist 
many commercial opportunities with a wide array of providers and 
partners that will allow for more effective use of taxpayer investments 
in the pursuit of the long-term goals of NASA, as described in section 
202(a) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18312(a)), including expanding 
permanent human presence beyond low-Earth orbit.
  (b) Report.--Not later than 120 days after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Administrator shall submit to the Committee on Science, 
Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee 
on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report 
describing the various commercial opportunities and options for the 
procurement of in-space services or use of in-space infrastructure for 
exploration and other NASA missions.

SEC. 503. PREFERENCE FOR LAUNCH VEHICLES MANUFACTURED IN THE UNITED 
                    STATES.

  It is the sense of Congress that the Administrator should, to the 
greatest extent possible, with respect to entering into contracts for 
commercial space data and services, provide weighed preference, 
selection points, and other incentives for the use of launch vehicles 
that are manufactured in the United States.

SEC. 504. STUDIES ON INDUSTRIAL BASE.

  No funds may be obligated or expended by the Administrator for 
purposes of carrying out a Bureau of Industry and Security survey of 
the United States aerospace industrial base until the date that is 30 
days after the date on which the Administrator submits to the Committee 
on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and 
the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a 
written notification that includes--
          (1) the proposed subject matter of such survey;
          (2) a description of the information to be required of survey 
        respondents; and
          (3) any penalties proposed to be assessed by the Federal 
        Government against respondents for noncompliance with survey 
        requirements.

SEC. 505. ENHANCED-USE LEASING.

  (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
          (1) NASA possesses a variety of unique and world-class 
        facilities;
          (2) NASA is developing and using many different methods to 
        offset the cost of maintaining and operating such facilities;
          (3) nongovernmental entities, States, and local governments 
        may be able to use such facilities in a manner that is cost-
        effective; and
          (4) agreements between NASA and nongovernmental entities, 
        States, and local governments regarding the use of such 
        facilities may offset a portion of the spending of NASA.
  (b) Extension of Authority To Lease Non-Excess Property.--Section 
20145(g) of title 51, United States Code, is amended by striking 
``December 31, 2018'' and inserting ``December 31, 2020''.
  (c) Condition on Use of Funds.--For any year for which funds are made 
available under section 20145 of title 51, United States Code, (as 
amended by subsection (b)), no funds may be expended by the 
Administrator under such section after January 31 unless the 
Administrator submits, before such date, to the Committee on Science, 
Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee 
on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate the annual 
report required under such section for the prior year.

SEC. 506. SATELLITE SERVICING.

  The Administrator shall continue to restructure NASA investments in 
the development of satellite servicing technologies to reduce the 
overall cost to NASA and align with NASA needs for exploration.

                            TITLE VI--POLICY

SEC. 601. NASA-FUNDED INSTITUTES.

  (a) Findings.--Congress finds that on June 9, 2016, the Office of 
Inspector General of NASA reported that--
          (1) NASA does not aggregate information on the universe, 
        status, or funding levels for the many institutes it supports;
          (2) the absence of this information makes it difficult for 
        NASA leaders to strategically evaluate the scope or purpose of 
        its institute investments and for Congress and other 
        stakeholders to understand how NASA is spending more than 
        three-quarters of a billion dollars of its budget annually;
          (3) absent comprehensive, centralized information about these 
        investments, it may be difficult for NASA to avoid duplication 
        among its efforts;
          (4) NASA has not defined what constitutes an institute or 
        established guidance and metrics on the management, use, or 
        expectations for return on investment;
          (5) such guidance may enable NASA to gain a better 
        understanding of how funds directed to NASA-funded institutes 
        are utilized to accomplish the mission and goals of NASA, 
        increase its return on investment, and evaluate the performance 
        of such institutes; and
          (6) NASA lacks a standard process to assess a potential 
        grantee's financial condition prior to grant award or to impose 
        additional reporting or oversight requirements that such a 
        condition may warrant, and without such a mechanism, NASA risks 
        making uninformed investment decisions.
  (b) Institute Budgets.--Section 30103(a) of title 51, United States 
Code, is amended--
          (1) in paragraph (5), by striking ``and'' at the end;
          (2) by redesignating paragraph (6) as paragraph (7); and
          (3) by inserting after paragraph (5) the following:
          ``(6) the budget for each NASA-funded institute; and''.
  (c) Report.--Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Administrator shall submit to the Committee on Science, 
Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee 
on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report that 
recommends guidance and metrics for the management, utilization, 
expectations for return on investment, and financial condition of NASA-
funded institutes.

SEC. 602. BASELINE AND COST CONTROLS.

  Section 30104(e)(1)(A) of title 51, United States Code, is amended--
          (1) in clause (ii) by striking ``and'' at the end;
          (2) in clause (iii) by striking ``and'' at the end; and
          (3) by adding at the end the following:
                          ``(iv) any changes made in the performance or 
                        schedule milestones and the degree to which 
                        such changes have contributed to the increase 
                        in total cost;
                          ``(v) new estimates of the specific project 
                        or specific program cost; and
                          ``(vi) a statement validating that the 
                        management structure of the project or program 
                        is adequate to control cost; and''.

SEC. 603. REPORTS TO CONGRESS.

  (a) In General.--Chapter 301 of title 51, United States Code, is 
amended by adding at the end the following:

``Sec. 30105. Concurrent reports

  ``For any report that the Administration submits to the Committee on 
Appropriations of the House of Representatives or the Committee on 
Appropriations of the Senate, the Administrator shall concurrently 
submit such report to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology 
of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, 
and Transportation of the Senate.''.
  (b) Conforming Amendment.--The table of sections for chapter 301 of 
title 51, United States Code, is amended by adding at the end the 
following:

``30105. Concurrent reports.''.

SEC. 604. INTERNATIONAL TECHNICAL AND OPERATIONAL STANDARDS.

  (a) Findings.--Congress finds that--
          (1) section 71301 of title 51, United States Code, directs 
        the Administrator to ``enter into discussions with the 
        appropriate representatives of spacefaring nations who have or 
        plan to have crew transportation systems capable of orbital 
        flight or flight beyond low Earth orbit for the purpose of 
        agreeing on a common docking system standard'';
          (2) the development of an international docking standard has 
        been beneficial in promoting Government and private sector 
        space exploration, interoperability, and United States 
        international leadership;
          (3) NASA continues the development described in paragraph (2) 
        by coordinating the development of joint international deep 
        space interoperability standards; and
          (4) the long-term goals of NASA, as described in section 
        202(a) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
        Authorization Act of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18312(a)), include 
        expanding permanent human presence beyond low-Earth orbit.
  (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
          (1) the plans of NASA for crewed exploration beyond low-Earth 
        orbit should involve a wide array of partners to address the 
        technological challenges of deep space exploration;
          (2) the development of common terminology and concepts for 
        spacecraft design and safety will help promote NASA leadership 
        in space and spacecraft design;
          (3) the adoption of common design and safety terminology and 
        concepts across NASA would enable NASA to pursue the long-term 
        goals of NASA, described in section 202(a) of the National 
        Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 
        (42 U.S.C. 18312(a)), in a manner that is effective and 
        efficient; and
          (4) NASA should continue to develop and promote common 
        terminology and concepts for spacecraft design and safety.

SEC. 605. NASA CONTRACTOR RESPONSIBILITY WATCH LIST.

  (a) In General.--The Administrator shall establish and maintain a 
watch list of contractors with a history of poor performance on space 
procurement contracts or research, development, test, and evaluation 
space program contracts.
  (b) Basis for Inclusion on List.--
          (1) Determination.--The Administrator may place a contractor, 
        including parties contracting under other transaction 
        authorities, on the watch list established under subsection (a) 
        upon determining that the ability of the contractor to perform 
        a contract specified in such subsection is uncertain because of 
        any of the following:
                  (A) Poor performance or award fee scores below 50 
                percent.
                  (B) Financial concerns.
                  (C) Felony convictions or civil judgements.
                  (D) Security or foreign ownership and control issues.
          (2) Discretion of the administrator.--The Administrator shall 
        be responsible for determining which contractors to place on 
        the watch list, whether an entire company or a specific 
        division should be included, and when to remove a contractor 
        from the list.
  (c) Effect of Listing.--
          (1) Prime contracts.--NASA may not solicit an offer from, 
        award a contract to, execute an engineering change proposal 
        with, or exercise an option on any program of NASA with a 
        contractor included on the list established under subsection 
        (a) without the prior direct approval of the Administrator.
          (2) Subcontracts.--A prime contractor on a contract entered 
        into with NASA may not enter into a subcontract valued in 
        excess of $3,000,000 or five percent of the prime contract 
        value, whichever is lesser, with a contractor included on the 
        watch list established under subsection (a) without the prior 
        approval of the Administrator.
  (d) Request for Removal From List.--A contractor may submit to the 
Administrator a written request for removal from the watch list, 
including evidence that the contractor has resolved the issue that was 
the basis for inclusion on the list.
  (e) Rule of Construction.--Nothing in this section shall be construed 
as preventing the suspension or debarment of a contractor, but 
inclusion on the watch list shall not be construed as a punitive 
measure or de facto suspension or debarment of a contractor.

SEC. 606. HUMAN SPACE EXPLORATION RISK.

  (a) Findings.--Congress finds the following:
          (1) American leadership in the peaceful exploration and use 
        of outer space has been a long-standing priority for the United 
        States.
          (2) The reestablishment of the National Space Council in 2017 
        by the President demonstrates the strategic importance of outer 
        space to the Nation.
          (3) The December 2017 National Security Strategy of the 
        United States establishes the broad strategic importance of 
        outer space exploration and use for the United States.
  (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
          (1) exploration and use of outer space is a matter of broad, 
        national strategic importance; and
          (2) space exploration decision-making and requirement-setting 
        in such a strategic context is complex, especially with respect 
        to setting appropriate priorities and levels of risk tolerance.
  (c) Report on Inherent Justifiable Risk.--
          (1) In general.--Not later than 1 year after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the National Space Council, or its 
        designee, shall submit to Congress and make available to the 
        public a report relating the broad strategic national 
        importance of space to the inherent, justifiable risk of the 
        exploration and use of space.
          (2) Policy and strategy.--The Administrator shall engage with 
        appropriate members of the private sector, academia, and 
        nonprofit organizations on a policy and strategy of enterprise-
        level engineering and operational risk management to present in 
        the report that addresses inherent, justifiable risks of loss 
        of life that may occur in space exploration and use.
          (3) Contents.--The report required under paragraph (1) 
        shall--
                  (A) clarify the broad strategic case and value of 
                space;
                  (B) address inherent, justifiable risks of loss of 
                life that may occur in space exploration and use; and
                  (C) discuss enterprise- and architecture-level 
                approaches for exploration risk management.

SEC. 607. NASA LAUNCH SUPPORT AND INFRASTRUCTURE MODERNIZATION PROGRAM.

  (a) Launch Support and Infrastructure Modernization.--The 
Administrator shall continue the program established under section 305 
of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act 
of 2010 (42 U.S.C. 18325) for launch support and infrastructure 
modernization for launch sites and ranges at NASA facilities that 
support the International Space Station mission.
  (b) Leverage of Infrastructure Investments.--Such program should, to 
the greatest extent practicable, leverage current and planned State 
government infrastructure investments at NASA facilities to support 
these and other missions and use funding available under this program 
to collaborate on relevant infrastructure projects.

SEC. 608. REAFFIRMATIONS ON ORBITAL DEBRIS.

  (a) Reaffirmation of Findings.--Congress reaffirms the findings under 
section 839(a) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
Transition Authorization Act of 2017 (Public Law 115-10) that--
          (1) orbital debris poses serious risks to the operational 
        space capabilities of the United States;
          (2) an international commitment and integrated strategic plan 
        are needed to mitigate the growth of orbital debris wherever 
        possible; and
          (3) the delay in the Office of Science and Technology 
        Policy's submission of a report on the status of international 
        coordination and development of orbital debris mitigation 
        strategies is inconsistent with such risks.
  (b) Reaffirmation of Sense of Congress.--Congress reaffirms the sense 
of Congress under section 840(a) of the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration Transition Authorization Act of 2017 (Public Law 115-10) 
that--
          (1) orbital debris in low-Earth orbit poses significant risks 
        to spacecraft;
          (2) such orbital debris may increase due to collisions 
        between existing debris objects; and
          (3) understanding options to address and remove orbital 
        debris is important for ensuring safe and effective spacecraft 
        operations in low-Earth orbit.

SEC. 609. FEDERAL-STATE PARTNERSHIPS.

  (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that, as State 
and local governments have invested hundreds of millions of dollars in 
new infrastructure and operations at Administration space facilities to 
meet the needs of civil, national security, and commercial space 
activities, the Administration should seek to leverage such investments 
and the resources and capabilities of State and local governments.
  (b) Report.--Not later than 120 days after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Administrator shall submit to Congress a report 
describing--
          (1) existing partnerships with State and local governments at 
        Administration facilities;
          (2) past and current investments and partnerships in facility 
        infrastructure and operations with State and local government 
        that benefitted Federal, State, and commercial users;
          (3) the contracting mechanisms used and the average response 
        time from a facility infrastructure partnership proposal to 
        approval by the Administration;
          (4) current or prospective opportunities for Federal-State 
        matching grant funding to support shared infrastructure;
          (5) the benefits and challenges associated with Federal-State 
        infrastructure partnerships; and
          (6) how, if at all, the Administration should expand Federal-
        State partnerships to better meet the needs of civil, national 
        security, and commercial space activities.

SEC. 610. SECURITY MANAGEMENT OF FOREIGN NATIONAL ACCESS.

  The Administrator shall notify the Committee on Science, Space, and 
Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee on 
Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate when the agency has 
implemented the information technology security recommendations from 
the National Academy of Public Administration on foreign national 
access management.

                      Committee Statement and Views


                           PURPOSE AND SUMMARY

    The purpose of H.R. 5503, the ``National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration Authorization Act of 2018,'' is to 
authorize the programs of NASA for fiscal years 2018 and 2019.

                   BACKGROUND AND NEED FOR LEGISLATION

    The NASA Authorization Transition Act of 2017 set a tone of 
American leadership in space. H.R. 5503 seeks to continue and 
extend that vision, a vision set by Congress and the 
Administration. Congress continues to support NASA as a multi-
mission agency and seeks to establish a balanced portfolio and 
budget for NASA's future, while supporting the President's plan 
for NASA exploration and leadership in space.
    Developments in the U.S. private aerospace industry within 
the past decade have caused a significant shift in who can 
access space. Space was originally used solely by governments, 
but improvements in technology and decreases in costs has led 
to the development of a diverse aerospace industry. It is more 
important now than ever for NASA to leverage and foster this 
growing industry.
    NASA benefits from working closely with other agencies and 
our international partners. Congress recognizes these benefits; 
therefore, this Act encourages and deepens partnerships with 
industry, other agencies, and international partners.
    Congress also recognizes the need for constraints in the 
Federal budget; therefore, this Act prioritizes achieving 
NASA's multi-mission goals while controlling costs. This 
control is achieved by directing NASA to leverage industry, 
government, and international partnerships and provide better 
oversight of NASA programs.

                           LEGISLATIVE HISTORY

    During the 113th, 114th and 115th Congresses, the House 
Committee on Science, Space, and Technology held 45 hearings 
and 13 markups relevant to this bill.
    On Tuesday, March 19, 2013, the Committee held a hearing 
titled, ``Threats from Space: A Review of U.S. Government 
Efforts to Track and Mitigate Asteroids and Meteors, Part I.'' 
This was the first in a series of hearings examining the 
tracking, characterization and mitigation of Near Earth 
Objects. The hearing provided Members of the Committee the 
opportunity to receive testimony regarding the ongoing work, 
planned efforts, and coordination procedures within the 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Office of 
Science and Technology Policy, and the U.S. Air Force Space 
Command. The Committee heard testimony from The Honorable John 
P. Holdren, Director of the Office of Science and Technology 
Policy in the Executive Office of the President; Gen. William 
L. Shelton, Commander of the U.S. Air Force Space Command; and 
The Honorable Charles F. Bolden, Jr., Administrator of NASA.
    On Wednesday, April 10, 2013, the Committee held a hearing 
titled, ``Threats from Space, Part II: A Review of Private 
Sector Efforts to Track and Mitigate Asteroids and Meteors.'' 
This was the second hearing the Committee examined the 
tracking, characterization and mitigation of Near Earth 
Objects. The hearing focused on the most viable near-term 
initiatives within the private sector and the international 
coordination needed to identify and characterize potentially 
hazardous near-Earth objects. The Committee heard testimony 
from Dr. Ed Lu, Chairman and CEO of B612 Foundation; Dr. Donald 
K. Yeomans, Manager of the Near-Earth Objects Program Office at 
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL); and Dr. Michael F. 
A'Hearn, Vice-Chair of the Committee to Review Near-Earth 
Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies at the National 
Research Council.
    On Wednesday, April 24, 2013, the Subcommittee on Space 
held a hearing titled, ``An Overview of the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration Budget for Fiscal Year 
2014.'' The purpose of the hearing was to review the 
Administration's fiscal year 2014 (FY14) budget request for 
NASA and examine its priorities and challenges. The sole 
witness was the Honorable Charles F. Bolden, Jr., Administrator 
of NASA.
    On Thursday, May 9, 2013, the Subcommittee on Space with 
the Subcommittee on Research and Technology held a hearing 
titled, ``Exoplanet Discoveries: Have We Found Other Earths?'' 
The purpose of the hearing was to review the recent discovery 
of three super-Earth sized planets by NASA's Kepler space 
telescope. The hearing also assessed the state of exoplanet 
surveying, characterization, and research, as well as 
coordination within the government and with external partners. 
Since NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF) both 
contribute to the search for exoplanets, the hearing also 
discussed NASA's Exoplanet Exploration Program and NSF's 
Division of Astronomical Science. NASA provides space-based 
telescopes to identify potential planets, while NSF builds 
ground-based telescopes. Both agencies fund research that 
assists in categorizing and characterizing candidate planets. 
The Subcommittees heard testimony from Dr. Laurance Doyle, 
Principal Investigator of the Center for the Study of Life in 
the Universe at the SETI Institute, and member of the NASA 
Kepler Mission Science Team; Dr. John Grunsfeld, Associate 
Administrator of the Science Mission Directorate at NASA; and 
Dr. James Ulvestad, Division Director of the Division of 
Astronomical Sciences within the Directorate for Mathematical 
and Physical Sciences at NSF.
    On Tuesday, May 21, 2013, the Subcommittee on Space held a 
hearing titled, ``Next Steps in Human Exploration to Mars and 
Beyond.'' The purpose of the hearing was to examine possible 
options for the next steps in human space flight and how those 
options move the U.S. closer to a human mission to Mars and 
beyond. In particular, the Committee explored whether the 
Administration's proposed asteroid rendezvous mission is a 
better precursor for an eventual manned mission to Mars 
compared to Apollo-like follow-on missions to return to the 
Moon. The Subcommittee heard testimony from Dr. Louis Friedman, 
Co-Lead of the Keck Institute for Space Studies Asteroid 
Retrieval Mission Study and Executive Director Emeritus at The 
Planetary Society; Dr. Paul Spudis, Senior Staff Scientist at 
the Lunar and Planetary Institute; Dr. Steve Squyres, Goldwin 
Smith Professor of Astronomy at Cornell University; and Mr. 
Doug Cooke, Owner of Cooke Concepts and Solutions.
    On Wednesday, June 19, 2013, the Subcommittee on Space held 
a hearing titled, ``NASA Authorization Act of 2013.'' The 
purpose of the hearing was to review a discussion draft of the 
NASA Authorization Act of 2013. The Subcommittee heard 
testimony from Dr. Steven M. Squyres, Goldwin Smith Professor 
of Astronomy at Cornell University; and Mr. A. Thomas Young, 
Former Executive Vice President of Martin Marietta.
    On Wednesday, July 10, 2013, the Subcommittee on Space met 
to consider the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
Authorization Act of 2013. This measure authorizes the programs 
of NASA for fiscal year 2013.
    On Thursday, July 18, 2013, the Committee met to consider 
H.R. 2687, the ``National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
Authorization Act of 2013.'' This measure authorizes the 
programs of NASA for fiscal year 2013.
    On Friday, September 20, 2013, the Subcommittee on Space 
held a hearing titled, ``NASA Infrastructure: Enabling 
Discovery and Ensuring Capability.'' The purpose of the hearing 
was to review NASA's efforts to manage its facilities and 
infrastructure, the agency's current legislated authorities, 
and its proposed legislation to provide greater flexibility to 
the agency. The Subcommittee heard testimony from the Honorable 
Paul K. Martin, Inspector General of NASA; and Mr. Richard 
Keegan, Associate Deputy Administrator of NASA.
    On Wednesday, November 20, 2013, the Subcommittee on Space 
held a hearing titled, ``Commercial Space.'' The purpose of the 
hearing was to examine ways in which companies are utilizing 
federal support and government policies to grow their 
commercial businesses in space launch, communications, GPS, 
remote sensing, weather monitoring, suborbital tourism and 
science experimentation, and human spaceflight. The witnesses 
also addressed what government policies would be helpful to the 
U.S. commercial space industry. The witnesses specifically 
addressed the policies contained in H.R. 3038, the ``Suborbital 
and Orbital Advancement and Regulatory Streamlining (SOARS) 
Act.'' The Subcommittee heard testimony from the Honorable 
Kevin McCarthy, Member and Majority Whip of the U.S. House of 
Representatives; Ms. Patricia Cooper, President of the 
Satellite Industry Association; Mr. Stuart Witt, CEO and 
General Manager of Mojave Air and Space Port; and Mr. Dennis 
Tito, Chairman of the Inspiration Mars Foundation.
    On Wednesday, December 4, 2013, the Committee held a 
hearing titled, ``Astrobiology: The Search for Biosignatures in 
our Solar System and Beyond.'' The purpose of the hearing was 
to examine astrobiology research and the search for 
biosignatures in our solar system and beyond. The hearing 
included a general assessment of the multi- and 
interdisciplinary-nature of astrobiology research, including 
the role astrobiology plays in formulating NASA space missions. 
The hearing also examined the techniques and capabilities 
necessary to determine the potential for the existence of 
biosignatures within our solar system. With the discovery of 
potential Earth-like planets outside of our solar system, the 
hearing also investigated what methods are being used to 
determine if any of these planets may harbor life. Further, the 
hearing explored existing and planned astrobiology research 
strategies and roadmaps. The Committee heard testimony from Dr. 
Mary Voytek, Senior Scientist for Astrobiology in the Science 
Mission Directorate at NASA; Dr. Sara Seager, Professor of 
Physics and of Planetary Science at the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology, and 2013 recipient of a MacArthur Foundation 
``Genius Grant'' for her work in exoplanet research; and Dr. 
Steven J. Dick, Baruch S. Blumberg Chair of Astrobiology at the 
John W. Kluge Center at the Library of Congress.
    On Wednesday, December 11, 2013, the Committee met to 
consider H.R. 3625, ``To provide for termination liability 
costs for certain NASA projects, and for other purposes.'' This 
measure specifically mentions termination liability costs for 
the International Space Station (ISS), the Space Launch System 
(SLS), and contractors partnered with NASA.
    On Thursday, March 27, 2014, the Subcommittee on Space held 
a hearing titled, ``An Overview of the National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration Budget for Fiscal Year 2015.'' The purpose 
of the hearing was to review the Administration's fiscal year 
2015 (FY15) budget request for NASA and examine its priorities 
and challenges. The sole witness was the Honorable Charles F. 
Bolden, Jr., Administrator of NASA.
    On Wednesday, April 9, 2014, the Subcommittee on Space met 
to consider H.R. 4412, the ``National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration Authorization Act of 2014.'' This measure 
authorizes the programs of NASA for fiscal year 2014.
    On Tuesday, April 29, 2014, the Committee met to consider 
H.R. 4412, the ``National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
Authorization Act of 2014.'' This measure authorizes the 
programs of NASA for fiscal year 2014.
    On Wednesday, May 21, 2014, the Committee held a hearing 
titled, ``Astrobiology and the Search for Life in the 
Universe.'' The purpose of the hearing was to review the 
current state of the science related to the search for life in 
the universe. The Committee heard testimony from Dr. Seth 
Shostak, Senior Astronomer at the SETI Institute; and Dr. Dan 
Werthimer, Director of SETI Research at the University of 
California.
    On Friday, June 20, 2014, the Subcommittee on Space with 
the Subcommittee on Oversight held a hearing titled, ``NASA 
Security: Assessing the Agency's Efforts to Protect Sensitive 
Information.'' The Government Accountability Office (GAO), the 
National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA), and the NASA 
Office of Inspector General (OIG) had all released reports 
prior to the hearing that addressed how NASA manages access to 
NASA facilities and sensitive information by foreign nationals. 
These practices and procedures, as well as the recommendations 
for improvement identified in the reports, were reviewed during 
the hearing. The Subcommittees heard testimony from Mr. Richard 
Keegan, Associate Deputy Administrator of NASA; Ms. Belva 
Martin, Director of Acquisition and Sourcing Management at the 
Government Accountability Office; Ms. Gail A. Robinson, Deputy 
Inspector General of NASA; and Mr. Douglas Webster, Fellow of 
the National Academy of Public Administration and Principal of 
Cambio Consulting Group.
    On Wednesday, June 25, 2014, the Committee held a hearing 
titled, ``Pathways to Exploration: A Review of the Future of 
Human Space Exploration,'' to review the conclusions and 
recommendations of the Committee on Human Spaceflight's report, 
``Pathways to Exploration--Rationales and Approaches for a U.S. 
Program of Human Space Exploration.'' The report discussed U.S. 
leadership in commercial cargo and crewed orbital spaceflights, 
and the elusiveness of the long-term future of human 
spaceflight beyond our commitment to the ISS. The Committee 
heard testimony from Governor Mitch Daniels, Co-Chair of the 
Report and President of Purdue University; and Dr. Jonathan 
Lunine, Co-Chair of the Report and Director of Cornell 
University's Center for Radiophysics and Space Research.
    On Wednesday, September 10, 2014, the Committee held a 
hearing titled, ``Exploring Our Solar System: The ASTEROIDS Act 
as a Key Step.'' The purpose of the hearing was to give the 
Committee an overview of the variety of issues facing the 
planetary science community, including challenges the community 
is facing due to the low inventories of Pu-238 for deep space 
missions, NASA's proposed budget for planetary science, and 
potential commercial interests. Witnesses also commented on 
H.R. 5063, the ``American Space Technology for Exploring 
Resource Opportunities In Deep Space Act,'' or ASTEROIDS Act. 
The Committee heard testimony from Dr. Jim Green, Planetary 
Science Division Director at NASA; Dr. Jim Bell, Professor of 
Earth and Space Science Exploration at Arizona State 
University, and President of the Board of Directors of The 
Planetary Society; Dr. Mark Sykes, CEO and Director of the 
Planetary Science Institute; Professor Joanne Gabrynowicz, 
Professor Emerita, Director Emerita, and Journal of Space Law 
Editor-in-Chief Emerita at the University of Mississippi; and 
Dr. Philip Christensen, Co-Chair of the National Research 
Council (NRC) Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Science 
(CAPS), Chair of the Mars Panel of the NRC Planetary Decadal 
Survey, and Regents Professor at Arizona State University.
    On Wednesday, December 10, 2014, the Subcommittee on Space 
held a hearing titled, ``An Update on the Space Launch System 
and Orion: Monitoring the Development of the Nation's Deep 
Space Exploration Capabilities.'' The purpose of the hearing 
was to examine the progress, challenges, and future 
opportunities for the SLS and Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle 
(Orion). The Subcommittee heard testimony from Mr. William 
Gerstenmaier, Associate Administrator for the Human Exploration 
and Operations Missions Directorate at NASA; and Ms. Cristina 
Chaplain, Director of Acquisition and Sourcing Management at 
the Government Accountability Office.
    On Wednesday, January 21, 2015, the Subcommittee on Space 
held a hearing titled, ``Unmanned Aircraft Systems Research and 
Development.'' The purpose of the hearing was to review 
research and development (R&D) performed by the Federal 
Aviation Administration (FAA) and NASA in the area of Unmanned 
Aircraft Systems (UAS) and their integration into the National 
Airspace System (NAS). This hearing was used to inform the NASA 
reauthorization, as well as the FAA reauthorization, since the 
Committee has jurisdiction over civil aviation research and 
development. The Subcommittee heard testimony from Dr. Ed 
Waggoner, Director of the Integrated Systems Research Program 
in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate at NASA; Mr. 
James Williams, Manager of the UAS Integration Office in the 
Aviation Safety Organization at the FAA; Dr. John Lauber, Co-
Chair of the Committee on Autonomy Research for Civil Aviation 
at the National Research Council (NRC); Mr. Brian Wynne, CEO 
and President, Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems 
International (AUVSI); Mr. Colin Guinn, Chief Revenue Officer 
of 3D Robotics and a Small UAV Coalition Member; and Dr. John 
R. Hansman, T. Wilson Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics 
at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).
    On Friday, February 27, 2015, the Subcommittee on Space 
held a hearing titled, ``The Commercial Crew Program: 
Challenges and Opportunities.'' The purpose of the hearing was 
to review NASA's efforts to develop and acquire safe, reliable, 
and affordable crew transfer services to the ISS. The 
Subcommittee examined the progress of the Commercial Crew 
Program and its acquisition model, as well as future challenges 
for the program as the contractors move towards certification. 
The Subcommittee heard testimony from Mr. Bill Gerstenmaier, 
Associate Administrator of the Human Exploration and Operations 
Mission Directorate at NASA; Vice Admiral Joseph Dyer, U.S. 
Navy (Ret.), and Chairman of the Aerospace Safety Advisory 
Panel at NASA; Mr. John Mulholland, Vice President and Program 
Manager of Commercial Programs at The Boeing Company; and Dr. 
Garrett Reisman, Director of Crew Operations at the Space 
Exploration Technologies Corporation.
    On Tuesday, March 24, 2015, the Subcommittee on Space held 
a hearing titled, ``Searching for the Origins of the Universe: 
An Update on the Progress of the James Webb Space Telescope.'' 
The purpose of the hearing was to cover the development history 
of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and NASA's progress to 
date since the program was last re-baselined in 2011. Witnesses 
testified on the technical challenges associated with 
completing the JWST by the target launch date of October 2018, 
at a life-cycle cost no greater than $8.85 billion. The 
Subcommittee heard testimony from Dr. John Grunsfeld, Associate 
Administrator of the Science Mission Directorate at NASA; Ms. 
Cristina Chaplain, Director of Acquisition and Sourcing 
Management at the U.S. Government Accountability Office; Mr. 
Jeffrey Grant, Vice-President and General Manager of Space 
Systems at Northop Grumman Corporation; and Dr. John C. Mather, 
Senior Project Scientist of the James Webb Space Telescope at 
the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) of NASA.
    On Thursday, April 16, 2015, the Subcommittee on Space held 
a hearing titled, ``An Overview of the Budget Proposal for the 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration for Fiscal Year 
2016.'' The purpose of the hearing was to review the 
Administration's fiscal year 2016 (FY16) budget request for 
NASA and examine its priorities and challenges. The sole 
witness was the Honorable Charles F. Bolden, Jr., Administrator 
of NASA.
    On Thursday, April 30, 2015, the Committee met to consider 
H.R. 2039, the ``National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
Authorization Act for 2016 and 2017.'' This measure authorizes 
the programs of NASA for fiscal years 2016 and 2017.
    On Wednesday, May 13, 2015, the Committee met to consider 
four space-related measures. First, H.R. 2262, the ``Spurring 
Private Aerospace Competitiveness and Entrepreneurship Act of 
2015,'' or SPACE Act of 2015. This measure facilitated a pro-
growth environment for the developing commercial space industry 
by encouraging private sector investment and creating more 
stable and predictable regulatory conditions. Second, the 
Committee considered H.R. 1508, the ``Space Resource 
Exploration and Utilization Act of 2015.'' This measure 
promoted the development of a U.S. commercial space resource 
exploration and utilization industry and increased the 
exploration and utilization of resources in outer space. Next, 
the Committee considered H.R. 2261, the ``Commercial Remote 
Sensing Act of 2015.'' This measure facilitated the continued 
development of the commercial remote sensing industry and 
included provisions to protect national security. Lastly, the 
Committee considered H.R. 2263, the ``Office of Space Commerce 
Act,'' to rename the Office of Space Commerce, as well as 
outline the functions of the Office.
    On Thursday, June 11, 2015, the Subcommittee on Space held 
a hearing titled, ``Transforming America's Air Travel.'' The 
purpose of the hearing was to review the current state of civil 
aeronautics research and inform the Committee's consideration 
of the FAA Reauthorization. The Subcommittee heard testimony 
from Dr. Jaiwon Shin, Associate Administrator of the 
Aeronautics Mission Directorate at NASA, and Member of the FAA 
Research and Development Advisory Committee; Mr. Dennis Filler, 
Director of the William J. Hughes Technical Center at the FAA; 
Mr. William Leber, Chair of the National Research Council 
report titled ``Transformation in the Air--A Review of the FAA 
Research Plan,'' and Vice President of Air Traffic Innovations 
at PASSUR Aerospace; Dr. R. John Hansman, T. Wilson Professor 
of Aeronautics & Astronautics, and Director of the MIT 
International Center for Air Transportation at the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Chair of the FAA 
Research and Development Advisory Committee; and Dr. Greg 
Hyslop, Senior Member of the American Institute for Aeronautics 
and Astronautics, Vice President and General Manager of Boeing 
Research and Technology, and Chief Engineer of Engineering, 
Operations and Technology at the Boeing Company.
    On Friday, July 10, 2015, the Subcommittee on Space held a 
hearing titled, ``The International Space Station: Addressing 
Operational Challenges.'' The purpose of the hearing was to 
examine the status of the ISS. The Subcommittee evaluated 
NASA's plans for dealing with operational and maintenance 
challenges, the status of the ISS partnership, how NASA is 
utilizing the ISS to enable future deep space exploration, and 
the Administration's request to extend ISS operations to 2024. 
The Subcommittee heard testimony from Mr. William Gerstenmaier, 
Associate Administrator for the Human Exploration and 
Operations Mission Directorate at NASA; Mr. John Elbon, Vice 
President and General Manager of Space Exploration at The 
Boeing Company; the Honorable Paul K. Martin, Inspector General 
at NASA; Ms. Shelby Oakley, Acting Director of Acquisition and 
Sourcing Management at the Government Accountability Office; 
and Dr. James A. Pawelczyk, Associate Professor of Physiology 
and Kinesiology at Pennsylvania State University.
    On Tuesday, July 28, 2015, the Committee held a hearing 
titled, ``Exploration of the Solar System: From Mercury to 
Pluto and Beyond.'' The purpose of the hearing was to review 
recent NASA achievements in exploring our solar system, 
including the exploration of Pluto and the asteroid Ceres, as 
well as assess future NASA missions under development, 
including a flagship mission to conduct a detailed survey of 
Jupiter's moon Europa. The Committee heard testimony from Dr. 
John Grunsfeld, Associate Administrator of the Science Mission 
Directorate at NASA; Dr. Alan Stern, Principal Investigator of 
the New Horizons Mission at the Southwest Research Institute; 
Dr. Christopher Russell, Principal Investigator of the Dawn 
Mission, and Professor of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at 
the University of California Los Angeles; Dr. Robert 
Pappalardo, Study Scientist for the Europa Mission Concept at 
the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at NASA; and Dr. Robert Braun, 
David and Andrew Lewis Professor of Space Technology at the 
Georgia Institute of Technology.
    On Tuesday, September 29, 2015, the Committee held a 
hearing titled, ``Astrobiology and the Search for Life Beyond 
Earth in the Next Decade.'' The purpose of the hearing was to 
review the scientific methods employed to search for life, 
examine recent scientific discoveries in the field of 
astrobiology (the study of the origin, evolution, distribution, 
and future of life in the universe), and assess the prospects 
of finding life beyond Earth over the next decade. The hearing 
included an overview of NASA's astrobiology programs and NASA's 
new Nexus for Exoplanet System Science (``NExSS'') initiative 
and examined the techniques and capabilities necessary to 
determine the potential for the existence of microbial life 
within our solar system. The hearing also investigated the 
scientific methods of exoplanet atmospheric spectroscopy and 
radio and optical astronomical surveys. The Committee heard 
testimony from Dr. Ellen Stofan, Chief Scientist at NASA; Dr. 
Jonathan Lunine, David D. Duncan Professor in the Physical 
Sciences and Director of the Center for Radiophysics and Space 
Research at Cornell University; Dr. Jacob Bean, Assistant 
Professor in the Departments of Astronomy and Astrophysics, and 
Geophysics, at the University of Chicago; and Dr. Andrew 
Siemion, Director of the SETI Research Center at the University 
of California at Berkeley.
    On Friday, October 9, 2015, the Subcommittee on Space held 
a hearing titled, ``Deep Space Exploration: Examining the 
Impact of the President's Budget.'' The purpose of this hearing 
was to examine the President's five-year budget projection for 
the SLS and Orion crew vehicle development programs. The 
Subcommittee evaluated NASA's plans for future major tests and 
milestones and how the budget requested by the Administration 
affects development schedules and milestones for these 
programs. The Subcommittee heard testimony from Mr. Doug Cooke, 
Owner of Cooke Concepts and Solutions and former NASA Associate 
Administrator for Exploration Systems; and Mr. Dan Dumbacher, 
Professor of Practice at Purdue University and former NASA 
Deputy Associate Administrator of the Human Exploration and 
Operations Mission Directorate.
    On Tuesday, November 17, 2015, the Subcommittee on Space 
with the Subcommittee on Environment held a hearing titled, 
``Exploring Commercial Opportunities to Maximize Earth Science 
Investments.'' The purpose of the hearing was to explore ways 
NASA can satisfy Earth science data requirements through 
public-private partnerships, including commercial capabilities. 
The Subcommittees heard testimony from Dr. Scott Pace, Director 
of the Space Policy Institute at George Washington University; 
Dr. Walter Scott, Founder and Chief Technical Officer of 
DigitalGlobe; Mr. Robbie Schingler, Co-Founder and President of 
PlanetLabs; Dr. Samuel Goward, Emeritus Professor of Geography 
at the University of Maryland at College Park; and Dr. Antonio 
Busalacchi, Professor and Director of the Earth System Science 
Interdisciplinary Center at the University of Maryland.
    On Wednesday, February 3, 2016, the Subcommittee on Space 
held a hearing titled, ``Charting a Course: Expert Perspectives 
on NASA's Human Exploration Proposals.'' The purpose of the 
hearing was to examine the options for intermediate missions as 
well as research, technology, and systems needed before NASA 
can safely and effectively carry out a human mission to Mars, 
while maintaining a constancy of purpose and steady technical 
progress through the next Administration and beyond. The 
Subcommittee heard testimony Mr. A. Thomas Young, Former 
Director of the Goddard Space Flight Center at NASA, and Former 
President and Chief Operating Officer of the Martin Marietta 
Corporation; Dr. John C. Sommerer, Chair of the Technical Panel 
of the Pathways to Exploration Report by the National Academy 
of Sciences; and Dr. Paul Spudis, Senior Scientist at the Lunar 
and Planetary Institute.
    On Thursday, February 11, 2016, the Committee met to 
consider H.R. 4489, the ``FAA Leadership in Groundbreaking 
High-Tech Research and Development Act,'' or FLIGHT R&D Act, to 
provide for FAA research and development.
    On Thursday, March 17, 2016, the Subcommittee on Space held 
a hearing titled, ``An Overview of the Budget Proposal for the 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration for Fiscal Year 
2017.'' The purpose of the hearing was to review the 
Administration's fiscal year 2017 (FY17) budget request for 
NASA. The sole witness was the Honorable Charles F. Bolden, 
Jr., Administrator of NASA.
    On Tuesday, April 19, 2016, the Subcommittee on Space held 
a hearing titled, ``The Commercial Space Launch Industry: Small 
Satellite Opportunities and Challenges.'' The purpose of the 
hearing was to examine the current state of the small satellite 
commercial launch industry. The Subcommittee heard testimony 
from Mr. Elliot Pulham, Chief Executive Officer of the Space 
Foundation; and Mr. Eric Stallmer, President of the Commercial 
Spaceflight Federation.
    On Wednesday, May 18, 2016, the Subcommittee on Space held 
a hearing titled, ``Next Steps to Mars: Deep Space Habitats,'' 
to examine Mars exploration, specifically efforts to develop 
deep space habitation capabilities. The Subcommittee heard 
testimony from Mr. Jason Crusan, Director of Advanced 
Exploration Systems (AES) in the Human Exploration and 
Operations Mission Directorate at NASA; Mr. John Elbon, Vice 
President and General Manager of Space Exploration for Boeing 
Defense, Space, and Security at The Boeing Company; Ms. Wanda 
Sigur from the Lockheed Martin Corporation; Mr. Frank 
Culbertson, President of Space Systems at Orbital-ATK; and Mr. 
Andy Weir, Author of The Martian.
    On Wednesday, June 15, 2016, the Subcommittee on Space held 
a hearing titled, ``Human Spaceflight Ethics and Obligations: 
Options for Monitoring, Diagnosing, and Treating Former 
Astronauts.'' The purpose of this hearing was to evaluate the 
impacts of long duration human spaceflight on astronaut health, 
federal obligations and ethical considerations related to those 
impacts, and potential options for monitoring, diagnosing, and 
treating former NASA astronauts for conditions resulting from 
their service. The Subcommittee heard testimony from Dr. 
Richard Williams, Chief Health and Medical Officer at NASA; 
Captain Chris Cassidy, United States Navy (USN) and Chief of 
the Astronaut Office at NASA; Captain Scott Kelly (USN, Ret.) 
and Former NASA Astronaut; Captain Michael Lopez-Alegria (USN, 
Ret) President of the Association of Space Explorers-USA, and 
Former NASA Astronaut; Dr. Jeffrey Kahn, Professor of Bioethics 
and Public Policy at the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of 
Bioethics, and Chairman of the Committee on the Ethics 
Principles and Guidelines for Health Standards for Long 
Duration and Exploration Spaceflights of the Board on Health 
Sciences Policy at the National Academies of Sciences.
    On Wednesday, September 7, 2016, the Subcommittee on Space 
held a hearing titled, ``Commercial Remote Sensing: 
Facilitating Innovation and Leadership.'' The purpose of the 
hearing was to examine the current state of the space-based 
remote sensing industry, including scientific and technical 
advances in the fields of space-to-earth and space-to-space 
remote sensing. Examples of remote sensing applications include 
mapping technologies, crop monitoring, natural resource 
exploration, and national security. This hearing also assessed 
existing U.S. law and regulation governing private remote 
sensing space systems, including whether there is a need to 
reform existing law and regulation. The Subcommittee heard 
testimony from Mr. Kevin O'Connell, President and CEO of 
Innovative Analytics and Training LLC, and Former Chair of the 
Federal Advisory Committee on Commercial Remote Sensing 
(ACCRES); Mr. Kevin Pomfret, Executive Director of the Centre 
for Spatial Law and Policy; Ms. Michele R. Weslander Quaid, 
President of Sunesis Nexus LLC; Mr. Michael Dodge, Assistant 
Professor in the Department of Space Studies at the University 
of North Dakota; and Ms. Joanne Gabrynowicz, Professor Emerita 
at the University of Mississippi School of Law.
    On Wednesday, September 21, 2016, the Committee met to 
consider H.R. 6076, the ``To Research, Evaluate, Assess, and 
Treat Astronauts Act,'' or TREAT Astronauts Act. This measure 
requires the NASA Administrator to establish a program for the 
medical monitoring, diagnosis, and treatment of astronauts.
    On Tuesday, September 27, 2016, the Subcommittee on Space 
held a hearing titled, ``Are We Losing the Space Race to 
China?'' The purpose of the hearing was to examine the 
achievements, capabilities, and future direction of China's 
space program, as well as the impact on U.S. leadership in 
space. The Subcommittee heard testimony from the Hon. Dennis C. 
Shea, Chairman of the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review 
Commission; Mr. Mark Stokes, Executive Director of the Project 
2049 Institute; Mr. Dean Cheng, Senior Research Fellow of the 
Asian Studies Center at the Heritage Foundation; and Dr. James 
Lewis, Senior Vice President and Director of the Strategic 
Technologies Program at the Center for Strategic & 
International Studies.
    On Thursday, February 16, 2017, the Committee held a 
hearing titled, ``NASA: Past, Present, and Future.'' The 
purpose of the hearing was to review NASA's past portfolio of 
missions, evaluate existing exploration programs, and provide a 
venue for consideration of potential bold and innovative 
missions going forward. The Committee heard testimony from the 
Hon. Harrison Schmitt, Apollo 17 Astronaut and Former U.S. 
Senator; Lt. Gen. Thomas P. Stafford, former Gemini VI, Gemini 
IX, Apollo 10, Apollo-Soyuz Test Project Astronaut, and 
Chairman of the NASA International Space Station Advisory 
Committee; Mr. A. Thomas Young, Former Director of the Goddard 
Space Flight Center at NASA, Former President and Chief 
Operating Officer of the Martin Marietta Corporation, and 
Former Chairman of the Science Applications International 
Corporation (SAIC); and Dr. Ellen Stofan, Former NASA Chief 
Scientist.
    On Wednesday, March 8, 2017, the Subcommittee on Space held 
a hearing titled, ``Regulating Space: Innovation, Liberty, and 
International Obligations.'' The purpose of the hearing was to 
examine U.S. international obligations in light of new and 
innovative space activities. The Subcommittee heard testimony 
from Ms. Laura Montgomery, Attorney and Sole Proprietor of 
Ground Based Space Matters, LLC; Dr. Eli Dourado, Senior 
Research Fellow and Director of the Technology Policy Program 
at the Mercatus Center at George Mason University; Mr. Doug 
Loverro, Former Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Space 
Policy; Mr. Dennis J. Burnett, Adjunct Professor of Law at the 
University of Nebraska-Lincoln College of Law; and Dr. Henry B. 
Hogue, Specialist in American National Government at the 
Congressional Research Service.
    On Wednesday, March 22, 2017, the Subcommittee on Space 
held a hearing titled, ``The ISS After 2024: Options and 
Impacts.'' It is the policy of the U.S. to support full and 
complete utilization of the ISS through at least 2024. What 
happens to the ISS after that date remains an open question. 
The purpose of the hearing was to examine the range of choices 
facing our nation and the impacts of those various options. The 
Subcommittee heard testimony from Mr. William Gerstenmaier, 
Associate Administrator for Human Exploration and Operations at 
NASA; Dr. Mary Lynne Dittmar, Executive Director of the 
Coalition for Deep Space Exploration; Mr. Eric Stallmer, 
President of the Commercial Spaceflight Federation; and Dr. 
Robert Ferl, Distinguished Professor and Director of the 
Interdisciplinary Center for Biotechnology Research at the 
University of Florida.
    On Wednesday, April 26, 2017, the Committee held a hearing 
titled, ``Advances in the Search for Life.'' The NASA 
Transition Authorization Act of 2017 established ``[t]he search 
for life's origin, evolution, distribution, and future in the 
universe,'' as one of the national space program's objectives. 
The hearing surveyed recent breakthroughs in a variety of 
fields that contribute to astrobiology, such as the continued 
discovery of exoplanets and research efforts to understand 
life's origin on Earth and in the lab. The Committee heard 
testimony from Dr. Thomas Zurbuchen, Associate Administrator of 
the Science Mission Directorate at NASA; Dr. Adam Burgasser, 
Professor of Physics at the University of California San Diego 
(UCSD) and UCSD Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, as 
well as a Fulbright Scholar; Dr. James Kasting, Chair of the 
Planning Committee for the Workshop on the Search for Life 
Across Space and Time of the National Academies of Science, 
Engineering, and Medicine, as well as an Evan Pugh Professor of 
Geosciences at Pennsylvania State University; Dr. Seth Shostak, 
Senior Astronomer at the SETI Institute.
    On Thursday, June 8, 2017, the Committee met to consider 
H.R. 2809, the ``American Space Commerce Free Enterprise Act of 
2017.'' This measure amends title 51 of the U.S. Code to 
provide for the authorization and supervision of 
nongovernmental space activities.
    On Thursday, June 8, 2017, the Subcommittee on Space held a 
hearing titled, ``An Overview of the National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration the Budget for Fiscal Year 2018.'' The 
purpose of the hearing was to review the Administration's 
fiscal year 2018 (FY18) budget request for NASA. The sole 
witness was Mr. Robert M. Lightfoot, Jr., Acting Administrator 
of NASA.
    On Thursday, June 29, 2017, the Subcommittee on Space held 
a hearing titled, ``In-Space Propulsion: Strategic Choices and 
Options,'' to hear testimony on NASA's in-space propulsion 
technology development in order to advance human exploration 
and uncrewed spacecraft operations. This hearing explored 
NASA's portfolio of investments in in-space propulsion 
technologies, the state of the various technologies, and how 
they fit into future space architectures. The Subcommittee 
heard testimony from Mr. William Gerstenmaier, Associate 
Administrator of the Human Exploration and Operations 
Directorate at NASA; Mr. Stephen Jurczyk, Associate 
Administrator of the Space Technology Mission Directorate at 
NASA; Dr. Mitchell Walker, Chair of the Electric Propulsion 
Technical Committee at the American Institute of Aeronautics 
and Astronautics (AIAA); Dr. Franklin Chang-Diaz, Founder and 
CEO of Ad Astra Rocket Company; Mr. Joe Cassady, Executive 
Director for Space of Aerojet Rocketdyne Washington Operations; 
and Dr. Anthony Pancotti, Director of Propulsion Research at 
MSNW.
    On Tuesday, July 18, 2017, the Subcommittee on Space held a 
hearing titled, ``Planetary Flagship Missions: Mars Rover 2020 
and Europa Clipper.'' The purpose of the hearing was to examine 
current progress on Mars Rover 2020 and Europa Clipper, the 
science objectives of these flagship missions, and the 
prospects for a Europa lander. NASA's Planetary Science 
Division was currently developing two flagship missions, the 
Mars Rover 2020 and Europa Clipper flyby mission, and a Europa 
lander mission under study. The Subcommittee heard testimony 
from Dr. Jim Green, Planetary Science Division Director of the 
Science Mission Directorate at NASA; Dr. Kenneth Farley, Mars 
Rover 2020 Project Scientist and Professor of Geochemistry at 
the California Institute of Technology; Dr. Robert Pappalardo, 
Europa Clipper Project Scientist at the Jet Propulsion 
Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology; Dr. Linda 
T. Elkins-Tanton, Director and Foundation Professor of the 
School of Earth and Space Exploration at Arizona State 
University, and Principal Investigator of the NASA Psyche 
Mission; and Dr. William B. McKinnon, Co-Chair of the National 
Academy of Sciences Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary 
Science, and Professor of Earth and Planetary Sciences at 
Washington University in St. Louis.
    On Thursday, September 7, 2017, the Subcommittee on Space 
held a hearing titled, ``Private Sector Lunar Exploration.'' 
NASA is supporting private sector exploration of the Moon 
through various programs. The private sector is also investing 
their own funding in hopes of serving a future market for 
transportation, cargo delivery, and surface operations 
(including in situ resource utilization). Moon Express plans to 
launch a mission to the Moon later in the year or early next 
year. Astrobotic recently announced a mission in 2019. Blue 
Origin disclosed its ``Blue Moon'' concept last spring. The 
United Launch Alliance and SpaceX have also indicated plans to 
operate in cislunar space in the near-future. The hearing 
reviewed these efforts, and NASA's role, to better understand 
the challenges and opportunities that they present. The 
Subcommittee heard testimony from Mr. Jason Crusan, Director of 
Advanced Exploration Systems at NASA; Mr. Bob Richards, Founder 
and CEO of Moon Express, Inc.; Mr. John Thornton, CEO of 
Astrobotic Technology, Inc.; Mr. Bretton Alexander, Director of 
Business Development and Strategy at Blue Origin; and Dr. 
George Sowers, Professor of Space Resources at the Colorado 
School of Mines.
    On Wednesday, October 4, 2017, the Subcommittee on Space 
held a hearing titled, ``Powering Exploration: An Update on 
Radioisotope Production and Lessons Learned from Cassini,'' to 
evaluate NASA and DOE efforts to reconstitute the production of 
Plutonium-238 (Pu-238), which is necessary for radioisotope 
thermonuclear generators (RTG) that provide electrical power 
for spacecraft that cannot use solar energy. Production ceased 
in the 1980s, and existing inventories were incorporated into 
planned missions. With the end of NASA's Cassini mission to 
Saturn, which used Pu-238 to enable its scientific discoveries, 
the hearing evaluated efforts to reconstitute Pu-238 
production, and the science it makes possible. The Committee 
had previously requested GAO to review NASA and DOE efforts to 
reconstitute domestic production of Pu-238; GAO released the 
results of their review at the hearing. The Subcommittee heard 
testimony from Mr. David Schurr, Deputy Director of the 
Planetary Science Division at NASA; Ms. Tracey Bishop, Deputy 
Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Infrastructure Programs in the 
Office of Nuclear Energy at the Department of Energy; Dr. Ralph 
L. McNutt, Jr., Chief Scientist for Space Science in the Space 
Exploration Sector at The Johns Hopkins University Applied 
Physics Laboratory; and Ms. Shelby Oakley, Director of 
Acquisition and Sourcing Management at the Government 
Accountability Office.
    On Thursday, November 9, 2017, the Subcommittee on Space 
held a hearing titled, ``An Update on NASA Exploration Systems 
Development.'' The purpose of the hearing was to examine the 
development of the SLS, Orion Crew Vehicle and the associated 
ground systems. The Subcommittee heard testimony from Mr. 
William Gerstenmaier, Associate Administrator of the Human 
Exploration and Operations Directorate at NASA; and Dr. Sandra 
Magnus, Executive Director of the American Institute of 
Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA).
    On Wednesday, December 6, 2017, the Subcommittee on Space 
held a hearing titled, ``NASA's Next Four Large Telescopes.'' 
The purpose of the hearing was to examine the development of 
the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), the JWST, the 
Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST), and the planning 
for a next generation space telescope. The Subcommittee heard 
testimony from Dr. Thomas Zurbuchen, Associate Administrator of 
the Science Mission Directorate at NASA; Ms. Cristina Chaplain, 
Director of Acquisition and Sourcing Management at the U.S. 
Government Accountability Office; Mr. A. Thomas Young, Former 
Director of the Goddard Space Flight Center at NASA, and Former 
President and Chief Operating Officer of the Martin Marietta 
Corporation; Dr. Matt Mountain, President of the Association of 
Universities for Research in Astronomy; and Dr. Chris McKee, 
Professor Emeritus of Astronomy and Physics at the University 
of California in Berkeley, on behalf of the National Academies 
of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine.
    On Wednesday, January 17, 2018, the Subcommittee on Space 
held a hearing titled, ``An Update on NASA Commercial Crew 
Systems Development.'' The purpose of the hearing was to 
examine the development of NASA's two commercial crew systems, 
being built by Boeing and SpaceX, to service the ISS. The 
Subcommittee heard testimony from Mr. William Gerstenmaier, 
Associate Administrator of the Human Exploration and Operations 
Directorate at NASA; Mr. John Mulholland, Vice President and 
Program Manager for Commercial Programs of Boeing Space 
Exploration; Dr. Hans Koenigsmann, Vice President of Build and 
Flight Reliability at SpaceX; Ms. Cristina Chaplain, Director 
of Acquisition and Sourcing Management at the U.S. Government 
Accountability Office; and Dr. Patricia Sanders, Chair of the 
NASA Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel.
    On Wednesday, March 7, 2018, the Subcommittee on Space held 
a hearing titled, ``An Overview of the National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration the Budget for Fiscal Year 2019.'' The 
purpose of the hearing was to review the Administration's 
fiscal year 2019 (FY19) budget request for NASA. The sole 
witness was Mr. Robert M. Lightfoot, Jr., Acting Administrator 
of NASA.
    On Thursday, March 22, 2018, the Committee met to consider 
H.R. 5345, the ``American Leadership in Space Technology and 
Advanced Rocketry Act,'' or ALSTAR Act. This measure designates 
NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to provide leadership for 
the U.S. rocket propulsion industrial base. The Committee also 
considered H.R. 5346, the ``Commercial Space Support Vehicle 
Act.'' This measure amends title 51 of the U.S. Code to provide 
for licenses and experimental permits for space support 
vehicles.
    On Friday, April 13, 2018, H.R. 5503, the ``National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 
2018,'' was introduced by Space Subcommittee Chairman Brian 
Babin.
    On Tuesday, April 17, 2018, the Committee met to consider 
H.R. 5503, the ``National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
Authorization Act of 2018.'' This measure authorizes the 
programs of NASA for fiscal years 2018 and 2019.

                            COMMITTEE VIEWS

Reimbursable basis for development of sensors and instruments

    Section 301 amends chapter 605 of title 51 to direct work 
undertaken by NASA for the benefit of another agency shall be 
conducted on reimbursable basis for development of operational 
Earth science systems as well as product development and data 
analysis. Though the NASA Authorization Act of 2018 reduces 
funding for Earth science activities that include NASA 
development of sensors and instruments for other federal 
agencies, H.R. 1625 (Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018) 
increases the appropriations for several of these same federal 
agencies benefiting from NASA work. Thus, NASA's Earth science 
funding reductions can be offset by reimbursable work resourced 
from the increased availability of other federal agency 
funding.

Wide-Field Infrared Space Telescope

    Congress is concerned that concurrent flagship programs 
challenge NASA's program management capacity. Similarly, the 
Government Accountability Office's annual Quick Look report 
(GAO-18-280SP) indicates that NASA's management of major 
project cost and schedule performance has deteriorated. This 
performance deterioration presents a NASA management trajectory 
change from previous Quick Look reports indicating that NASA 
had been improving its control over cost and schedule growth. 
Accordingly, Section 312 reduces flagship program concurrency 
by not allowing the Administrator to procure a launch vehicle 
for WFIRST until the James Webb Space Telescope is operational 
in space.

Lunar exploration planning

    The Administrator of NASA should coordinate with the 
National Space Council to prepare a plan to return to the moon 
as a starting point for deep space exploration (and distribute 
that plan to Congress for review). NASA and the National Space 
Council will tell Congress in their report if they need new 
additional authorities to return humans to the surface of the 
Moon by 2023 or 2028.

                           Section-by-Section


Section 1. Short title; Table of contents

    This section establishes the short title of the bill as the 
``National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization 
Act of 2018.''

Section 2. Definitions

    This section defines the terms ``Administrator,'' ``cis-
lunar space,'' ``ISS,'' ``NASA,'' ``near-earth object,'' 
``nonprofit organization,'' ``Orion,'' and ``Space Launch 
System.''

Section 101. Fiscal year 2018

    This section authorizes $20.73614 billion for NASA for 
fiscal year 2018. Science is authorized for $6.2215 billion. 
Specifically, $533.7 million of the Science line is authorized 
for the James Webb Space Telescope. Aeronautics is authorized 
for $685 million. Space Technology is authorized for $760 
million. Exploration is authorized for $4.79 billion. Of that, 
$1.35 billion is for Orion, $2.15 billion is for SLS, $895 
million is for Exploration Ground Systems, and $395 million is 
for Exploration Research and Development. Space Operations is 
authorized for $4.7515 billion. Other authorizations are also 
listed, such as for Education and Inspector General.

Section 102. Fiscal year 2019

    This section authorizes $21.20714 billion for NASA for 
fiscal year 2019. Deep Space Exploration Systems is authorized 
for $4.929 billion. Specifically, $1.35 billion is for Orion, 
$2.15 billion is for SLS, $540 million is for Exploration 
Ground Systems, and $889 million is for Advanced Exploration 
Systems. $504.3 million is for the Gateway. Exploration and 
Research Technology is authorized for $1.0177 billion. Low-
Earth Orbit and Spaceflight Operations is authorized for 
$4.6246 billion. Of that, $150 million is for Commercial Low-
Earth Orbit Development. Science is authorized for $6.6236 
billion. Aeronautics is authorized for $685 million. Other 
authorizations are also listed, such as for Education and 
Inspector General.

Section 201. Space facilities beyond low-earth orbit

    This section addresses the importance of space facilities 
beyond low-Earth orbit (to include operations near or around 
the Moon, Mars, or other celestial bodies) in NASA's long-term 
exploration goals. It also requires a report, due 90 days after 
enactment, on the potential development of space facilities for 
use beyond low-Earth orbit.

Section 202. ISS Transition

    This section instructs NASA to operate the ISS as long as 
Congress authorizes its operations. This section also 
establishes policy to carry out activities in fiscal year 2019 
as proposed in the ISS Transition Report that was delivered 
pursuant to the NASA Transition Authorization Act of 2017. The 
Administrator is directed to support Johnson Space Center as 
the leading NASA center for human spaceflight and human 
exploration programs, including human surface operations. This 
language is not intended to restrict or limit the ability of 
NASA Headquarters to assign work tasks. In addition to the 
biannual reporting requirement pursuant to the NASA Transition 
Authorization Act of 2017, this section further requires a 
quarterly briefing to Congress beginning three months after 
enactment, on the status of, and all progress, changes, and 
other developments related to carrying out the plans in the ISS 
Transition Report. This section authorizes at least $150 
million for fiscal year 2019 for commercial low-Earth orbit 
development out of low-Earth orbit and Spaceflight Operations 
account.
    The Committee reads the FY19 NASA Budget submission as 
limiting Federal support for the ISS only to ISS operations and 
maintenance, leaving spending on transportation to and from 
low-Earth orbit and beyond unchanged. Further, the Committee 
feels that the Administration's proposal for the future of the 
ISS addresses the commercial development of LEO and the 
transition from the ISS to a new platform as separate issues.

Section 203. Human spaceflight research

    This section highlights the NASA Johnson Space Center's 
expertise and facilities to support human spaceflight, 
exploration, and continued human presence in space. The Johnson 
Space Center is instructed to create a research office to 
leverage and build upon the Center's existing expertise in 
human spaceflight missions. This language is not intended to 
restrict or limit the ability of NASA Headquarters to assign 
work tasks. A report is due 180 days after enactment from NASA 
and Johnson Space Center on progress and developments for human 
spaceflight. This section authorizes $15 million for fiscal 
year 2019 to the Exploration Research and Technology account to 
carry out the requirements of this section.
    In order to expand knowledge and expertise, and leverage 
regional and state assets, the Committee encourages the 
Research Office at JSC to form a long-term partnership with 
university with which JSC has well-established ties and that 
can connect JSC to universities and state agencies across Texas 
and elsewhere. Such partnerships can not only assist in 
research in support of the human space flight mission, but also 
facilitate the pipeline for the future workforce, engage the 
academic community and JSC through joint appointments and 
temporary assignments, and promote continuing education 
opportunities for JSC's existing and future workforce.
    The Committee also encourages the Research Office at JSC to 
develop strategic partnerships with industry, state and local 
governments, and non-profit organizations to further support 
its mission and facilitate technology transfer between JSC and 
the private industry. This effort will leverage the robust 
aerospace industry in Texas and make use of state-wide 
organizations, such as the Aerospace, Aviation, and Defense 
Committee in the Governor's Economic Development Division, and 
local economic development organizations such as the Bay Area 
Houston Economic Partnership, and the Greater Houston 
Partnership. The Research Office is also encouraged to leverage 
innovation from cross-cutting technologies that are often 
applied to other sectors such as energy and medicine through 
mechanisms that allow JSC researchers to spend up to 10 percent 
of their time in work for other government agencies and/or 
industries. In this way, new and inventive ideas, processes, 
and techniques can be shared across sectors to benefit all.

Section 204. Critical path redundancy for human spaceflight

    This section states that the availability of a multitude of 
launch, crew and cargo vehicles can provide critical path 
redundancy for human spaceflight to LEO and beyond. This 
section also tasks the Government Accountability Office, within 
180 days of enactment, to create a list of suitable technical 
benchmarks and performance metrics that can be used to compare 
various launch systems and crew vehicles. This section further 
directs NASA to consider the GAO's findings on analyses of 
system performance (both projected and demonstrated) including 
the availability (systems beyond preliminary design review) of 
crew, cargo, and launch vehicles, for missions to LEO and 
beyond. Following GAO's input, the NASA Administrator should 
direct the relevant, technically competent NASA office to 
produce a report, based on the GAO's input, containing analyses 
about existing and developing launch systems and spacecraft it 
uses and is planning to use going forward.

Section 205. Space suits

    This section directs NASA to develop space suits and 
associated extravehicular activity technologies. The actions 
directed in this section are derived from the findings of the 
``Advanced Space Suit Capability Plan,'' delivered to Congress 
in response to Section 433 of the NASA Transition Authorization 
Act of 2017 (P.L. 115-10). Further, Johnson Space Center will 
manage the space suit and extravehicular activity programs. 
NASA is authorized to enter into agreements with the private 
sector to develop space suits.

Section 206. Mobile Launch Platform and Interim Cryogenic Propulsion 
        Stage

    This section directs NASA to develop a new-build, second 
Mobile Launch Platform specifically designed to support the SLS 
configurations that use the Exploration Upper Stage, as well as 
procure a second Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage.

Section 207. Mars 2033

    This section recognizes that human exploration of Mars is 
an important objective in NASA's human exploration agenda, and 
thus instructs NASA to prioritize engineering, science, and 
safety requirements to ensure mission completion of human 
exploration of Mars by 2033.

Section 301. Reimbursable basis for development of sensors and 
        instruments

    This section amends chapter 605 of title 51 to direct work 
undertaken by NASA for the benefit of another agency shall be 
conducted on reimbursable basis for development of operational 
Earth science systems as well as product development and data 
analysis.

Section 302. Earth observations study

    This section amends section 702 of the NASA Authorization 
Act of 2010 to direct that Earth observation data and services 
from the private sector or through public-private partnerships 
to meet Earth observation requirements be taken into account 
and incorporated in the strategic implementation plan.

Section 303. Land imaging

    This section encourages the U.S. to foster development of 
private sector remote sensing capabilities and analyses of land 
remote sensing data. Subchapter IV of chapter 601 of title 51 
is amended to: (1) emphasize the continuous collection, 
utilization, and wide dissemination of land imaging and foster 
the development of private sector capabilities and analysis to 
satisfy the long-term public interest; and (2) direct the 
National Space Council to be the lead federal coordinator for 
these activities.

Section 304. Landsat data policy

    This section requires the Administrator to conduct a study 
assessing Landsat system observations and associated science 
requirements that can be provided by purchasing data from the 
private sector or through public-private partnerships. A report 
is due one year after enactment containing the results of the 
study. No funds may be obligated for any Landsat 11 or any 
subsequent Landsat systems until the Administrator has 
completed the study. The definition of ``Landsat system'' is 
the same as what is listed in section 60101 of title 51.

Section 305. Earth science missions

    This section directs the continued restructuring NASA's 
Earth science portfolio to reduce overall costs, foster 
partnerships with commercial and international partners, and 
align with the recommendations of the most recent National 
Academy of Sciences decadal survey, which was published in 
2018. This section makes certain NASA Earth science priorities 
focus on the highest priority missions as identified by the 
science community.

Section 306: Goddard Institute for Space Studies Inspector General 
        report

    This section requires a report, due 180 days after 
enactment, from NASA leadership regarding the agency's plan to 
implement recommendations from the April 2018 NASA Office of 
Inspector General (OIG) report, ``NASA's Management of GISS: 
The Goddard Institute for Space Studies.'' This OIG report 
focused on recent scientific publication practices and 
unallowable uses of NASA-appropriated funds by GISS employees, 
grant recipients, and contractors for salary expenses, sub-
contracting, and computer equipment.

Section 311. Search for the origin, evolution, distribution, and future 
        of life in the universe

    This section instructs the Administrator search for 
technosignatures in the universe. A report is due 90 days after 
enactment on all NASA programs and partnerships that contribute 
to the search for life's origin, evolution, distribution, and 
future in the universe. NASA shall devote at least $10 million 
for each of fiscal years 2018 through 2019 for the search for 
technosignatures.

Section 312. Wide-Field Infrared Space Telescope

    This section limits the total formulation and development 
cost for the Wide-Field Infrared Space Telescope (WFIRST) to 
$3.2 billion. According to the terms defined in section 30104 
of title 51, this $3.2 billion limit includes headquarters 
reserve. Congress recognizes that until a preliminary life-
cycle cost estimate is complete, there is insufficient 
information to judge whether or not WFIRST should be authorized 
to proceed in fiscal year 2019. NASA is required to include in 
the fiscal year 2020 budget a five-year funding profile for 
WFIRST. Concurrent flagship programs challenge NASA's program 
management capacity, so this section reduces flagship program 
concurrency by not allowing the Administrator to procure a 
launch vehicle for WFIRST until the James Webb Space Telescope 
is operational in space.

Section 321. Near-Earth Object Survey

    This section highlights the need for a space-based 
telescope mission to discover and characterize potentially 
hazardous asteroids near the Earth in order to meet the 
statutory requirements of the George E Brown Jr. Near-Earth 
Object Survey Act. This section also highlights the potential 
of the Near-Earth Object Camera mission, or similar infrared 
telescope, to discover and characterize most of the potentially 
hazardous asteroids that are near the Earth.

Section 322. Space nuclear power

    This section encourages the continual development of both 
large and small in-space nuclear fission technology, including 
nuclear electric and nuclear thermal propulsion, to complement 
existing Plutonium power sources already in use. Includes 
direction to eliminate redundant processes and to regularize 
and streamline space launch approval for nuclear materials. A 
report is due 180 days after enactment on the use and role of 
nuclear fission power in space. The report should build upon 
the work introduced in the white paper, ``Comparison of LEU and 
HEU Fuel for the Kilopower Reactor'' (LA-UR-18-29623), 
discussing how NASA's space nuclear power programs are tightly 
linked for technical and programmatic reasons. This section 
also directs NASA to demonstrate in-space nuclear power 
technology, within existing authorized funding.

Section 401. Supersonic research

    This section amends section 40112(a) of title 51 to 
instruct NASA to work with the FAA on supersonic research to 
inform and accelerate the promulgation of domestic regulations, 
international standards, and recommended practices for 
supersonic flight.

Section 402. Unmanned aircraft systems research

    This section amends chapter 315 of title 51 by instructing 
NASA to conduct research with the FAA on facilitating the safe 
integration of unmanned aircraft systems into the national 
airspace system. This section also amends section 31504 of 
title 51 to make UAS operational flight data derived from 
cooperative agreements with universities available to NASA and 
the FAA.

Section 403. 21st Century Aeronautics Research Capabilities Initiative

    This section establishes the 21st Century Aeronautics 
Research Capabilities Initiative to ensure that NASA possesses 
the infrastructure and tools necessary to conduct flight 
demonstration projects across the range of NASA aeronautics 
interests. A report is due 120 days after enactment containing 
a five-year plan for the implementation of the 21st Century 
Aeronautics Research Capabilities Initiative. This section 
authorizes $50 million, funded through the Construction of 
Facilities account, for fiscal year 2019.

Section 404. Experimental plane program

    This section encourages NASA to expand high-speed flight 
research and capabilities, including the science and technology 
of critical underlying disciplines and competencies.

Section 405. Hypersonic Technology Project

    This section encourages NASA to conduct research and 
development efforts on high-speed propulsion systems, reusable 
vehicle technologies, high-temperature materials, and systems 
analysis. This section authorizes $30 million of the 
Aeronautics account for fiscal year 2019 for the Hypersonic 
Technology Project.

Section 406. Report

    This section directs NASA to submit a report on the 
development of the Low-Boom Flight Demonstration aircraft, 
including NASA's coordination with other executive agencies to 
ensure developmental and operational testing infrastructure, as 
well as NASA's acquisition strategy to ensure chase aircraft 
for flight demonstration.

Section 501. Commercial supply of space products

    This section amends subchapter II of chapter 501 of title 
51 by instructing NASA to prioritize the acquisition and use of 
commercial space products provided by U.S. commercial 
providers. The term ``space product'' is defined and examples 
are included. NASA is also instructed to publish a list of 
commodities to be used during each space exploration mission 
and for each list, establish a commodity cost basis and cost 
estimates. The Administrator's ability to exempt missions 
described Sec.  50117(d) should be executed early in the design 
process to eliminate any need to explore spurious design 
trades. The intent of this section could be met with the annual 
publication of a report containing reports on individual and 
aggregate missions. Further, the agency report should include 
missions that are determined by the Administrator to be exempt 
from the provision (e.g. because of the lack of any refueling 
infrastructure among the outer planets), the amount of 
consumables planned for those missions, and the reason that the 
missions were excluded from the commodity cost basis. U.S. 
companies are legally permitted to obtain resources in space 
pursuant to 51 USC Sec.  51303.

Section 502. Space services and in-space infrastructure

    This section recognizes the potential for future 
acquisition of in-space services on a commercial basis. Since 
this is largely a theoretical consideration at present, 
commercially procurable in-space services and in-space 
infrastructure are not clearly defined. This section directs 
NASA to produce a report within 120 days to describe ``various 
commercial opportunities and options for the procurement of in-
space services or use of in-space infrastructure for 
exploration and other NASA missions.'' This report should 
explore and delineate the full range of public-private 
partnership structures that could be used in the future. This 
report is intended to open a discussion about the future 
procurement options available to NASA as it expands its reach 
throughout the solar system.

Section 503. Preference for launch vehicles manufactured in the United 
        States

    This section encourages the Administrator to provide 
weighted preference, selection points, and other incentives for 
the use of launch vehicles that are manufactured and launched 
in the U.S. when entering into contracts for commercial space 
data and services. This provision of the bill follows from 
bedrock space law and presidential policy promoting launches of 
U.S. Government payloads on U.S.-manufactured rockets and the 
acquisition by the U.S. Government of space launch services 
from U.S. commercial providers.

Section 504. Studies on industrial base

    This section requires that no funds may be used to carry 
out a survey of the U.S. aerospace industrial base until 30 
days after the Administrator submits a written notification of 
the survey. The legal and regulatory mechanics used to manage 
previous industrial base surveys are, in many cases, relatively 
harsh particularly since the surveys have the potential for 
being unmanageably intrusive and extensive.

Section 505. Enhanced use-leasing

    This section amends section 20145(g) of title 51 to extend 
authority to lease non-excess property from December 31, 2018 
to December 31, 2020. This section also recognizes the utility 
that enhanced-use leasing can have among nongovernmental 
entities, state, and local governments. Annually, no funds for 
enhance-use leasing may be expended by the Administrator after 
January 31 unless the annual report required is submitted.

Section 506. Satellite servicing

    This section encourages the Administrator to continue to 
restructure NASA investments in the development of satellite 
servicing technologies to reduce overall costs and align with 
exploration needs.

Section 601. NASA-funded institutes

    This section recognizes the June 2016 NASA Office of 
Inspector General report that criticizes the lack of 
information on the universe, status, and funding levels for 
many supported institutes. This section also makes minor 
amendments to section 30103(a) of title 51, and requires a 
report 90 days after enactment recommending guidance and 
metrics for the management, utilization, expectations for 
return on investment, and financial condition of NASA-funded 
institutes.

Section 602. Baseline and cost controls

    This section amends section 30104(e)(1)(A) of title 51 to 
further specify the requirements of a report required, in the 
event of a project or program breach. The additional reporting 
requirements would detail the impact of a breach upon cost, 
schedule, and performance, along with a validation of the 
adequacy of the current management structure.

Section 603. Reports to Congress

    This section amends chapter 301 of title 51 to require 
reports submitted to the House and Senate Committees on 
Appropriations to also be submitted to the House Committee on 
Science, Space, and Technology and the Senate Committee on 
Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

Section 604. International technical and operational standards

    This section recognizes the success of NASA's previous 
international cooperation to develop an international docking 
standard and other deep space interoperability standards. 
Therefore, this section encourages NASA to continue to develop 
and promote common terminology and concepts for spacecraft 
design and safety internally and with international partners.

Section 605. NASA contractor responsibility watch list

    This section directs the Administrator to establish and 
maintain a watch list of contractors with a history of poor 
performance on space procurement contracts or research, 
development, test, and evaluation space program contracts. The 
Administrator is responsible for determining which contractors 
are placed on the list.

Section 606. Human space exploration risk

    This section highlights the importance of American 
leadership in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space. 
This section also recognizes that space exploration decision-
making and requirement-setting in such a strategic context is 
complex, especially with respect to assigning appropriate 
priorities and levels of risk tolerance. A report is due one 
year after enactment relating the broad strategic national 
importance of space to the inherent, justifiable risk of the 
exploration and use of space.

Section 607. NASA launch support and infrastructure modernization 
        program

    This section requires the Administrator to continue the 
program established under section 305 of the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010 
(42 U.S.C. 18325) for launch support and infrastructure 
modernization for launch sites and ranges at NASA facilities 
that support the International Space Station mission. Such 
program should, to the greatest extent practicable, leverage 
current and planned State government infrastructure investments 
at NASA facilities to support these and other missions and use 
funding available under this program to collaborate on relevant 
infrastructure projects.

Section 608. Reaffirmations on orbital debris

    This section consists of reaffirmations and a sense of 
Congress on the risks and need to understand options to address 
and remove orbital debris.

Section 609. Federal-State partnerships

    This section consists of a sense of Congress that, as State 
and local governments have invested hundreds of millions of 
dollars in new infrastructure and operations at Administration 
space facilities to meet the needs of civil, national security, 
and commercial space activities, the Administration should seek 
to leverage such investments and the resources and capabilities 
of State and local governments. Effective local economic, 
educational, and institutional engagement at the State and 
local level are critical in bringing the benefits of space 
exploration and activity to the American taxpayer. A report 
analyzing past and current partnership opportunities with State 
and local governments at NASA facilities is due 120 days after 
enactment.

Section 610. Security management of foreign national access

    This section requires NASA to notify Congress when the NASA 
has implemented the information technology security 
recommendations from the National Academy of Public 
Administration on foreign national access management.

                       Explanation of Amendments

    A manager's amendment, offered by Space Subcommittee 
Chairman Brian Babin, was approved by voice vote. The amendment 
makes technical changes throughout the bill. Additionally, the 
amendment: adds to the sense of Congress in section 203 
regarding conformity with Space Policy Directive 1; modifies 
section 204, directing GAO to take the lead in developing 
appropriate metrics for comparing affected space systems; adds 
sections 206 (Mobile Launch Platform and Interim Cryogenic 
Propulsion Stage) and 207 (Space Services and In-Space 
Infrastructure); and adds authorization of $350 million for the 
construction of a second mobile launch platform for the Space 
Launch System.
    An amendment offered by Representative Bill Posey was 
approved by voice vote. The amendment directs NASA to notify 
the appropriate House and Senate authorizing committees once it 
has implemented the recommendations on information technology 
security related to foreign national access management.
    An amendment offered by Representative Neal Dunn was 
approved by voice vote. The amendment adds section 609 
(Federal-State Partnerships).
    An amendment offered by Representative Ed Perlmutter was 
approved by voice vote. The amendment directs NASA to 
prioritize timelines for fulfillment of engineering, science, 
and safety requirements to reduce mission risk in evaluating 
the human exploration of Mars by 2033 or earlier.
    An amendment offered by Representative Dana Rohrabacher was 
approved by voice vote. The amendment reaffirms the findings of 
section 839(a) of the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration Transition Authorization Act of 2017 (P.L. 115-
10) regarding the threat of orbital debris. The amendment also 
reaffirms the sense of Congress in section 840(a) of the 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration Transition 
Authorization Act of 2017 (P.L. 115-10).
    An amendment offered by Representative Bill Foster was 
approved by voice vote. The amendment adds reporting 
requirements to the Space Nuclear Power Report.
    An amendment offered by Representative Ed Perlmutter was 
approved by a roll call vote of 27-5. The amendment increases 
authorized spending levels for Earth Science from $1.45 billion 
to $1.921 billion and adjusts corresponding totals accordingly.
    An amendment offered by Representative Stephen Knight was 
approved by voice vote. The amendment adds section 406 
(Report), which directs the Administrator to submit to the 
Committee a report on the development of the Low-Boom Flight 
Demonstration aircraft.

                        Committee Consideration

    On April 17, 2018, the Committee met in open session and 
ordered reported favorably the bill, H.R. 5503, as amended, by 
roll call vote, a quorum being present.

                            Roll Call Votes



              Application of Law to the Legislative Branch

    Section 102(b)(3) of Public Law 104-1 requires a 
description of the application of this bill to the legislative 
branch where the bill relates to the terms and conditions of 
employment or access to public services and accommodations. 
This bill authorizes the programs of NASA for fiscal years 2018 
and 2019. As such this bill does not relate to employment or 
access to public services and accommodations.
    Legislative branch employees and their families, to the 
extent that they are otherwise eligible for the benefits 
provided by this legislation, have equal access to its 
benefits.

  Statement of Oversight Findings and Recommendations of the Committee

    In compliance with clause 3(c)(1) of rule XIII and clause 
(2)(b)(1) of rule X of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives, the Committee's oversight findings and 
recommendations are reflected in the descriptive portions of 
this report.

         Statement of General Performance Goals and Objectives

    H.R. 5503, the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration Authorization Act of 2018, would authorize the 
programs of NASA for fiscal years 2018 and 2019.

                    Duplication of Federal Programs

    No provision of H.R. 5503 establishes or reauthorizes a 
program of the Federal Government known to be duplicative of 
another Federal program, a program that was included in any 
report from the Government Accountability Office to Congress 
pursuant to section 21 of Public Law 111-139, or a program 
related to a program identified in the most recent Catalog of 
Federal Domestic Assistance.

                  Disclosure of Directed Rule Makings

    The Committee estimates that enacting H.R. 5503 does not 
direct the completion of any specific rule makings within the 
meaning of 5 U.S.C. 551.

                     Federal Advisory Committee Act

    The Committee finds that the legislation does not establish 
or authorize the establishment of an advisory committee within 
the definition of 5 U.S.C. App., Section 5(b).

                       Unfunded Mandate Statement

    Section 423 of the Congressional Budget and Impoundment 
Control Act (as amended by Section 101(a)(2) of the Unfunded 
Mandate Reform Act, P.L. 104-4) requires a statement as to 
whether the provisions of the reported include unfunded 
mandates. In compliance with this requirement the Committee has 
received a letter from the Congressional Budget Office included 
herein.

                         Earmark Identification

    H.R. 5503 does not include any congressional earmarks, 
limited tax benefits, or limited tariff benefits as defined in 
clause 9 of rule XXI.

                           Committee Estimate

    Clause 3(d)(2) of rule XIII of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives requires an estimate and a comparison by the 
Committee of the costs that would be incurred in carrying out 
H.R. 5503. However, clause 3(d)(3)(B) of that rule provides 
that this requirement does not apply when the Committee has 
included in its report a timely submitted cost estimate of the 
bill prepared by the Director of the Congressional Budget 
Office under section 402 of the Congressional Budget Act.

     Budget Authority and Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate

    With respect to the requirements of clause 3(c)(2) of rule 
XIII of the Rules of the House of Representatives and section 
308(a) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 and with respect 
to requirements of clause (3)(c)(3) of rule XIII of the Rules 
of the House of Representatives and section 402 of the 
Congressional Budget Act of 1974, the Committee has received 
the following cost estimate for H.R. 5503 from the Director of 
Congressional Budget Office:

                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                 Washington, DC, September 7, 2018.
Hon. Lamar Smith,
Chairman, Committee on Science, Space, and Technology,
House of Representatives, Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for H.R. 5503, the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2018.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Janani 
Shankaran.
            Sincerely,
                                                Keith Hall,
                                                          Director.
    Enclosure.

H.R. 5503--National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization 
        Act of 2018

    Summary: H.R. 5503 would authorize the appropriation of 
funds for activities of the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration (NASA) and would provide direction on those 
activities. CBO estimates that implementing the bill would cost 
$21.1 billion over the 2019-2023 period, assuming appropriation 
of the authorized amounts.
    Enacting H.R. 5503 would affect direct spending by 
extending NASA's authority to enter into enhanced-use lease 
agreements. Therefore, pay-as-you-go procedures apply. CBO 
expects NASA would use that extension to enter into agreements 
with third parties to construct and renovate energy production, 
launch, and other specialized facilities. CBO estimates that 
enacting the bill would increase direct spending by $25 million 
over the 2019-2028 period. The bill would not affect revenues.
    CBO estimates that enacting H.R. 5503 would not increase 
net direct spending by more than $2.5 billion or on-budget 
deficits by more than $5 billion in any of the four consecutive 
10-year periods beginning in 2029.
    H.R. 5503 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA).
    Estimated cost to the Federal Government: The estimated 
budgetary effect of H.R. 5503 is shown in the following table. 
The costs of the legislation fall within budget functions 250 
(general science, space, and technology) and 400 
(transportation).

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                          By fiscal year, in millions of dollars--
                                          ----------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                          2019-
                                              2018      2019      2020      2021      2022      2023      2023
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 INCREASES IN SPENDING SUBJECT TO APPROPRIATION
 
Authorization Levela.....................    20,736    21,207         0         0         0         0     21,207
Estimated Outlays........................         0    13,159     6,522     1,080       271        93     21,125
 
                                          INCREASES IN DIRECT SPENDINGb
 
Estimated Budget Authority...............         0         1         2         3         3         3         12
Estimated Outlays........................         0         *         1         2         2         3          8
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* = less than $500,000.
aH.R. 5503 would authorize the appropriation of $20.7 billion in 2018 for the National Aeronautics and Space
  Administration. CBO does not estimate any outlays would result from that authorization because appropriations
  for 2018 have already been provided.
bCBO estimates that enacting H.R. 5503 would increase direct spending by $25 million over the 2019-2028 period.

    Basis of estimate: For this estimate, CBO assumes that H.R. 
5503 will be enacted near the end of 2018 and that the 
authorized and necessary amounts will be appropriated.

Spending subject to appropriation

    H.R. 5503 would authorize the appropriation of $21.2 
billion in 2019 for NASA. (In 2018, the agency received an 
appropriation of $20.7 billion for its programs.) The bill also 
would direct NASA to continue International Space Station 
operations, establish a research office at the Johnson Space 
Center, and demonstrate a nuclear power reactor for use in 
space, among other activities. Under current law, no specific 
amounts are authorized to be appropriated for those purposes. 
CBO expects that the authorization of appropriations for 2019 
includes the cost of meeting those directives. Based on 
historical spending patterns for similar activities, CBO 
estimates that implementing H.R. 5503 would cost $21.1 billion 
over the 2019-2023 period.
    H.R. 5503 also would direct the Government Accountability 
Office and the National Space Council to submit reports to the 
Congress on space transportation for crew and cargo and the 
risk of space exploration. Based on the costs of similar tasks, 
CBO estimates implementing those provisions would cost less 
than $500,000, and would be subject to the availability of 
appropriated funds.

Direct spending

    Current law authorizes NASA to lease its underused property 
to nonfederal entities and to retain and spend any payments 
from those lease agreements for property maintenance and 
capital improvements without further appropriation. The 
authority for NASA to enter into such enhanced-use lease (EUL) 
agreements expires on December 31, 2018. H.R. 5503 would extend 
that authority through December 31, 2020.
    In the past, NASA has used its EUL authority to lease out 
buildings and land for nonfederal purposes--for example, 
providing office space to entities with educational or research 
missions. In some cases, NASA has allowed limited reuse or 
redevelopment of those properties; those arrangements result in 
no significant net costs to the agency.\1\ CBO expects that 
some of the EUL agreements NASA would enter into over the 2019-
2020 period would be similar in nature to those previous 
transactions. Based on NASA's leasing activity in recent years, 
CBO estimates that the agency would enter into eight additional 
EUL agreements over the 2019-2020 period with average annual 
payments to the federal government totaling $225,000 per lease. 
CBO expects that those lease payments, which would be recorded 
in the budget as reductions in direct spending, would be offset 
by an expenditure soon thereafter, so that there would be no 
net effect on the deficit.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\More information on NASA's current lease agreements is included 
in National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Report on NASA's 
Enhanced Use Leasing for Fiscal Year 2017 (May 2018).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    In addition, CBO expects that some of those agreements 
would contain terms for third parties to construct and renovate 
energy production, launch, and other specialized facilities.\2\ 
While NASA could use other authorities to enter into similar 
agreements with third parties, CBO expects the EUL extension 
under H.R. 5503 would accelerate and increase the likelihood of 
such transactions. CBO also expects that some of those projects 
would be governmental in nature because they would be located 
on federal land and subject to NASA control, and because NASA 
or other federal agencies such as the Department of Defense 
would be major users of the services supported by those 
facilities. Thus, in CBO's view, the costs of developing and 
constructing facilities in that manner are governmental 
transactions that should be recorded in the budget.\3\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \2\NASA recently announced plans to use its EUL authority to enter 
into an agreement with SpaceX to construct launch support facilities. 
For more information, see National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration, ``NEPA Documents,'' Draft Environmental Assessment for 
Space Exploration Technologies Operations Area on Kennedy Space Center 
(April 11, 2018), https://go.usa.gov/xPxpx.
    \3\For more information on the criteria for identifying 
governmental activities, see Congressional Budget Office, How CBO 
Determines Whether to Classify an Activity as Governmental When 
Estimating Its Budgetary Effects (June 2017), www.cbo.gov/publication/
52803.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Based on proposed leasing plans and costs for similar 
facilities, CBO estimates that under EUL agreements that would 
be finalized over the 2019-2020 period, third parties would 
invest a total of about $200 million in energy production, 
launch, and other specialized facilities. The budgetary effects 
of governmental transactions financed by third parties would 
depend on the extent and nature of federal support. In CBO's 
view, transactions financed entirely with equity from private 
entities should have no net effect on the federal budget 
because the cost of those activities would be fully offset by 
income from nonfederal sources.
    However, CBO expects that some of those third parties would 
recover at least a portion of their investments in specialized 
facilities that are used by NASA or other federal agencies 
through contracts with the federal government--for example, to 
launch satellites or other federal payloads into space. CBO 
considers such financing on behalf of the federal government 
for government activities to be similar to an agency using 
federal borrowing authority to improve its physical 
infrastructure and treats the costs of such transactions as 
direct spending. As such, the full cost of such long-term 
commitments that obligate the government to make payments in 
future years should be recorded in the budget upfront.\4\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \4\For more information on the budgetary treatment of third-party 
financing, see Congressional Budget Office, Third-Party Financing of 
Federal Projects (June 2005), www.cbo.gov/publication/16554.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    In 2016, NASA reported a backlog of about $1.6 billion 
worth of maintenance and improvement projects across five 
locations where it currently leases out space.\5\ CBO expects 
that NASA would use its EUL authority to facilitate such 
transactions over the 2019-2020 period. Based on the federal 
government's potential share of benefits from any new projects 
(which CBO estimates would average 25 percent over the lifetime 
of those projects), we estimate that NASA would use the EUL 
authority under H.R. 5503 to finance the construction of 
facilities valued at about $30 million--equivalent to roughly 2 
percent of its maintenance backlog at those locations. Based on 
historical spending patterns for similar activities, CBO 
estimates that direct spending would increase by $25 million 
over the 2019-2028 period for those projects.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \5\ National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Deferred 
Maintenance Assessment Report: FY16 NASA-Wide Standardized Deferred 
Maintenance Parametric Estimate (September 30, 2016), https//
go.usa.gov/xPxd2 (PDF, 1.8 MB).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Uncertainty

    CBO aims to produce estimates that generally reflect the 
middle of a range of the most likely budgetary outcomes that 
would result if the legislation was enacted. In estimating the 
effects of H.R. 5503, CBO had to account for several sources of 
uncertainty.
    For legislation that authorizes the appropriation of funds 
to carry out programs, CBO estimates outlays based on 
historical spending patterns for the affected activities. 
However, CBO cannot predict potential shifts in NASA's 
projects, priorities, and timelines that may affect the pace of 
future spending.
    In addition, if enacted, direct spending under H.R. 5503 
could be higher or lower than CBO's estimate because of the 
following three sources of uncertainty.
           First, CBO cannot precisely predict the 
        extent to which the agency would use the EUL extension 
        under H.R. 5503 instead of its other alternative 
        financing and leasing authorities to facilitate the 
        construction of specialized facilities. In such cases, 
        CBO has adopted a convention of assuming a 50 percent 
        chance of an agency using its discretion under the 
        bill.
           Second, CBO cannot foresee with certainty 
        the value of third parties' investments in such 
        facilities. Generally, investments of higher value 
        would increase the potential for direct spending.
           Finally, CBO cannot predict with certainty 
        whether or how the federal government would use 
        facilities constructed by third parties under EUL 
        agreements. If the federal government is the primary 
        user of the services provided by those facilities, and 
        thus, serves as the main source from which third 
        parties recover their investments, the government's 
        share of indirect financing for and benefits from those 
        projects would be higher, resulting in greater direct 
        spending. However, if the federal government makes 
        little or no use of the services provided by such 
        facilities, the resulting net effect on direct spending 
        could be insignificant or negligible.
    Because of those uncertainties, the budgetary effects of 
enacting H.R. 5503 could differ significantly from those 
provided in CBO's cost estimate.
    Pay-As-You-Go considerations: The Statutory Pay-As-You-Go 
Act of 2010 establishes budget-reporting and enforcement 
procedures for legislation affecting direct spending or 
revenues. The net changes in outlays that are subject to those 
pay-as-you-go procedures are shown in the following table.

   CBO ESTIMATE OF PAY-AS-YOU-GO EFFECTS FOR H.R. 5503, AS ORDERED REPORTED BY THE HOUSE COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE, SPACE, AND TECHNOLOGY ON APRIL 17, 2018
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                    By fiscal year, in millions of dollars--
                                                      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                        2018   2019   2020   2021   2022   2023   2024   2025   2026   2027   2028  2018-2023  2018-2028
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                               NET INCREASE IN THE DEFICIT
 
Statutory Pay-As-You-Go Impact.......................      0      0      1      2      2      3      3      3      3      4      4         8         25
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Increase in long-term direct spending and deficits: CBO 
estimates that enacting H.R. 5503 would not increase net direct 
spending by more than $2.5 billion or on-budget deficits by 
more than $5 billion in any of the four consecutive 10-year 
periods beginning in 2029.
    Mandates: H.R. 5503 contains no intergovernmental or 
private-sector mandates as defined in UMRA.
    Estimate prepared by: Federal costs: Janani Shankaran; 
Mandates: Jon Sperl.
    Estimate reviewed by: Kim P. Cawley, Chief, Natural and 
Physical Resources Cost Estimates Unit; H. Samuel Papenfuss, 
Deputy Assistant Director for Budget Analysis; Theresa Gullo, 
Assistant Director for Budget Analysis.

         Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported

  In compliance with clause 3(e) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, changes in existing law made by 
the bill, as reported, are shown as follows (existing law 
proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new 
matter is printed in italic, and existing law in which no 
change is proposed is shown in roman):

                      TITLE 51, UNITED STATES CODE




           *       *       *       *       *       *       *
           SUBTITLE II--GENERAL PROGRAM AND POLICY PROVISIONS

CHAPTER 201--NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE PROGRAM

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *



SUBCHAPTER III--GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *



Sec. 20145. Lease of non-excess property

  (a) In General.--The Administrator may enter into a lease 
under this section with any person or entity (including another 
department or agency of the Federal Government or an entity of 
a State or local government) with regard to any non-excess real 
property and related personal property under the jurisdiction 
of the Administrator.
  (b) Cash Consideration.--
          (1) Fair market value.--(A) A person or entity 
        entering into a lease under this section shall provide 
        cash consideration for the lease at fair market value 
        as determined by the Administrator.
                  (B) Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), the 
                Administrator may accept in-kind consideration 
                for leases entered into for the purpose of 
                developing renewable energy production 
                facilities.
          (2) Utilization.--
                  (A) In general.--The Administrator may 
                utilize amounts of cash consideration received 
                under this subsection for a lease entered into 
                under this section to cover the full costs to 
                the Administration in connection with the 
                lease. These funds shall remain available until 
                expended.
                  (B) Capital revitalization and 
                improvements.--Of any amounts of cash 
                consideration received under this subsection 
                that are not utilized in accordance with 
                subparagraph (A)--
                          (i) 35 percent shall be deposited in 
                        a capital asset account to be 
                        established by the Administrator, shall 
                        be available for maintenance, capital 
                        revitalization, and improvements of the 
                        real property assets and related 
                        personal property under the 
                        jurisdiction of the Administrator, and 
                        shall remain available until expended; 
                        and
                          (ii) the remaining 65 percent shall 
                        be available to the respective center 
                        or facility of the Administration 
                        engaged in the lease of nonexcess real 
                        property, and shall remain available 
                        until expended for maintenance, capital 
                        revitalization, and improvements of the 
                        real property assets and related 
                        personal property at the respective 
                        center or facility subject to the 
                        concurrence of the Administrator.
                  (C) No utilization for daily operating 
                costs.--Amounts utilized under subparagraph (B) 
                may not be utilized for daily operating costs.
  (c) Additional Terms and Conditions.--The Administrator may 
require such terms and conditions in connection with a lease 
under this section as the Administrator considers appropriate 
to protect the interests of the United States.
  (d) Relationship to Other Lease Authority.--The authority 
under this section to lease property of the Administration is 
in addition to any other authority to lease property of the 
Administration under law.
  (e) Lease Restrictions.--
          (1) No lease back or other contract.--The 
        Administration is not authorized to lease back property 
        under this section during the term of the out-lease or 
        enter into other contracts with the lessee respecting 
        the property.
          (2) Certification that out-lease will not have 
        negative impact on mission.--The Administration is not 
        authorized to enter into an out-lease under this 
        section unless the Administrator certifies that the 
        out-lease will not have a negative impact on the 
        mission of the Administration.
  (f) Reporting Requirements.--The Administrator shall submit 
an annual report by January 31st of each year. The report shall 
include the following:
          (1) Value of arrangements and expenditures of 
        revenues.--Information that identifies and quantifies 
        the value of the arrangements and expenditures of 
        revenues received under this section.
          (2) Availability and use of funds for operating 
        plan.--The availability and use of funds received under 
        this section for the Administration's operating plan.
  (g) Sunset.--The authority to enter into leases under this 
section shall expire [December 31, 2018] December 31, 2020. The 
expiration under this subsection of authority to enter into 
leases under this section shall not affect the validity or term 
of leases or the Administration's retention of proceeds from 
leases entered into under this section before the expiration of 
the authority.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                SUBTITLE III--ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

          CHAPTER 301--APPROPRIATIONS, BUDGETS, AND ACCOUNTING


Sec.
30101. Prior authorization of appropriations required.
     * * * * * * *
30105. Concurrent reports.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 30103. Budgets

  (a) Categories.--The proposed budget for the Administration 
submitted by the President for each fiscal year shall be 
accompanied by documents showing--
          (1) by program--
                  (A) the budget for space operations, 
                including the International Space Station and 
                the space shuttle;
                  (B) the budget for exploration systems;
                  (C) the budget for aeronautics;
                  (D) the budget for space science;
                  (E) the budget for Earth science;
                  (F) the budget for microgravity science;
                  (G) the budget for education;
                  (H) the budget for safety oversight; and
                  (I) the budget for public relations;
          (2) the budget for technology transfer programs;
          (3) the budget for the Integrated Enterprise 
        Management Program, by individual element;
          (4) the budget for the Independent Technical 
        Authority, both total and by center;
          (5) the total budget for the prize program under 
        section 20144 of this title, and the administrative 
        budget for that program; [and]
          (6) the budget for each NASA-funded institute; and
          [(6)] (7) the comparable figures for at least the 2 
        previous fiscal years for each item in the proposed 
        budget.
  (b) Additional Budget Information Upon Request by 
Committees.--The Administration shall make available, upon 
request from the Committee on Science and Technology of the 
House of Representatives or the Committee on Commerce, Science, 
and Transportation of the Senate--
          (1) information on corporate and center general and 
        administrative costs and service pool costs, 
        including--
                  (A) the total amount of funds being allocated 
                for those purposes for any fiscal year for 
                which the President has submitted an annual 
                budget request to Congress;
                  (B) the amount of funds being allocated for 
                those purposes for each center, for 
                headquarters, and for each directorate; and
                  (C) the major activities included in each 
                cost category; and
          (2) the figures on the amount of unobligated funds 
        and unexpended funds, by appropriations account--
                  (A) that remained at the end of the fiscal 
                year prior to the fiscal year in which the 
                budget is being presented that were carried 
                over into the fiscal year in which the budget 
                is being presented;
                  (B) that are estimated will remain at the end 
                of the fiscal year in which the budget is being 
                presented that are proposed to be carried over 
                into the fiscal year for which the budget is 
                being presented; and
                  (C) that are estimated will remain at the end 
                of the fiscal year for which the budget is 
                being presented.
  (c) Information in Annual Budget Justification.--The 
Administration shall provide, at a minimum, the following 
information in its annual budget justification:
          (1) The actual, current, proposed funding level, and 
        estimated budgets for the next 5 fiscal years by 
        directorate, theme, program, project and activity 
        within each appropriations account.
          (2) The proposed programmatic and non-programmatic 
        construction of facilities.
          (3) The budget for headquarters including--
                  (A) the budget by office, and any division 
                thereof, for the actual, current, proposed 
                funding level, and estimated budgets for the 
                next 5 fiscal years;
                  (B) the travel budget for each office, and 
                any division thereof, for the actual, current, 
                and proposed funding level; and
                  (C) the civil service full time equivalent 
                assignments per headquarters office, and any 
                division thereof, including the number of 
                Senior Executive Service, noncareer, detailee, 
                and contract personnel per office.
          (4) Within 14 days of the submission of the budget to 
        Congress an accompanying volume shall be provided to 
        the Committees on Appropriations containing the 
        following information for each center, facility managed 
        by any center, and federally funded research and 
        development center operated on behalf of the 
        Administration:
                  (A) The actual, current, proposed funding 
                level, and estimated budgets for the next 5 
                fiscal years by directorate, theme, program, 
                project, and activity.
                  (B) The proposed programmatic and non-
                programmatic construction of facilities.
                  (C) The number of civil service full time 
                equivalent positions per center for each 
                identified fiscal year.
                  (D) The number of civil service full time 
                equivalent positions considered to be uncovered 
                capacity at each location for each identified 
                fiscal year.
          (5) The proposed budget as designated by object class 
        for each directorate, theme, and program.
          (6) Sufficient narrative shall be provided to explain 
        the request for each program, project, and activity, 
        and an explanation for any deviation to previously 
        adopted baselines for all justification materials 
        provided to the Committees.
  (d) Estimate of Gross Receipts and Proposed Use of Funds 
Related to Lease of Property.--Each annual budget request shall 
include an annual estimate of gross receipts and collections 
and proposed use of all funds collected pursuant to section 
20145 of this title.

Sec. 30104. Baselines and cost controls

  (a) Definitions.--In this section:
          (1) Development.--The term ``development'' means the 
        phase of a program following the formulation phase and 
        beginning with the approval to proceed to 
        implementation, as defined in the Administration's 
        Procedural Requirements 7120.5E, dated August 14, 2012.
          (2) Development cost.--The term ``development cost'' 
        means the total of all costs, including construction of 
        facilities and civil servant costs, from the period 
        beginning with the approval to proceed to 
        implementation through the achievement of operational 
        readiness, without regard to funding source or 
        management control, for the life of the program.
          (3) Life-cycle cost.--The term ``life-cycle cost'' 
        means the total of the direct, indirect, recurring, and 
        nonrecurring costs, including the construction of 
        facilities and civil servant costs, and other related 
        expenses incurred or estimated to be incurred in the 
        design, development, verification, production, 
        operation, maintenance, support, and retirement of a 
        program over its planned lifespan, without regard to 
        funding source or management control.
          (4) Major program.--The term ``major program'' means 
        an activity approved to proceed to implementation that 
        has an estimated life-cycle cost of more than 
        $250,000,000.
  (b) Conditions for Development.--
          (1) In general.--The Administration shall not enter 
        into a contract for the development of a major program 
        unless the Administrator determines that--
                  (A) the technical, cost, and schedule risks 
                of the program are clearly identified and the 
                program has developed a plan to manage those 
                risks;
                  (B) the technologies required for the program 
                have been demonstrated in a relevant laboratory 
                or test environment; and
                  (C) the program complies with all relevant 
                policies, regulations, and directives of the 
                Administration.
          (2) Report.--The Administrator shall transmit a 
        report describing the basis for the determination 
        required under paragraph (1) to the Committee on 
        Science and Technology of the House of Representatives 
        and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
        Transportation of the Senate at least 30 days before 
        entering into a contract for development under a major 
        program.
          (3) Nondelegation.--The Administrator may not 
        delegate the determination requirement under this 
        subsection, except in cases in which the Administrator 
        has a conflict of interest.
  (c) Major Program Annual Reports.--
          (1) Requirement.--Annually, at the same time as the 
        President's annual budget submission to Congress, the 
        Administrator shall transmit to the Committee on 
        Science and Technology of the House of Representatives 
        and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
        Transportation of the Senate a report that includes the 
        information required by this section for each major 
        program for which the Administration proposes to expend 
        funds in the subsequent fiscal year. Reports under this 
        paragraph shall be known as Major Program Annual 
        Reports.
          (2) Baseline report.--The first Major Program Annual 
        Report for each major program shall include a Baseline 
        Report that shall, at a minimum, include--
                  (A) the purposes of the program and key 
                technical characteristics necessary to fulfill 
                those purposes;
                  (B) an estimate of the life-cycle cost for 
                the program, with a detailed breakout of the 
                development cost, program reserves, and an 
                estimate of the annual costs until development 
                is completed;
                  (C) the schedule for development, including 
                key program milestones;
                  (D) the plan for mitigating technical, cost, 
                and schedule risks identified in accordance 
                with subsection (b)(1)(A); and
                  (E) the name of the person responsible for 
                making notifications under subsection (d), who 
                shall be an individual whose primary 
                responsibility is overseeing the program.
          (3) Information updates.--For major programs for 
        which a Baseline Report has been submitted, each 
        subsequent Major Program Annual Report shall describe 
        any changes to the information that had been provided 
        in the Baseline Report, and the reasons for those 
        changes.
  (d) Notification.--
          (1) Requirement.--The individual identified under 
        subsection (c)(2)(E) shall immediately notify the 
        Administrator any time that individual has reasonable 
        cause to believe that, for the major program for which 
        he or she is responsible--
                  (A) the development cost of the program is 
                likely to exceed the estimate provided in the 
                Baseline Report of the program by 15 percent or 
                more; or
                  (B) a milestone of the program is likely to 
                be delayed by 6 months or more from the date 
                provided for it in the Baseline Report of the 
                program.
          (2) Reasons.--Not later than 30 days after the 
        notification required under paragraph (1), the 
        individual identified under subsection (c)(2)(E) shall 
        transmit to the Administrator a written notification 
        explaining the reasons for the change in the cost or 
        milestone of the program for which notification was 
        provided under paragraph (1).
          (3) Notification of congress.--Not later than 15 days 
        after the Administrator receives a written notification 
        under paragraph (2), the Administrator shall transmit 
        the notification to the Committee on Science and 
        Technology of the House of Representatives and the 
        Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of 
        the Senate.
  (e) Fifteen Percent Threshold.--
          (1) Determination, report, and initiation of 
        analysis.--Not later than 30 days after receiving a 
        written notification under subsection (d)(2), the 
        Administrator shall determine whether the development 
        cost of the program is likely to exceed the estimate 
        provided in the Baseline Report of the program by 15 
        percent or more, or whether a milestone is likely to be 
        delayed by 6 months or more. If the determination is 
        affirmative, the Administrator shall--
                  (A) transmit to the Committee on Science and 
                Technology of the House of Representatives and 
                the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
                Transportation of the Senate, not later than 15 
                days after making the determination, a report 
                that includes--
                          (i) a description of the increase in 
                        cost or delay in schedule and a 
                        detailed explanation for the increase 
                        or delay;
                          (ii) a description of actions taken 
                        or proposed to be taken in response to 
                        the cost increase or delay; [and]
                          (iii) a description of any impacts 
                        the cost increase or schedule delay, or 
                        the actions described under clause 
                        (ii), will have on any other program 
                        within the Administration; [and]
                          (iv) any changes made in the 
                        performance or schedule milestones and 
                        the degree to which such changes have 
                        contributed to the increase in total 
                        cost;
                          (v) new estimates of the specific 
                        project or specific program cost; and
                          (vi) a statement validating that the 
                        management structure of the project or 
                        program is adequate to control cost; 
                        and
                  (B) if the Administrator intends to continue 
                with the program, promptly initiate an analysis 
                of the program, which shall include, at a 
                minimum--
                          (i) the projected cost and schedule 
                        for completing the program if current 
                        requirements of the program are not 
                        modified;
                          (ii) the projected cost and the 
                        schedule for completing the program 
                        after instituting the actions described 
                        under subparagraph (A)(ii); and
                          (iii) a description of, and the 
                        projected cost and schedule for, a 
                        broad range of alternatives to the 
                        program.
          (2) Completion of analysis and transmittal to 
        committees.--The Administration shall complete an 
        analysis initiated under paragraph (1)(B) not later 
        than 6 months after the Administrator makes a 
        determination under this subsection. The Administrator 
        shall transmit the analysis to the Committee on Science 
        and Technology of the House of Representatives and 
        Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of 
        the Senate not later than 30 days after its completion.
  (f) Thirty Percent Threshold.--If the Administrator 
determines under subsection (e) that the development cost of a 
program will exceed the estimate provided in the Baseline 
Report of the program by more than 30 percent, then, beginning 
18 months after the date the Administrator transmits a report 
under subsection (e)(1)(A), the Administrator shall not expend 
any additional funds on the program, other than termination 
costs, unless Congress has subsequently authorized continuation 
of the program by law. An appropriation for the specific 
program enacted subsequent to a report being transmitted shall 
be considered an authorization for purposes of this subsection. 
If the program is continued, the Administrator shall submit a 
new Baseline Report for the program no later than 90 days after 
the date of enactment of the Act under which Congress has 
authorized continuation of the program.

Sec. 30105. Concurrent reports

  For any report that the Administration submits to the 
Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives or 
the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate, the 
Administrator shall concurrently submit such report to the 
Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of 
Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation of the Senate.

                SUBTITLE III--ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

                       CHAPTER 315--MISCELLANEOUS

Sec.
31501. Orbital debris.
     * * * * * * *
31506. Unmanned aircraft systems research.

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Sec. 31504. Cooperative unmanned aerial vehicle activities

  The Administrator, in cooperation with the Administrator of 
the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and in 
coordination with other agencies that have existing civil 
capabilities, shall continue to utilize the capabilities of 
unmanned aerial vehicles as appropriate in support of 
Administration and interagency cooperative missions. The 
Administrator may enter into cooperative agreements with 
universities with unmanned aerial vehicle programs and related 
assets to conduct collaborative research and development 
activities, including development of appropriate applications 
of small unmanned aerial vehicle technologies and systems in 
remote areas. Operational flight data derived from such 
cooperative agreements shall be made available, in appropriate 
and usable formats, to the Administration and the Federal 
Aviation Administration for the development of regulatory 
standards.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 31506. Unmanned aircraft systems research

  The Administrator, in consultation with the Administrator of 
the Federal Aviation Administration and other Federal agencies, 
shall conduct research on facilitating the safe integration of 
unmanned aircraft systems into the national airspace system, 
including--
          (1) positioning and navigation systems;
          (2) sense-and-avoid capabilities;
          (3) secure data and communication links;
          (4) flight recovery systems; and
          (5) human systems integration.

       SUBTITLE IV--AERONAUTICS AND SPACE RESEARCH AND EDUCATION

CHAPTER 401--AERONAUTICS

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


   SUBCHAPTER II--HIGH PRIORITY AERONAUTICS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 
PROGRAMS

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 40112. Research and technology programs

  (a) Supersonic Transport Research and Development.--[The 
Administrator]
          (1) In general._The Administrator  may establish an 
        initiative with the objective of developing and 
        demonstrating, in a relevant environment, airframe and 
        propulsion technologies to enable efficient, economical 
        overland flight of supersonic civil transport aircraft 
        with no significant impact on the environment.
          (2) Research.--The Administrator, in consultation 
        with the Administrator of the Federal Aviation 
        Administration, shall undertake research on supersonic 
        transport to inform and accelerate the promulgation of 
        domestic regulations and international standards and 
        recommended practices that will open up the U.S. civil 
        airspace to civil supersonic transport.
  (b) Rotorcraft and Other Runway-Independent Air Vehicles.--
The Administrator may establish a rotorcraft and other runway-
independent air vehicles initiative with the objective of 
developing and demonstrating improved safety, noise, and 
environmental impact in a relevant environment.
  (c) Hypersonics Research.--The Administrator may establish a 
hypersonics research program with the objective of exploring 
the science and technology of hypersonic flight using air-
breathing propulsion concepts, through a mix of theoretical 
work, basic and applied research, and development of flight 
research demonstration vehicles. The program may also include 
the transition to the hypersonic range of Mach 3 to Mach 5.
  (d) Revolutionary Aeronautical Concepts.--The Administrator 
may establish a research program which covers a unique range of 
subsonic, fixed wing vehicles and propulsion concepts. This 
research is intended to push technology barriers beyond current 
subsonic technology. Propulsion concepts include advanced 
materials, morphing engines, hybrid engines, and fuel cells.
  (e) Fuel Cell-Powered Aircraft Research.--
          (1) Objective.--The Administrator may establish a 
        fuel cell-powered aircraft research program whose 
        objective shall be to develop and test concepts to 
        enable a hydrogen fuel cell-powered aircraft that would 
        have no hydrocarbon or nitrogen oxide emissions into 
        the environment.
          (2) Approach.--The Administrator may establish a 
        program of competitively awarded grants available to 
        teams of researchers that may include the participation 
        of individuals from universities, industry, and 
        government for the conduct of this research.
  (f) Mars Aircraft Research.--
          (1) Objective.--The Administrator may establish a 
        Mars Aircraft project whose objective shall be to 
        develop and test concepts for an uncrewed aircraft that 
        could operate for sustained periods in the atmosphere 
        of Mars.
          (2) Approach.--The Administrator may establish a 
        program of competitively awarded grants available to 
        teams of researchers that may include the participation 
        of individuals from universities, industry, and 
        government for the conduct of this research.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


        SUBTITLE V--PROGRAMS TARGETING COMMERCIAL OPPORTUNITIES

                      CHAPTER 501--SPACE COMMERCE

Sec.
50101. Definitions.

       SUBCHAPTER II--PROMOTION OF COMMERCIAL SPACE OPPORTUNITIES

     * * * * * * *
50117. Commercial supply of space products.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SUBCHAPTER II--PROMOTION OF COMMERCIAL SPACE OPPORTUNITIES

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 50117. Commercial supply of space products

  (a) In General.--In planning and carrying out space 
exploration missions, the Administrator shall, to the greatest 
extent practicable, prioritize the acquisition and use of space 
products provided by a United States commercial provide.
  (b) Space Product Defined.--In this section, the term ``space 
product'' means a tangible good, including a finished good, or 
commodity, including a propellant, water, oxygen, or gas, 
that--
          (1) is required for space exploration activities; and
          (2) originates in outer space.
  (c) Commodities Used in Space.--
          (1) List of commodities.--In planning a space 
        exploration mission, the Administrator shall create a 
        list of commodities to be used during such mission. The 
        list shall include specification of each commodity, 
        anticipated quantity, and the location and timeframe of 
        need.
          (2) Commodity cost basis.--For each commodity listed 
        pursuant paragraph (1), NASA shall establish a 
        commodity cost basis that shall represent the lesser 
        of--
                  (A) the estimated cost to procure the 
                commodity on Earth and deliver the commodity to 
                the location of use; and
                  (B) the estimated cost for the Government to 
                procure the equivalent commodity that is a 
                space product.
          (3) Publication.--The Administrator shall annually 
        publish the information compiled under paragraphs (1) 
        and (2) during the previous calendar year.
  (d) Exceptions.--The Administrator shall not be required to 
prioritize the acquisition of space products for the purposes 
described in subsection (a) if, on a case-by-case basis--
          (1) the Administrator determines that--
                  (A) cost-effective space products that meet 
                specific mission requirements would not be 
                reasonably available from United States 
                commercial providers when required;
                  (B) the use of space products from United 
                States commercial providers poses an 
                unacceptable mission risk; or
                  (C) the use of space products is inconsistent 
                with international agreements for international 
                collaborative efforts relating to science and 
                technology; or
          (2) the Secretary of the Air Force determines that 
        the use of space commodities from United States 
        commercial providers is inconsistent with national 
        security objectives.
  (e) Agreements With Foreign Entities.--Nothing in this 
section shall prevent the Administrator from planning or 
negotiating agreements with foreign governmental entities for 
the provision of space products.

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                    SUBTITLE VI--EARTH OBSERVATIONS

                CHAPTER 601--LAND REMOTE SENSING POLICY

                    SUBCHAPTER SUBCHAPTER I--GENERAL

Sec.
60101. Definitions.
     * * * * * * *

         SUBCHAPTER IV--RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION

     * * * * * * *
60135. Continuous land remote sensing data collection.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SUBCHAPTER IV--RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 60135. Continuous land remote sensing data collection

  (a) Policy.--It is the policy of the United States to--
          (1) ensure, to the greatest extent practicable, the 
        continuous collection of space-based, medium-resolution 
        observations of the Earth's land cover;
          (2) ensure that the collected data are made available 
        in such ways as to facilitate the widest possible use; 
        and
          (3) foster, to the greatest extent practicable the 
        development of U.S. private sector remote sensing 
        capabilities and analyses that can satisfy the public 
        interest in long-term continuous collection of medium-
        resolution land remote sensing data.
  (b) Coordination.--The National Space Council, in 
consultation with other relevant Federal agencies, shall 
coordinate United States Government activities described under 
paragraphs (1) through (3) of subsection (a).

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                    SUBTITLE VI--EARTH OBSERVATIONS

                       CHAPTER 605--EARTH SCIENCE

Sec.
60501. Goal.
     * * * * * * *
60507. Reimbursable basis for development of sensors and instruments.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


Sec. 60507. Reimbursable basis for development of sensors and 
                    instruments

  Any work undertaken by the Administration for the benefit of 
another agency shall be conducted on a reimbursable basis that 
accounts for the full cost of the work, including work 
undertaken for the development of operational Earth science 
systems, including satellite, sensor, or instrument 
development, acquisition, and operations, as well as product 
development and data analysis.

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                              ----------                              


NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION AUTHORIZATION ACT OF 2010



           *       *       *       *       *       *       *
TITLE VII--EARTH SCIENCE

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 702. INTERAGENCY COLLABORATION IMPLEMENTATION APPROACH.

   [The Director of] (a)  In General._The Director of  OSTP 
shall establish a mechanism to ensure greater coordination of 
the research, operations, and activities relating to civilian 
Earth observation of those Agencies, including NASA, that have 
active programs that either contribute directly or indirectly 
to these areas. This mechanism should include the development 
of a strategic implementation plan that is updated at least 
every 3 years, and includes a process for external independent 
advisory input. This plan should include a description of the 
responsibilities of the various Agency roles in Earth 
observations, recommended cost-sharing and procurement 
arrangements between Agencies and other entities, including 
international arrangements, and a plan for ensuring the 
provision of sustained, long term space-based climate 
observations. The Director shall provide a report to Congress 
within 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act on the 
implementation plan for this mechanism.
  (b) Consideration.--In carrying out the strategic 
implementation plan under subsection (a), the Director shall 
take into account and incorporate into such plan, as 
appropriate, purchasing Earth observation data and services 
from the private sector or through public-private partnerships 
to meet Earth observation requirements.

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