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                                                Union Calendar No. 852
115th Congress    }                                      {      Report
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 2d Session       }                                      {    115-1100

======================================================================



 
  REPORT ON THE ACTIVITIES OF THE COMMITTEE ON ARMED SERVICES FOR THE 
                             115TH CONGRESS

                                _______
                                

 December 21, 2018.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on 
            the State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

  Mr. Thornberry, from the Committee on Armed Services, submitted the 
                               following

                              R E P O R T

                           POWERS AND DUTIES

                               Background

    The House Committee on Armed Services, a standing committee 
of Congress, was established on January 2, 1947, as a part of 
the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946 (60 Stat. 812), by 
merging the Committees on Military Affairs and Naval Affairs. 
The Committees on Military Affairs and Naval Affairs were 
established in 1882. In 1885, jurisdiction over military and 
naval appropriations was taken from the Committee on 
Appropriations and given to the Committees on Military Affairs 
and Naval Affairs, respectively. This practice continued until 
July 1, 1920, when jurisdiction over all appropriations was 
again placed in the Committee on Appropriations.
    In the 93rd Congress, following a study by the House Select 
Committee on Committees, the House passed H. Res. 988, the 
Committee Reform Amendments of 1974, to be effective January 3, 
1975. As a result of those amendments, the jurisdictional areas 
of the Committee on Armed Services remained essentially 
unchanged. However, oversight functions were amended to require 
each standing committee to review and study on a continuing 
basis all matters and jurisdiction of the committee. Also, the 
Committee on Armed Services was to review and study on a 
continuing basis all laws, programs, and Government activities 
dealing with or involving international arms control and 
disarmament and the education of military dependents in school.
    The rules changes adopted by the House (H. Res. 5) on 
January 4, 1977, placed new responsibilities in the field of 
atomic energy in the Committee on Armed Services. Those 
responsibilities involved the national security aspects of 
atomic energy previously within the jurisdiction of the Joint 
Committee on Atomic Energy. Public Law 95-110, effective 
September 20, 1977, abolished the Joint Committee on Atomic 
Energy.
    With the adoption of H. Res. 658 on July 14, 1977, which 
established the House Permanent Select Committee on 
Intelligence, the jurisdiction of the Committee on Armed 
Service over intelligence matters was changed. That resolution 
gave the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence oversight 
responsibilities for intelligence and intelligence-related 
activities and programs of the U.S. Government. Specifically, 
the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence has exclusive 
legislative jurisdiction regarding the Central Intelligence 
Agency and the director of Central Intelligence, including 
authorizations. Also, legislative jurisdiction over all 
intelligence and intelligence-related activities and programs 
was vested in the permanent select committee except that other 
committees with a jurisdictional interest may request 
consideration of any such matters. Accordingly, as a matter of 
practice, the Committee on Armed Services shared jurisdiction 
over the authorization process involving intelligence-related 
activities.
    The committee continues to have shared jurisdiction over 
military intelligence activities as set forth in rule X of the 
Rules of the House of Representatives.
    With the adoption of House rules (H. Res. 5) on January 4, 
1995, the Committee on National Security was established as the 
successor committee to the Committee on Armed Services, and was 
granted additional legislative and oversight authority over 
merchant marine academies, national security aspects of 
merchant marine policy and programs, and interoceanic canals. 
Rules for the 104th Congress also codified the existing 
jurisdiction of the committee over tactical intelligence 
matters and the intelligence related activities of the 
Department of Defense.
    On January 6, 1999, the House adopted H. Res. 5, rules for 
the 106th Congress, in which the Committee on National Security 
was redesignated as the Committee on Armed Services.
    On January 5, 2012, the House adopted H. Res. 5, rules for 
the 112th Congress, which clarified the Committee on Armed 
Services jurisdiction over Department of Defense administered 
cemeteries.

                    Constitutional Powers and Duties

    The powers and duties of Congress in relation to national 
defense matters stem from Article I, section 8 of the United 
States Constitution, which provides, among other things that 
Congress shall have power:
    To raise and support Armies;
    To provide and maintain a Navy;
    To make rules for the Government and Regulation of the land 
and naval Forces;
    To provide for calling forth the Militia;
    To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the 
Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed 
in the Service of the United States;
    To exercise exclusive Legislation . . . over all Places 
purchased . . . for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, 
dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings; and
     To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for 
carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers.

                      House Rules on Jurisdiction

    Rule X of the Rules of the House of Representatives 
established the jurisdiction and related functions for each 
standing committee. Under the rule, all bills, resolutions, and 
other matters relating to subjects within the jurisdiction of 
any standing committee shall be referred to such committee. The 
jurisdiction of the House Committee on Armed Services, pursuant 
to clause 1(c) of rule X is as follows:
    (1) Ammunition depots; forts; arsenals; and Army, Navy, and 
Air Force reservations and establishments.
    (2) Common defense generally.
    (3) Conservation, development, and use of naval petroleum 
and oil shale reserves.
    (4) The Department of Defense generally, including the 
Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force, generally.
    (5) Interoceanic canals generally, including measures 
relating to the maintenance, operation, and administration of 
interoceanic canals.
    (6) Merchant Marine Academy and State Maritime Academies.
    (7) Military applications of nuclear energy.
    (8) Tactical intelligence and intelligence-related 
activities of the Department of Defense.
    (9) National security aspects of merchant marine, including 
financial assistance for the construction and operation of 
vessels, maintenance of the U.S. shipbuilding and ship repair 
industrial base, cabotage, cargo preference, and merchant 
marine officers and seamen as these matters relate to the 
national security.
    (10) Pay, promotion, retirement, and other benefits and 
privileges of members of the Armed Forces.
    (11) Scientific research and development in support of the 
armed services.
    (12) Selective service.
    (13) Size and composition of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, 
and Air Force.
    (14) Soldiers' and sailors' homes.
    (15) Strategic and critical materials necessary for the 
common defense.
    (16) Cemeteries administered by the Department of Defense.
    In addition to its legislative jurisdiction and general 
oversight function, the Committee on Armed Services has special 
oversight functions with respect to international arms control 
and disarmament and the education of military dependents in 
schools.

           Investigative Authority and Legislative Oversight

    H. Res. 988 of the 93rd Congress, the Committee Reform 
Amendments of 1974, amended clause 1(b) of rule XI of the Rules 
of the House of Representatives, to provide general authority 
for each committee to investigate matters within its 
jurisdiction. That amendment established a permanent 
investigative authority and relieved the committee of the 
former requirement of obtaining a renewal of the investigative 
authority by a House resolution at the beginning of each 
Congress. H. Res. 988 also amended rule X of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives by requiring, as previously indicated, 
that standing committees are to conduct legislative oversight 
in the area of their respective jurisdiction, and by 
establishing specific oversight functions for the Committee on 
Armed Services.
    The committee derives its authority to conduct oversight 
from, among other things, clause 2(b)(1) of rule X of the Rules 
of the House of Representatives (relating to general oversight 
responsibilities), clause 3(b) of rule X (relating to special 
oversight functions), and clause 1(b) of rule XI (relating to 
investigations and studies).

                            COMMITTEE RULES

    The committee held its organizational meeting on January 
12, 2017, and adopted the following rules governing rules and 
procedure for oversight hearings conducted by the full 
committee and its subcommittees.
    (H.A.S.C. 115-1; Committee Print No. 1)

                       RULE 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

    (a) The Rules of the House of Representatives are the rules 
of the Committee on Armed Services (hereinafter referred to in 
these rules as the ``Committee'') and its subcommittees so far 
as applicable.
    (b) Pursuant to clause 2(a)(2) of rule XI of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, the Committee's rules shall be 
publicly available in electronic form and published in the 
Congressional Record not later than 30 days after the chair of 
the committee is elected in each odd-numbered year.

                  RULE 2. FULL COMMITTEE MEETING DATE

    (a) The Committee shall meet every Wednesday at 10:00 a.m., 
when the House of Representatives is in session, and at such 
other times as may be fixed by the Chairman of the Committee 
(hereinafter referred to as the ``Chairman''), or by written 
request of members of the Committee pursuant to clause 2(c) of 
rule XI of the Rules of the House of Representatives.
    (b) A Wednesday meeting of the Committee may be dispensed 
with by the Chairman, but such action may be reversed by a 
written request of a majority of the members of the Committee.

                   RULE 3. SUBCOMMITTEE MEETING DATES

    Each subcommittee is authorized to meet, hold hearings, 
receive evidence, and report to the Committee on all matters 
referred to it. Insofar as possible, meetings of the Committee 
and its subcommittees shall not conflict. A subcommittee 
Chairman shall set meeting dates after consultation with the 
Chairman, other subcommittee Chairmen, and the Ranking Minority 
Member of the subcommittee with a view toward avoiding, 
whenever possible, simultaneous scheduling of Committee and 
subcommittee meetings or hearings.

   RULE 4. JURISDICTION AND MEMBERSHIP OF COMMITTEE AND SUBCOMMITTEES

(a) Jurisdiction
    (1) The Committee retains jurisdiction of all subjects 
listed in clause 1(c) and clause 3(b) of rule X of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives and retains exclusive jurisdiction 
for: defense policy generally, ongoing military operations, the 
organization and reform of the Department of Defense and 
Department of Energy, counter-drug programs, security and 
humanitarian assistance (except special operations-related 
activities) of the Department of Defense, acquisition and 
industrial base policy, technology transfer and export 
controls, joint interoperability, detainee affairs and policy, 
force protection policy and inter-agency reform as it pertains 
to the Department of Defense and the nuclear weapons programs 
of the Department of Energy. In addition, the committee will be 
responsible for intelligence policy (including coordination of 
military intelligence programs), national intelligence 
programs, and Department of Defense elements that are part of 
the Intelligence Community. While subcommittees are provided 
jurisdictional responsibilities in subparagraph (2), the 
Committee retains the right to exercise oversight and 
legislative jurisdiction over all subjects within its purview 
under rule X of the Rules of the House of Representatives.
    (2) The Committee shall be organized to consist of seven 
standing subcommittees with the following jurisdictions:
    Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land Forces: All Army, Air 
Force and Marine Corps acquisition programs (except Marine 
Corps amphibious assault vehicle programs, strategic missiles, 
space, lift programs, special operations, science and 
technology programs, and information technology accounts) and 
the associated weapons systems sustainment. In addition, the 
subcommittee will be responsible for Navy and Marine Corps 
aviation programs and the associated weapons systems 
sustainment, National Guard and Army, Air Force and Marine 
Corps Reserve modernization, and ammunition programs.
    Subcommittee on Military Personnel: Military personnel 
policy, Reserve Component integration and employment issues, 
military health care, military education, and POW/MIA issues. 
In addition, the subcommittee will be responsible for Morale, 
Welfare and Recreation issues and programs.
    Subcommittee on Readiness: Military readiness, training, 
logistics and maintenance issues and programs. In addition, the 
subcommittee will be responsible for all military construction, 
depot policy, civilian personnel policy, environmental policy, 
installations and family housing issues, including the base 
closure process, and energy policy and programs of the 
Department of Defense.
    Subcommittee on Seapower and Projection Forces: Navy 
acquisition programs, Naval Reserve equipment, and Marine Corps 
amphibious assault vehicle programs (except strategic weapons, 
space, special operations, science and technology programs, and 
information technology programs), deep strike bombers and 
related systems, lift programs, seaborne unmanned aerial 
systems and the associated weapons systems sustainment. In 
addition, the subcommittee will be responsible for Maritime 
programs under the jurisdiction of the Committee as delineated 
in paragraphs 5 and 9 of clause 1(c) of rule X of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives.
    Subcommittee on Strategic Forces: Strategic weapons (except 
deep strike bombers and related systems), space programs 
(including national intelligence space programs), ballistic 
missile defense, the associated weapons systems sustainment, 
and Department of Energy national security programs.
    Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and Capabilities: Defense-
wide and joint enabling activities and programs to include: 
Special Operations Forces; counter-proliferation and counter-
terrorism programs and initiatives; science and technology 
policy and programs; information technology programs; homeland 
defense and Department of Defense related consequence 
management programs; related intelligence support; and other 
enabling programs and activities to include cyber operations, 
strategic communications, and information operations; and the 
Cooperative Threat Reduction program.
    Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations: Any matter 
within the jurisdiction of the Committee, subject to the 
concurrence of the Chairman of the Committee and, as 
appropriate, affected subcommittee chairmen. The subcommittee 
shall have no legislative jurisdiction.
(b) Membership of the Subcommittees
    (1) Subcommittee memberships, with the exception of 
membership on the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, 
shall be filled in accordance with the rules of the Majority 
party's conference and the Minority party's caucus, 
respectively.
    (2) The Chairman and Ranking Minority Member of the 
Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations shall be filled in 
accordance with the rules of the Majority party's conference 
and the Minority party's caucus, respectively. Consistent with 
the party ratios established by the Majority party, all other 
Majority members of the subcommittee shall be appointed by the 
Chairman of the Committee, and all other Minority members shall 
be appointed by the Ranking Minority Member of the Committee.
    (3) The Chairman of the Committee and Ranking Minority 
Member thereof may sit as ex officio members of all 
subcommittees. Ex officio members shall not vote in 
subcommittee hearings or meetings or be taken into 
consideration for the purpose of determining the ratio of the 
subcommittees or establishing a quorum at subcommittee hearings 
or meetings.
    (4) A member of the Committee who is not a member of a 
particular subcommittee may sit with the subcommittee and 
participate during any of its hearings but shall not have 
authority to vote, cannot be counted for the purpose of 
achieving a quorum, and cannot raise a point of order at the 
hearing.

                RULE 5. COMMITTEE PANELS AND TASK FORCES

(a) Committee Panels
    (1) The Chairman may designate a panel of the Committee 
consisting of members of the Committee to inquire into and take 
testimony on a matter or matters that fall within the 
jurisdiction of more than one subcommittee and to report to the 
Committee.
    (2) No panel appointed by the Chairman shall continue in 
existence for more than six months after the appointment. A 
panel so appointed may, upon the expiration of six months, be 
reappointed by the Chairman for a period of time which is not 
to exceed six months.
    (3) Consistent with the party ratios established by the 
Majority party, all Majority members of the panels shall be 
appointed by the Chairman of the Committee, and all Minority 
members shall be appointed by the Ranking Minority Member of 
the Committee. The Chairman of the Committee shall choose one 
of the Majority members so appointed who does not currently 
chair another subcommittee of the Committee to serve as 
Chairman of the panel. The Ranking Minority Member of the 
Committee shall similarly choose the Ranking Minority Member of 
the panel.
    (4) No panel shall have legislative jurisdiction.
(b) Committee and Subcommittee Task Forces
    (1) The Chairman of the Committee, or a Chairman of a 
subcommittee with the concurrence of the Chairman of the 
Committee, may designate a task force to inquire into and take 
testimony on a matter that falls within the jurisdiction of the 
Committee or subcommittee, respectively. The Chairman and 
Ranking Minority Member of the Committee or subcommittee shall 
each appoint an equal number of members to the task force. The 
Chairman of the Committee or subcommittee shall choose one of 
the members so appointed, who does not currently chair another 
subcommittee of the Committee, to serve as Chairman of the task 
force. The Ranking Minority Member of the Committee or 
subcommittee shall similarly appoint the Ranking Minority 
Member of the task force.
    (2) No task force appointed by the Chairman of the 
Committee or subcommittee shall continue in existence for more 
than three months. A task force may only be reappointed for an 
additional three months with the written concurrence of the 
Chairman and Ranking Minority Member of the Committee or 
subcommittee whose Chairman appointed the task force.
    (3) No task force shall have legislative jurisdiction.

           RULE 6. REFERENCE AND CONSIDERATION OF LEGISLATION

    (a) The Chairman shall refer legislation and other matters 
to the appropriate subcommittee or to the full Committee.
    (b) Legislation shall be taken up for a hearing or markup 
only when called by the Chairman of the Committee or 
subcommittee, as appropriate, or by a majority of the Committee 
or subcommittee, as appropriate.
    (c) The Chairman, with approval of a majority vote of a 
quorum of the Committee, shall have authority to discharge a 
subcommittee from consideration of any measure or matter 
referred thereto and have such measure or matter considered by 
the Committee.
    (d) Reports and recommendations of a subcommittee may not 
be considered by the Committee until after the intervention of 
three calendar days from the time the report is approved by the 
subcommittee and available to the members of the Committee, 
except that this rule may be waived by a majority vote of a 
quorum of the Committee.
    (e) The Chairman, in consultation with the Ranking Minority 
Member, shall establish criteria for recommending legislation 
and other matters to be considered by the House of 
Representatives, pursuant to clause 1 of rule XV of the Rules 
of the House of Representatives. Such criteria shall not 
conflict with the Rules of the House of Representatives and 
other applicable rules.

          RULE 7. PUBLIC ANNOUNCEMENT OF HEARINGS AND MEETINGS

    (a) Pursuant to clause 2(g)(3) of rule XI of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, the Chairman of the Committee, or 
of any subcommittee, panel, or task force, shall make a public 
announcement of the date, place, and subject matter of any 
hearing or meeting before that body at least one week before 
the commencement of a hearing and at least three days before 
the commencement of a meeting. However, if the Chairman of the 
Committee, or of any subcommittee, panel, or task force, with 
the concurrence of the respective Ranking Minority Member, 
determines that there is good cause to begin the hearing or 
meeting sooner, or if the Committee, subcommittee, panel, or 
task force so determines by majority vote, a quorum being 
present for the transaction of business, such chairman shall 
make the announcement at the earliest possible date. Any 
announcement made under this rule shall be promptly published 
in the Daily Digest, promptly entered into the committee 
scheduling service of the House Information Resources, and 
promptly made publicly available in electronic form.
    (b) At least 24 hours prior to the commencement of a 
meeting for the markup of legislation, or at the time of an 
announcement under paragraph (a) made within 24 hours before 
such meeting, the Chairman of the Committee, or of any 
subcommittee, panel, or task force shall cause the text of such 
measure or matter to be made publicly available in electronic 
form as provided in clause 2(g)(4) of rule XI of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives.

        RULE 8. BROADCASTING OF COMMITTEE HEARINGS AND MEETINGS

    (a) Pursuant to clause 2(e)(5) of rule XI of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, the Committee shall, to the 
maximum extent practicable, provide audio and video coverage of 
each hearing or meeting for the transaction of business in a 
manner that allows the public to easily listen to and view the 
proceedings. The Committee shall maintain the recordings of 
such coverage in a manner that is easily accessible to the 
public.
    (b) Clause 4 of rule XI of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives shall apply to the Committee.

            RULE 9. MEETINGS AND HEARINGS OPEN TO THE PUBLIC

    (a) Each hearing and meeting for the transaction of 
business, including the markup of legislation, conducted by the 
Committee, or any subcommittee, panel, or task force, to the 
extent that the respective body is authorized to conduct 
markups, shall be open to the public except when the Committee, 
subcommittee, panel, or task force in open session and with a 
majority being present, determines by record vote that all or 
part of the remainder of that hearing or meeting on that day 
shall be in executive session because disclosure of testimony, 
evidence, or other matters to be considered would endanger the 
national security, would compromise sensitive law enforcement 
information, or would violate any law or rule of the House of 
Representatives. Notwithstanding the requirements of the 
preceding sentence, a majority of those present, there being in 
attendance no fewer than two members of the Committee, 
subcommittee, panel, or task force may vote to close a hearing 
or meeting for the sole purpose of discussing whether testimony 
or evidence to be received would endanger the national 
security, would compromise sensitive law enforcement 
information, or would violate any law or rule of the House of 
Representatives. If the decision is to proceed in executive 
session, the vote must be by record vote and in open session, a 
majority of the Committee, subcommittee, panel, or task force 
being present.
    (b) Whenever it is asserted by a member of the Committee or 
subcommittee that the evidence or testimony at a hearing may 
tend to defame, degrade, or incriminate any person, or it is 
asserted by a witness that the evidence or testimony that the 
witness would give at a hearing may tend to defame, degrade, or 
incriminate the witness, notwithstanding the requirements of 
(a) and the provisions of clause 2(g)(2) of rule XI of the 
Rules of the House of Representatives, such evidence or 
testimony shall be presented in executive session, if by a 
majority vote of those present, there being in attendance no 
fewer than two members of the Committee or subcommittee, the 
Committee or subcommittee determines that such evidence may 
tend to defame, degrade, or incriminate any person. A majority 
of those present, there being in attendance no fewer than two 
members of the Committee or subcommittee may also vote to close 
the hearing or meeting for the sole purpose of discussing 
whether evidence or testimony to be received would tend to 
defame, degrade, or incriminate any person. The Committee or 
subcommittee shall proceed to receive such testimony in open 
session only if the Committee or subcommittee, a majority being 
present, determines that such evidence or testimony will not 
tend to defame, degrade, or incriminate any person.
    (c) Notwithstanding the foregoing, and with the approval of 
the Chairman, each member of the Committee may designate by 
letter to the Chairman, one member of that member's personal 
staff, and an alternate, which may include fellows, with Top 
Secret security clearance to attend hearings of the Committee, 
or that member's subcommittee(s), panel(s), or task force(s) 
(excluding briefings or meetings held under the provisions of 
committee rule 9(a)), which have been closed under the 
provisions of rule 9(a) above for national security purposes 
for the taking of testimony. The attendance of such a staff 
member or fellow at such hearings is subject to the approval of 
the Committee, subcommittee, panel, or task force as dictated 
by national security requirements at that time. The attainment 
of any required security clearances is the responsibility of 
individual members of the Committee.
    (d) Pursuant to clause 2(g)(2) of rule XI of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, no Member, Delegate, or Resident 
Commissioner may be excluded from nonparticipatory attendance 
at any hearing of the Committee or a subcommittee, unless the 
House of Representatives shall by majority vote authorize the 
Committee or subcommittee, for purposes of a particular series 
of hearings on a particular article of legislation or on a 
particular subject of investigation, to close its hearings to 
Members, Delegates, and the Resident Commissioner by the same 
procedures designated in this rule for closing hearings to the 
public.
    (e) The Committee or the subcommittee may vote, by the same 
procedure, to meet in executive session for up to five 
additional consecutive days of hearings.

                            RULE 10. QUORUM

    (a) For purposes of taking testimony and receiving 
evidence, two members shall constitute a quorum.
    (b) One-third of the members of the Committee or 
subcommittee shall constitute a quorum for taking any action, 
with the following exceptions, in which case a majority of the 
Committee or subcommittee shall constitute a quorum:
          (1) Reporting a measure or recommendation;
          (2) Closing Committee or subcommittee meetings and 
        hearings to the public;
          (3) Authorizing the issuance of subpoenas;
          (4) Authorizing the use of executive session 
        material; and
          (5) Voting to proceed in open session after voting to 
        close to discuss whether evidence or testimony to be 
        received would tend to defame, degrade, or incriminate 
        any person.
    (c) No measure or recommendation shall be reported to the 
House of Representatives unless a majority of the Committee is 
actually present.

                     RULE 11. THE FIVE-MINUTE RULE

    (a) Subject to rule 15, the time any one member may address 
the Committee or subcommittee on any measure or matter under 
consideration shall not exceed five minutes and then only when 
the member has been recognized by the Chairman or subcommittee 
chairman, as appropriate, except that this time limit may be 
exceeded by unanimous consent. Any member, upon request, shall 
be recognized for not more than five minutes to address the 
Committee or subcommittee on behalf of an amendment which the 
member has offered to any pending bill or resolution. The five-
minute limitation shall not apply to the Chairman and Ranking 
Minority Member of the Committee or subcommittee.
    (b)(1) Members who are present at a hearing of the 
Committee or subcommittee when a hearing is originally convened 
shall be recognized by the Chairman or subcommittee chairman, 
as appropriate, in order of seniority. Those members arriving 
subsequently shall be recognized in order of their arrival. 
Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Chairman and the Ranking 
Minority Member will take precedence upon their arrival. In 
recognizing members to question witnesses in this fashion, the 
Chairman shall take into consideration the ratio of the 
Majority to Minority members present and shall establish the 
order of recognition for questioning in such a manner as not to 
disadvantage the members of either party.
    (2) Pursuant to rule 4 and subject to rule 15, a member of 
the Committee who is not a member of a subcommittee may be 
recognized by a subcommittee chairman in order of their arrival 
and after all present subcommittee members have been 
recognized.
    (3) The Chairman of the Committee or a subcommittee, with 
the concurrence of the respective Ranking Minority Member, may 
depart with the regular order for questioning which is 
specified in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this rule provided that 
such a decision is announced prior to the hearing or prior to 
the opening statements of the witnesses and that any such 
departure applies equally to the Majority and the Minority.
    (c) No person other than a Member, Delegate, or Resident 
Commissioner of Congress and committee staff may be seated in 
or behind the dais area during Committee, subcommittee, panel, 
or task force hearings and meetings.

             RULE 12. POWER TO SIT AND ACT; SUBPOENA POWER

    (a) For the purpose of carrying out any of its functions 
and duties under rules X and XI of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives, the Committee and any subcommittee is 
authorized (subject to subparagraph (b)(1) of this paragraph):
          (1) to sit and act at such times and places within 
        the United States, whether the House is in session, has 
        recessed, or has adjourned, and to hold hearings, and
          (2) to require by subpoena, or otherwise, the 
        attendance and testimony of such witnesses and the 
        production of such books, records, correspondence, 
        memorandums, papers and documents, including, but not 
        limited to, those in electronic form, as it considers 
        necessary.
    (b)(1) A subpoena may be authorized and issued by the 
Committee, or any subcommittee with the concurrence of the full 
Committee Chairman and after consultation with the Ranking 
Minority Member of the Committee, under subparagraph (a)(2) in 
the conduct of any investigation, or series of investigations 
or activities, only when authorized by a majority of the 
members voting, a majority of the Committee or subcommittee 
being present. Authorized subpoenas shall be signed only by the 
Chairman, or by any member designated by the Committee.
    (2) Pursuant to clause 2(m) of rule XI of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives, compliance with any subpoena issued 
by the Committee or any subcommittee under subparagraph (a)(2) 
may be enforced only as authorized or directed by the House of 
Representatives.

                      RULE 13. WITNESS STATEMENTS

    (a) Any prepared statement to be presented by a witness to 
the Committee or a subcommittee shall be submitted to the 
Committee or subcommittee at least 48 hours in advance of 
presentation and shall be distributed to all members of the 
Committee or subcommittee as soon as practicable but not less 
than 24 hours in advance of presentation. A copy of any such 
prepared statement shall also be submitted to the Committee in 
electronic form. If a prepared statement contains national 
security information bearing a classification of Confidential 
or higher, the statement shall be made available in the 
Committee rooms to all members of the Committee or subcommittee 
as soon as practicable but not less than 24 hours in advance of 
presentation; however, no such statement shall be removed from 
the Committee offices. The requirement of this rule may be 
waived by a majority vote of the Committee or subcommittee, a 
quorum being present. In cases where a witness does not submit 
a statement by the time required under this rule, the Chairman 
of the Committee or subcommittee, as appropriate, with the 
concurrence of the respective Ranking Minority Member, may 
elect to exclude the witness from the hearing.
    (b) The Committee and each subcommittee shall require each 
witness who is to appear before it to file with the Committee 
in advance of his or her appearance a written statement of the 
proposed testimony and to limit the oral presentation at such 
appearance to a brief summary of the submitted written 
statement.
    (c) Pursuant to clause 2(g)(5) of rule XI of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, written witness statements, with 
appropriate redactions to protect the privacy of the witness, 
shall be made publicly available in electronic form not later 
than one day after the witness appears.

               RULE 14. ADMINISTERING OATHS TO WITNESSES

    (a) The Chairman, or any member designated by the Chairman, 
may administer oaths to any witness.
    (b) Witnesses, when sworn, shall subscribe to the following 
oath:
          ``Do you solemnly swear (or affirm) that the 
        testimony you will give before this Committee (or 
        subcommittee) in the matters now under consideration 
        will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
        truth, so help you God?''

                   RULE 15. QUESTIONING OF WITNESSES

    (a) When a witness is before the Committee or a 
subcommittee, members of the Committee or subcommittee may put 
questions to the witness only when recognized by the Chairman 
or subcommittee chairman, as appropriate, for that purpose 
according to rule 11 of the Committee.
    (b) Members of the Committee or subcommittee who so desire 
shall have not more than five minutes to question each witness 
or panel of witnesses, the responses of the witness or 
witnesses being included in the five-minute period, until such 
time as each member has had an opportunity to question each 
witness or panel of witnesses. Thereafter, additional rounds 
for questioning witnesses by members are within the discretion 
of the Chairman or subcommittee chairman, as appropriate.
    (c) Questions put to witnesses before the Committee or 
subcommittee shall be pertinent to the measure or matter that 
may be before the Committee or subcommittee for consideration.

         RULE 16. PUBLICATION OF COMMITTEE HEARINGS AND MARKUPS

    The transcripts of those hearings conducted by the 
Committee, subcommittee, or panel will be published officially 
in substantially verbatim form, with the material requested for 
the record inserted at that place requested, or at the end of 
the record, as appropriate. The transcripts of markups 
conducted by the Committee or any subcommittee may be published 
officially in verbatim form. Any requests to correct any 
errors, other than those in transcription, will be appended to 
the record, and the appropriate place where the change is 
requested will be footnoted. Any transcript published under 
this rule shall include the results of record votes conducted 
in the session covered by the transcript and shall also include 
materials that have been submitted for the record and are 
covered under rule 19. The handling and safekeeping of these 
materials shall fully satisfy the requirements of rule 20. No 
transcript of an executive session conducted under rule 9 shall 
be published under this rule.

                     RULE 17. VOTING AND ROLLCALLS

    (a) Voting on a measure or matter may be by record vote, 
division vote, voice vote, or unanimous consent.
    (b) A record vote shall be ordered upon the request of one-
fifth of those members present.
    (c) No vote by any member of the Committee or a 
subcommittee with respect to any measure or matter shall be 
cast by proxy.
    (d) In the event of a vote or votes, when a member is in 
attendance at any other committee, subcommittee, or conference 
committee meeting during that time, the necessary absence of 
that member shall be so noted in the record vote record, upon 
timely notification to the Chairman by that member.
    (e) The Chairman of the Committee or a subcommittee, as 
appropriate, with the concurrence of the Ranking Minority 
Member or the most senior Minority member who is present at the 
time, may elect to postpone requested record votes until such 
time or point at a markup as is mutually decided. When 
proceedings resume on a postponed question, notwithstanding any 
intervening order for the previous question, the underlying 
proposition shall remain subject to further debate or amendment 
to the same extent as when the question was postponed.

                       RULE 18. COMMITTEE REPORTS

    (a) If, at the time of approval of any measure or matter by 
the Committee, any member of the Committee gives timely notice 
of intention to file supplemental, Minority, additional or 
dissenting views, all members shall be entitled to not less 
than two calendar days (excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and legal 
holidays except when the House is in session on such days) in 
which to file such written and signed views with the Staff 
Director of the Committee, or the Staff Director's designee. 
All such views so filed by one or more members of the Committee 
shall be included within, and shall be a part of, the report 
filed by the Committee with respect to that measure or matter.
    (b) With respect to each record vote on a motion to report 
any measure or matter, and on any amendment offered to the 
measure or matter, the total number of votes cast for and 
against, the names of those voting for and against, and a brief 
description of the question, shall be included in the Committee 
report on the measure or matter. (c) Not later than 24 hours 
after the adoption of any amendment to a measure or matter 
considered by the Committee, the Chairman shall cause the text 
of each such amendment to be made publicly available in 
electronic form as provided in clause 2(e)(6) of rule XI of the 
Rules of the House of Representatives.

           RULE 19. PUBLIC INSPECTION OF COMMITTEE ROLLCALLS

    The result of each record vote in any meeting of the 
Committee shall be made available by the Committee for 
inspection by the public at reasonable times in the offices of 
the Committee and also made publicly available in electronic 
form within 48 hours of such record vote pursuant to clause 
2(e)(1)(B)(i) of rule XI of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives. Information so available shall include a 
description of the amendment, motion, order, or other 
proposition and the name of each member voting for and each 
member voting against such amendment, motion, order, or 
proposition and the names of those members present but not 
voting.

     RULE 20. PROTECTION OF NATIONAL SECURITY AND OTHER INFORMATION

    (a) Except as provided in clause 2(g) of rule XI of the 
Rules of the House of Representatives, all national security 
information bearing a classification of Confidential or higher 
which has been received by the Committee or a subcommittee 
shall be deemed to have been received in executive session and 
shall be given appropriate safekeeping.
    (b) The Chairman of the Committee shall, with the approval 
of a majority of the Committee, establish such procedures as in 
his judgment may be necessary to prevent the unauthorized 
disclosure of any national security information that is 
received which is classified as Confidential or higher. Such 
procedures shall, however, ensure access to this information by 
any member of the Committee or any other Member, Delegate, or 
Resident Commissioner of the House of Representatives, staff of 
the Committee, or staff designated under rule 9(c) who have the 
appropriate security clearances and the need to know, who has 
requested the opportunity to review such material.
    (c) The Chairman of the Committee shall, in consultation 
with the Ranking Minority Member, establish such procedures as 
in his judgment may be necessary to prevent the unauthorized 
disclosure of any proprietary information that is received by 
the Committee, subcommittee, panel, or task force. Such 
procedures shall be consistent with the Rules of the House of 
Representatives and applicable law.

                      RULE 21. COMMITTEE STAFFING

    The staffing of the Committee, the standing subcommittees, 
and any panel or task force designated by the Chairman or 
chairmen of the subcommittees shall be subject to the Rules of 
the House of Representatives.

                       RULE 22. COMMITTEE RECORDS

    The records of the Committee at the National Archives and 
Records Administration shall be made available for public use 
in accordance with rule VII of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives. The Chairman shall notify the Ranking Minority 
Member of any decision, pursuant to clause 3(b)(3) or clause 
4(b) of rule VII, to withhold a record otherwise available, and 
the matter shall be presented to the Committee for a 
determination on the written request of any member of the 
Committee.

                      RULE 23. HEARING PROCEDURES

    Clause 2(k) of rule XI of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives shall apply to the Committee.

                  RULE 24. COMMITTEE ACTIVITY REPORTS

    Not later than January 2nd of each odd-numbered year the 
Committee shall submit to the House a report on its activities, 
pursuant to clause 1(d) of rule XI of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives.

             COMPOSITION OF THE COMMITTEE ON ARMED SERVICES

                             FULL COMMITTEE

    Pursuant to H. Res. 6 (agreed to on January 3, 2017), H. 
Res. 34 (agreed to on January 9, 2017), H. Res. 36 (agreed to 
on January 10, 2017), H. Res. 45 (agreed to on January 11, 
2017), H. Res. 95 (agreed to on February 7, 2017), H. Res. 412 
(agreed to on June 27, 2017), H. Res. 439 (agreed to on July 
12, 2017), H. Res. 685 (agreed to on January 11, 2018), and H. 
Res. 844 (agreed to on April 25, 2018), the following Members 
have served on the Committee on Armed Services in the 115th 
Congress:

  WILLIAM M. ``MAC'' THORNBERRY, 
          Texas, Chairman

ADAM SMITH, Washington, Ranking MemberALTER B. JONES, North Carolina
ROBERT A. BRADY, Pennsylvania        JOE WILSON, South Carolina
SUSAN A. DAVIS, California           FRANK A. LoBIONDO, New Jersey
JAMES R. LANGEVIN, Rhode Island      ROB BISHOP, Utah
RICK LARSEN, Washington              MICHAEL R. TURNER, Ohio
JIM COOPER, Tennessee                MIKE ROGERS, Alabama
MADELEINE Z. BORDALLO, Guam          TRENT FRANKS,\8\ Arizona
JOE COURTNEY, Connecticut            BILL SHUSTER, Pennsylvania
NIKI TSONGAS, Massachusetts          K. MICHAEL CONAWAY, Texas
JOHN GARAMENDI, California           DOUG LAMBORN, Colorado
JACKIE SPEIER, California            ROBERT WITTMAN, Virginia
MARC A. VEASEY, Texas                DUNCAN HUNTER,\13\ California
TULSI GABBARD, Hawaii                MIKE COFFMAN, Colorado
BETO O'ROURKE, Texas                 VICKY HARTZLER, Missouri
DONALD NORCROSS, New Jersey          AUSTIN SCOTT, Georgia
RUBEN GALLEGO, Arizona               MO BROOKS, Alabama
SETH MOULTON, Massachusetts          PAUL COOK, California
COLLEEN HANABUSA, Hawaii             JIM BRIDENSTINE,\10\ Oklahoma
CAROL SHEA-PORTER, New Hampshire     BRAD R. WENSTRUP,\12\ Ohio
JACKY ROSEN, Nevada                  BRADLEY BYRNE, Alabama
A. DONALD McEACHIN, Virginia         SAM GRAVES, Missouri
SALUD O. CARBAJAL, California        ELISE M. STEFANIK, New York
ANTHONY G. BROWN, Maryland           MARTHA McSALLY, Arizona
STEPHANIE N. MURPHY, Florida         STEPHEN KNIGHT, California
RO KHANNA, California                STEVE RUSSELL, Oklahoma
SCOTT H. PETERS,\1\ California       SCOTT DesJARLAIS, Tennessee
PETE AGUILAR,\2\ California          RALPH LEE ABRAHAM, Louisiana
JOAQUIN CASTRO,\3\ Texas             TRENT KELLY, Mississippi
TOM O'HALLERAN,\4\ Arizona           MIKE GALLAGHER, Wisconsin
THOMAS R. SUOZZI,\5\ New York        MATT GAETZ, Florida
TIMOTHY J. WALZ,\6\ Minnesota        DON BACON, Nebraska
JIMMY PANETTA,\7\ California         JIM BANKS, Indiana
                                     LIZ CHENEY, Wyoming
                                     JODY HICE,\9\ Georgia
                                     PAUL MITCHELL,\11\ Michigan

----------
\1\Mr. Peters resigned from the committee on February 6, 2017.
\2\Mr. Aguilar resigned from the committee on February 6, 2017.
\3\Mr. Castro resigned from the committee on February 6, 2017.
\4\Mr. O'Halleran was elected to the committee on February 7, 2017.
\5\Mr. Suozzi was elected to the committee on February 7, 2017.
\6\Mr. Walz was elected to the committee on June 27, 2017, and resigned 
from the committee on July 12, 2017.
\7\Mr. Panetta was elected to the committee on July 12, 2017.
\8\Mr. Franks resigned from the House of Representatives on December 8, 
2017.
\9\Mr. Hice was elected to the committee on January 11, 2018.
\10\Mr. Bridenstine resigned from the House of Representatives on April 
23, 2018.
\11\Mr. Mitchell was elected to the committee on April 25, 2018.
\12\Mr. Wenstrup resigned from the committee on May 16, 2018.
\13\Mr. Hunter resigned from the committee on August 24, 2018.
            SUBCOMMITTEES OF THE COMMITTEE ON ARMED SERVICES

    The following subcommittees were established at the 
committee's organizational meeting on January 12, 2017.

           Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and Capabilities

    Jurisdiction pursuant to Committee Rule 4--Defense-wide and 
joint enabling activities and programs to include: Special 
Operations Forces; counter-proliferation and counter-terrorism 
programs and initiatives; science and technology policy and 
programs; information technology programs; homeland defense and 
Department of Defense related consequence management programs; 
related intelligence support; and other enabling programs and 
activities to include cyber operations, strategic 
communications, and information operations; and the Cooperative 
Threat Reduction program.

   ELISE M. STEFANIK, New York, 
            Chairwoman

JAMES R. LANGEVIN, Rhode Island      BILL SHUSTER, Pennsylvania
RICK LARSEN, Washington              BRAD R. WENSTRUP,\3\ Ohio
JIM COOPER, Tennessee                RALPH LEE ABRAHAM, Louisiana
JACKIE SPEIER, California            LIZ CHENEY, Wyoming, Vice Chair
MARC A. VEASEY, Texas                JOE WILSON, South Carolina
TULSI GABBARD, Hawaii                FRANK A. LoBIONDO, New Jersey
BETO O'ROURKE, Texas                 TRENT FRANKS,\1\ Arizona
STEPHANIE N. MURPHY, Florida         DOUG LAMBORN, Colorado
                                     AUSTIN SCOTT, Georgia
                                     JODY HICE,\2\ Georgia

----------
\1\Mr. Franks resigned from the House of Representatives on December 8, 
2017.
\2\Mr. Hice was assigned to the Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and 
Capabilities on January 11, 2018.
\3\Mr. Wenstrup resigned from the committee on May 16, 2018.

                   Subcommittee on Military Personnel

    Jurisdiction pursuant to Committee Rule 4--Military 
personnel policy, Reserve Component integration and employment 
issues, military health care, military education, and POW/MIA 
issues. In addition, the subcommittee will be responsible for 
Morale, Welfare and Recreation issues and programs.

 MIKE COFFMAN, Colorado, Chairman

JACKIE SPEIER, California            WALTER B. JONES, North Carolina
ROBERT A. BRADY, Pennsylvania        BRAD R. WENSTRUP,\1\ Ohio, Vice 
NIKI TSONGAS, Massachusetts          Chair
RUBEN GALLEGO, Arizona               STEVE RUSSELL, Oklahoma
CAROL SHEA-PORTER, New Hampshire     DON BACON, Nebraska
JACKY ROSEN, Nevada                  MARTHA McSALLY, Arizona
                                     RALPH LEE ABRAHAM, Louisiana
                                     TRENT KELLY, Mississippi

----------
\1\Mr. Wenstrup resigned from the committee on May 16, 2018.

                       Subcommittee on Readiness

    Jurisdiction pursuant to Committee Rule 4--Military 
readiness, training, logistics and maintenance issues and 
programs. In addition, the subcommittee will be responsible for 
all military construction, depot policy, civilian personnel 
policy, environmental policy, installations and family housing 
issues, including the base closure process, and energy policy 
and programs of the Department of Defense.

   JOE WILSON, South Carolina, 
             Chairman

MADELINE Z. BORDALLO, Guam           ROB BISHOP, Utah
JOE COURTNEY, Connecticut            AUSTIN SCOTT, Georgia
TULSI GABBARD, Hawaii                STEVE RUSSELL, Oklahoma
CAROL SHEA-PORTER, New Hampshire     MIKE ROGERS, Alabama
A. DONALD McEACHIN, Virginia         VICKY HARTZLER, Missouri
SALUD O. CARBAJAL, California        ELISE M. STEFANIK, New York
ANTHONY G. BROWN, Maryland           MARTHA McSALLY, Arizona, Vice 
STEPHANIE N. MURPHY, Florida         Chair
RO KHANNA, California                SCOTT DesJARLAIS, Tennessee
                                     TRENT KELLY, Mississippi
                                     MIKE GALLAGHER, Wisconsin

             Subcommittee on Seapower and Projection Forces

    Jurisdiction pursuant to Committee Rule 4--Navy acquisition 
programs, Naval Reserve equipment, and Marine Corps amphibious 
assault vehicle programs (except strategic weapons, space, 
special operations, science and technology programs, and 
information technology programs), deep strike bombers and 
related systems, lift programs, seaborne unmanned aerial 
systems and the associated weapons systems sustainment. In 
addition, the subcommittee will be responsible for Maritime 
programs under the jurisdiction of the Committee as delineated 
in paragraphs 5 and 9 of clause 1(c) of rule X of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives.

   ROBERT J. WITTMAN, Virginia, 
             Chairman

JOE COURTNEY, Connecticut            K. MICHAEL CONAWAY, Texas
SUSAN A. DAVIS, California           VICKY HARTZLER, Missouri
JAMES R. LANGEVIN, Rhode Island      BRADLEY BYRNE, Alabama, Vice Chair
MADELINE Z. BORDALLO, Guam           SCOTT DesJARLAIS, Tennessee
JOHN GARAMENDI, California           MIKE GALLAGHER, Wisconsin
DONALD NORCROSS, New Jersey          DUNCAN HUNTER,\3\ California
SETH MOULTON, Massachusetts          PAUL COOK, California
COLLEEN HANABUSA, Hawaii             JIM BRIDENSTINE,\1\ Oklahoma
A. DONALD McEACHIN, Virginia         STEPHEN KNIGHT, California
                                     RALPH LEE ABRAHAM, Louisiana
                                     PAUL MITCHELL,\2\ Michigan

----------
\1\Mr. Bridenstine resigned from the House of Representatives on April 
23, 2018.
\2\Mr. Mitchell was assigned to the Subcommittee on Seapower and 
Projection Forces on April 25, 2018.
\3\Mr. Hunter resigned from the committee on August 24, 2018.

                    Subcommittee on Strategic Forces

    Jurisdiction pursuant to Committee Rule 4--Strategic 
weapons (except deep strike bombers and related systems), space 
programs (including national intelligence space programs), 
ballistic missile defense, the associated weapons systems 
sustainment, and Department of Energy national security 
programs.

  MIKE ROGERS, Alabama, Chairman

JIM COOPER, Tennessee                TRENT FRANKS,\1\ Arizona, Vice 
SUSAN A. DAVIS, California           Chair
RICK LARSEN, Washington              DOUG LAMBORN, Colorado
JOHN GARAMENDI, California           DUNCAN HUNTER,\5\ California
BETO O'ROURKE, Texas                 MO BROOKS, Alabama
DONALD NORCROSS, New Jersey          JIM BRIDENSTINE,\3\ Oklahoma
COLLEEN HANABUSA, Hawaii             MICHAEL R. TURNER, Ohio
RO KHANNA, California                MIKE COFFMAN, Colorado
                                     BRADLEY BYRNE, Alabama
                                     SAM GRAVES, Missouri
                                     JODY HICE,\2\ Georgia
                                     PAUL MITCHELL,\4\ Michigan

----------
\1\Mr. Franks resigned from the House of Representatives on December 8, 
2017.
\2\Mr. Hice was assigned to the Subcommittee on Strategic Forces on 
January 11, 2018.
\3\Mr. Bridenstine resigned from the House of Representatives on April 
23, 2018.
\4\Mr. Mitchell was assigned to the Subcommittees on Strategic Forces 
on April 25, 2018.
\5\Mr. Hunter resigned from the committee on August 24, 2018.

              Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land Forces

    Jurisdiction pursuant to Committee Rule 4--All Army, Air 
Force and Marine Corps acquisition programs (except Marine 
Corps amphibious assault vehicle programs, strategic missiles, 
space, lift programs, special operations, science and 
technology programs, and information technology accounts) and 
the associated weapons systems sustainment. In addition, the 
subcommittee will be responsible for Navy and Marine Corps 
aviation programs and the associated weapons systems 
sustainment, National Guard and Army, Air Force and Marine 
Corps Reserve modernization, and ammunition programs.

 MICHAEL R. TURNER, Ohio, Chairman

NIKI TSONGAS, Massachusetts          FRANK A. LoBIONDO, New Jersey
JAMES R. LANGEVIN, Rhode Island      PAUL COOK, California, Vice Chair
JIM COOPER, Tennessee                SAM GRAVES, Missouri
MARC A. VEASEY, Texas                MARTHA McSALLY, Arizona
RUBEN GALLEGO, Arizona               STEPHEN KNIGHT, California
JACKY ROSEN, Nevada                  TRENT KELLY, Mississippi
SALUD O. CARBAJAL, California        MATT GAETZ, Florida
ANTHONY G. BROWN, Maryland           DON BACON, Nebraska
TOM O'HALLERAN,\1\ Arizona           JIM BANKS, Indiana
THOMAS R. SUOZZI,\2\ New York        WALTER B. JONES, North Carolina
JIMMY PANETTA,\3\ California         ROB BISHOP, Utah
                                     ROBERT J. WITTMAN, Virginia
                                     MO BROOKS, Alabama

----------
\1\Mr. O'Halleran was assigned to the Subcommittee on Tactical Air and 
Land Forces on February 7, 2017.
\2\Mr. Suozzi was assigned to the Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land 
Forces on February 7, 2017.
\3\Mr. Panetta was assigned to the Subcommittee on Tactical Air and 
Land Forces on July 12, 2017.

              Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations

    Jurisdiction pursuant to Committee Rule 4--Any matter 
within the jurisdiction of the Committee, subject to the 
concurrence of the Chairman of the Committee and, as 
appropriate, affected subcommittee chairmen. The subcommittee 
shall have no legislative jurisdiction.

    VICKY HARTZLER, Missouri, 
            Chairwoman

SETH MOULTON, Massachusetts          K. MICHAEL CONAWAY, Texas
TOM O'HALLERAN,\1\ Arizona           MATT GAETZ, Florida
THOMAS R. SUOZZI,\2\ New York        JIM BANKS, Indiana
JIMMY PANETTA,\3\ California         LIZ CHENEY, Wyoming
                                     AUSTIN SCOTT, Georgia

----------
\1\Mr. O'Halleran was assigned to the Subcommittee on Oversight and 
Investigations on February 7, 2017.
\2\Mr. Suozzi was assigned to the Subcommittee on Oversight and 
Investigations on February 7, 2017.
\3\Mr. Panetta was assigned to the Subcommittee on Oversight and 
Investigations on July 12, 2017.

                            COMMITTEE STAFF

    By committee resolution adopted at the organizational 
meeting on January 12, 2017, or by authority of the chairman, 
the following persons have been appointed to the staff of the 
committee during the 115th Congress:

   Jen Stewart, Staff Director 
   (appointed September 5, 2017)
   Bob Simmons, Staff Director 
      (resigned June 8, 2017)
   Jenness Simler, Deputy Staff 
  Director (resigned November 9, 
               2017)
  Andrew Peterson, Deputy Staff 
   Director and General Counsel 
   (resigned September 14, 2018)
Betty B. Gray, Executive Assistant
  John F. Sullivan, Professional 
           Staff Member
     Jesse D. Tolleson, Jr., 
     Professional Staff Member
Paul Arcangeli, Professional Staff 
              Member
 Jeanette S. James, Professional 
 Staff Member (resigned April 7, 
               2017)
  Rebecca A. Ross, Professional 
           Staff Member
Heath R. Bope, Professional Staff 
              Member
  John Wason, Professional Staff 
  Member (resigned September 21, 
               2018)
 Douglas Bush, Professional Staff 
              Member
  Vickie Plunkett, Professional 
 Staff Member (resigned August 2, 
               2017)
 Kevin Gates, Professional Staff 
Member (resigned December 1, 2017)
David Sienicki, Professional Staff 
              Member
Zach Steacy, Director, Legislative 
            Operations
  Everett Coleman, Professional 
           Staff Member
 Craig Greene, Professional Staff 
              Member
  Phil MacNaughton, Professional 
           Staff Member
 Jack Schuler, Professional Staff 
              Member
 John N. Johnson, Staff Assistant
    William S. Johnson, Counsel
Jaime Cheshire, Professional Staff 
  Member (resigned March 9, 2017)
Peter Villano, Professional Staff 
              Member
      Leonor Tomero, Counsel
  Catherine Sendak, Professional 
Staff Member (resigned October 19, 
               2018)
      Christopher J. Bright, 
     Professional Staff Member
Brian Garrett, Professional Staff 
              Member
  Elizabeth Conrad, Professional 
Staff Member (resigned October 12, 
               2018)
  Andrew T. Walter, Professional 
Staff Member (resigned October 4, 
               2018)
  Claude Chafin, Communications 
             Director
 Tim Morrison, Counsel (resigned 
           July 6, 2018)
Stephen Kitay, Professional Staff 
  Member (resigned June 9, 2017)
 Katie Thompson, Security Manager
  Alexander Gallo, Professional 
 Staff Member (resigned February 
             10, 2017)
  David Giachetti, Professional 
           Staff Member
 Kari Bingen, Professional Staff 
  Member (resigned June 2, 2017)
 Lindsay Kavanaugh, Professional 
           Staff Member
    Candace Wagner, Executive 
 Assistant (resigned December 31, 
               2017)
    Alison Lynn, Spokesman and 
  Director of Member Initiatives 
     (resigned June 22, 2018)
Mark Morehouse, Professional Staff 
              Member
   Nick Mikula, Press Secretary 
    (resigned October 19, 2018)
Craig Collier, Professional Staff 
  Member (resigned November 30, 
               2017)
Daniel Sennott, Professional Staff 
              Member
Bruce Johnson, Professional Staff 
              Member
 Mike Gancio, Clerk (resigned May 
             11, 2018)
      Nevada Schadler, Clerk
     Andrew ``Drew'' Warren, 
     Professional Staff Member
Margaret Dean, Professional Staff 
              Member
  Bob Daigle, Professional Staff 
 Member (resigned August 2, 2017)
Alexis Lasselle Ross, Professional 
Staff Member (resigned February 2, 
               2018)
  Katy Quinn, Professional Staff 
              Member
 Britton Burkett, Clerk (resigned 
          March 16, 2018)
    Barron Young Smith, Counsel
     Matthew Sullivan, Counsel
 Emily Murphy, Counsel (resigned 
         January 23, 2017)
    Anna Waterfield, Research 
  Assistant (resigned April 30, 
               2018)
  Jodi Brignola, Clerk (resigned 
          July 28, 2017)
 Brian Greer, Professional Staff 
              Member
 Jason Schmid, Professional Staff 
              Member
        Megan Handal, Clerk
Andy Schulman, Professional Staff 
              Member
      Danielle Steitz, Clerk
Jennifer Bird, Professional Staff 
  Member (appointed February 21, 
               2017)
Thomas Hawley, Professional Staff 
 Member (appointed March 1, 2017)
Ari Zimmerman, Professional Staff 
 Member (appointed April 10, 2017)
Sarah Mineiro, Professional Staff 
 Member (appointed June 12, 2017)
 Shenita White, Clerk (appointed 
          June 28, 2017)
   Hannah Scheenstra, Executive 
  Assistant (appointed June 28, 
               2017)
Eric Mellinger, Professional Staff 
 Member (appointed July 10, 2017)
  Glen Diehl, Professional Staff 
Member (appointed October 1, 2017)
Maria Vastola, Professional Staff 
Member (appointed January 2, 2018)
Kimberly Lehn, Professional Staff 
  Member (appointed January 19, 
               2018)
Jamie Jackson, Counsel (appointed 
        February 19, 2018)
 Stephanie Halcrow, Professional 
Staff Member (appointed March 12, 
               2018)
Hannah Thoburn, Professional Staff 
 Member (appointed March 12, 2018)
Eric Snelgrove, Professional Staff 
 Member (appointed March 19, 2018)
  Justin Lynch, Clerk (appointed 
          April 9, 2018)
  Katherine Sutton, Professional 
Staff Member (appointed April 10, 
          2018, resigned
         December 2, 2018)
Caroline Kehrli, Clerk (appointed 
           June 4, 2018)
 Zachary Taylor, Clerk (appointed 
          August 4, 2018)

                    COMMITTEE MEETINGS AND HEARINGS

    A total of 271 meetings and hearings have been held by the 
Committee on Armed Services and its subcommittees during the 
115th Congress. A breakdown of the meetings and hearings 
follows:
FULL COMMITTEE...................................................    79
SUBCOMMITTEES:
    Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and Capabilities............    36
    Subcommittee on Military Personnel...........................    28
    Subcommittee on Readiness....................................    34
    Subcommittee on Seapower and Projection Forces...............    28
    Subcommittee on Strategic Forces.............................    26
    Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land Forces.................    25
    Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations.................    15
                         LEGISLATIVE ACTIVITIES

                              PUBLIC LAWS


   Public Law 115-2 (S. 84)--A Bill to Provide for an Exception to a 
   Limitation Against Appointment of Persons as Secretary of Defense 
within Seven Years of Relief from Active Duty as a Regular Commissioned 
                      Officer of the Armed Forces

    S. 84, ``A bill to provide for an exception to a limitation 
against appointment of persons as Secretary of Defense within 
seven years of relief from active duty as a regular 
commissioned officer of the Armed Forces'', was introduced on 
January 10, 2017, by Senator John McCain and read twice and 
referred to the Senate Committee on Armed Services.
    On January 12, 2017, the Senate Committee on Armed Services 
held a markup session of S. 84. The committee ordered the bill 
to be reported without amendment favorably. The same day, S. 84 
was reported by Senator McCain and placed on Senate Legislative 
Calendar under General Orders Calendar No. 2. On January 12, 
2017, S. 84 was laid before the Senate by motion and that same 
day, the bill passed the Senate without amendment by a yea-nay 
vote, 81-17 (Record Vote Number: 27). The bill was received in 
the House and held at the desk.
    Pursuant to H. Res. 48, S. 84 was considered in the House 
under a closed rule on January 13, 2017. The text of S. 84 was 
identical to the text of H.R. 393 which was reported favorably 
to the House by the Committee on Armed Services by a recorded 
vote of 34-28 on January 12, 2017. H. Res. 48 provided for 90 
minutes of debate on S. 84 equally divided and controlled by 
the chair and ranking minority member of the Committee on Armed 
Services. On January 13, 2017, S. 84 was passed in the House by 
recorded vote, 268-151-1 (Roll no. 59). On January 20, 2017, S. 
84 was presented to the President and signed into law as Public 
Law 115-2.

 Public Law 115-91 (H.R. 2810)--National Defense Authorization Act for 
                            Fiscal Year 2018

    On June 7, 2017, H.R. 2810, the National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, was introduced by 
Chairman William M. ``Mac'' Thornberry and referred to the 
Committee on Armed Services. On June 28, 2017, the Committee on 
Armed Services held a markup session to consider H.R. 2810. The 
committee ordered the bill H.R. 2810, as amended, favorably 
reported to the House of Representatives by a recorded vote of 
60-1, a quorum being present. The bill passed the House, as 
amended, on July 14, 2017, by recorded vote, 344-81 (Roll no. 
378). On July 18, 2017, the bill was received in the Senate, 
read twice, and placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under 
General Orders Calendar No. 175.
    On September 13, 2017, the measure was laid before the 
Senate by motion. On September 18, 2017, the Senate passed H.R. 
2810 with an amendment by a yea-nay vote, 89-8 (Record Vote 
Number: 199). On October 12, 2017, Chairman Thornberry 
requested that the House disagree to the Senate amendment and 
request a conference with the Senate by unanimous consent. On 
October 17, 2017, the Senate insisted on its amendment and 
agreed to the request for a conference. On November 9, 2017, 
the conference report to accompany H.R. 2810 (H. Rept. 115-404) 
was filed in the House. On November 14, 2017, the conference 
report was agreed to in the House by the yeas and nays, 356-70 
(Roll no. 631). On November 16, 2017, the conference report was 
agreed to in the Senate by voice vote. The President signed the 
legislation on December 12, 2017, and it became Public Law 115-
91.
    Public Law 115-91 did the following: (1) authorized 
appropriations for fiscal year 2018 for procurement and for 
research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E); (2) 
authorized appropriations for fiscal year 2018 for operation 
and maintenance (O&M) and for working capital funds; (3) 
authorized for fiscal year 2018 the personnel strength for each 
Active Duty component of the military departments, and the 
personnel strength for the Selected Reserve for each Reserve 
Component of the Armed Forces; (4) modified various elements of 
compensation for military personnel and imposed certain 
requirements and limitations on personnel actions in the 
defense establishment; (5) authorized appropriations for fiscal 
year 2018 for military construction and family housing; (6) 
authorized appropriations for Overseas Contingency Operations; 
(7) authorized appropriations for fiscal year 2018 for the 
Department of Energy national security programs; and (8) 
authorized appropriations for fiscal year 2018 for the Maritime 
Administration.
    The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 
is a key mechanism through which Congress fulfills one of its 
primary responsibilities as mandated in Article I, Section 8, 
of the Constitution of the United States, which grants Congress 
the power to provide for the common defense, to raise and 
support an Army, to provide and maintain a Navy, and to make 
rules for the Government and regulation of the land and naval 
forces. Rule X of the House of Representatives provides the 
House Committee on Armed Services with jurisdiction over the 
Department of Defense generally and over the military 
application of nuclear energy. The bill includes the large 
majority of the findings and recommendations resulting from its 
oversight activities, conducted through hearings, briefings, 
and roundtable discussions with Department of Defense and 
Department of Energy civilian and military officials, 
intelligence analysts, outside experts, and industry 
representatives, and informed by the experience gained over the 
previous decades of the committee's existence.

    Public Law 115-232 (H.R. 5515)--John S. McCain National Defense 
                 Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019

    On April 13, 2018, H.R. 5515, the National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019, was introduced by 
Chairman William M. ``Mac'' Thornberry and referred to the 
Committee on Armed Services. On May 9, 2018, the Committee on 
Armed Services held a markup session to consider H.R. 5515. The 
committee ordered the bill H.R. 5515, as amended, favorably 
reported to the House of Representatives by a recorded vote of 
60-1, a quorum being present. The bill passed the House, as 
amended, on May 24, 2018, by recorded vote, 351-66 (Roll no. 
230). On June 4, 2018, the bill was received in the Senate, 
read twice, and placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under 
General Orders Calendar No. 442.
    On June 11, 2018, the measure was laid before the Senate by 
motion. On June 18, 2018, the Senate passed H.R. 5515 with an 
amendment by a yea-nay vote, 85-10 (Record Vote Number: 128). 
The short title of the bill, as passed in the Senate, was 
amended to the ``John S. McCain National Defense Authorization 
Act for Fiscal Year 2019''.
    On June 27, 2018, Chairman Thornberry requested that the 
House disagree to the Senate amendment and request a conference 
with the Senate by unanimous consent. On July 10, 2018, the 
Senate insisted on its amendment and agreed to the request for 
a conference by a yea-nay vote, 97-2 (Record Vote Number: 148). 
On July 23, 2018, the first conference report to accompany H.R. 
5515 (H. Rept. 115-863) was filed in the House. However, it was 
determined that the conference report contained a provision 
that constituted a revenue measure and thus there was an 
origination problem with the conference report. Therefore, on 
July 24, 2018, pursuant to H. Res. 1019, the House recommitted 
the conference report back to the conference committee. On July 
25, 2018, a revised version of the conference report (H. Rept. 
115-874) was filed in the House that modified the provision to 
fix the origination problem. On July 26, 2018, the revised 
conference report was agreed to in the House by the yeas and 
nays, 359-54 (Roll no. 379). On August 1, 2018, the conference 
report was agreed to in the Senate by a yea-nay vote, 87-10 
(Record Vote Number: 181). The President signed the legislation 
on August 13, 2018, and it became Public Law 115-232.
    Public Law 115-232 did the following: (1) authorized 
appropriations for fiscal year 2019 for procurement and for 
research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E); (2) 
authorized appropriations for fiscal year 2019 for operation 
and maintenance (O&M) and for working capital funds; (3) 
authorized for fiscal year 2019 the personnel strength for each 
Active Duty component of the military departments, and the 
personnel strength for the Selected Reserve for each Reserve 
Component of the Armed Forces; (4) modified various elements of 
compensation for military personnel and imposed certain 
requirements and limitations on personnel actions in the 
defense establishment; (5) authorized appropriations for fiscal 
year 2019 for military construction and family housing; (6) 
authorized appropriations for Overseas Contingency Operations; 
(7) authorized appropriations for fiscal year 2019 for the 
Department of Energy national security programs; and (8) 
authorized appropriations for fiscal year 2019 for the Maritime 
Administration.
    The John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for 
Fiscal Year 2019 is a key mechanism through which Congress 
fulfills one of its primary responsibilities as mandated in 
Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution of the United States, 
which grants Congress the power to provide for the common 
defense, to raise and support an Army, to provide and maintain 
a Navy, and to make rules for the Government and regulation of 
the land and naval forces. Rule X of the House of 
Representatives provides the House Committee on Armed Services 
with jurisdiction over the Department of Defense generally and 
over the military application of nuclear energy. The bill 
includes the large majority of the findings and recommendations 
resulting from its oversight activities, conducted through 
hearings, briefings, and roundtable discussions with Department 
of Defense and Department of Energy civilian and military 
officials, intelligence analysts, outside experts, and industry 
representatives, and informed by the experience gained over the 
previous decades of the committee's existence.

                              PRIVATE LAWS


Private Law 115-1 (H.R. 4641)--To Authorize the President to Award the 
 Medal of Honor to John L. Canley for Acts of Valor during the Vietnam 
                 War while a Member of the Marine Corp

    H.R. 4641, ``To authorize the President to award the Medal 
of Honor to John L. Canley for acts of valor during the Vietnam 
War while a member of the Marine Corps'', was introduced on 
December 13, 2017, by Representative Julia Brownley and was 
referred to the Committee on Armed Services. The bill was 
referred to the Subcommittee on Military Personnel on December 
14, 2017. On December 21, 2017, Representative Mike Coffman 
asked unanimous consent that the Committee on Armed Services be 
discharged from further consideration of the bill and asked for 
its immediate consideration in the House. There was no 
objection to the request, and H.R. 4641 was passed in the House 
by unanimous consent on December 21, 2017. The same day, the 
bill was received in the Senate and read twice. On January 11, 
2018, H.R. 4641 passed the Senate without amendment by 
unanimous consent. H.R. 4641 was present to the President on 
January 17, 2018. It was signed into law on January 29, 2018, 
and became Private Law 115-1.

           LEGISLATION PASSED BY THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES


                         H.R. 2052--PRIVATE Act

    H.R. 2052, the PRIVATE Act, was introduced on April 6, 
2017, by Representative Martha McSally and was referred to the 
Committee on Armed Services and subsequently to the 
Subcommittee on Military Personnel. The Subcommittee on 
Military Personnel and the full committee waived consideration 
of H.R. 2052. On May 23, 2017, Representative McSally moved to 
consider H.R. 2052 under suspension of the rules of the House 
of Representatives. On May 24, 2017, the motion to suspend the 
rules and pass the bill was agreed to by the yeas and nays, 
418-0 (Roll no. 277). On May 25, 2017, H.R. 2052 was received 
in the Senate, read twice, and referred to the Senate Committee 
on Armed Services. No further action has been taken on H.R. 
2052.

H.R. 3897--Gold Star Family Support and Installation Access Act of 2017

    H.R. 3897, the Gold Star Family Support and Installation 
Access Act of 2017, was introduced on October 2, 2017, by 
Representative Don Bacon and was referred to the Committee on 
Armed Services, and subsequently to the Subcommittee on 
Military Personnel. On November 7, 2017, Representative Bacon 
asked unanimous consent that the Committee on Armed Services be 
discharged from further consideration of the bill and for its 
immediate consideration in the House. There was no objection to 
the request, and H.R. 3897 was passed in the House by unanimous 
consent. On November 8, 2017, H.R. 3897 was received in the 
Senate, read twice, and referred to the Senate Committee on 
Armed Services. No further action has been taken on H.R. 3897.

H.R. 5649--Navy SEAL Chief Petty Officer William ``Bill'' Mulder (Ret.) 
                   Transition Improvement Act of 2018

    H.R. 5649, the ``Navy SEAL Chief Petty Officer William 
``Bill'' Mulder (Ret.) Transition Improvement Act of 2018'', 
was introduced on April 27, 2018, by Representative Jodey C. 
Arrington and referred to the Committee Armed Services, and in 
addition to the Committee on Veterans' Affairs and the 
Committee on Ways and Means, for a period to be subsequently 
determined by the Speaker, in each case for consideration of 
such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the 
committee concerned. The bill was subsequently referred to the 
Subcommittee on Military Personnel on April 30, 2018. The 
Committee on Armed Services waived consideration of H.R. 5649, 
and on July 24, 2018, Representative David P. Roe, chairman of 
the Committee on Veterans' Affairs, moved to consider H.R. 
5649, as amended, under suspension of the rules of the House. 
The motion to suspend the rules and pass the bill, as amended, 
was agreed to by a voice vote. On July 25, 2018, H.R. 5649 was 
received in the Senate and read twice and referred to the 
Committee on Veterans' Affairs. No further action has been 
taken on the bill.

 H. CON. RES. 43--Providing Official Recognition of the Massacre of 11 
African-American Soldiers of the 333rd Field Artillery Battalion of the 
United States Army who had been Captured in Wereth, Belgium, during the 
                Battle of the Bulge on December 17, 1944

    H. Con. Res. 43, ``Providing official recognition of the 
massacre of 11 African-American soldiers of the 333rd Field 
Artillery Battalion of the United States Army who had been 
captured in Wereth, Belgium, during the Battle of the Bulge on 
December 17, 1944'', was introduced on April 4, 2017, by 
Representative David B. McKinley and was referred to the 
Committee on Armed Services, and subsequently to the 
Subcommittee on Military Personnel. On November 1, 2017, 
Representative Austin Scott asked unanimous consent that the 
Committee on Armed Services be discharged from further 
consideration of the resolution and for its immediate 
consideration in the House. There was no objection to the 
request, and H. Con. Res. 43 was agreed to in the House by 
unanimous consent. On November 2, 2017, H. Con. Res. 43 was 
received in the Senate and referred to the Senate Committee on 
Armed Services. No further action has been taken on H. Con. 
Res. 43.

H. RES. 994--Expressing the Sense of the House of Representatives that 
 the United States Marine Corps Faces Significant Readiness Challenges 
   and that Budgetary Uncertainty Impedes the Corps' Ability to Meet 
Ongoing and Unexpected National Security Threats, Putting United States 
                       National Security at Risk

    H. Res. 994, ``Expressing the sense of the House of 
Representatives that the United States Marine Corps faces 
significant readiness challenges and that budgetary uncertainty 
impedes the Corps' ability to meet ongoing and unexpected 
national security threats, putting United States national 
security at risk'', was introduced on July 16, 2018, by 
Representative Mike Gallagher and was referred to the Committee 
on Armed Services. The Committee on Armed Services waived 
consideration of H. Res. 994, and on July 17, 2018, 
Representative Liz Cheney moved to consider H. Res. 994, as 
introduced, under suspension of the rules of the House. The 
motion to suspend the rules and agree to the resolution was 
agreed to by voice vote in the House on July 17, 2018.

H. RES. 995--Expressing the Sense of the House of Representatives that 
 the Nation Now Faces a More Complex and Grave Set of Threats than at 
 Any Time since the End of World War II, and that the Lack of Full, On-
    time Funding Related to Defense Activities Puts Servicemen and 
Servicewomen at Risk, Harms National Security, and Aids the Adversaries 
                          of the United States

    H. Res. 995, ``Expressing the sense of the House of 
Representatives that the Nation now faces a more complex and 
grave set of threats than at any time since the end of World 
War II, and that the lack of full, on-time funding related to 
defense activities puts servicemen and servicewomen at risk, 
harms national security, and aids the adversaries of the United 
States'', was introduced on July 16, 2018, by Representative 
Liz Cheney and was referred to the Committee on Armed Services. 
The committee waived consideration of H. Res. 995, and on July 
17, 2018, Representative Cheney moved to consider H. Res. 995, 
as introduced, under suspension of the rules of the House. The 
motion to suspend the rules and agree to the resolution was 
agreed to by voice vote in the House on July 17, 2018.

H. RES. 998--Expressing the Sense of the House of Representatives that 
 the United States Navy's Total Readiness Remains in a Perilous State 
    due to High Operational Demands, Increased Deployment Lengths, 
Shortened Training Periods, and Deferred Maintenance all While the Navy 
  is Asked to ``Do More with Less'' as Financial Support for Critical 
    Areas Waned in the Era of Sequestration and Without Consistent 
                         Congressional Funding

    H. Res. 998, ``Expressing the sense of the House of 
Representatives that the United States Navy's total readiness 
remains in a perilous state due to high operational demands, 
increased deployment lengths, shortened training periods, and 
deferred maintenance all while the Navy is asked to ``do more 
with less'' as financial support for critical areas waned in 
the era of sequestration and without consistent Congressional 
funding'', was introduced on July 16, 2018, by Representative 
Robert J. Wittman and was referred to the Committee on Armed 
Services. The committee waived consideration of H. Res. 998, 
and on July 17, 2018, Representative Liz Cheney moved to 
consider H. Res. 998, as introduced, under suspension of the 
rules of the House. The motion to suspend the rules and agree 
to the resolution was agreed to by voice vote in the House on 
July 17, 2018.

H. RES. 1007--Expressing the Sense of the House of Representatives that 
 not Fully Resourcing the United States Army in a Timely Manner Erodes 
 the Army's Ability to Maintain Readiness and Poses Risk to the Army's 
                 Ability to Conduct Military Operations

    H. Res. 1007, ``Expressing the sense of the House of 
Representatives that not fully resourcing the United States 
Army in a timely manner erodes the Army's ability to maintain 
readiness and poses risk to the Army's ability to conduct 
military operations'', was introduced on July 23, 2018, by 
Representative Steve Russell and was referred to the Committee 
on Armed Services. The committee waived consideration of H. 
Res. 1007, and on July 25, 2018, Representative Liz Cheney 
moved to consider H. Res. 1007, as introduced, under suspension 
of the rules of the House. The motion to suspend the rules and 
agree to the resolution was agreed to by voice vote in the 
House on July 25, 2018.

H. RES. 1009--Expressing the Sense of the House of Representatives that 
the Lack of Timely and Predictable Funding Unnecessarily Undermines the 
Mission of the United States Special Operations Command and Jeopardizes 
                   the Security of the United States

    H. Res. 1009, ``Expressing the sense of the House of 
Representatives that the lack of timely and predictable funding 
unnecessarily undermines the mission of the United States 
Special Operations Command and jeopardizes the security of the 
United States'', was introduced on July 23, 2018, by 
Representative Richard Hudson and was referred to the Committee 
on Armed Services. The committee waived consideration of H. 
Res. 1009, and on July 25, 2018, Representative Liz Cheney 
moved to consider H. Res. 1009, as introduced, under suspension 
of the rules of the House. The motion to suspend the rules and 
agree to the resolution was agreed to by voice vote in the 
House on July 25, 2018.

H. RES. 1010--Expressing the Sense of the House of Representatives that 
the United States Air Force faces Significant Readiness Challenges due 
  to Insufficient Personnel Levels, a Shrinking and Depleted Aircraft 
    Fleet, and Maintenance Deferrals, All of which are Affected by 
   Budgetary Uncertainty and Impede the Air Force's Ability to Meet 
Ongoing and Unexpected National Security Threats, Putting United States 
                       National Security at Risk

    H. Res. 1010, ``Expressing the sense of the House of 
Representatives that the United States Air Force faces 
significant readiness challenges due to insufficient personnel 
levels, a shrinking and depleted aircraft fleet, and 
maintenance deferrals, all of which are affected by budgetary 
uncertainty and impede the Air Force's ability to meet ongoing 
and unexpected national security threats, putting United States 
national security at risk'', was introduced on July 23, 2018, 
by Representative Jodey C. Arrington and was referred to the 
Committee on Armed Services. The committee waived consideration 
of H. Res. 1010, and on July 25, 2018, Representative Liz 
Cheney moved to consider H. Res. 1010, as introduced, under 
suspension of the rules of the House. The motion to suspend the 
rules and agree to the resolution was agreed to by voice vote 
in the House on July 25, 2018.

        LEGISLATION REPORTED BY THE COMMITTEE ON ARMED SERVICES


     H.R. 393--To Provide for an Exception to a Limitation Against 
 Appointment of Persons as Secretary of Defense within Seven Years of 
Relief from Active Duty as a Regular Commissioned Officer of the Armed 
                                 Forces

    H.R. 393, ``To provide for an exception to a limitation 
against appointment of persons as Secretary of Defense within 
seven years of relief from active duty as a regular 
commissioned officer of the Armed Forces'', was introduced on 
January 10, 2017, by Chairman William M. ``Mac'' Thornberry and 
was referred to the Committee on Armed Services.
    On January 12, 2017, the Committee on Armed Services held a 
markup session to consider H.R. 393. No amendments were offered 
to the bill. The committee ordered the bill H.R. 393 favorably 
reported to the House of Representatives by a recorded vote of 
34-28, a quorum being present. On February 16, 2017, H.R. 393 
was placed on the Union Calendar, Calendar No. 1. No further 
action was taken on H.R. 393.
    For further action on similar legislation, please see 
Public Law 115-2.

                          OVERSIGHT ACTIVITIES

                                OVERVIEW

    Pursuant to clause 1(d) of rule XI of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives, described below are actions taken and 
recommendations made with respect to specific areas and 
subjects that were identified in the oversight plan for special 
attention during the 115th Congress, as well as additional 
oversight activities not explicitly enumerated by the oversight 
plan.

                             POLICY ISSUES

  National Defense Strategy, National Military Strategy, and Related 
                         Defense Policy Issues

    During the 115th Congress, the committee continued its 
focus on the readiness, capability, and capacity of the U.S. 
Armed Forces to defend national interests, on supporting the 
authorities and resources necessary for ongoing military 
operations, and on improving the agility and efficiency of the 
Department of Defense. The committee fulfilled its 
constitutional responsibilities primarily through the National 
Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 (Public Law 115-
91) and the John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act 
for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232).
    The committee recognizes that threats to national security 
are ever changing. As characterized by the National Defense 
Strategy published in January 2018, the threat environment is 
``more complex and volatile than any we have experienced in 
recent memory''. The threat of terrorism, whether by the 
Islamic State in Iraq and Syria or emergent groups, will 
continue. In addition, the United States must not only defend 
her interests on land, sea, and air, but also in the 
continually contested new operational domains of cyber and 
space, adding complexity to all operations. Further, 
instability in the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, regional 
aggression by the Russian Federation, destabilizing actions by 
the People's Republic of China in the South and East China Seas 
and elsewhere, developments in nuclear and missile capabilities 
by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the Islamic 
Republic of Iran, and the continued spread of lethal and 
disruptive technologies will continue to threaten U.S. national 
security interests. These events and other security 
developments across the globe also serve to highlight the 
continued need for the U.S. military to be postured and ready 
to defend national interests and address security challenges, 
wherever and whenever they may arise.
    The committee reviewed both the new National Security 
Strategy and National Defense Strategy, submitted as required 
by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017 
(Public Law 114-328). The National Defense Strategy asserts 
that the ``central challenge to U.S. prosperity and security is 
the reemergence of long-term, strategic completion . . . by 
revisionist powers'', particularly Russia and China. The 
committee agrees with that assessment and reviewed the ability 
of the Department to execute this strategy during the Second 
Session of the 115th Congress. The committee reviewed the 
adequacy of the force structure, readiness of the force, 
supporting installation infrastructure, industrial base 
concerns, and resources to support the strategy. The committee 
evaluated the Department's plans for readiness recovery under 
the increased funding provided by the Bipartisan Budget Act of 
2018 (Public Law 115-123) and the risks associated with 
executing the National Defense Strategy with such funding. The 
committee sought to understand the impacts of repeated 
continuing resolutions on defense programs and readiness, as 
well as the Department's ability to execute the National 
Defense Strategy if funding substantially beyond limits imposed 
by the Budget Control Act of 2011 (Public Law 112-25) is not 
sustained.
    The committee continued its oversight of: ongoing military 
operations where U.S. forces are in harm's way, including 
ongoing global counterterrorism operations; strategic 
reassurance and deterrence activities in Europe and the Indo-
Asia-Pacific; and Department of Defense investments in 
readiness, capabilities, and infrastructure to ensure the U.S. 
Armed Forces remain capable of addressing current and emerging 
conventional and unconventional challenges. The committee 
accomplished this oversight through the conduct of hearings and 
briefings; engagements with defense leaders, military 
commanders, diplomats, academics, and private sector experts; 
and congressional delegation visits to military installations 
and U.S. forces serving abroad.

                   Readiness and Posture of the Force

    The committee believes that, as a matter of principle, the 
military should be fully ready, trained, and equipped for the 
missions it is asked to do. These missions range from 
conducting counterterrorism and low intensity operations across 
the globe to possessing a credible conventional and nuclear 
deterrent against near-peer challengers. According to the 
January 2018 National Defense Strategy, the United States must 
achieve 11 objectives, including defending the homeland from 
attack; deterring adversaries from aggression against our vital 
interests; and ensuring common domains remain open and common. 
To attain these objectives, a robust, ready Joint Force is 
necessary. Indeed, the Department states its first line of 
effort is ``rebuilding military readiness as we build a more 
lethal Joint Force''.
    During the 115th Congress, the committee conducted a 
variety of oversight activities to assess the military 
services' progress in achieving full spectrum military 
readiness. These activities included hearings, classified 
briefings, individual discussions with the military service 
chiefs, and travel to military training events. In addition, 
the committee included several provisions in the John S. McCain 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public 
Law 115-232) to improve readiness and readiness reporting. 
Those provisions will improve oversight of full spectrum 
readiness through all warfighting domains, including space and 
cyber, and will provide for an independent assessment by the 
Comptroller General of the United States. Particular attention 
was provided to the readiness of Forward Deployed Naval Forces 
following 2 collisions that killed 17 sailors in 2017, and the 
Navy surface fleet in general. Military aviation readiness was 
also the subject of several hearings, as aviation readiness 
showed little improvement and mishap rates increased. In 
general, the committee found some improvement in full spectrum 
readiness in the ground forces, with the naval and air forces 
lagging.

                           Russian Federation

    The revanchist Russian Federation continues to maintain an 
aggressive global influence campaign, particularly evident in 
Ukraine and the Syrian Arab Republic. Russian military activity 
and its employment of unconventional and conventional tactics, 
particularly in Central and Eastern Europe and in Syria, were 
primary areas of concern for the committee in the 115th 
Congress. After 15 years of focus on counterterrorism 
operations in the greater Middle East, the committee recognizes 
that a greater emphasis on addressing near-peer capabilities 
and deterrence is necessary. The committee's oversight has 
concentrated on the U.S. military capabilities, capacity, 
posture, and readiness needed to effectively counter and deter 
Russia.
    The Department of Defense's European Deterrence Initiative, 
and the resources associated with it, was a significant area of 
oversight for the committee. The committee sought to ensure 
that the increased resources were being effectively applied. 
The committee also maintained oversight of Department of 
Defense resources and tools allocated to ensure our force 
posture in Europe is appropriate and continued work on building 
the capacity of Ukraine and other NATO allies and partners to 
deter and defend against Russian aggression.
    During the 115th Congress, the committee received several 
intelligence briefings on Russia's military modernization 
programs, its combat actions and objectives in Syria, Russia's 
global influence operations, including those aimed at 
disrupting elections, democratic institutions, and military 
partnerships and alliances, as well as its ongoing aggression 
in Ukraine. The committee held a hearing on March 22, 2017, 
with outside experts discussing other nations' use of hybrid 
warfare including Russia entitled ``The Evolution of Hybrid 
Warfare and Key Challenges''. On March 28, 2017, the Commander 
of U.S. European Command, General Curtis ``Mike'' Scaparrotti, 
testified to inform the committee on the fiscal year 2018 
budget request as it relates to the European theater's 
priorities and missions. On March 15, 2018, the Commander of 
U.S. European Command, General Scaparrotti again testified to 
inform the committee on the fiscal year 2019 budget request as 
it relates to the European theater including missions, 
resources, threats, and authorization for the European 
Deterrence Initiative.
    The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 
(Public Law 115-91) contained several provisions to bolster the 
deterrence and defense capabilities of the United States and 
its allies and partners in Europe, to include authorizing $4.65 
billion for the European Deterrence Initiative, $350.0 million 
for security assistance, lethal defensive equipment, and 
training to Ukrainian forces, and additional types of training 
for Eastern European partners. Further, Public Law 115-91 
directed the Department of Defense, in coordination with 
relevant departments and agencies, to develop and implement 
comprehensive strategies to counter threats and malign 
influence by the Russian Federation. Public Law 115-91 
prohibits funding related to the use of Open Skies overflights 
and includes authorization for $50.0 million to combat Russia's 
violations of the Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty. Public 
Law 115-91 also limited military cooperation between the United 
States and Russia, prohibits funds for activities recognizing 
the sovereignty of the Russian Federation over Crimea, required 
the Department to examine U.S. troop requirements and the 
posturing of defense materiel in Europe, provided $100.0 
million in aid for joint-defense capabilities to the Baltic 
nations of the Republic of Lithuania, the Republic of Latvia, 
and the Republic of Estonia, and required a 5-year strategy for 
the European Deterrence Initiative.
    The John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for 
Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) contained several 
provisions to increase deterrence measures, defense 
capabilities, and reassure U.S. partners and allies in Europe 
including authorizing $6.3 billion for the European Deterrence 
Initiative, $250.0 million for security assistance, lethal 
defensive equipment, and training to Ukrainian forces, and 
additional types of training for Eastern European partners and 
allies. Further, Public Law 115-232 limited military 
cooperation between the United States and Russia, prohibits 
funds for activities for recognizing the sovereignty of the 
Russian Federation over Crimea, directed the Department of 
Defense to report to Congress on the stationing of U.S. troops 
in the Republic of Poland, labeled Russia a violator of the 
Chemical Weapons Convention, requested an assessment from the 
Secretary of Defense of the U.S. armed forces operational 
capacity in the Russian language, and expressed a sense of 
Congress on the importance of U.S partners and allies in 
deterring Russian aggression. In addition, Public Law 115-232 
directed the President to designate a member of the National 
Security Council to coordinate the U.S. response to malign 
foreign influence operations and campaigns and to submit to 
Congress a strategy to counter malign foreign influence 
operations and campaigns.

                       People's Republic of China

    The People's Republic of China continues its efforts to 
assert regional and global influence; to acquire advanced 
technology to advance its security interests; and to modernize 
its military in various areas, including the development of 
capabilities for anti-access and area denial and power 
projection, and nuclear, space, and cyber capabilities. The 
current National Defense Strategy designates China as a 
strategic competitor and as a priority for the Department of 
Defense, and the committee's oversight focused on the 
Department's strategy, force posture, forward pre-positioning, 
infrastructure realignments, training and exercises, and 
security cooperation programs to ensure that U.S. forces are 
properly resourced and postured to protect U.S. national 
security interests against China and are prepared to keep pace 
to protect U.S. national security interests.
    During the 115th Congress, the committee received several 
member and staff intelligence briefings on China from the 
intelligence community and the Department of Defense. The 
committee held several hearings with outside experts including, 
``China's Pursuit of Emerging and Exponential Technologies'', 
``Strategic Competition with China'', and ``The Evolution of 
Hybrid Warfare and Key Challenges''. The committee held 
hearings and briefings in 2017 and 2018 with the Commander of 
U.S. Pacific Command, Admiral Harry Harris, to inform its 
deliberations on the National Defense Authorization Act for 
Fiscal Year 2018 (Public Law 115-91) and the John S. McCain 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public 
Law 115-232) concerning China and Indo-Pacific issues. The 
committee also engaged with defense and economic experts from 
the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission 
regarding their annual report to Congress.
    Public Law 115-91 and Public Law 115-232 contained several 
provisions regarding China and the Indo-Pacific region, 
requiring a strategy on China and the Indo-Pacific region, an 
assessment on the U.S. defense implications of China's 
expanding global access, and highlighting and condemning 
China's actions in the South China Sea. Public Law 115-91 and 
Public Law 115-232 also strengthened key partnerships and 
allies, including support for Taiwan's defense capabilities and 
U.S.-Taiwan senior-level engagement, joint training, military 
sales, and security cooperation.
    Additionally, Public Law 115-232 highlighted U.S. concerns 
regarding China's actions to acquire access to sensitive U.S. 
defense systems and technology. It revised foreign investment 
and export controls, specifically the number and types of 
transactions reviewed by the Committee on Foreign Investment in 
the United States. Public Law 115-232 also prohibited the 
Federal Government from using or procuring certain 
telecommunications services or equipment of components that are 
manufactured by an entity controlled by the Chinese government 
or contracting with an entity that does, including Huawei 
Technologies or ZTE; required the Secretary of Defense to 
implement an initiative to work with academic institutions that 
perform defense research to limit undue influence and protect 
information about critical technologies, including through 
foreign talent programs; prohibited the use of Department of 
Defense funds to be used for Chinese language instruction 
provided by a Confucius Institute; prohibited the Department of 
Defense's acquisition of sensitive materials from China; and 
directed the President and the Department of Defense to counter 
influence operations.

                 Democratic People's Republic of Korea

    The Democratic People's Republic of Korea remains a threat 
to stability on the Korean peninsula and to the United States. 
North Korea has advanced its nuclear and ballistic missile 
capabilities, to include the firing of a submarine-launched 
ballistic missile, taking steps towards fielding its road-
mobile intercontinental ballistic missile, and expanding its 
asymmetric capabilities. According to the National Defense 
Strategy, North Korea seeks a mixture of nuclear, biological, 
chemical, conventional, and unconventional weapons and a 
growing ballistic missile capability. The committee monitored 
and oversaw the Department of Defense's strategy, force 
posture, capability needs, and readiness, to ensure that U.S. 
forces are properly resourced and postured to protect U.S. 
national security interests, particularly against North Korea.
    During the 115th Congress, the committee received several 
member and staff briefings on North Korea from the intelligence 
community and the Department of Defense. The committee held 
several hearings on countering weapons of mass destruction and 
on issues related to cyber warfare, service readiness, and 
missile defense and nuclear forces, and held a classified 
briefing with the Commander, United States Forces of Korea, 
General Vincent Brooks, on the security situation on the Korean 
Peninsula. The committee also held hearings and briefings in 
2017 and 2018 with the Commander, U.S. Pacific Command, Admiral 
Harry Harris, to inform its deliberations on the National 
Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 (Public Law 115-
91) and the John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act 
for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232), on North Korea and 
Indo-Pacific issues. Additionally, the committee led several 
congressional member and staff delegations to the Republic of 
Korea and Japan.
    Public Law 115-91 and Public Law 115-232 contained 
provisions that required a strategy on North Korea from the 
President and directed the Department of Defense, in 
coordination with other agencies, to report on the status of 
North Korea's nuclear, missile, and other weapons of mass 
destruction. It reaffirmed our security commitments to the 
Governments of Japan and South Korea and that the United States 
stands behind its treaty obligations and extended deterrence 
commitments. Public Law 115-232 also prohibited the use of 
Department of Defense funds to reduce the number of Armed 
Forces deployed to South Korea below 22,000 unless the 
Secretary of Defense certifies that it is in the national 
security interest of the United States, the reduction will not 
significantly undermine the security of U.S. allies, and that 
allies have been appropriately consulted. Public Law 115-91 and 
Public Law 115-232 strengthened U.S. military capability to 
ensure U.S. forces are ready to defend themselves and U.S. 
allies on the Korean peninsula and bolstered the Department of 
Defense's efforts to plan for and provide the necessary forces, 
military infrastructure, basing, logistics, and missile defense 
capabilities.

                                  Iran

    The committee conducted oversight of U.S. national security 
policy and strategy with respect to the Government of the 
Islamic Republic of Iran, placing emphasis on Iran's 
destabilizing activities in the Middle East region. The 
committee also monitored the threat posed by Iran's ballistic 
missile capabilities and its nuclear ambition. Additionally, 
the committee continued to monitor the capabilities and 
intentions of the Iranian Revolutionary Guards Corps. The 
committee focused on Iran's military activities in the Syrian 
Arab Republic, the Republic of Iraq, and the Republic of Yemen.
    The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 
(Public Law 115-91) took steps to review U.S. military posture 
within the Arabian Gulf region and increase understanding of 
Iran's use of commercial entities for illicit military 
activities.
    The John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for 
Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) called on the Department 
of Defense to develop a strategy to counter Iran through 
bolstering bilateral and multilateral relationships in the 
Middle East region. Public Law 115-232 also modified the Annual 
Report on the Military Power of Iran to include consideration 
of Iranian support to the Houthis and cooperation with the 
Russian Federation. Public Law 115-232 also extended the 
authorization for the Counter-Islamic State in Iraq and Syria 
(ISIS) train and equip fund to assist the Iraqi security forces 
and central government maintain pressure against ISIS.

 Countering Terrorism, At-Risk and Failing States, Countering Violent 
                   Extremism and Illicit Trafficking

    Since the September 11, 2001 attacks, countering the threat 
posed by terrorist groups has been a central mission of the 
Department of Defense. U.S. Armed Forces are currently deployed 
to the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, the Republic of Iraq, 
the Syrian Arab Republic, the Republic of Yemen, the Horn of 
Africa, and elsewhere around the globe to maintain pressure on 
groups that threaten U.S. interests and such deployments will 
remain a priority for the Department.
    The committee conducted extensive oversight on threat 
prioritization and counterterrorism policy, strategy, and 
operations. In conjunction with the National Defense Strategy 
released in January 2018, the committee focused on posture, 
special operations forces capabilities and readiness, the roles 
of allies and partners, and intelligence issues relevant to 
counterterrorism to ensure U.S. resourcing is commensurate to 
the threat posed by such groups. The committee recognized that 
a whole-of-government approach is necessary to counter the 
threat posed by terrorist groups. As such, the committee 
examined the role of the Department of Defense and how it works 
with other U.S. departments and agencies to achieve 
counterterrorism goals.
    The committee also recognized that terrorist groups 
leverage at-risk and failing states to expand their presence, 
conduct operational planning, and serve as launch points for 
attacks against the United States and its allies and partners. 
The committee also focused on improving efforts to build 
partner nation capabilities to counter terrorism at home. 
Improving the capabilities of partners fighting terrorism, 
particularly in places like Iraq, Yemen, Afghanistan and the 
Federal Republic of Somalia, has been a priority for the 
committee.
Operation Freedom's Sentinel
    The committee conducted robust oversight of the U.S. 
military effort in the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, 
concentrating on the two primary U.S. military missions 
associated with Operation Freedom's Sentinel (OFS): conducting 
counterterrorism operations against al-Qaida and other 
terrorist groups that threaten U.S. interests; and training, 
advising, and assisting the Afghan National Defense and 
Security Forces (ANDSF). Through hearings and intelligence 
briefings, the committee assessed the authorities, resources, 
equipment, basing, and personnel to support the OFS missions 
and policy objectives, including under the new South Asia 
strategy. Additionally, the committee examined the regional 
security environment, and the efforts by the Government of 
Afghanistan and the Government of the Islamic Republic of 
Pakistan to deny safe havens to al-Qaida, the Haqqani Network, 
and other jihadist organizations.
    The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 
(Public Law 115-91) and the John S. McCain National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) 
authorized the Afghan Security Forces Fund to support the 
ANDSF, including the Afghan Air Force and the Afghan Special 
Operations Forces. The committee will continue to monitor 
critical efforts in Afghanistan, such as the effectiveness of 
the ANDSF and its ability to sustain operations and 
institutional requirements.
Islamic Republic of Pakistan
    The committee recognizes that Pakistan is an important, 
albeit imperfect, counterterrorism partner to the United 
States. The committee continued to conduct oversight on the 
broad range of security issues involving the Islamic Republic 
of Pakistan, including the security of Pakistan's nuclear 
weapons, Pakistan's on-going and future nuclear weapon 
projects, and its willingness and operational capacity to 
combat key terrorist groups, such as al-Qaida, the Afghan and 
Pakistan Taliban, the Haqqani Network, and other terrorist 
organizations. Moreover, the committee evaluated the terrorist 
activity emanating from the border area between Pakistan and 
Afghanistan and conducted oversight of the Department of 
Defense's efforts to combat the threat.
    In the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 
2018 (Public Law 115-91), the committee took steps to update 
the Coalition Support Fund (CSF). Specifically, CSF was revised 
downward such that only $700.0 million ($350.0 million under a 
waiver) was authorized to reimburse Pakistan's investment in 
counterterrorism efforts. The John S. McCain National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) 
further revised the CSF such that Pakistan will no longer be 
eligible for reimbursement under the fund. Public Law 115-232, 
however, expanded the Border Security Fund to make Pakistan 
eligible for reimbursements on counterterrorism-related border 
projects. The committee will continue to scrutinize 
reimbursements to Pakistan in accordance with the law.
    The committee also held a hearing on the Administration's 
new South Asia Strategy that included a new approach to the 
bilateral relationship with Pakistan.
Operation Inherent Resolve
    The United States and coalition forces have been successful 
in liberating nearly all of the territory held by the Islamic 
State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS), but these forces continue to 
work with partners to conduct stability operations against ISIS 
to maintain security and to invest in long-term stability in 
the region. During the 115th Congress, U.S. and coalition 
operations conducted an air campaign that was focused against 
ISIS in the Republic of Iraq and the Syrian Arab Republic; 
training, equipping, advising, and assisting of Iraqi Security 
Forces and partnered forces on the ground in Syria; and force 
protection of U.S. forces and facilities deployed. Through 
classified briefings and an open hearing, the committee focused 
its oversight activity on ensuring the Department had the 
appropriate authorities, resources, equipment, basing, and 
personnel to support the defeat of ISIS.
    In conjunction with the National Defense Strategy, the 
committee also examined the presence and influence exerted by 
other states in Syria, particularly the Russian Federation, the 
Islamic Republic of Iran, and the Republic of Turkey. Finally, 
through the National Defense Authorization Act for 2018 (Public 
Law 115-91) and the John S. McCain National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) the 
committee provided authorization and full funding for the Iraq 
Train and Equip Fund, the Syria Train and Equip Fund, and 
extended the authorization for the Office of Security 
Cooperation. Public Law 115-91 and Public Law 115-232 also 
required the Department of Defense to draft and submit a 
strategy for U.S. involvement in Syria and a strategy to 
normalize U.S. security assistance programming in Iraq.
Republic of Yemen
    The security situation in the Republic of Yemen, including 
counterterrorism objectives and the Yemeni civil war, was a 
significant focus for the committee. The committee maintained 
its oversight of the U.S. military's counterterrorism 
activities in Yemen, U.S. support to the Kingdom of Saudi 
Arabia and the United Arab Emirates in Yemen, and the status of 
the Saudi-led coalition efforts to counter the Houthi militia.
    The committee also monitored the capability and intent of 
Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) to conduct 
transnational terrorist attacks and associated U.S. 
counterterrorism efforts against AQAP. The committee held 
numerous briefings on Yemen and engaged with allies and 
partners in the region to better understand anti-Houthi effort 
in Yemen. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal 
Year 2018 (Public Law 115-91) required the Department of 
Defense to submit a report on Saudi Arabia's military action in 
Yemen and to detail Saudi Arabia's compliance with 
international law and human rights standards. Separately, the 
committee required the President to submit a comprehensive 
military and diplomatic strategy for Yemen.
    In the John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act 
for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) the committee 
required the Secretary of State to certify that Saudi Arabia 
and the United Arab Emirates are making a good faith effort to 
resolve the conflict through diplomatic channels, are 
contributing to and facilitating access for humanitarian 
assistance missions in Yemen, and are working toward reducing 
civilian casualties or to grant a waiver if the Secretary deems 
it to be in the national security interest of the United 
States. Public Law 115-232 also expanded a border security 
authority such that the Department of Defense may reimburse the 
Sultanate of Oman for projects intended to shore up the Omani 
border against AQAP.
Africa
    The committee maintained its oversight of Department of 
Defense activities in Africa during the 115th Congress. 
Additionally, the committee continued to examine the 
Department's coordination within the interagency to ensure the 
range of the Department's activities occurring in Africa 
contributed to U.S. national security objectives. As the 
Department's efforts to train and equip African partners to 
provide regional security continue, the committee increased its 
focus on the Department's execution of the programs, the 
development of defense institutions in African nations, and the 
ability of African partner nations to absorb and sustain the 
assistance provided. The committee paid particular attention to 
the effect that security cooperation reform measures adopted in 
the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017 
(Public Law 114-328) have on the Department's programs and 
activities in Africa. Further, the committee continued to 
monitor the Department's efforts, in coordination with other 
U.S. Government agencies, to develop the security conditions 
necessary to advance governance and stability on the continent.
    The committee continued to express its concern about the 
ability of the Department of Defense to respond to crises on 
the continent of Africa. In the committee report (H. Rept. 115-
676) accompanying the National Defense Authorization Act for 
Fiscal Year 2019, the committee noted that personnel recovery 
and casualty evacuation are critical enablers to U.S. Africa 
Command's (AFRICOM) conduct of operations. Additionally, the 
committee noted that international partners such as the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the French 
Republic, Japan, and the United Arab Emirates, plus 
multinational organizations such as the European Union and 
African Union, and many others, conduct programs to build 
partner capacity in Africa, and that U.S. programs may be 
duplicative or in conflict with international partners' 
activities, or that gaps in capabilities may exist. The 
committee therefore directed the Department to provide a 
briefing on the steps being taken to coordinate security 
cooperation activities in Africa with international partners.
    On February 15 and 16, 2017, the committee received a 
classified briefing entitled ``Trends in Global Terrorism'' and 
held an open hearing entitled ``The Evolving Threat of 
Terrorism and Effective CT Strategies'', which both addressed 
threats in Africa. Committee members received an update from 
General Thomas D. Waldhauser, the Commander, U.S. Africa 
Command, at a closed roundtable on March 30, 2017. In the 
committee report (H. Rept. 115-200) accompanying the National 
Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, the committee 
noted its concern about the ability of the Department of 
Defense to provide rapid response to crises in Africa. The 
Department provided a staff-level briefing on the issue on 
December 13, 2017. On March 6, 2018, the committee held a 
hearing entitled ``National Security Challenges and U.S. 
Military Activities in Africa'', followed by a closed, 
classified briefing, with General Waldhauser. The committee 
conducted member and staff travel to Africa and to AFRICOM 
headquarters in Germany and England to gain additional insight 
into issues related to security on the continent. Additionally, 
the committee received numerous staff-level briefings on 
security threats and other developments across the continent.
    In North Africa, the committee continued to conduct 
oversight of outside influences in the region and the evolving 
security situation caused primarily by the tenuous political 
environment in the State of Libya and the effect of Al Qaeda in 
the Islamic Maghreb, the Islamic State, and other jihadist 
groups in this region. The committee paid particular attention 
to the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria's (ISIS) presence in the 
region. In H. Rept. 115-676, the committee noted the importance 
of the Trans-Saharan Counterterrorism Partnership (TSCTP), and 
directed the Department of Defense to provide a briefing on the 
TSCTP, including any activities or partner engagement related 
to military, counter-terrorism, and law-enforcement capacity-
building, as well as public diplomacy and information 
operations.
    In East Africa, the committee continued its oversight of 
the Department's efforts to counter threats and to prevent 
transnational attacks on the United States, its allies and 
partners, or its interests. In particular, the committee 
remained focused on the security situation in the Federal 
Republic of Somalia, U.S. support to African Union in Somalia 
(AMISOM) forces, inter-agency coordination, and the development 
of Somali forces to provide for Somalia's security. Moreover, 
the committee continued to monitor the ideological, strategic, 
and operational coordination and conflict between Horn of 
Africa groups, such as Al Shabaab, and other terrorist 
organizations. In March 2018, Chairman William M. ``Mac'' 
Thornberry visited the region to conduct oversight of 
Department of Defense activities. The National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 (Public Law 115-91) 
specifically required the President to provide a strategy to 
achieve long-term security and stability in Somalia. The 
committee remains concerned about the ability of the Combined 
Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa's (CJTF-HOA) ability to execute 
assigned missions and taskings. In H. Rept. 115-676, the 
committee directed the Department to monitor and evaluate the 
impact of CJTF-HOA's activities to counter violent extremism in 
Africa and provide a report to Congress. Additionally, in the 
conference report (H. Rept. 115-874) accompanying the John S. 
McCain National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019, 
the conferees directed the Department to provide a briefing on 
the Chinese military installation in the Republic of Djibouti.
    In West Africa, the committee continued its oversight of 
the Department's efforts to counter threats throughout the 
region. In particular, the committee focused on threats 
emanating from the Republic of Mali and in the Lake Chad Basin 
region. Following the October 4, 2017, attack resulting in the 
death of four American soldiers, the committee received an 
update on military operations in Niger, and received a 
classified briefing from Department of Defense officials on May 
7, 2018, entitled ``Investigation of the October 4, 2017 Attack 
in Niger.'' The John S. McCain National Defense Authorization 
Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) required the 
Department to submit a report on its missions, operations, and 
activities in Niger. The committee also paid attention to the 
continuing ideological, strategic, and operational evolution of 
organizations such as Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, Boko 
Haram, and the Islamic State West Africa Province, and also 
explored the geographic overlap and operational interaction 
with other terrorist groups on the continent. Public Law 115-91 
specifically required the President to provide a strategy to 
improve defense institutions and security sector forces in 
Nigeria.
    In Central Africa, the committee conducted oversight of the 
Department of Defense's activities to transition its support of 
the Uganda Peoples' Defense Force and other national militaries 
to counter the Lord's Resistance Army and apprehend or remove 
Joseph Kony.
Central and South America
    The committee continued to oversee the programs and 
policies of the Department of Defense related to Central and 
South America. In particular, the committee maintained 
oversight of programs relating to the Republic of Colombia and 
the Northern Triangle of Central America, including the 
Republic of Honduras, the Republic of Guatemala and the 
Republic of El Salvador. The committee paid particular 
attention to how violence related to transnational organized 
crime affected security and stability in the region. The 
committee hosted discussions with U.S. military commanders and 
foreign ambassadors to better understand the regional security 
environment, the budget and priorities of U.S. Southern 
Command, and key regional developments including the 
implementation of the peace process in Colombia.
    The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 
(Public Law 115-91) included the re-authorization of Department 
of Defense counter narcotics authorities for Colombia and 
authorized additional funding for intelligence, surveillance, 
and reconnaissance and resources for U.S. Southern Command.
    The John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for 
Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) required a report on U.S. 
Government programs relating to security cooperation with and 
assistance to the United Mexican States and a report on 
Honduras, Guatemala, and El Salvador regarding narcotics 
trafficking corruption and illicit activities.

Detainee policy and related matters

    The committee continued its oversight of detainee policy, 
including detainees held at the United States Naval Station, 
Guantanamo Bay, Cuba (GTMO), as well as detainees held in areas 
of operations.
    With respect to detainees held at GTMO, the committee 
continued to monitor transfer and release policies and 
practices, as well as the application of the Military 
Commissions Act (Public Law 109-366; Public Law 111-84) that 
established the current legal framework governing the operation 
of military tribunals to try detainees for war crimes and 
codified some of the procedural rights of GTMO detainees. The 
chairwoman of the Subcommittee for Oversight and Investigation 
led a congressional delegation of nine other committee members 
to Joint Task Force-Guantanamo on April 3, 2017, to observe the 
detention operations first-hand and to be briefed on the 
detention facility's operations. The National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 (Public Law 115-91) 
extended until December 31, 2018, prohibitions on the transfer 
of GTMO detainees to the United States, the construction or 
modification of facilities in the United States to house GTMO 
detainees, and the transfer of GTMO detainees to Libya, the 
Federal Republic of Somalia, the Syrian Arab Republic, and the 
Republic of Yemen. The John S. McCain National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) 
further extended these provisions until December 31, 2019. 
Public Law 115-91 also required a new report on the feasibility 
and advisability of expanding the availability of military 
commissions proceedings that are made open to the public, and 
expressed the sense of Congress that military judges overseeing 
GTMO military commissions should consider making arrangements 
to take recorded testimony from victims and their families.
    The committee received staff-level briefings on the 
policies and practices regarding detainees held in areas of 
operations.

                              Cyberwarfare

    The committee continued to oversee the changing policy and 
authority framework to ensure that cyberwarfare capabilities 
can be executed as a standalone capability, or fully integrated 
into an operational plan in concert with other conventional 
capabilities. The committee worked to ensure that there is a 
clear understanding of rules of engagement, as well as how 
international legal frameworks, like the laws of war, apply in 
these instances. In addition to developing proper funding 
authorities that may be required for offensive operations, the 
committee oversaw interagency coordination and deconflicting 
areas of overlap. The committee increased its oversight on 
evolving deterrence concepts and the ways in which cyber may be 
changing the traditional understanding of the escalation 
ladder. The committee monitored the development of 
international norms of behavior and international regulatory 
regimes. The committee also increased oversight on clarifying 
authorities for use of cyber operations as a traditional 
military activity.

  Technology Erosion, Technological Superiority, and the Third Offset 
                                Strategy

    In the 115th Congress, the committee continued its 
examination of technology trends by nation-states and non-state 
actors, the diffusion of technology, and the impact and risk to 
U.S. superiority in key warfare domains. The committee 
recognizes that U.S. military technological superiority is no 
longer assumed, and that investments in new and advanced 
capabilities, development of new operating concepts, and 
improvements in the agility and adaptability of the Department 
of Defense, are required to maintain this superiority.
    Through its oversight at the full committee level, and 
within the Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and Capabilities, 
the committee evaluated the Department's technology initiatives 
and investments, including those within the Strategic 
Capabilities Office and the Defense Advanced Research Projects 
Agency. The publication of the National Defense Strategy 
effectively superseded the Third Offset Strategy. Further, the 
departmental reorganization required by the National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017 (Public Law 114-328) 
resulted in the Strategic Capabilities Office reporting to the 
Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, rather 
than directly to the Secretary of Defense. The committee 
remains committed to fostering innovative operational concepts 
of warfighting throughout the Department. To that end, the 
committee included section 217 in the John S. McCain National 
Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-
232) to require the Department to retain the key functions of 
the Strategic Capabilities Office in the event the office is 
terminated.
    Additionally, the committee made legislative improvements 
to the defense acquisition process and to the organization of 
the Department in both the National Defense Authorization Act 
for Fiscal Year 2018 (Public Law 115-91) and Public Law 115-232 
to get new capabilities deployed to the warfighter that better 
match the speed of technological change.

                      Addressing Emerging Threats

    Terrorism, unconventional warfare, insurgency, adversarial 
use of technology, and weapons of mass destruction 
proliferation are some of the emerging threats that challenge 
national security, and global peace and stability. These 
threats require the Department of Defense to work effectively 
and efficiently with other Federal agencies and the governments 
of other nations. The committee conducted oversight of numerous 
cross-cutting Department of Defense activities central to 
addressing these emerging and unforeseen threats, including the 
proliferation of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons, 
counterinsurgency, counterterrorism, security force assistance, 
and building partnership capacity.
    The committee focused considerable attention on how the 
Department of Defense addresses these broad threats in its 
strategic planning processes, how resources are arrayed to meet 
these threats, and how existing authorities are consistent with 
operational requirements and authorized uses of military force. 
This included oversight of various unconventional warfare and 
sensitive activities authorities and related intelligence 
activities. The committee paid particular attention to these 
areas during closed, classified briefings, as well as numerous 
congressional delegations with members and professional staff. 
The Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and Capabilities paid 
particular oversight attention to these areas given the key 
role special operations forces play in this area.

Intelligence

    In the 115th Congress, the committee examined the 
organization, functions, operations, intelligence collection, 
and analysis output of the defense intelligence community to 
ensure the highest possible quality intelligence support to the 
warfighter. The committee considered the organization and 
management of the elements of the Department of Defense that 
are part of the intelligence community and their roles in the 
defense and national intelligence enterprise. In the course of 
examining defense intelligence plans, programs and policies, 
the committee balanced current threats with the need to rebuild 
intelligence capabilities to address potential threats, reform 
the defense intelligence enterprise organization to better meet 
current and future warfighter requirements, and restore the 
decisive advantage defense intelligence provides to commanders 
and the policy community. The committee held numerous briefings 
on the departmental intelligence requirements, oversight 
processes, and resources.
    The committee coordinated, when appropriate, with the House 
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence on intelligence and 
counterintelligence matters of the Department of Defense, and 
intelligence and counterintelligence activities of the 
Department of Energy in the course of oversight of the 
intelligence community and the authorization of appropriations 
for intelligence activities shared by the two committees. The 
committee held numerous briefings on current intelligence, 
including briefings on counterintelligence operations and 
current intelligence topics such as the People's Republic of 
China, the Russian Federation, the Islamic Republic of Iran, 
and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

Security cooperation

    The committee conducted oversight of security cooperation 
and building partner capacity (BPC) programs in the 115th 
Congress. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal 
Year 2017 (Public Law 114-328) contained comprehensive reform 
of the authorities, funding, programs, and oversight of 
security cooperation. The committee monitored and evaluated the 
implementation of these security cooperation reforms, both 
during the development of guidance through the initial 
congressional notification process and while the programs were 
in progress, to ensure they were properly executed and 
consistent with national security objectives. An area of 
particular interest was the Department of Defense's adoption of 
best practices for monitoring and evaluation. The John S. 
McCain National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 
(Public Law 115-232) increased the funding for assessment, 
monitoring, and evaluation programs from $6.0 million to $12.0 
million, demonstrating the committee's continued interest in 
the proper execution of security cooperation programs.
    In Public Law 115-232, the committee required a report on 
the use of security cooperation authorities to counter malign 
influence campaigns by strategic competitors and other state 
actors that are directed at allied and partner countries and 
that pose a significant threat to the national security of the 
United States, and required the Department to conduct a legal 
and policy review of advise, assist, and accompany missions.
    The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 
(Public Law 115-91) and Public Law 115-232 continued to advance 
the reforms initiated in Public Law 114-328, including 
provisions to require the Department of Defense to update 
relevant guidance for the use of the security cooperation 
information system. Public Law 115-232 also increased the 
threshold for small-scale construction under security 
cooperation activities to $1.5 million and required additional 
notification for small-scale construction over $750,000. The 
committee will continue to conduct oversight of security 
cooperation programs and funding to ensure the Department of 
Defense appropriately institutes the reforms included in Public 
Law 114-328.
    Related to security cooperation, the committee also 
conducted oversight of the parts of the Foreign Military Sales 
(FMS) program that are executed by the Department of Defense. 
The Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations aided efforts 
to evaluate the Foreign Military Sales process. On March 9, 
2017, the subcommittee convened in closed session for a 
briefing titled ``Update on the Defense Security Cooperation 
Agency's Initiatives to Improve the Foreign Military Sales 
Process''. Subjects covered included the status of improvements 
being implemented by the Defense Security Cooperation Agency 
(DSCA) to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of foreign 
military sales. In the committee report (H. Rept. 115-676) 
accompanying the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal 
Year 2019, the committee noted concerns raised by U.S. military 
leaders, the defense industry, and foreign partners that the 
FMS process is slow, cumbersome, and overly complicated, and 
directed the Department to conduct an audit regarding 
Department of Defense implementation of FMS programs. The 
committee report also noted the committee's concern that FMS is 
not coordinated holistically across the Department to 
prioritize resources and effort in support of U.S. national 
security objectives and the defense industrial base, and 
required the Department to provide a briefing on the procedures 
instituted by the Department to integrate FMS and other 
security cooperation activities into the planning process for 
defense acquisition. The committee report further noted the 
need for the Department to support foreign partners' 
acquisition of non-standard articles. Additionally, the 
committee received numerous other staff-level briefings on the 
FMS program.

Countering unmanned aircraft systems

    The committee continued to assess the threat posed by the 
growing concern and numerous documented incidents regarding the 
nefarious and illicit use of unmanned aircraft systems against 
Department of Defense personnel, facilities, and assets at 
locations within the continental United States.
    In the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 
2018 (Public Law 115-91), the committee leveraged section 1697 
of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017 
(Public Law 114-328) which established initial Counter Unmanned 
Aircraft System (CUAS) authority for the Department in section 
130(i) of title 10, United States Code. In Public Law 115-91, 
the committee expanded which security force officials within 
the Department are authorized to employ CUAS capabilities 
(i.e., Government civilians employed with responsibility for 
providing security); bolstered Department and Federal Aviation 
Administration collaboration for National Airspace 
deconfliction and operations related to the employment of CUAS 
capabilities; integrated constitutional 4th amendment 
protections to protect the privacy of U.S. citizens; expanded 
Department of Defense mission areas by six categories in which 
the Department could deploy and employ CUAS capabilities; and 
increased congressional oversight mechanisms by requiring the 
annual submission of detailed budget justification and for 
Department officials to provide semi-annual briefings to the 
relevant committees of jurisdiction pertaining to CUAS 
authority.
    The committee continued rigorous oversight of how CUAS 
authority is implemented and executed through semi-annual 
mandated briefings with the Department of Defense and all 
relevant stakeholders. The committee continued to ensure that 
the Department's CUAS authority is sufficient, relevant, and 
appropriately scoped to defend against the growing threat that 
nefarious and illicit use of unmanned aircraft systems pose 
against Department of Defense personnel, facilities, and assets 
both at home and abroad.

             AGILITY, EFFICIENCY, AND FISCAL RESPONSIBILITY


                                Overview

    In the 115th Congress, the committee continued to emphasize 
defense reform to create greater agility, accountability, and 
responsiveness within the Department of Defense and to get more 
value for the taxpayer dollar. The committee monitored the 
implementation of the significant body of legislation contained 
in both the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 
2016 (Public Law 114-92) and the National Defense Authorization 
Act for Fiscal Year 2017 (Public Law 114-328) covering: 
acquisition; compensation and benefits (including healthcare 
and commissaries); the Uniform Code of Military Justice; and 
personnel, organization and management. This oversight resulted 
in further refinements to these reforms, contained in both the 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 (Public 
Law 115-91) and the John S. McCain National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232).
    In addition, the committee reformed the management of most 
Defense Agencies and Field Activities, known as the ``Fourth 
Estate'', primarily by empowering the Chief Management Officer 
of the Department to rationalize backroom functions of these 
agencies. The committee also made further improvements in 
defense acquisition. The Fourth Estate reforms were contained 
in Public Law 115-232 while acquisition reforms were contained 
in both Public Law 115-91 and Public Law 115-232.
    The committee conducted numerous hearings and briefings; 
engaged experts from across defense, academia, and the private 
sector; traveled to military installations, industry 
facilities, and other relevant sites; and conducted independent 
research and analysis to develop these reforms.

        Organization and Management of the Department of Defense

    As part of the committee's emphasis on defense reform, it 
continued its pursuit of improved management within the 
Department of Defense through oversight and legislative action 
in the 115th Congress, initially by monitoring the 
implementation of legislation contained in the National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016 (Public Law 114-92) 
requiring the Department to streamline its management 
headquarters and reduce headquarters activities and personnel 
and in the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 
2017 (Public Law 114-328). Public Law 114-328 required 
significant organizational changes to the Office of the 
Secretary of Defense that would elevate research and 
engineering, better focus acquisition and sustainment 
activities, and improve oversight and management of the 
Department's ``Fourth Estate.'' The committee found that 
adjustments to these organizational changes were needed and 
included them in the National Defense Authorization Act for 
Fiscal Year 2018 (Public Law 115-91). The committee made 
further adjustments in Public Law 115-91 to streamline 
bureaucracy by requiring reduction in the numbers of Assistant 
Secretaries of Defense and Deputy Assistant Secretaries of 
Defense.
    Public Law 115-91 also included provisions that would 
provide greater responsibilities to both the Chief Information 
Officer and the Chief Management Officer (CMO) of the 
Department. In addition, the John S. McCain National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) 
provided the CMO direct responsibility for managing the common 
backroom enterprises of the ``Fourth Estate'' to drive 
efficiencies in these common functions.
    Finally, the committee addressed the ever increasing 
backlog and delay in processing background investigations 
necessary for security clearances by requiring that the 
Department of Defense assume responsibility for all defense 
background investigations in Public Law 115-91. Before the 
transfer of responsibility, that function was performed by the 
Office of Personnel Management.

                   Acquisition and Regulatory Reform


Acquisition reform overview

    In the 115th Congress, the committee continued its ongoing 
effort to improve the agility of the Department of Defense 
acquisition system and the environment driving program choices 
in the Department, industry, and Congress. In undertaking this 
effort, the committee continued to solicit input from industry, 
academia, the Department, and others. During the 115th 
Congress, the committee conducted several hearings, briefings, 
and roundtable discussions to receive testimony from key 
acquisition leaders and experts, including travel to military 
installations, industry facilities, and other relevant sites. 
Committee staff traveled to industry and Government locations 
in and around Seattle, Washington, to discuss a range of 
acquisition policy issues including test and evaluation, 
workforce, industrial base, and e-commerce. Committee staff 
traveled to Boston, Massachusetts, to visit the Defense 
Innovation Unit and other innovation centers. Committee staff 
traveled to Arizona State University to discuss innovation and 
national security research and training, and to Luke Air Force 
Base, Arizona, to gain awareness of F-35 maintenance and supply 
issues.
    The committee held a hearing entitled ``Assessing Progress 
and Identifying Future Opportunities in Defense Reform'' on 
April 4, 2017. Witnesses provided their thoughts and 
perspectives on future defense reform priorities. The 
Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations assisted in 
defense reform by convening a hearing on April 6, 2017, 
entitled ``Evaluating the Defense Contract Auditing Process.'' 
Witnesses assessed various topics associated with defense 
contract auditing, including the pace and schedule of audits, 
costs, and the Defense Contract Audit Agency standards and 
processes. The committee held a hearing on May 17, 2017, to 
receive the initial report of the Section 809 Panel on 
``Streamlining and Improving Defense Acquisition.'' Witnesses 
during this hearing provided greater insights on how current 
acquisition processes and regulations could be improved.
    The committee held a hearing on March 7, 2018, with the 
three military service acquisition executives on ``Assessing 
Military Service Acquisition Reform.'' Witnesses described how 
the military services have employed the authorities recently 
enacted to streamline acquisition and increase innovation. The 
full committee held a hearing on March 20, 2018, with the 
secretaries of the military departments on ``Assessing the 
Fiscal Year 2019 Budget Request and Acquisition Reform 
Progress.'' Witnesses addressed the use by the services of the 
reforms enacted in statute to delegate additional acquisition 
authorities to the military services. The committee held a 
hearing on April 17, 2018, entitled ``Promoting the Department 
of Defense's Culture of Innovation.'' Witnesses provided 
insights into how the Department, faced with complex threats to 
the nation's security and rising peer competitors, can remain 
on the cutting edge of rapidly evolving technologies and tap 
into innovative solutions.
    The committee addressed several identified systemic 
weaknesses and sponsored other acquisition reform initiatives 
in a stand-alone reform bill, H.R. 2511, ``Defense Acquisition 
Streamlining and Transparency Act'', which contained several 
provisions ultimately enacted in the National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 (Public Law 115-91). The 
committee detailed additional measures to increase statutory 
streamlining, acquisition agility, and private sector 
participation in a discussion draft entitled ``Accelerating the 
Pace of Acquisitions Reform Act of 2018.'' Provisions from this 
draft were ultimately enacted in the John S. McCain National 
Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-
232).

Acquisition policy and issues

    The committee believes that modern procurement practices 
offer opportunities to greatly streamline the way the 
Government buys goods. The Department of Defense is statutorily 
required to conduct market research, competition, and price 
comparisons prior to purchasing products. The resultant 
processes, however, are onerous and time consuming. Even 
procuring simple products often entails market research, 
issuing requests for information, detailed requirements 
development, and evaluation of in-depth proposals. Extensive 
auditing further delays contracting, with the Defense Contract 
Audit Agency taking an average of 885 days to complete the 
incurred cost audits they finalized in fiscal year 2016.
    The committee also noted that enhanced incentives are 
needed in the planning for acquisition of major weapon systems 
and contracted services. It is widely acknowledged that the 
defense acquisition system incentivizes near-term cost, 
schedule, and performance tradeoffs. However, engineering 
decisions that reduce early program costs often result in 
higher sustainment expenses over the long term. Seeking to 
acquire broad intellectual property rights to mitigate 
sustainment costs can be cost-prohibitive and deter some of the 
most innovative contractors from bidding on defense programs. 
Not acquiring enough technical data, however, can reduce 
subsequent competition and increase sustainment costs. The 
Department is typically disadvantaged in negotiations for 
technical data, as it possesses too few people who fully 
understand intellectual property laws and often negotiates for 
technical data too late to use competition to secure better 
pricing. Similarly, requirements for contracted services often 
are specified too late, which impedes the acquisition community 
from designing cost-effective contracts before the date of 
need. Subsequent contracting reviews typically focus on 
contract actions rather than underlying requirements, which 
precludes more thorough strategic acquisition and workforce 
planning. Attempts to make cost-effective, strategic decisions 
regarding the procurement of services are limited further by a 
lack of available information. While the Department currently 
obligates more than half of its total contract obligations on 
contracted services, there is little awareness at the 
enterprise level of the services being acquired and even less 
insight into the services that may need to be acquired in the 
future.
    The committee has long supported a highly skilled and 
accountable workforce as a cornerstone of the acquisition 
system. While the Department has made substantial strides in 
increasing the size of its acquisition workforce, concerns 
remain across several key career fields. Challenges persist in 
recruiting, developing, and retaining experienced program 
managers for major defense acquisition programs. Program 
manager training focuses more on the acquisition process than 
on technical expertise, business acumen, or knowledge of 
industry operations. Program manager progression is impaired by 
a lack of clear career paths and incentives. Military program 
managers continue to fall short of tenure requirements due to 
military promotion processes. Workforce shortages and potential 
skill gaps also remain in other acquisition career fields, 
including contracting, business, and auditing--three priority 
career fields that have not met growth goals in recent years. 
The committee continues to believe that maintaining flexibility 
for the Department's utilization of the Defense Acquisition 
Workforce Development Fund would help address these shortages.
    The committee is concerned over a lack of transparency 
because the Department lags well behind the private sector in 
effectively incorporating enterprise-wide data analyses into 
decision-making and oversight. Indeed, RAND found in 2015 that 
``institutional structure and bureaucratic incentives to 
restrict data access are exacerbated by policy and guidance to 
protect information. The result is a strong conservative bias 
in labeling and a reluctance to share.'' The committee 
therefore believes that a statutory requirement that the Office 
of the Secretary of Defense, the Joint Staff, and the military 
departments be given access to business system data is 
necessary to overcome institutional and cultural barriers to 
information sharing. The committee further believes that to 
bring about this significant culture change, it is necessary to 
assign responsibility at the highest levels of the Department 
for creating and maintaining common enterprise data.
    The committee continued its work to improve various 
elements of the current acquisition system and incorporated 
several provisions in the National Defense Authorization Act 
for Fiscal Year 2018 (Public Law 115-91) and the John S. McCain 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public 
Law 115-232) aimed at addressing the above issues. Provisions 
of note in Public Law 115-91 and Public Law 115-232 include:
    (1) Use of commercial e-commerce portals: Public Law 115-91 
authorized the U.S. Government (to include the Department of 
Defense) to buy commercial-off-the-shelf-items through the same 
online marketplaces that businesses use to acquire goods. 
Marketplaces would provide a dynamic selection of products from 
numerous suppliers, ensure the Department receives competitive 
market prices for products, provide procurement oversight 
controls and near real-time transparency into items purchased, 
and enable screening of vendors and products to ensure 
compliance with suspension and debarment, domestic sourcing, 
and related statutes. The General Services Administration was 
directed to manage this program.
    (2) Commercial item procurement reform: The definition of 
commercial items throughout the United States Code has become 
inconsistent, with 40 disparate definitions. In addition, 
commercial item definitions do not appropriately take into 
account the differences between products and services. Public 
Law 115-232 separated the definition of commercial items into 
commercial products and commercial services to increase clarity 
and consistency.
    (3) Repeal of outdated and obsolete procurement statutes: 
Based on the initial report of the Section 809 Panel 
(``Streamlining and Codifying Acquisition Regulations''), 
overly restrictive regulations were identified as potential 
candidates for repeal as they often impede the Department's 
ability to acquire goods and services in an agile and efficient 
manner. Two statutes (the 20-year limitation on defense fuel 
storage contracts and the requirement to accept/dispense dollar 
coins at government business operations) were repealed in 
Public Law 115-91 and established the precedent for future 
streamlining efforts in the acquisition code.
    (4) Restructure of the United States Code: The body of law 
that establishes the acquisition code in title 10, United 
States Code, has become cumbersome and overly complex. Public 
Law 115-232 provided for a historic clarification of the 
acquisition process by restructuring the United States Code to 
logically assemble all acquisition-related statutes in one 
place for the first time since 1947. It also repealed dozens of 
additional obsolete provisions of law, prescriptive statutory 
requirements for positions and offices, and outdated reporting 
requirements.
    (5) Reform of the defense contract audit process: Two 
primary types of audits are used to ensure that the prices 
contractors charge the Government are fair and reasonable: 
forward-pricing (before the work is performed); and incurred 
cost (after the work is performed). The current Defense 
Contract Audit Agency's audits of incurred costs are slow, 
time-consuming, and often generate little value to the 
taxpayer. Public Law 115-91 raised materiality standards for 
incurred cost audits to avoid spending time and resources on 
low-value auditing and allowed acquisition officials to choose 
either the Defense Contract Audit Agency or a qualified private 
auditor to conduct incurred cost audits, which would be 
required to be completed within 1 year.
    (6) Empowerment of better decision making: The Department 
lags well behind the private sector in using enterprise-wide 
data analyses for decision-making and in sharing information 
among stakeholders to ensure effective program management and 
oversight. To move the Department forward in this area, several 
provisions were included in Public Law 115-91 to reform the 
acquisition of services and empower data-driven decisions 
through common enterprise data and increasing transparency.
    (7) Early Investments in Acquisition programs: The defense 
acquisition system incentivizes near-term cost, schedule, and 
performance tradeoffs to the detriment of long-term sustainment 
costs. However, more than 70 percent of the life-cycle costs of 
a weapon system are incurred in the operation and sustainment 
of the weapon. To alter these incentives, provisions in Public 
Law 115-91 emphasized reliability and maintainability early in 
the process, required earlier intellectual property decisions, 
and increased the focus on developmental testing.
    (8) Strengthening the Accountability and 
Professionalization of the Acquisition Workforce: A highly-
skilled and accountable workforce is a cornerstone of the 
acquisition system. While the Department has made substantial 
strides in increasing the size of its acquisition workforce, 
concerns remain across several key career fields. Public Law 
115-91 included provisions intended to improve career paths and 
incentives for civilian program managers and enhance training 
of the acquisition workforce.

                          Financial Management

    The Comptroller General of the United States has 
consistently identified the Department of Defense's financial 
management as a high-risk area since 1995. The Department's 
inability to track and account for taxpayer dollars and 
tangible assets continues to undermine its financial management 
systems. It also creates a lack of transparency that 
significantly limits congressional oversight.
    In recognition of the Department deeming itself ready for 
audit by the statutory deadline of September 30, 2017, as 
mandated by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal 
Year 2010 (Public Law 111-84), the National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 (Public Law 115-91) 
modified the reporting requirements to no longer focus on audit 
readiness. Instead, the Department must be prepared to act upon 
future audit findings. Therefore, future requirements will 
focus on the remediation of those audit findings. The 
Department is well aware that problems exist within financial 
management and is looking to the audit to determine where those 
shortfalls exist so that they may correct those internal 
processes. The committee will review the results of the 
execution of this initial Department-wide audit of full 
financial statements. These results will be provided to 
Congress no later than March 31, 2019, as mandated by the 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014 (Public 
Law 113-66).

                           Civilian Personnel

    The committee continued oversight of the Department of 
Defense's human capital program, with particular emphasis on 
Federal civilian personnel. The Department employs more Federal 
civilians than any other agency, performing disparate and 
essential missions across the globe. The committee sought 
continued authority for various workforce shaping measures, 
such as direct hire authority and personnel flexibility for 
organic industrial base and major test and range facilities.
    The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 
(Public Law 115-91) included several new authorities intended 
to address workforce gaps. These included direct hire authority 
for child care employees; business transformation and 
management innovation experts; financial management experts; 
and a pilot program to assess better ways to manage cyber 
security and legal professionals.
    Concerned about skill depletion in public shipyards and 
aviation depots and the consequent effect on readiness, the 
committee provided the Secretary of Defense expanded direct 
hire authority for these facilities in the John S. McCain 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public 
Law 115-232). Public Law 115-232 also provided direct hire 
authority for cybersecurity positions, science and engineering 
positions in major test and range facilities, and many 
positions in the acquisition workforce, as well as expanded the 
Department's direct hire authority for new graduates. These new 
authorities are temporary, expiring in 2025. Public Law 115-232 
contained several provisions streamlining civilian personnel 
management across the Federal Government, and included a 
provision that would provide the Department the authority to 
appoint up to 50 executives per year to Senior Executive 
Service positions without reference to the Office of Personnel 
Management.

                               READINESS


 Manpower Sufficient in Quantity and Quality to Meet Global Commitments

    During the 115th Congress, the committee continued to 
assess the basic question: What does the Nation need in terms 
of the quantity and quality of manpower to meet its current and 
future global military commitments and defense strategy without 
undue risk to the Nation? In this context, the fiscal year 2018 
budget request proposed to stop the reductions to the end 
strengths of the Army and the Marine Corps while increasing the 
end-strengths of the Air Force and Navy. During the second 
session of the 115th Congress, the intense oversight of the 
increased end strength requests and the quality of the accessed 
manpower continued as the President's budget request for fiscal 
year 2019 put all the military services on a path of manpower 
growth to meet the new National Defense Strategy. The committee 
expressed its concern with personnel retention and recruiting 
efforts in light of the fact that the military services remain 
fully engaged in stability operations in the Islamic Republic 
of Afghanistan, advisory and training missions in the Republic 
of Iraq, engaged with the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria and 
in numerous smaller engagements throughout the world. 
Reflecting that concern, the National Defense Authorization Act 
for Fiscal Year 2018 (Public Law 115-91) not only stopped the 
personnel reductions but reversed the downward trend by 
increasing end strength beyond the 2018 budget request for the 
Army Active and Reserve components and the Marine Corps, based 
on unfunded requirement requests from the Army and the Marine 
Corps. As the Administration requested increased service end 
strength to meet the National Defense Strategy, the committee 
supported the increased growth. Accordingly, the John S. McCain 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public 
Law 115-232) authorized continued end strength growth for all 
the military services. The committee remained concerned with 
the recruiting efforts, especially by the Army, and the quality 
of the recruits needed to fulfill the increased end-strength 
requirements, and maintained close scrutiny of the increased 
accessions.
    The committee also provided oversight of military manpower 
levels and force structure to ensure the quantity and quality 
continue to meet service requirements in support of the 
National Military Strategy. On May 17, 2017, and April 13, 
2018, the Subcommittee on Military Personnel held hearings on 
military personnel posture to express these concerns and 
question the military service personnel chiefs on their plans 
for the personnel end-strength increases for fiscal years 2018 
and 2019, respectively. The ability of the Army to recruit 
sufficient numbers of qualified individuals continued to be of 
concern to the committee in light of the fiscal year 2018 
recruiting shortfalls. Further, aggressive oversight of Army 
marketing and recruiting continued throughout calendar year 
2018. This oversight is expected to continue into the 116th 
Congress.
    The Air Force pilot shortage persisted as a long-term 
concern of the committee, and on March 29, 2017, the 
Subcommittee on Military Personnel held a hearing on the Air 
Force pilot shortage with testimony from the military service 
personnel chiefs. Regular briefings to the subcommittee staff 
by the Air Force Aircrew Crisis Task Force continued through 
the second session of the 115th Congress.
    Subcommittee staff also visited multiple Air Force and Navy 
aviation units throughout 2017 and 2018 to garner direct 
feedback from aircrew and supporting service members on their 
views of their service attempts to stem the pilot shortages. 
The committee expects this extensive oversight of service pilot 
shortages to continue through the 116th Congress. The committee 
oversight focused on whether the Active, Guard, and Reserve 
Forces have sufficient manpower levels to sustain varying 
scales of activation, while maintaining deployment ratios at or 
above Department of Defense objectives. Within this focus, the 
committee examined trends in overall total force structure 
requirements, end strength, recruiting, retention, morale, 
benefits, and compensation to maintain necessary end strength 
levels.

                            Force Readiness

    The committee continued its emphasis on force readiness as 
one of its highest priorities. The committee reviewed the 
Department of Defense's early assessment of the poor state of 
readiness across the military services and conducted numerous 
hearings and briefings to understand specific readiness 
problems, underlying causes, solutions, and time needed to 
remediate. Witnesses emphasized that the readiness picture will 
not improve without a lessening of global demand for forces; an 
increase in high demand capabilities; and increased, sustained, 
predictable funding. Ongoing conflicts and the continued pace 
of deterrence and assurance operations continued to stress all 
elements of the force and major weapons systems.
    The committee took particular interest in the operation of 
the Navy's forward deployed naval forces, after 4 accidents 
involving ships of the Seventh Fleet, based in Yokosuka, Japan, 
occurred in 2017, killing 17 Sailors in 2 of the collisions. 
The committee conducted several oversight hearings and 
briefings in an effort to learn the causes of these failures 
and how they can be avoided in the future.
    The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 
(Public Law 115-91) directed that the Department of Defense 
resume responsibility for background investigations for 
Department of Defense personnel and defense contractors. The 
committee conducted several hearings and briefings to monitor 
progress and ensure that Department of Defense management of 
the program will improve processing time.
    The committee also devoted considerable attention to the 
backlogs existing in the four public naval shipyards, requiring 
an extensive review by the Navy and receiving multiple 
briefings. The committee remains concerned that inadequate 
shipyard capacity needlessly extends a ship's time in the yard, 
further stressing the operational fleet. Further, the committee 
continued its oversight of the Department of Defense's efforts 
to restore readiness in key combat support areas such as 
logistics, prepositioned stocks, and contracted service 
support.
    The committee included several provisions to improve 
readiness oversight in the John S. McCain National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232). 
These provisions addressed deficiencies in naval surface 
forces; required reporting of readiness by the military 
services to operate in the cyber and space domains; required 
regular assessments by the combatant commanders of their 
ability to conduct operations across the domains of air, 
ground, sea, cyber, and space; and required the Comptroller 
General of the United States to provide periodic assessments of 
the Department's readiness across these five warfighting 
domains.

Maintenance and training

    Both maintenance and training have suffered in each of the 
military services under the funding limits imposed by the 
Budget Control Act of 2011 (Public Law 112-25) and sustained 
high operational tempo. The committee appreciated that 
readiness recovery across the Department has commenced with the 
increased funding provided by the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 
(Public Law 115-123), with a focus on improving readiness in 
capabilities needed to execute the National Defense Strategy. 
As noted in the discussions below, the committee examined 
relevant training and maintenance issues in each of the 
military services, with special emphasis on aviation readiness 
and surface ship maintenance and repair. Both of these areas 
have fallen far behind in necessary maintenance and will take 
some years to recover. The added funds provided during the 
115th Congress allowed readiness recovery to begin in all 
military services, but sustained effort and funding is needed 
to complete the task. In addition, the John S. McCain National 
Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-
232) established a National Commission on Military Aviation 
Safety to review military aviation mishaps, provide an 
assessment of causal factors, and make recommendations aimed at 
reducing the number of aviation mishaps.
            Marine Corps readiness
    The committee remains concerned that sustained high 
operational tempo over the course of the past decade, as well 
as a lack of consistent and adequate funding levels from the 
Budget Control Act of 2011 (Public Law 112-25), have resulted 
in insufficient time and resources to adequately repair and 
refit Marine Corps aircraft and combat vehicles to achieve 
required readiness. Therefore, the committee provided oversight 
to Marine Corps personnel end strength requirements, skill set 
densities, equipment modernization, and operation and 
maintenance accounts as they each contribute significantly to 
the overall service readiness recovery plans. The committee 
assessed whether the Marine Corps readiness recovery efforts 
were realistic, adequately manned and resourced, and focused on 
adversarial pacing threats. In particular, the committee looked 
closely at the readiness of deployed forces as well as the 
next-to-deploy units, whose readiness is often sacrificed in 
order to prepare and properly man, train, and equip the 
deployed force. Finally, committee oversight of Marine Corps 
aviation readiness, maintenance, and training plans was a top 
priority. Marine Corps aviation mishap trends generate 
recurring concern that multiple readiness causal factors are 
contributing to these unfortunate and costly incidents. Of 
particular concern was the lack of cumulative flying time for 
Marine Corps aviators, whose skills were in danger of 
atrophying due to lack of flight training hours caused in large 
part by the lack of availability of aircraft due to maintenance 
backlogs residing both at the operational squadron level as 
well as at the Fleet Readiness Center depot level. The 
committee conducted several hearings and briefings which 
addressed Marine Corps amphibious readiness, aviation 
readiness, and training readiness issues. The National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 (Public Law 115-91) as 
well as the John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act 
for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) directed specific 
resources for training opportunities, spare parts, and ground 
and aircraft depot maintenance in an attempt to address the 
backlog of maintenance requirements.
            Army readiness
    In repeated testimony and in roundtable discussions with 
the committee, senior Army leaders outlined both the importance 
and challenges associated with returning to integrated, 
combined arms, full spectrum readiness following years of 
preparing primarily for counterinsurgency operations in the 
Republic of Iraq and the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Army 
leaders testified that full spectrum readiness would not be 
achieved prior to 2021 and monitoring this steady, continued 
progress was a significant focus of committee oversight during 
the 115th Congress. The lack of adequate and consistent funding 
resulting from the Budget Control Act of 2011 (Public Law 112-
25) and routinely delayed appropriations caused the Army to 
defer equipment maintenance and some collective skills training 
opportunities. Accounting for these impacts and aligned 
mitigation strategies were part of the committee's oversight 
actions.
    The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 
(Public Law 115-91) as well as the John S. McCain National 
Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-
232) directed specific resources for training, spare parts, and 
ground and aircraft maintenance, at both the unit level as well 
as the depot level in an attempt to address the backlog of 
maintenance requirements. In addition, both Public Law 115-91 
and Public Law 115-232 funded the maximum number of Army 
brigade combat team rotations, for both the Active Duty and 
National Guard, feasible through its Combat Training Centers. 
This is a crucial requirement for returning to full spectrum 
combat operations. In response to committee questions about the 
backlog of maintenance requirements, Army leaders noted the 
Army's extremely high operational tempo with fewer available 
forces. To begin to alleviate this shortfall, Public Law 115-91 
authorized higher end strength in each Army component. The 
committee continued oversight of both the notable increase in 
presence as well as partner capacity through training 
opportunities in Eastern Europe as a result of European 
Deterrence Initiative. The committee received briefings and 
provided oversight on other Army-led training initiatives such 
as Pacific Pathways and the Regionally Aligned Force in U.S. 
Africa Command. The committee remained particularly interested 
in oversight of the manning, training, equipping, and inaugural 
deployment of the Army's Security Force Assistance Brigade to 
Afghanistan.
            Navy readiness
    The committee held 10 briefings and hearings during the 
115th Congress on the readiness of the Navy, the enabling 
capabilities that support readiness, and the tragic collisions 
of 2017 that killed 17 sailors. The Navy continues to struggle 
to rebuild readiness in aviation, amphibious operations, 
submarines, and surface ships for several reasons.
    Naval operations are hampered by a lack of spare parts, 
insufficient manning, and inexperienced manning. Aircraft 
availability continues to be a problem, caused by lengthy 
repair time in the depot or delay in receiving parts from the 
supply chain. To meet the operational demand for deployed air 
wings, serviceable aircraft are taken from the Fleet 
Replacement Squadron's training aircraft fleet, affecting pilot 
training. Submarine availability is similarly limited by years 
of deferred maintenance, an aging and shrinking fleet, and a 
lack of available spare parts. The surface warfare fleet has 
similar challenges, exacerbated by the long-term loss of the 
USS Fitzgerald and USS John S. McCain.
    The committee remained concerned that the Navy does not 
utilize all available authorities to rebuild readiness nor 
utilize capacity in the commercial shipyard sector when funding 
is available. The committee requested two Congressional Budget 
Office studies to review specific concerns in Naval Readiness 
including, ``Comparing the Costs of Submarine Maintenance at 
Public and Private Shipyard'' and ``An Analysis of the Navy's 
Fiscal Year 2019 Shipbuilding Plan'' to assess the loss of 
operational days for naval assets awaiting planned maintenance 
and schedule repair. The committee received the Navy's shipyard 
infrastructure report, which was directed by the National 
Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 (Public Law 115-
91). That report identified over $21.0 billion of investment in 
infrastructure and capital equipment required to restore the 
public shipyards' ability to meet operational needs.
    In 2017, the Navy experienced four significant incidents 
involving surface ships in the Western Pacific: the USS 
Antietam (January 2017), USS Lake Champlain (May 2017), USS 
Fitzgerald (June 2017), and the USS John S. McCain (August 
2017). Collectively these events illustrated the erosion of 
readiness in naval surface warfare and challenges with the 
organizational culture of the surface warfare community. The 
John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal 
Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) directed the Navy to implement a 
number of changes to training, career paths, inspections, and 
force management. Specifically, Public Law 115-232 sought to 
increase transparency with respect to Navy readiness by 
requiring the Navy's Board of Inspection and Survey inspections 
to be conducted on a no-notice basis with unclassified versions 
of the report being made available to the public. Public Law 
115-232 also directed reviews on whether the Navy should 
establish separate career paths for Surface Warfare Officers 
and directed the Navy to provide a plan that provides for clear 
chains of command for operations, for building readiness, and 
for shipyard maintenance.
            Air Force readiness
    Air Force readiness recovery factors are a product of 
pilots, aircraft availability, and timing; only when squadrons 
have sufficient pilots, aircraft and time to train can they 
build a cohesive fighting formation. The Air Force is 
challenged in each of these areas. Consequently, readiness 
recovery remains difficult. Low aircraft availability is driven 
by shortfalls in spare parts, inexperienced maintenance 
personnel, and increased global demand for Air Force squadrons. 
Low aircraft availability creates a domino effect on Air Force 
readiness and prevents pilots and trainees from completing 
necessary training, qualification, and certification 
milestones. Despite continued attention, the Air Force pilot 
shortfall has persisted at approximately 2,000 pilots for the 
last 2 years. The committee remains concerned that the Air 
Force has been unable to halt pilot attrition. Although the Air 
Force is making strides in improving aircraft availability and 
mission capability rates across the force, the insufficient 
number of pilots affects all levels of Air Force operations 
including training squadron instructors, major staff support, 
and maintenance planning.
    During the 115th Congress, the committee conducted several 
hearings on Air Force readiness and military aviation readiness 
across all military services addressing these issues. In 
addition, the committee conducted a number of member and staff 
briefings on Air Force readiness, including a briefing on F-35 
sustainment.
    In support of Air Force readiness recovery efforts, the 
John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal 
Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) included additional resources 
for key readiness accounts connected with weapon system 
sustainment. In addition, Public Law 115-232 included a 
reporting requirement on specialized undergraduate pilot 
training production, resourcing, and locations related to Air 
Force efforts to generate additional qualified pilots.

Weapon systems life-cycle sustainment and reset

    Design decisions made during weapons system development can 
create sustainment problems that drive costly depot-level 
maintenance once the system is fielded. The committee focused 
on reducing the total-ownership costs of weapon systems and 
equipment by ensuring the Department of Defense is developing, 
procuring, and modernizing weapon systems and equipment with 
consideration of life-cycle support and sustainment 
requirements and cost. In its oversight of the Department's 
life-cycle sustainment efforts, the committee monitored the 
implementation of section 2337 of title 10, United States Code, 
which requires that each major weapon system be supported by a 
product support manager and section 832 of the National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012 (Public Law 112-81), 
which requires additional visibility of the operation and 
support of major weapon systems.
    The committee also held the Department accountable for 
improving its estimations of total weapon system life-cycle 
costs to better inform sustainment strategies, such as the cost 
effectiveness of acquiring technical data from original 
equipment manufacturers to allow future changes in sustainment 
path. Furthermore, the committee continued its oversight of the 
Department's corrosion control efforts and monitored resourcing 
of corrosion prediction and prevention efforts with a focus on 
increasing the service life of weapon systems while reducing 
long-term sustainment costs. Finally, the committee examined 
the military services' reset strategies to repair, 
recapitalize, and replace equipment used in ongoing operations, 
and also monitored progress toward reconstitution of 
prepositioned stocks.
    The committee focused on two major areas of particular 
concern during the 115th Congress. The first, aviation 
readiness and sustainment, continued as a recurring problem in 
all military services, hampering readiness. Sustainment costs 
for the F-35 were carefully reviewed. The second, Navy surface 
ship maintenance and repair, was also a major concern, with 
deficiencies in the amphibious fleet affecting Marine Corps 
readiness.

                Depot, Shipyard, and Arsenal Capability

    Our Nation's organic industrial base is vital to achieving 
and maintaining warfighting readiness across all domains. The 
military services' arsenals, depots, air logistics complexes, 
and shipyards provide long-term sustainment through programmed 
maintenance and conduct repair and modernization upgrades. 
These facilities and their skilled workforce provide a 
national-level insurance policy against unforeseen national 
strategic contingencies.
    The committee held a series of hearings addressing depot 
policy and growing concerns related to facilities, personnel 
recruitment and retention, work process flow, and equipment 
necessary to operate modern industrial facilities. The 
committee remains concerned about the current state and future 
health of the organic industrial base as a result of an 
extended period of fiscal uncertainty and increasing 
maintenance and sustainment requirements.
    The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 
(Public Law 115-91) as well as the John S. McCain National 
Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-
232) included several legislative provisions related to 
oversight and focused on increasing efficiency within the 
organic industrial base. These included a provision that 
improves existing biennial reporting requirements on core 
depot-level maintenance and repair capabilities and a section 
that requires updated guidance for future biennial core 
reports. Public Law 115-232 included language that highlighted 
the need for improvements relative to additive manufacturing 
capabilities and the start of each military service having an 
``Additive Manufacturing Center of Excellence'' capability. 
Public Law 115-91 included a provision that directs the 
Secretary of Defense to submit a report on a comprehensive plan 
for the sharing of best practices for depot-level maintenance 
among the military services.
    Through hearings and oversight, the four public shipyards 
operated by the Department of the Navy were found suffering a 
shortage of experienced artisans, limitations on industrial 
capacity, gaps in infrastructure improvements and a management 
strategy to holistically address these gaps. Public Law 115-91 
included a provision directing the Department of the Navy to 
report its plan to address workload and infrastructure 
requirements, a plan to monitor progress, and both workload and 
funding management plans for the shipyards.
    The committee prioritized organic industrial base oversight 
efforts on capital investment in facilities and equipment, the 
implementation methodology and use of sustainment concepts such 
as performance-based logistics, the role of public-private 
partnerships, the use of working capital funds for timely 
product improvement, and the military services' logistics 
enterprise resource planning systems. The committee emphasized 
a greater need and implementation of emerging technologies to 
improve management and accountability of spares inventory and 
supply chain operations. The committee continued work in both 
Public Law 115-91 and Public Law 115-232 to oversee carryover 
management at the depots and arsenals, to include the review of 
what levels should be acceptable for sufficient continuation of 
operations on an annual basis. Finally, the committee included 
a provision in Public Law 115-232 that requires carryover 
calculations to reflect the usual timing of the receipt of 
funding and the disparate repair cycles of supported equipment. 
This provision is effective for 3 years.

                      National Guard and Reserves

    The debate regarding force structure mix of Active and 
Reserve Components, the proper roles and missions of the 
Reserve Components, whether they should be an operational or 
strategic reserve, and the affordability of the required force 
to meet national security requirements, continued during the 
115th Congress. Competition among the Active and Reserve 
Components for resources and missions served as a catalyst for 
that debate.
    During the 115th Congress, the committee reviewed various 
recommendations and proposals regarding the National Guard and 
Reserves and provided oversight to proposed changes to ensure 
the recommendations met the National Military Strategy 
requirements, as well as homeland security and disaster 
requirements. The committee remained concerned about benefit 
parity and included a provision in the National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 (Public Law 115-91) to 
equally treat service members called to Active Duty under the 
authority of sections 12304a and 12304b of title 10, United 
States Code, with regard to pre-mobilization healthcare. To 
begin to address other authorization inequities, on December 
12, 2017, the staff of the Subcommittee on Military Personnel 
received a briefing on the Department's major plan to reform 
the Reserve Component duty statuses and began to socialize this 
plan for inclusion in the fiscal year 2020 defense 
authorization bill.
    In addition, the committee continued to provide oversight 
of military technicians. Public Law 115-91 further refined the 
plan to convert dual-status technicians to title 5 civilians by 
reducing the total percentage of conversions from 20 percent to 
10 percent. Given the uncertainty of the projected fiscal 
environment, the availability of equipment needed to sustain 
and modernize the National Guard and Reserve Components for 
their operational reserve and domestic support missions remains 
a concern. This concern extends to legacy aircraft as part of 
the Aerospace Control Alert mission.
    The committee also focused oversight efforts on current 
equipment investment strategies for the National Guard and 
Reserve Components with particular emphasis on affordability 
and modernization of critical dual-use equipment platforms that 
are essential to the National Guard's title 32, United States 
Code, mission and defense support to civil authorities. 
Finally, the committee continued to monitor and evaluate the 
obligation and execution rates of funds provided as part of a 
separate procurement account, entitled the ``National Guard and 
Reserve Equipment Account,'' that addresses equipment 
shortfalls for the National Guard and Reserve Components.

                         Energy and Environment

    The committee reviewed the energy strategies promulgated by 
the Department of Defense and monitored the Department's energy 
use on military installations. Reduction of energy demand 
through cost-effective investments was a priority. The 
committee urged the military services to avoid proposed 
investments that demonstrated a simple return on investment but 
failed to enhance mission assurance, readiness, or combat 
capability. To that end, the National Defense Authorization for 
Fiscal Year 2018 (Public Law 115-91) included legislative 
changes to increase the Department of Defense's efforts to 
address energy resiliency and energy security of military 
installations in the United States and overseas. Public Law 
115-91 also included legislative changes to strengthen the 
Department of Defense's ability to assess off-installation 
energy projects through the existing Siting Clearinghouse 
process and better collaborate with the Federal Aviation 
Administration to mitigate potential encroachment and impacts 
to military testing, training, and operations.
    In addition, the committee continued its oversight of the 
Department of Defense and military services' environmental 
programs and monitored Department of Defense funding and 
adherence to Federal, State, and local requirements for 
cleanup, compliance, and pollution prevention. To address the 
challenges posed by emergent contaminants, such as 
Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFOS/PFOA), Public Law 115-91 
authorized $72.0 million above the budget request to support 
environmental response at current and former military 
installations affected by PFOS/PFOA, required the Department of 
Defense to work with the Department of Health and Human 
Services on a study on the health implications of PFOS/PFOA, 
and required a report on alternatives to firefighting foam that 
contain PFOS/PFOA. Public Law 115-91 also included a provision 
expressing the sense of Congress that climate change is a 
direct threat to national security and required the Secretary 
of Defense to submit a report on vulnerabilities to military 
installations and combatant commander requirements resulting 
from climate change.
    The John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for 
Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) reinforced the 
committee's emphasis on the Department of Defense's strategic 
approaches to energy use on military installations, requiring 
the military departments to perform mission assurance and 
readiness assessments of energy power systems that support 
critical mission infrastructure. Additionally, Public Law 115-
232 encourages development of geothermal resources on military 
installations by designating 50 percent of proceeds from energy 
sales of electrical energy generated from a geothermal resource 
for use at the military installation in which the geothermal 
energy resource is located.
    The ongoing challenge of mitigating PFOS/PFOA contamination 
in drinking water supplies was addressed in Public Law 115-232 
by modifying provisions of Public Law 115-91 to clarify the 
source and increase funding for the health study and assessment 
of these contaminants. Public Law 115-232 also requires the 
Secretary of Defense to provide a plan that identifies 
remediation actions the Department of Defense plans to 
undertake once the Environmental Protection Agency establishes 
a maximum contaminant level. The committee furthermore provided 
a sense of Congress stating that the Department of Defense and 
the Armed Forces should expedite and streamline cleanup at 
installation restoration program sites and munitions response 
sites where contamination is having a direct impact on civilian 
access to clean drinking water.

                MILITARY CONSTRUCTION AND INFRASTRUCTURE


                                 Basing

    As the Department of Defense is undergoing a significant 
change in force structure both in the United States and 
overseas, the committee reviewed all significant domestic and 
overseas basing and stationing proposals to ensure that these 
proposals included adequate construction funding and long-term 
sustainment resources.
    The committee continued discussions with the Department of 
Defense and the military departments on excess infrastructure 
capacity associated with military installations, including 
proposed courses of action for consolidation. The committee 
conducted numerous engagements with the military departments 
seeking to define the force structure required to fulfill the 
national military strategy versus current or legacy unit sizes, 
locations, and configurations. The National Defense Strategy 
published in January 2018 prompted the committee to review the 
adequacy of available installations in the United States and 
overseas to support the strategy.
    With respect to excess infrastructure capacity, the John S. 
McCain National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 
(Public Law 115-232) authorized the Secretary of Defense to 
carry out the realignment or closure of a military installation 
if the Secretary of Defense and the Governor of a State, along 
with corresponding units of local government in which the 
installation is located, agree to the proposed realignment or 
closure. Public Law 115-232 also included a provision requiring 
an updated force structure plan tied to infrastructure 
capabilities for each of the military services that considers 
probable threats alongside updated end-strength levels.

      Military Construction Programming and Facilities Sustainment

    The committee reviewed the Department of Defense's military 
construction program with respect to the overall capacity of 
the Department's infrastructure and prudent long-term military 
construction investment strategies. Recognizing the rapid 
change in weapon systems and missions in comparison to the 
timeline to plan, program, and execute new military 
construction, the committee engaged with the Department to seek 
more opportunities to construct flexible facilities rather than 
traditional purpose-built (i.e., single mission) facilities 
where practical and cost-effective. The committee sought to 
improve the Department's investment strategy in facility 
sustainment, restoration, and modernization, with respect to 
the Department's utilization of new authorities provided in the 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016 (Public 
Law 114-92) related to the conversion of existing facilities 
and investments in infrastructure supporting research, 
development, test, and evaluation activities.
    The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 
(Public Law 115-91) included legislative changes to increase 
the threshold under the unspecified minor construction 
authorities, provide additional flexibility to use operation 
and maintenance funding to replace facilities damaged by 
natural disasters or acts of terrorism, and require the 
submission of an annual report on the unfunded requirements for 
laboratory military construction projects.
    The John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for 
Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) included authority to use 
amounts made available for research, development, test, and 
evaluation (RDT&E) to obtain architectural and engineering 
services in connection with RDT&E military construction 
projects executed under the Defense Laboratory Modernization 
Program, (authorized under section 2803 of Public Law 114-92). 
In addition, Public Law 115-232 included a provision enabling 
the secretary of a military department to carry out additional 
military construction projects to enhance force protection and 
safety on military installations.
    In addition to conducting annual budget hearings on the 
Department's military installation and environment programs, 
the committee held two hearings on the readiness, performance, 
and overall viability of shipyards, depots and defense organic 
industrial base organizations which are considered critical to 
the sustainment of the armed services. The hearings assessed 
the health and readiness of the 17 major industrial 
installations with respect to depot infrastructure condition, 
resiliency, and configuration. While the Navy has made progress 
developing a long-term facility recapitalization master plan 
for its four shipyards, the affordability of these plans is in 
question. The Army and Air Force have yet to develop an 
infrastructure reset strategy, which was the key take away from 
the hearing, and will be a focus for oversight in the 116th 
Congress.

          Real Property Acquisition, Maintenance, and Disposal

    The real property management process requires extensive 
oversight to maintain almost $879.0 billion in infrastructure 
at an annual cost of nearly $37.0 billion. The committee worked 
with the military departments to ensure that inadequate asset 
visibility, poor requirements development, and project planning 
inefficiencies do not result in poorly coordinated investment 
decisions and sub-optimal facility construction. The committee 
sought to apply best practices across the Department of Defense 
in order to efficiently develop and maintain the military 
services' ranges, facilities, and infrastructure.

               MILITARY PERSONNEL AND HEALTH CARE ISSUES


                 Military Manpower and Force Structure


Medical accession and retention standards

    During the 115th Congress, the committee continued its 
oversight of military medical and behavioral health accession 
standards, an issue which directly impacts the readiness of the 
force. The Department of Defense is currently conducting an 
extensive review and re-drafting of the medical and behavioral 
health accession standards. These standards apply to all 
individuals applying for military service, and address a broad 
range of medical and mental health conditions that disqualify 
individuals from serving. The updated standards will also 
reflect advances in medical treatment for certain conditions 
that were previously disqualifying. Committee staff received 
several briefings throughout the 115th Congress regarding these 
issues, including a comprehensive briefing on the Army's 
decision to delegate medical waiver authorities for accessions.
    In February 2018, in furtherance of the Secretary of 
Defense's plan to enhance the lethality and readiness of the 
force, the Department of Defense implemented a new policy aimed 
at ensuring that all service members are deployable. The policy 
requires that, with certain exceptions, service members who are 
non-deployable for 12 months or more be evaluated for 
retention. The committee staff has received briefings from both 
the Department of the Defense and the military services on 
their implementation plans.
    The committee will continue to provide oversight of any 
potential changes to the medical and behavioral health 
accession standards to ensure they are rooted in sound medical 
analysis and that the changes do not compromise force 
readiness.

Gender integration

    The military services recently opened all military 
occupations to women. During the 115th Congress, the committee 
continued to provide oversight as the military services 
implemented new gender-neutral occupational standards and began 
to populate previously closed military occupations with women. 
The committee also examined the policies implemented to ensure 
proper support, training, assignment, and career advancement 
for women entering these career fields, with particular 
emphasis on lingering areas of disparate gender treatment, such 
as separate male and female portions of basic training in some 
services, as well as gender-based physical fitness standards. 
As a part of this oversight, committee staff traveled to 
several major training installations to observe gender-
integrated training and to learn more about the implementation 
of these policy changes.

                   Military Benefits and Compensation

    During the 115th Congress, the committee continued to give 
close scrutiny to proposals from both the Department of Defense 
and the private sector that called for funding reductions or 
changes to military compensation and other benefit programs in 
order to ensure any proposed changes thoroughly assess the 
impact to the All-Volunteer Force. The committee provided 
oversight of the January 2018 implementation of the Blended 
Retirement System as authorized in the National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016 (Public Law 114-92), and 
the accompanying financial training for service members. To 
that end, on March 10, 2017, the Subcommittee on Military 
Personnel received an update briefing from the Department of 
Defense on the training and implementation status of the 
Blended Retirement System. The committee's oversight continued 
during the second session of the 115th Congress, as the 
military services continued to request to grow their end 
strength.
    The subcommittee's oversight of pay and allowance issues 
led the committee, as part the National Defense Authorization 
Act for Fiscal Year 2018 (Public Law 115-91), to recommend no 
change to current law, thereby enabling the by-law 2.4 percent 
raise in basic pay during calendar year 2018 based on section 
1009 of title 37, United States Code. It is the intent of the 
underlying law to ensure military pay raises match the rate of 
compensation increases in the private sector as measured by the 
Employment Cost Index. As part of the John S. McCain National 
Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-
232), the committee again recommended no change to the current 
law which resulted in a basic pay increase of 2.6 percent for 
2019.
    The committee also extended the authorities to pay bonuses 
and special pays during fiscal year 2018 and fiscal year 2019, 
and monitored the value of those bonuses and special pays to 
ensure they were sufficient to achieve the recruiting and 
retention objectives for which they were developed. The 
committee also included legislation in Public Law 115-91 that 
increased the pilot bonus to help to address the Air Force's 
pilot shortage. The committee understands and will continue to 
monitor the required increases in bonuses and special pays to 
enable the military services to continue recruit the quality 
force required to meet the National Defense Strategy.
    Finally, the committee maintained focus on the Survivor 
Benefit Plan (SBP) financial offset from the Dependency and 
Indemnity Compensation (DIC). A provision of the National 
Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 (Public Law 110-
181) established a Special Survivor Indemnity Allowance (SSIA) 
for surviving spouses who are the beneficiary of the SBP 
annuity and have their annuity partially or fully offset by the 
DIC. This allowance was due to expire in May 2018. The 
committee's oversight in this area led to a permanent extension 
of the SSIA in Public Law 115-91 and a continued focus on a 
whole of Congress solution for the complete repeal of the SBP 
annuity offset by DIC.

                         Military Health System

    The committee is committed to maintaining a robust Military 
Health System focused on ensuring the readiness of the force. 
To that end, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal 
Year 2017 (Public Law 114-328) included comprehensive reform of 
the Military Health System focused in three areas: medical 
readiness, the Military Health System organizational structure, 
and the TRICARE benefit. During the 115th Congress, the 
committee provided vigorous oversight of the Department of 
Defense's progress towards implementing the elements of the 
various health care reform efforts.

Mental health and pain management

    On April 27, 2017, the Subcommittee on Military Personnel 
held a hearing on the current state of Department of Defense 
programs for treating post-traumatic stress disorder and 
traumatic brain injury. This was followed by a hearing on June 
20, 2018, focused on Department of Defense pain management, 
opioids, prescription management and reporting transparency. 
Both hearings provided an overview of the state of ongoing 
research and whether more needs to be done to meet the needs of 
service members. With regard to pain management, the committee 
heard testimony that provided an overview of the issue of 
opioid abuse among service members and the Department's 
progress in implementing pain management best practices across 
the Military Health System. Additionally, oversight efforts 
included reviewing quarterly suicide reports and understanding 
the current suicide prevention program capabilities being 
administered by the Department of Defense. The committee 
provided a 2-year extension of the suicide prevention and 
resiliency program for the National Guard and the Reserves in 
the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 
(Public Law 115-91). As a result of this oversight, the John S. 
McCain National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 
(Public Law 115-232) contained a provision that requires the 
Department of Defense to establish a Military Health System 
Prescription Drug Monitoring Program that will share 
information with State prescription drug monitoring programs 
and requires the Department of Defense to develop a pilot 
program on opioid safety.

Wounded warrior care

    The committee continued to monitor the adequacy of the 
Department of Defense's wounded warrior initiatives. The John 
S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 
2019 (Public Law 115-232) included a provision that requires 
the Department of Defense and the military departments to 
review and update wounded warrior policies. The committee staff 
received briefings on the status of the integrated disability 
evaluation system. Additionally, committee staff visited the 
Warrior Transition Unit, the William Beaumont Army Medical 
Center, and the Soldier Readiness and Resiliency Center at Fort 
Bliss, Texas, to understand the capabilities and processes 
involved with transitioning service members. Finally, committee 
staff visited the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center 
for a tour and town hall meeting with service members and their 
families to obtain a better understanding of the challenges 
wounded warriors face.

Military health system reform

    The committee continued to build on military health care 
reforms introduced in the National Defense Authorization Act 
for Fiscal Year 2017 (Public Law 114-328). These oversight 
efforts focused on the selection of a new operating model for 
the Military Health System (MHS), maintaining inpatient 
capabilities at military treatment facilities overseas, 
limiting the ability of the Department of Defense to close or 
downsize military treatment facilities (MTFs), additional 
reorganization within the MHS, changes to the TRICARE benefit, 
and implementation of the Department of Defense's Genesis 
electronic health record.
    The first session of the 115th Congress included oversight 
efforts to select and implement a Military Health System 
operating model that would reorganize the military department-
based model of military health care to a consolidated operating 
model led by the Defense Health Agency. These oversight efforts 
included two briefings to the Subcommittee on Military 
Personnel, the first on May 25, 2017, and the second on 
December 12, 2017. The first briefing focused on the Military 
Health System reorganization implementation plan that included 
senior principals from the Department of Defense, Joint Staff, 
and the military services. The second briefing on December 12, 
2017, featured senior civilian leaders from the Department of 
Defense and was focused on understanding specific details 
related to the Military Health System operating model chosen by 
the Department of Defense. The National Defense Authorization 
Act for Fiscal Year 2018 (Public Law 115-91) included language 
voicing the conferees' concerns with the progress and direction 
of the Department with respect to the MHS governing 
organization model. MHS reforms continued in section 711 of the 
John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal 
Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232), which requires the Department 
of Defense to establish Defense Health Agency Research and 
Development and Defense Health Agency Public Health from many 
existing military department related organizations and 
activities.
    The committee remained concerned about the Department of 
Defense's plan to close inpatient medical capabilities in 
military treatment facilities at installations in Aviano, 
Naples, and Sigonella, Italy. Committee staff visited these 
locations to understand the impact closures may have on the 
readiness of service members and operational plans, as well as 
the effect on the local beneficiary population. As a result, 
the committee included section 711 in Public Law 115-91 to 
require the Department of Defense to maintain inpatient 
capabilities at military treatment facilities outside of the 
United States until the Department certifies that alternate 
civilian facilities meet military treatment facility standards. 
Committee staff discussed the potential closure of the Navy 
MTFs with the Commander of U.S. Naval Forces Europe and 
encouraged the Navy to develop a position based on the 
operational need and agreement with U.S. European Command. 
Additionally, the committee is concerned with Department of 
Defense reform efforts that may precipitate closure or 
downsizing of MTFs prior to the implementation of the reforms 
required by section 702 of Public Law 114-328. Section 711 of 
Public Law 115-232 also requires the Department of Defense to 
submit a certification report to Congress prior to any 
potential MTF closure or downsizing.
    The committee also focused oversight efforts on reforms in 
Public Law 114-328 to the Department of Defense TRICARE 
benefit. These reforms included consolidating TRICARE Standard 
and TRICARE Extra into one preferred provider option, TRICARE 
Select. The committee staff met with various military and 
veterans' service organizations to better understand 
beneficiary concerns with changes related to the TRICARE 
benefit and also met frequently with the Defense Health Agency. 
In addition, committee staff met with Humana and Health Net, 
the two managed care support contractors that are administering 
the purchased care contracts, to ensure there are mitigation 
strategies in place to meet challenges with implementing 
changes to the TRICARE program. The Government Accountability 
Office completed a study in early 2018 assessing the 
effectiveness of the TRICARE Select implementation plan. 
Additionally, Public Law 115-232 included section 713 that 
consolidates the TRICARE dental program into the Office of 
Personnel Management's Federal Employees Dental and Vision 
Insurance Program (FEDVIP), as well as section 714, which 
streamlines the TRICARE Prime beneficiary referral process.
    Finally, the committee provided oversight over the 
implementation of the Military Health System Genesis electronic 
health record. These efforts included a visit to the 
implementation sites in the Pacific Northwest and ongoing 
discussions with the Department of Defense and House Committee 
on Veterans' Affairs on interoperability of the Genesis system 
with the Department of Veterans Affairs. The conference report 
(H. Rept. 115-874) accompanying Public Law 115-232 also 
included a requirement to provide a corrective action report 
following completion of the Department of Defense initial 
operational test and evaluation.

Medical readiness for the Joint Force

    The committee continued to provide oversight on the 
development of the Department of Defense's core medical 
capabilities and their integration across the Joint Force and 
the Military Health System. The committee focused oversight 
efforts on the implementation of reforms in the National 
Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017 (Public Law 114-
328), which required improvements in the way that trauma care 
was being provided across the Military Health System. Section 
707 of Public Law 114-328 established a Joint Trauma System 
that would serve as a reference body for trauma care being 
provided across the Military Health System, established 
standards of care for trauma services provided at military 
medical treatment facilities, and coordinated the translation 
of research from the centers of excellence into Department of 
Defense standards of clinical trauma care. Section 708 of 
Public Law 114-328 required the establishment of the Joint 
Trauma Education and Training Directorate to ensure that 
traumatologists of the Armed Forces maintain proficiency and 
can rapidly deploy for future armed conflicts. The committee 
has conducted considerable oversight in this area, including a 
Subcommittee on Military Personnel briefing on September 13, 
2017, to examine the Department's implementation and reform 
efforts to ensure progress has been made in the development of 
the Department's joint trauma capabilities. The John S. McCain 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public 
Law 115-232) also contained provisions to address this issue, 
including section 719, which provided the Department of Defense 
with broadened trauma partnership opportunities.
    Finally, committee staff have had multiple discussions and 
engagements with the Joint Staff Surgeon regarding core 
capabilities that will ensure a ready medical force. To that 
end, Public Law 115-232 included a provision which requires the 
Department of Defense to develop a joint medical capabilities 
development and standardization process.

                       Military Personnel Policy

    During the 115th Congress, the personnel policies of the 
Department of Defense remained under considerable scrutiny as 
the military continued to grow and the military services 
competed to recruit and retain the best and brightest men and 
women. The Subcommittee on Military Personnel staff received 
several briefings from the military departments and the 
Department of Defense on recruiting efforts and how to grow the 
military without lowering standards. On May 17, 2017, the 
subcommittee held a hearing on military personnel posture, with 
a significant portion of the hearing dedicated to recruiting, 
retention, and associated policies. In the second session of 
the 115th Congress, on April 13, 2018, the subcommittee held 
another military personnel posture hearing, this time focusing 
on service end strength and the military services' efforts to 
define and achieve their respective numbers.
    As a part of this personnel policy oversight, the committee 
has focused on officer personnel management. The National 
Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 (Public Law 115-
91) contained a provision requiring the Department to provide a 
comprehensive report on the Defense Officer Personnel 
Management Act and Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act. 
The report requires the Department to provide information on 
recruiting and retention of officers, and requires the 
Department to provide statistical analysis to support their 
conclusions. The committee received an interim report in early 
2018, which addressed limited issues related to officer 
personnel management. As a result, the John S. McCain National 
Defense Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) included 
several new authorities, including provisions that gave 
promotion boards the ability to recommend officers of 
particular merit be placed higher on the promotion list, 
expanded the ability to award constructive credit for certain 
civilian experience, and standardized temporary promotion 
authority for certain officers with critical skills. The 
committee looks forward to receiving the final report to better 
understand the current efficacy of personnel management laws 
and the need for reform.

       Uniform Code of Military Justice to Include Sexual Assault

    The committee remained focused on sexual assault prevention 
and response in the military. After passing substantial reform 
of the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) in the previous 
Congress, the committee continued to provide comprehensive 
oversight of the implementation of these changes and made 
refinements where needed. The committee also received the final 
reports from the 3-year review conducted by the Judicial 
Proceedings Panel, which informed the committee on the 
investigation and prosecution of sexual assault crimes. 
Finally, the committee identified and passed legislation to 
better protect and provide care for victims of sexual assault.
    The Subcommittee on Military Personnel held several 
briefings and hearings in furtherance of the committee's 
oversight of this important issue. On May 2, 2017, the 
subcommittee held a hearing on the Annual Report on Sexual 
Harassment and Violence at the Military Service Academies. The 
subcommittee heard from the military service academy 
superintendents and the Department of Defense. In addition, the 
hearing included a panel of cadets and midshipmen who are 
survivors of sexual assault or harassment.
    The committee also provided oversight and legislation in 
response to reports of non-consensual distribution of intimate 
images of service members on a website known as ``Marines 
United.'' The Subcommittee on Military Personnel held a 
briefing on March 16, 2017, to receive an overview of the on-
going investigation and to better understand how these crimes 
are committed. On March 21, 2017, the subcommittee held a 
hearing on the broader issue of social media policies within 
the military services and the standards of social media conduct 
provided to service members. In response to the Marines United 
case, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 
2018 (Public Law 115-91) contained a provision that established 
a punitive article in the UCMJ on the non-consensual 
distribution of intimate images.
    In addition to the new punitive article, the subcommittee 
continued to provide oversight of military justice in general. 
On April 4, 2017, the subcommittee received a briefing from the 
Department and the military services on implementation of 
recent military justice reforms. In addition, Public Law 115-91 
contained a considerable number of provisions related to the 
UCMJ and sexual assault prevention and response, including 
provisions that:
    (1) expand the Sexual Assault Prevention and Response 
(SAPR) Program by: (a) requiring those in a delayed entry 
program to receive sexual assault prevention training before 
entering the military; (b) expanding sexual trauma counseling 
and treatment for members of the Reserve Components; and (c) 
expanding training for special victims counsel to include 
training on the unique challenges often faced by male victims 
of sexual assault.
    (2) improve transparency by expanding the information 
required in the SAPR Report, including reports of sexual 
assaults committed by service members against their spouses and 
other dependents, and reports of sexual harassment and 
incidents involving nonconsensual distribution of intimate 
images;
    (3) require a new report on sexual assault victim recovery 
in the Coast Guard;
    (4) establish several new procedures and requirements to 
address sexual assault and harassment at the United States 
Merchant Marine Academy; and
    (5) require the military services to provide procedures for 
a confidential review of discharge characterizations for 
service members who were victims of sex-related offenses.
    In the second session of the 115th Congress, the 
subcommittee held a hearing with the Vice Chiefs of Staff, the 
Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps, and the military 
service inspectors general on military senior leader 
misconduct, including prevention efforts and how senior leaders 
are held accountable for their misconduct. Furthermore, the 
John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal 
Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) contained several provisions 
related to military justice, including establishing a separate 
punitive article on domestic violence; requiring increased 
oversight of the registered sex offender management program; 
and improvements in the reporting of crimes for inclusion in 
Federal Bureau of Investigation databases.

                       Military Family Readiness

    During the 115th Congress, the committee focused on the 
support provided to service members' families, particularly 
during deployments. The committee continued to explore means to 
expand and improve child care services and examined ways to 
boost spouse employment. To that end, the National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 (Public Law 115-91) 
included four provisions enhancing these programs. With regard 
to child care, one provision required the military service 
secretaries to operate child development centers in a manner 
that considers the demands of military service, including 
Reserve service, and another provided the Secretary of Defense 
with direct hire authority to expedite the hiring of qualified 
child care providers. To improve spouse employment, Public Law 
115-91 also contained a provision that authorized military 
service secretaries to reimburse a military member up to $500 
for the expense of a spouse obtaining licensing upon relocation 
to another state due to military orders, and a second provision 
that authorized a pilot program to establish telework 
facilities for military spouses overseas.
    The John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for 
Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) also contained several 
provisions related to military family readiness, including a 
provision that temporarily expanded the authority for 
noncompetitive appointments of military spouses by Federal 
agencies and a requirement that the Department of Defense 
publicize the My Career Advancement program and study the 
impact that frequent permanent change of station moves have on 
military spouse employment. In addition, Public Law 115-232 
included a comprehensive overhaul of the Transition Assistance 
Program designed to provide service members and their spouses 
with transition assistance tailored to their post-military 
career plans. The committee will continue to monitor the 
impacts these improvements have on military family readiness.

  Morale, Welfare and Recreation Programs and Military Resale Programs

    The committee believes the cost efficient sustainment of 
Morale, Welfare, and Recreation (MWR) and military resale 
programs (commissaries and exchanges) is required to protect 
and enhance the quality of life in military communities and 
maintain the combat readiness of the force. The committee 
continued to provide extensive oversight efforts during the 
115th Congress directed toward that goal in conjunction with 
major reforms, begun in the 114th Congress, to maintain the 
viability of these programs.
    The committee believes that MWR and military resale 
programs must remain competitive with private sector entities 
to ensure that service members and their families benefit fully 
from these programs. The committee continued to monitor the 
current practices and policies to ensure that MWR and military 
resale programs employ the full range of strategies available 
to private sector competitors, to inform authorized patrons 
about the benefits associated with these programs, and to 
encourage them to participate. This is especially true for 
commissaries that are restricted, because of legislative and 
policy barriers, from using pricing, product, and advertising 
strategies that are common in the private sector. These 
barriers continued to be addressed as the Department of Defense 
proceeded with the directed commissary reforms throughout the 
second session of the 115th Congress. Several legislative 
authorities were granted to the Department of Defense in the 
John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal 
Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) that would allow currently non-
eligible veterans and others to use the commissary, thereby 
increasing the transactions in the commissary with a potential 
corresponding increase in revenue.
    The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017 
(Public Law 114-328) required the Department of Defense to 
reform management, food and pricing options for the Defense 
Commissary Agency to assist in maintaining a competitive and 
effective commissary system in the future that requires less 
appropriated funding. During the 115th Congress, the committee 
continued to monitor and oversee the long term changes required 
by the commissary reform plan with a focus of ensuring an 
uninterrupted benefit for the beneficiaries of the system. The 
Subcommittee on Military Personnel met on February 16, 2017, to 
receive an update from the Department of Defense and the 
Defense Commissary Agency on the status of the reform 
implementation. The subcommittee met again on November 29, 
2017, to receive an update on the reforms and to meet the 
interim director of the Defense Commissary Agency. In the 
intervening months, and throughout the 115th Congress, the 
subcommittee staff continued to receive regular updates from 
the Department of Defense and the Defense Commissary Agency, 
and attended scheduled Reform Management Group update meetings 
on the reform efforts.

                 Prisoner of War and Missing in Action

    During the 115th Congress, the committee continued 
oversight of the Department of Defense's Prisoner of War/
Missing in Action activities, focusing on the operations of the 
Defense Personnel Accounting Agency (DPAA). Committee staff met 
multiple times with the leadership of this relatively new 
agency to monitor progress in integrating all operations into a 
single agency and achieving the required minimum 200 
identifications annually. Section 523 of the John S. McCain 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public 
Law 115-232) broadened the ability for DPAA to accept certain 
types of gifts that may assist in the recovery of designated 
Department of Defense missing persons. Committee staff visited 
the DPAA Joint Recovery Operation in the Lao People's 
Democratic Republic to better understand both the impact of 
this new authority on tactical activities, as well as the 
challenges of forthcoming operations.

                  MODERNIZATION AND INVESTMENT ISSUES


                                Overview

    During the 115th Congress, the committee continued its 
oversight efforts of military service modernization strategies, 
to include whether these strategies were aligned with the 
National Defense Strategy's emphasis on mitigating threats from 
strategic competitors. The committee's activity addressed the 
effectiveness of current modernization strategies in retaining 
technology superiority and overmatch, both in the near-term and 
long-term, after years of deferred modernization that resulted 
from the Budget Control Act of 2011 (Public Law 112-25). The 
committee worked to ensure acquisition reform initiatives were 
being implemented by the military services to better streamline 
the development and fielding of solutions to the warfighter in 
a timely manner, while also setting the conditions to allow for 
needed and stable modernization investment to accelerate the 
development of next generation systems.
    The committee, through oversight and legislative action, 
examined the development of modernization strategies and worked 
to identify problems, including: late determination of 
requirements and failure to properly control requirements 
changes; inadequate analyses of alternatives; concurrency in 
test and evaluation; military services proceeding prematurely 
with development and procurement of immature technology; poor 
cost estimating; inadequate funding profiles; over-estimation 
of potential production rates; and overall program instability. 
In particular, the committee also worked to ensure the military 
services have the appropriate authorities, capabilities, force 
structure, and modernization strategies in place to allow for 
the successful execution of future multi-domain operations in a 
high intensity conflict.

          Army and Marine Corps Armored Vehicle Modernization

    The Budget Control Act of 2011 (Public Law 112-25) funding 
levels have reduced buying power, disrupted modernization 
plans, and reduced the Army and Marine Corps' ground combat 
overmatch advantage against strategic competitors. In 
particular, Army modernization funding declined 74 percent from 
2008-2015 as a result of the drawdown from two wars and the 
imposition of the budget caps by Public Law 112-25. Through 
oversight activity, the committee noted that the most 
significant funding decline was that research and development 
(R&D) funding was reduced by 50 percent, and appears to be 
concentrated in the later stages of R&D at the prototyping and 
system design and development stages, which are the precursors 
to fielding new capabilities. Given the committee's ongoing 
efforts to restore full spectrum operational readiness through 
modernization, the committee noted concerns that the tactical 
overmatch that U.S. ground forces have enjoyed for decades was 
being diminished, or in some cases, no longer exists. 
Therefore, during the 115th Congress, the committee's oversight 
efforts focused on providing for improved stability and 
increases for Army modernization funding in fiscal year 2018 
and beyond, which set the conditions for the Army to fully 
modernize at least one Armored Brigade Combat Team (ABCT) per 
year beginning in fiscal year 2018.
    With respect to combat vehicle modernization programs, the 
committee's oversight efforts focused on the acceleration of 
engineering change proposals for the M1 Abrams tank and M2 
Bradley Fighting Vehicles, improving the survivability and 
lethality of the family of Stryker Combat Vehicles, the 
development and procurement of the family of Amphibious Combat 
Vehicles, specifically the Amphibious Combat Vehicle Increment 
1.1 program, continued survivability and performance upgrades 
for Light Armored Vehicles, the Paladin Integrated Management 
program's transition to full-rate production, the Armored 
Multipurpose Vehicle program's transition from research and 
development to procurement, the acceleration of the Army's 
mobile protected firepower program, and the Army's requirement 
for a next generation combat vehicle. Furthermore, the 
Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land Forces has also engaged 
in oversight work with the Government Accountability Office 
(GAO) to begin a comprehensive review of the overall 
effectiveness of the Army's near-term and long-term 
modernization strategies.
    During the 115th Congress, the committee also continued 
ongoing oversight to assess the viability and fragility of the 
armored combat vehicle industrial base, to include assessing 
the resiliency of the critical sub-tier supplier base for items 
such as transmissions and forward looking infrared radars. 
Committee staff also conducted oversight visits to each of the 
contractors' production facilities who actively participated in 
the Marine Corps Amphibious Combat Vehicle program to assess 
production capability and capacity.
    The Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land Forces held four 
oversight hearings during the 115th Congress to continue 
oversight on the program issues noted above.
    In the committee report (H. Rept. 115-200) accompanying the 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, the 
committee directed the Secretary of the Army to provide a 
comprehensive report on the Army's plan for executing its 
ground combat vehicle modernization strategy, and also required 
the GAO to review and assess the report. Section 1061 of the 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 (Public 
Law 115-91) required a similar report on the Army's 
modernization strategy, to include force structure 
requirements. Public Law 115-91 authorized an additional $6.8 
billion for Army modernization, to include additional Abrams 
tanks, Bradley Fighting Vehicles, Hercules improved recovery 
vehicles, Stryker Combat Vehicles to include lethality 
upgrades, and vehicle active protection systems.
    In the committee report (H. Rept. 115-676) accompanying the 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019, the 
committee directed the Army to conduct a cost-benefit analysis 
comparing a traditional 5-year multiyear (MYP) contract with an 
alternative 3-year multiyear contract for ABCT vehicle 
platforms instead of single-year contracts, which should yield 
significant cost-savings and help to stabilize the fragile 
supplier base. The John S. McCain National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) 
authorized funding to modernize 1.5 ABCTs and out-year funding 
to modernize at least one ABCT per year, including: 135 M1 
Abrams tanks, 60 Bradley fighting vehicles, 197 armored 
multipurpose vehicles, 38 Improved Recovery Vehicles, and 3,390 
Joint Light Tactical Vehicles. Public Law 115-232 also requires 
a report on the Army's plans to accelerate vehicle active 
protection systems, directs the Army to provide adequate 
resources for its Next Generation Combat Vehicle program, as 
well as accelerate prototyping efforts, and requires a detailed 
briefing on the mobile protected firepower development program. 
Additionally, Public Law 115-232 also authorizes an increase of 
$203.4 million, for Stryker A1 combat vehicles, the most 
survivable and advanced version of the Stryker combat vehicle; 
it also authorizes an increase of $110.0 million for the most 
modernized version of the Paladin self-propelled howitzer 
artillery system.

            Army and Marine Corps Tactical Wheeled Vehicles

    During the 115th Congress, the committee continued its 
oversight efforts regarding Army and Marine Corps' tactical 
wheeled vehicle (TWV) modernization strategies for their 
families of light, medium, and heavy TWVs, the family of mine 
resistant ambush protected (MRAP) vehicles, line haul tractor 
trailers, and construction equipment. Through oversight 
activity, the committee examined TWV fleet size and 
composition, as well as current TWV acquisition strategies to 
ensure the viability of the TWV industrial base, to include the 
supplier base. The committee also focused particular attention 
on the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV) program and 
monitored the JLTV cost, schedule, and performance as the 
program transitioned from low-rate production to full-rate 
production. Committee members led a congressional delegation to 
the JLTV production facility to conduct on-site assessments of 
production capacity and engage with the industrial base to 
better understand current challenges. Additionally, the 
committee conducted oversight on the Army's efforts to improve 
the lethality of the JLTV and monitored the Army's acquisition 
strategies in the development and procurement of the Ground 
Mobility Vehicle and Light Reconnaissance Vehicle that would 
``enhance the tactical mobility and lethality of Infantry 
Brigade Combat Teams.''
    The Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land Forces held 
hearings on May 24, 2017, and on April 18, 2018, about the 
``Ground Force Modernization Budget Request'' that reviewed the 
effectiveness of Army and Marine Corps ground force 
modernization programs against current and future threats, as 
well as provided oversight on current acquisition strategies, 
to include TWVs such as the JLTV and High Mobility Multipurpose 
Wheeled Vehicle recapitalization programs.
    The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 
(Public Law 115-91) authorized the President's budget request 
for the JLTV program. In addition, Public Law 115-91 authorized 
an additional $424.1 million for TWVs. In the committee report 
(H. Rept. 115-200) accompanying the National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, the committee directed 
the Secretary of the Army, in coordination with the Chief, 
National Guard Bureau, to provide a briefing to the House 
Committee on Armed Services by September 1, 2017, on the 
advisability and feasibility of installing external fire 
suppression systems on high mobility multipurpose wheeled 
vehicles (HMMWVs) to improve force protection.
    In the committee report (H. Rept. 115-676) accompanying the 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019, the 
committee directed a briefing to the committee on the Army's 
current acquisition strategy and sustainment strategy for 
medium and heavy TWVs that includes potential courses of action 
to minimize impacts to the industrial base, as well as 
strategies to maintain surge capacity across the Future Years 
Defense Program. H. Rept. 115-676 also required the Army to 
provide a briefing on the long-term strategy for planning, 
programming, and budgeting for sustainment, research and 
development, and procurement of MRAP vehicle platforms.
    The John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for 
Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) authorized over $1.3 
billion for the JLTV program, and included an additional $25.0 
million for new production HMMWVs for the Army National Guard.

               Army and Marine Corps Rotorcraft Programs

    During the 115th Congress, the committee continued its 
ongoing oversight efforts on Army and Marine Corps rotorcraft 
modernization programs, related force structure requirements, 
and challenges facing overall rotorcraft readiness for the 
military services. The committee focused particular attention 
on UH-60 Black Hawk utility rotorcraft, AH-64 Apache Attack 
rotorcraft, UH-72A Lakota light utility rotorcraft, CH-47 
Chinook heavy lift rotorcraft, V-22 tiltrotor platforms, UH-1 
Huey utility helicopters, AH-1 attack rotorcraft, the CH-53K 
heavy lift rotorcraft program, and the future vertical lift 
(FVL) development program. The committee noted that legacy 
rotorcraft platforms continue to be operated at high 
operational tempos in very challenging environments. The 
committee worked to ensure that modernization upgrades and 
reset efforts for these platforms were adequately resourced and 
being fielded in a timely manner for both the Active and 
Reserve Components. In addition to its oversight of rotorcraft 
requirements for, and performance in, combat operations, the 
committee conducted oversight of the critical need for advanced 
aircraft survivability equipment upgrades to provide warning 
and protection against evolving surface-to-air missile threats, 
as well as to develop potential solutions to accelerate the 
fielding of degraded visual environment technology on legacy 
platforms.
    H.R. 2810, the National Defense Authorization Act for 
Fiscal Year 2018, as passed by the House, authorized a 7-year 
multiyear procurement contract for the V-22 tiltrotor program. 
Section 126 of the National Defense Authorization Act for 
Fiscal Year 2018 (Public Law 115-91) included this authority. 
Such a multiyear contract will save several hundred million 
dollars over a 7-year period and provide for better stability 
for the industrial base.
    Public Law 115-91 authorized an additional $313.4 million 
for 10 additional AH-64E Apache Helicopters; an additional 
$108.0 million for 5 additional UH-60 Black Hawk utility 
helicopters; an additional $354.5 million for 8 additional CH-
47 heavy lift helicopters; an additional $522.0 million for 6 
V-22 tiltrotor helicopters; and an additional $220.5 million 
for 7 AH-1 attack rotorcraft.
    In the committee report (H. Rept. 115-200) accompanying the 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, the 
committee continued to encourage the Army to fully fund Future 
Vertical Lift efforts and to seek opportunities to accelerate 
the program based on performance and available resources. 
Public Law 115-91 authorized the President's budget request for 
the FVL program.
    In the committee report (H. Rept. 115-676) accompanying the 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019, the 
committee noted that all 4 Army National Guard (ARNG) attack 
reconnaissance battalions should be equipped with 24 AH-64 
attack helicopters, the same as Active Component battalions, in 
order to improve overall readiness and compatibility between 
the ARNG and Active Component. Further, the committee 
encouraged the Secretary of the Army to plan, program, and 
budget for 24 additional AH-64 attack helicopters across the 
Future Years Defense Program to address ARNG requirements. H. 
Rept. 115-676 also directed the Secretary of the Army to 
provide a briefing on the Army's long-term sustainment strategy 
for the UH-72A Lakota helicopter fleet.
    Regarding the Future Vertical Lift program, in H. Rept. 
115-676, the committee continued to encourage the Department of 
Defense to explore opportunities to accelerate the FVL program 
in order to meet national security challenges, and noted the 
expectation that the Department will maximize full and open 
competition. As such, the committee directed the Army to 
provide a briefing on the outcome of the analysis of 
alternatives and on any other analysis utilized in deciding the 
Army's priority of rotorcraft investment for FVL prior to the 
release of a request for proposal.
    The John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for 
Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) included an additional 
$85.0 million for five additional UH-60M Black Hawk helicopters 
for the ARNG, and also included an additional $168.0 million 
for six additional AH-64E helicopters for the ARNG. Section 251 
of Public Law 115-232 also requires an extensive briefing from 
the Army and Marine Corps on their strategy for the FVL 
program.

                Army Communications and Network Programs

    Given the growing importance of tactical communication 
networks in global combat operations and the many complex 
challenges they face in contested environments, the committee 
continued to conduct oversight of the Army's plans for tactical 
network modernization, as well as the supporting research and 
development programs now in place. In particular, the committee 
focused oversight efforts on the incremental development and 
fielding of the Warfighter Information Network-Tactical (WIN-T) 
program and other tactical radio programs. The committee, 
through legislative action, worked to address issues related to 
tactical network operational requirements, over-reliance on 
satellite communications, the ability to operate effectively in 
contested environments, the ability of current network 
acquisition strategies to capitalize on advancements in 
commercial wireless network technology, and overall management 
of current major network acquisition programs to prevent 
previous stove-piped management approaches to tactical network 
programs.
    The Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land Forces held 
hearings on May 24, 2017, and April 18, 2018, to review the 
ground force modernization request for fiscal year 2018 and 
fiscal year 2019 respectively, which included tactical network 
programs. The Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land Forces also 
held a hearing on September 27, 2017, to review major changes 
being proposed by the Army with respect to the acquisition 
strategy for tactical network modernization. The hearing 
provided members with the opportunity to gain a better 
understanding of how this new approach would mitigate current 
operational shortfalls of legacy static and on-the-move 
tactical network systems.
    In the committee report (H. Rept. 115-200) accompanying the 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, the 
committee directed the Secretary of the Army to provide a 
briefing to the committee on the Army's network strategy. H.R. 
2810, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 
2018, as passed by the House, included a provision requiring a 
report on options to accelerate WIN-T Increment 2 program.
    Section 112 of the National Defense Authorization Act for 
Fiscal Year 2018 (Public Law 115-91) limited funds for WIN-T 
Increment 2 until the Army provided a detailed report on their 
proposed new acquisition strategy for the tactical network that 
included detailed budgetary information and impacts to current 
programs of record.
    In the committee report (H. Rept. 115-676) accompanying the 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019, the 
committee noted the Army's new tactical network modernization 
strategy is designed to enable the Army to ``fight tonight,'' 
while also actively seeking next-generation solutions to stay 
ahead of potential adversaries. The committee noted this 
strategy would fix the existing programs that are necessary to 
fulfill the most critical operational shortfalls, while 
pivoting to a new acquisition methodology that fosters rapid 
insertion of new technology. The committee encouraged the 
consideration of readily available, non-developmental tactical 
communications technologies that deliver improved performance 
in voice, video, and data dissemination at the squad and 
individual soldier level.

            Organizational Clothing and Individual Equipment

    During the 115th Congress, the committee continued to 
devote substantial attention to the oversight of the research, 
development, and procurement of organizational clothing and 
individual equipment (OCIE), as well as other complementary 
personal protective equipment (PPE) programs. Consistent with 
previous committee oversight activity, the committee focused on 
ensuring that acquisition strategies were in place to modernize 
PPE in order to address evolving threats, and continued to 
encourage and express the need for the military services to 
manage PPE acquisition as a weapon system, rather than an 
expendable commodity. Focus areas included: advances in weight 
reduction (``lightening the load'') in clothing and individual 
equipment; continued investment in advances of next generation 
material development, and development and procurement of PPE 
systems better designed for military servicewomen; small arms 
and small caliber ammunition modernization with particular 
emphasis on fielding enhanced performance small caliber rounds; 
improved combat helmets to help mitigate traumatic brain 
injury; improved combat uniforms; and the overall management of 
these associated niche, but highly critical industrial bases.
    Committee oversight activity also consisted of staff and 
congressional delegations to Program Executive Office-Soldier 
and the Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory to receive updates 
on how the Army and Marine Corps are coordinating and 
accelerating modernization efforts related to PPE and OCIE. The 
Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land Forces held a hearing on 
May 24, 2017, ``Ground Force Modernization Budget Request,'' as 
well as held a briefing on September 13, 2017, ``Update on Army 
and Marine Corps Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) 
Programs,'' to conduct oversight on the issues noted above. In 
the committee report (H. Rept. 115-200) accompanying the 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, the 
committee highlighted the critical need for modernization of 
personal protective equipment (PPE), to include body armor and 
combat helmets. The committee also directed a briefing from the 
Army and Marine Corps regarding coordination efforts related to 
the development and procurement of PPE for female service 
members. H.R. 2810, the National Defense Authorization Act for 
Fiscal Year 2018, as passed by the House, included an 
additional $25.0 million for PPE development. The National 
Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 (Public Law 115-
91) included an additional $15.0 million for PPE development. 
The John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for 
Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) authorized an additional 
$10.0 million for PPE development.

                   Tactical Aircraft Force Structure

    During the 115th Congress, the committee continued its 
oversight of the adequacy of fighter force structure and 
capability in both the Navy and the Air Force, that included 
hearings by the Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land Forces. 
During these hearings witnesses testified that the Navy's 
current budget plans put the service on track to meet fighter 
aircraft inventory requirements by 2022; however, those 
aircraft would require modifications to extend their service-
life. Air Force testimony reflected the Air Force requirement 
for a minimum of 1,900 fighter aircraft. To maintain force 
structure, Air Force officials testified that any shortfall 
mitigation would include executing funded sustainment and fleet 
management actions for older F-16 Block 25, 30, and 32 
aircraft, newer block 40 and 50 service-life extension, and 
targeted modernization and examination of the overall force 
structure to ensure the maintenance of viable warfighting 
capabilities.
    The committee used the findings from these hearings to 
inform the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 
2018 (Public Law 115-91) and the John S. McCain National 
Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-
232). As such, Public Law 115-91 authorized 24 F/A-18E/Fs, an 
increase of 10 F/A-18F aircraft for the Navy; 10 F-35Cs, an 
increase of 6 F-35C aircraft for the Navy and Marine Corps; 24 
F-35Bs, an increase of 4 F-35B aircraft for the Marine Corps; 
and 56 G-35As, an increase of 10 F-35A aircraft for the Air 
Force. Public Law 115-91 also authorized the requested 
procurement to extend the life of the legacy F/A-18 and AV-8B 
fleets and authorized the entire Air Force request for 
modifications to its A-10, F-15, F-16, F-22A, and F-35 fleets. 
Additionally, Public Law 115-91 included a provision that 
requires the Air Force to maintain an inventory of 1,900 
fighter aircraft. Public Law 115-232 authorized 24 F/A-18E/Fs 
and 77 F-35 aircraft and multiyear procurement authority for F/
A-18E/F and EA-18G aircraft. Public Law 115-232 also authorized 
the entire Air Force request for modifications to its A-10, F-
15, F-16, F-22A, and F-35 fleets and the Navy's request for 
modifications to its F/A-18, F-35 and AV-8B fleets.
    During the 115th Congress, the committee continued its 
oversight of the ongoing occurrences of physiological episodes 
in Navy F/A-18 and T-45 aircraft and Air Force T-6, A-10, and 
F-35 aircraft. Public Law 115-232 included a provision which 
required that the Department of the Navy make certain 
modifications to its F/A-18 fleet to minimize physiological 
episodes. It also required the Secretaries of the Navy and the 
Air Force to certify that procurement of new fighter, attack or 
training aircraft include the most recent technological 
advancements necessary to minimize the impact of physiological 
episodes on aircraft crewmembers, and required the Secretary of 
the Air Force to provide a report on its efforts to mitigate 
physiological episodes in fighter, attack, and training 
aircraft.

                       F-35 Joint Strike Fighter

    During the 115th Congress, the committee continued 
oversight of the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter program. The 
committee believes that the F-35 will form the backbone of U.S. 
air combat superiority for decades to come, replacing or 
complementing the legacy tactical fighter fleets of the Air 
Force, Navy, and Marine Corps with a dominant, multi-role, 
fifth-generation aircraft capable of projecting U.S. power and 
deterring potential adversaries. In particular, the committee 
placed oversight emphasis on the following: lowering overall 
program costs; completion of the system development and 
demonstration phase; ongoing software block development; the F-
35 continuous capability development and delivery (C2D2) 
program; challenges facing the Autonomic Logistics Information 
System; and setting conditions to help accelerate production 
and fielding of F-35 aircraft.
    The Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land Forces held a 
hearing on February 16, 2017, to receive an update on the F-35 
program. Additionally, the subcommittee held a hearing on March 
7, 2018, on an update to the F-35 program and service 
requirements for fifth generation aircraft.
    With some minor reductions, the National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 (Public Law 115-91) 
authorized the budget request of $8.7 billion for 63 F-35 
aircraft and $1.8 billion for F-35 development, and provided an 
increase of $800.0 million for six additional F-35C aircraft 
for the Navy and Marine Corps, $525.6 million for 4 additional 
F-35B aircraft for the Marine Corps, and $1.03 billion for 10 
additional F-35A aircraft for the Air Force. Public Law 115-91 
also included a provision authorizing the Secretary of Defense 
to use up to $661.0 million to procure economic order 
quantities of parts planned for use in F-35s to be acquired in 
fiscal years 2019 and 2020, so that overall costs of the F-35 
program could be reduced.
    The John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for 
Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) authorized the budget 
request for $8.8 billion for 77 F-35 aircraft and $1.3 billion 
for F-35 development. Additionally, Public Law 115-232 included 
a provision that would allow the Secretary of Defense to 
acquire higher numbers of F-35 aircraft if such additional 
procurement does not require additional funds to be authorized 
because of production efficiencies or other cost reductions, a 
provision that would require quarterly F-35 briefings by the 
Under Secretary for Acquisition and Sustainment to the 
congressional defense committees, and a provision that would 
limit funds for the C2D2 program until the Secretary of Defense 
submits a detailed cost estimate and baseline schedule for the 
program to the congressional defense committees.

                         Bomber Force Structure

    During the 115th Congress, the committee continued to 
support significant Air Force investments for engineering, 
manufacturing, and development of the B-21A Raider, long-range 
strike bomber aircraft. This oversight of current bomber 
aircraft inventory requirements and modernization efforts was 
to ensure that the Air Force maintains a sufficient, credible, 
and lethal fixed-wing aircraft with conventional and strategic 
weapons delivery capability to support all aspects of the 
National Military Strategy. During the engineering, 
manufacturing, and development phase of the new bomber 
aircraft, the committee noted it was imperative that the Air 
Force continue to maintain, modernize, and upgrade the existing 
fleet of bomber aircraft to preserve the effective capabilities 
needed to meet current and future threats.
    Regarding B-52 modernization, in the committee report (H. 
Rept. 115-200) accompanying the National Defense Authorization 
Act for Fiscal Year 2018, the committee directed the Secretary 
of the Air Force to provide a briefing to the House Committee 
on Armed Services by February 6, 2018, on its modernization 
plan for the B-52 aircraft fleet. The briefing included: re-
engine options, including utilizing authorities pursuant to 
section 2371b of title 10, United States Code, third-party 
financing, and traditional procurement; plans to upgrade the 
ground mapping radar; electronic self-defense options; and an 
integration timeline that best takes advantage of scheduled 
depot throughput.
    In the committee report (H. Rept. 115-676) accompanying the 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019, the 
committee noted that the Air Force released its ``Bomber 
Vector'' in conjunction with the President's budget request for 
fiscal year 2019, which outlined the future of the B-1, B-2, B-
52, and B-21 bomber fleets. According to this document, during 
development and production of the B-21, the Air Force will 
sustain the B-2 bomber to assure no gaps in bomber force 
availability. In addition to availability, the committee is 
concerned that the B-2 bomber fleet must keep pace with the 
threat level and maintain competitive capability during the 
transition. The committee noted that this was a crucial 
function as a global competitor, while hostile nations increase 
their fielding of anti-access and area denial weapon systems 
that impede and degrade the Air Force's ability to hold any 
target at risk around the globe.
    The fiscal year 2019 budget request stated, ``modern 
communications are key enablers for the B-2 in the anti-access/
area denial battle-space and directly enhance lethality and 
force multiplication''. The committee provided additional 
oversight on the Department's proposed termination of the 
Extremely High Frequency Satellite Communications program, 
which provided two-way, high-bandwidth, secure, survivable, 
strategic communication in anti-access and area denial 
environments. In its place, the Air Force has chosen to rely on 
the Common Very-Low-Frequency Receiver, which is to provide the 
B-2 with receive-only, secure, survivable communications. The 
committee supported this B-2 limitation.
    Regarding additional B-2 modernization, in H. Rept. 115-
676, the committee directed the Secretary of the Air Force to 
provide a briefing to the House Committee on Armed Services by 
February 28, 2019, on the B-2 secure communications 
modernization plan. This briefing should include: the impact of 
the Air Force's decision to downgrade B-2 communications 
capabilities on the ability of the B-2 to perform its critical 
strike missions in anti-access/area denial environments; 
recommend solutions that would enable automated transfer of 
data to the B-2 and enable the aircraft to operate in a 
networked fashion with other elements for the long-range strike 
family of systems and other Air Force and Joint systems; and 
provide estimated modernization costs and timelines, and 
consider opportunities to exploit capabilities developed for 
other programs.

                       Aerial Refueling Aircraft

    During the 115th Congress, the committee provided oversight 
of the KC-46, KC-10, and KC-135 tanker programs. Currently, the 
Air Force requires 479 air refueling tankers to meet the 
National Military Strategy. Currently however, the fleet only 
consists of 395 KC-135 and 59 KC-10 tankers, for a total of 454 
tankers. KC-46A deliveries will grow the tanker force to 479 
aircraft in fiscal year 2019. Subsequently, the Air Force plans 
to replace its older tankers one-for-one with 179 KC-46A 
aircraft.
    With regard to the KC-135 fleet, limited fiscal resources 
are available to the Air Force for recapitalization of all 395 
aircraft, necessitating the continued maintenance and operation 
of legacy aircraft. Consequently, the committee supported the 
Secretary of the Air Force's efforts to modernize avionics and 
communication equipment to meet the January 1, 2020, Federal 
Aviation Administration Next Generation (NEXTGEN) Airspace 
Control Mandate for the KC-135 fleet by authorizing the Air 
Force's modernization request in the National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 (Public Law 115-91).
    The Air Force plans to fully recapitalize all 59 KC-10 
tanker aircraft starting in fiscal year 2019, and to be 
completed by fiscal year 2024. The committee supported the 
Secretary of the Air Force's efforts to modernize avionics and 
communication equipment to meet the January 1, 2020, Federal 
Aviation Administration NEXTGEN Airspace Control Mandate for 
the KC-10 fleet by authorizing the Air Force's modernization 
request in Public Law 115-91.
    In the committee report (H. Rept. 115-676), accompanying 
the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019, 
the committee noted that the KC-46A program costs remain 
stable, but the delivery schedule may be further delayed. The 
Air Force reported three category one deficiencies including 
two for the remote vision system (RVS) and one for the center-
line drogue system (CDS). The Government Accountability Office 
(GAO) observed in its report, GAO-18-353, that the program 
updated its delivery schedule in 2017 to allow the defense 
contractor to delay delivery of the first 18 fully capable 
aircraft by 14 months. According to a schedule risk assessment 
and GAO's analysis, if risk is not mitigated, deliveries could 
be delayed further to May 2019, 21 months from the originally 
scheduled delivery. The continued delays are set to cause a 
backup of unaccepted aircraft awaiting the completion of 
contractual test and documentation requirements. To address KC-
46A delivery, section 146 of the John S. McCain National 
Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-
232) limits the funds authorized to be appropriated to procure 
three KC-46A aircraft until the Secretary of the Air Force 
certifies that both supplemental and military type 
certifications have been approved and that the first aircraft 
has been accepted by the Air Force.
    Regarding KC-10A, section 141 of Public Law 115-232 
requires the Secretary of the Air Force to increase the current 
air refueling tanker fleet from 457 to 479 primary assigned 
aircraft before it can begin to retire KC-10A aircraft. The Air 
Force must maintain 479 total tanker aircraft thereafter, 
unless adjusted by the fiscal year 2018 Mobility Capability and 
Requirements Study.

                 Intertheater and Intratheater Airlift

    During the 115th Congress, the committee provided extensive 
oversight of Air Force's intratheater and intertheater airlift 
fleets. Additionally, the committee continues to oversee the 
COMPASS CALL re-host, and the Presidential Aircraft 
Recapitalization programs.
    The committee was concerned with the level of risk in the 
intratheater program. As such, section 144 of the National 
Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 (Public Law 115-
91) directed the Secretary of the Air Force to continue to 
preserve certain C-5 aircraft in a storage condition that would 
allow a recall of retired aircraft to future service in the Air 
Force Reserve, Air National Guard, or the Active Force 
structure. In the committee report (H. Rept. 115-200), 
accompanying the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal 
Year 2018, the committee directed the Secretary of the Air 
Force to provide a briefing to the House Committee on Armed 
Services by January 15, 2018, on intratheater airlift. The 
briefing outlined the Air Force's efforts to leverage 
commercial off-the-shelf solutions and non-development 
solutions for the C-130H AMP Increment 1 and 2 programs.
    The COMPASS CALL re-host program in section 135 of Public 
Law 115-91 restricts the Secretary of the Air Force from 
contracting with any entity for the purposes of the COMPASS 
CALL re-host program until the Under Secretary of Defense for 
Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics submits a certification 
to the congressional defense committees that indicates the 
acquisition strategy has been reviewed and determined to meet 
applicable laws, guidelines, and best practices. The Secretary 
of the Air Force provided such certification.
    The Presidential Aircraft Recapitalization program in 
section 211 of Public Law 115-91 requires the Secretary of the 
Air Force to provide quarterly briefings to the House Committee 
on Armed Services on the efforts to control costs, beginning by 
October 1, 2017, and continuing through October 1, 2022. 
Additionally, section 143 of the John S. McCain National 
Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-
232) directed the Secretary of the Air Force to ensure that the 
VC-25B contract for logistics support complies with part 
17.204(e) of the Federal Acquisition Regulation and also 
complies with section 2304 of title 10, United States Code, 
with regard to open competition.
    Section 144 of Public Law 115-232 adjusted the retirement 
date for the two Air Force VC-25A aircraft to not be later than 
December 31, 2025.
    In the committee report (H. Rept. 115-676) of the National 
Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2019, the committee 
noted that the C-130H Avionics Modernization Program (AMP) 
addresses cockpit modernization needs of the aircraft, however 
it does not include the flight engineers control panel, which 
is a key component of the cockpit. Failure to upgrade the 
flight engineer control panel could leave the C-130H fleet with 
continued obsolescence issues post AMP. If the Air Force were 
to decide to upgrade this equipment at a later date, they will 
have missed the efficiencies of conducting those upgrades 
concurrent with the AMP upgrades. Therefore, the committee 
encouraged the Air Force to explore the possibility of 
upgrading the C-130H flight engineer overhead control panel 
using readily available off the shelf technology. Furthermore, 
if the Air Force determines that these upgrades are necessary, 
they should make every effort to upgrade the aircraft in 
parallel with the AMP program in order to minimize disruption 
to the operation of the C-130H fleet and mission. Additionally, 
section 142 of Public Law 115-232 authorized the Secretary of 
the Air Force to enter into 1 or more multiyear contracts for 
up to 52 C-130J aircraft beginning in fiscal year 2019, in 
accordance with section 2306b of title 10, United States Code.
    The committee noted that the Air National Guard (ANG) 
completed testing of the T56 3.5 engine enhancement and 
reported results that exceeded expectations for fuel savings 
and performance. The committee understood that the ANG expected 
to issue a full test report in the summer of 2018, to be 
followed by a business case analysis for upgrading the entire 
fleet of C-130H/LC-130H aircraft. Additionally, the committee 
was aware that fiscal year 2016 and 2017 propulsion upgrade 
funds had been put on contract. The committee expected the Air 
Force to include the necessary funds to accelerate C-130H/LC-
130H upgrades in future base budgets. Public Law 115-232 
authorized $129.0 million above the Air Force base budget 
request to support the upgrade of C-130H/LC-130H aircraft with 
the T56 3.5 engine enhancement and NP2000 8-bladed propeller.
    In H. Rept. 115-676), the committee included a requirement 
for the Secretary of the Air Force to provide a briefing to the 
House Committee on Armed Services by February 1, 2019, on the 
Compass Call transition plan. Additionally, section 145 of 
Public Law 115-232 struck the 30-day waiting period imposed on 
EC-130H funds by section 135(a) of Public Law 115-91.
    Finally, in H. Rept. 115-676, the committee directed the 
Secretary of the Air Force to provide a briefing to the House 
Committee on Armed Services by February 1, 2019, on the Total 
Force C-17 Fleet Management Plan.

                        Surface Warfare Programs

    The committee continued its oversight of the Department of 
Defense's shipbuilding programs to ensure balanced investments 
are made and the Navy achieves the force structure, with the 
appropriate capabilities needed to meet requirements. Through 
its oversight activities, the committee faced the challenge of 
balancing current demands on an aging fleet within current 
economic constraints. As of November 15, 2018, the Navy 
indicated they currently support 286 deployable battle force 
ships. This available force structure contrasts the Navy's 2016 
requirements projection of 355 ships. Despite these shortfalls, 
the committee sought to obtain the required capability and 
provide stability to the shipbuilding industrial base.
    Preeminent in the Navy force structure is the aircraft 
carrier, which represents the embodiment of the United States' 
ability to project power. The Navy has developed a new design, 
and completed construction of the lead ship for the Ford-class 
aircraft carriers. Technologies introduced with the USS Gerald 
R. Ford have challenged the Navy to maintain cost controls on 
the Ford-class aircraft carrier. Additionally, the Navy has 
been challenged to generate sufficient aircraft carrier force 
structure to support the combatant commanders. To address these 
cost and force structure concerns, section 121 of the National 
Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 (Public Law 115-
91) included a provision that amended section 122 of the John 
Warner National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007 
(Public Law 109-364), by modifying the cost limitation baseline 
for the future USS Enterprise (CVN-80) and follow-on aircraft 
carriers to $12.6 billion. This section also authorized the 
Secretary of Defense the ability to waive the requirement to 
conduct full ship shock trials on the USS Gerald R. Ford (CVN-
78). Additionally, the John S. McCain National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) 
authorized the procurement of an additional Ford-class aircraft 
carrier to be designated CVN-81.
    The committee also provided the Department of the Navy the 
authority to more efficiently procure vessels and associated 
weapon systems. Section 123 of Public Law 115-91 included a 
provision that would authorize the multiyear procurement of 15 
Arleigh Burke class destroyers over the next 5 years. 
Additionally, section 124 of Public Law 115-232 authorized 
multiyear procurement of 625 standard missile-6 missiles over 
the next 5 years. The Navy estimated that these rates of 
procurement would have a cost savings of at least 10 percent 
over conventional contract instruments.
    Additionally, the committee recognized the national 
importance of recapitalizing the U.S. icebreaker fleet and the 
extraordinary circumstances that necessitated use of Department 
of Defense funding to procure the first polar-class heavy 
icebreaker. Accordingly, section 122 of Public Law 115-91 
authorized a single heavy icebreaker. Section 151 of Public Law 
115-232 further authorized the procurement of an additional 5 
polar-class icebreaker vessels.
    Finally, the committee noted that the auxiliary and sealift 
fleets consist of numerous platforms that have, or are 
approaching the end of their useful service lift and need to be 
recapitalized. To address this concern, section 1021 of Public 
Law 115-91 authorized the Secretary of Defense to purchase up 
to two used vessels to begin replacing these older vessels and 
required auxiliary ships to be included in the annual 30-year 
shipbuilding plan required by section 231 of title 10, United 
States Code. Section 1021 was further amended by section 1012 
of Public Law 115-232 and expanded the authority purchase up to 
seven used vessels. This expansion beyond the procurement of 2 
used vessels was conditioned on the Secretary of the Navy's 
certification that the Navy has initiated an acquisition 
strategy for the construction of not less than 10 new sealift 
vessels and the lead ship would be delivered not later than 
2026.

                       Undersea Warfare Programs

    The committee conducted oversight of the Navy's undersea 
warfare domain and placed increased emphasis on a new program 
that will be used to replace the current fleet of ballistic 
missile submarines. This replacement submarine program, 
SSBN(X), is projected to cost over $1.0 billion for the design 
and construction of the 12 submarines and will be the second 
largest Department of Defense acquisition program. Considering 
this program is expected to support 70 percent of the Nation's 
strategic deterrence capability, the committee has resolved to 
acquire the 12 submarines, and is supportive of authorizing an 
efficient contract for the construction of the SSBN(X) program. 
To ensure sufficient oversight of this critical capability, 
section 231 of the National Defense Authorization Act for 
Fiscal Year 2018 (Public Law 115-91) required periodic update 
of matrices on Columbia-class cost, design, and construction 
goals. The Comptroller General of the United States would also 
be required to review and assess this program and provide 
feedback to the congressional defense committees. Additionally, 
section 1022 of Public Law 115-91 provided authority for 
multiyear procurement of certain critical components to support 
continuous production.
    Finally, section 124 of Public Law 115-91 also addressed 
multiyear procurement of 13 Virginia-class attack submarines. 
The Navy estimated that this rate of procurement would save 
almost 10 percent over conventional contract instruments. 
Section 129 of the John S. McCain National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) 
further required the Secretary includes an option for the 
procurement of a third submarine in fiscal years 2022 and 2023.

    Military Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Programs

    Manned and unmanned intelligence, surveillance, and 
reconnaissance (ISR) system programs have come to constitute a 
significant component of the overall Department of Defense 
force structure. The committee believed the capability provided 
by these assets remains critical to sustaining deterrence and 
full spectrum readiness capability of U.S. forces.
    Throughout the 115th Congress, the committee focused on the 
budget, cost, schedule, and performance outcomes of major ISR 
manned and unmanned aerial systems (UAS) programs, and examined 
the ISR enterprise for balance in inventory, collection, and 
analysis capabilities. Also, close examination of the Office of 
the Secretary of Defense ISR policy formulation and oversight 
has been of interest to the committee. These long-standing 
committee concerns of the Department's ISR enterprise were 
assessed: lack of an adequate long-term ISR architecture and 
acquisition strategy; lack of supporting analysis for 
programmatic decisions; and, the failure to balance collection 
programs data output with adequate resources to process, 
exploit, and disseminate data and analyses. The committee 
emphasized to the Joint Staff and Joint Requirements Oversight 
Council the need to take a more proactive role in coordinating 
ISR system acquisition of the services and better coordinating 
employment of service-provided ISR capabilities with the 
combatant commanders.
    In particular, the committee placed oversight emphasis on, 
but was not limited to, the cost, schedule, performance, and 
procurement objectives of the following ISR programs: RQ-4 
Global Hawk Blocks 30/40, MQ-9 Reaper, MQ-1C Gray Eagle, MQ-4C 
Triton, MQ-8 Fire Scout, MQ-25 Stingray, Marine Air Ground Task 
Force UAS Expeditionary, and sustainment of U-2 and legacy 
Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System aircraft.

                 Emerging Advanced Weapons Capabilities

    Department of Defense investment in science and technology 
often leads to the development of advanced weapons capabilities 
or weapons concepts that contribute to the technological 
superiority of U.S. military forces. Maintaining technological 
overmatch of current and potential adversaries is a significant 
part of the qualitative advantage of U.S. forces, but is 
increasingly difficult in an environment of globalized 
technologies and asymmetric combinations of high-tech and low-
tech capabilities. The committee continued to monitor 
technological developments, from both government funded labs, 
as well as commercially developed sources, and supported 
transition of the most promising technological weapons systems 
or concepts. Advancements in areas such as directed energy, 
hypersonics, autonomy, and synthetic biology may prove to be 
double-edged swords, benefiting U.S. national security, but 
also exploiting U.S. security weaknesses when adopted by 
potential future adversaries.
    In the 115th Congress, the committee examined the strategy, 
concepts of employment, and other organizing concepts being 
pursued by the military services and the Office of Secretary of 
Defense, and when matured, develop acquisition plans in support 
of fielding advanced capabilities, such as artificial 
intelligence, hypersonics, and autonomous systems. The 
committee oversaw the maturation of the Department of Defense 
outreach efforts with the commercial sector and the transition 
of innovative commercial technologies into national security 
and defense applications. Additionally, the committee monitored 
policies or trends impeding or supporting the development of 
new, innovative capabilities, as well as monitoring scientific 
developments internationally to better understand how state-of-
the-art advancements can contribute to foreign military 
developments.
    The committee held related hearings and briefings, 
including a hearing on January 8, 2018, ``China's Pursuit of 
Emerging and Exponential Technologies''.
    In the committee report (H. Rept. 115-200) accompanying the 
National Defense Authorization Act for 2018, the committee 
included several directive reporting requirements, including: a 
plan to fund enhanced lightweight hard armor; an assessment on 
the Army's counter-improvised explosive device technology; an 
assessment of the Air Force Test Center; and a roadmap for 
future weapons and munitions science and technology investment.
    The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 
(Public Law 115-91) included a provision that authorizes funds 
to be used exclusively for high energy lasers and high power 
microwave prototyping and demonstrations; a provision that 
provides the Joint Hypersonic Transition Office with the 
responsibility to coordinate and integrate programs, ensure 
coordination of current and future Department programs on 
hypersonics, and approve demonstrations; and a provision that 
authorizes a pilot program to improve incentives for technology 
transfer from Department of Defense laboratories.
    In the committee report (H. Rept. 115-676) accompanying the 
National Defense Authorization Act for 2019, the committee 
included several directive reporting requirements, including: 
an analysis of targeted soldier borne sensor efforts; a plan 
that addresses the challenges of urban warfare combat and 
training within the Army; a briefing on the Navy's support for 
research into autonomous systems; a plan on engine noise 
reduction efforts; and a plan on the future strategy for 
directed energy and non-lethal weapons.
    The John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for 
Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) included: a provision 
that provides an extension of directed energy prototype 
authority; a provision that provides a limitation of funds for 
certain high energy laser advanced technologies; a provision 
that requires a plan to eliminate, transfer, or retain the 
Strategic Capabilities office; a provision that establishes 
procedures for the rapid reaction to emerging technology 
requirements; a provision that requires a report on comparative 
capabilities of adversaries in key technology areas; and a 
provision that requires a briefing on the National Hypersonics 
Initiative and impact on treaty obligations.

                           Nuclear Deterrence

    In the 115th Congress, the committee continued its 
oversight of the atomic energy defense activities of the 
Department of Energy and nuclear policies and programs of the 
Department of Defense. The committee's oversight of these 
programs intends to ensure the safety, security, reliability, 
and credibility of the U.S. nuclear deterrent. The committee 
continued to provide oversight of the Department of Energy and 
the Department of Defense's nuclear modernization plans, 
including but not limited to infrastructure investments, 
warhead life extension programs, stockpile stewardship 
programs, stockpile management programs, stockpile 
responsiveness programs, delivery system modernization, nuclear 
command and control, cost savings and efficiency initiatives, 
and security.
    On March 8, 2017, the committee held a hearing entitled 
``Military Assessment of Nuclear Weapons Requirements'', in 
which the witnesses offered their military advice and 
professional judgments regarding the military requirements 
related to nuclear deterrence, including U.S. needs and foreign 
developments driving those needs. On March 9, 2017, the 
Subcommittee on Strategic Forces held a hearing entitled 
``Nuclear Deterrence, the Defense Science Board's Perspective'' 
that reviewed recent studies and recommendations of the Defense 
Science Board regarding the U.S. nuclear deterrent. On March 
16, 2017, the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations held 
a hearing on ``Oversight Review of Infrastructure Needs and 
Projects Ready for Immediate Implementation in the Nuclear 
Security Enterprise''. The hearing looked to discuss these 
infrastructure problems while looking to secure the significant 
levels of funding needed to address them. On March 29, 2017, 
the Subcommittee on Strategic Forces held a joint hearing with 
the House Committee on Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on 
Terrorism, Nonproliferation, and Trade entitled ``Consequences 
and Context for Russia's violations of the INF Treaty'', and 
discussed the implications of Russian violations of the 
Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty. On May 25, 
2017, the Subcommittee on Strategic Forces held a hearing 
entitled ``Fiscal Year 2018 Priorities for Nuclear Forces and 
Atomic Energy Defense Activities'' that examined the 
Administration's fiscal year 2018 priorities, plans, programs, 
and policies associated with the Department of Defense's 
nuclear forces and the defense-related nuclear activities of 
the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security 
Administration. In addition, the Subcommittee on Strategic 
Forces conducted a classified briefing on the Nuclear Posture 
Review on December 7, 2017.
    In the second session of the 115th Congress, the committee 
held a hearing and briefing on February 6, 2018, focusing on 
``the NDS and NPR''. The hearing provided an opportunity for 
the committee to provide oversight of the Administration's 
National Defense Strategy and its Nuclear Posture Review. The 
Subcommittee on Strategic Forces held a hearing on March 22, 
2018, on the ``Fiscal Year 2019 Budget Request for Nuclear 
Forces and Atomic Energy Defense Activities'' that examined the 
nuclear-related budget requests for the Department of Energy 
and the Department of Defense. The subcommittee also conducted 
a classified briefing on June 27, 2018, entitled ``Intel Update 
on Foreign Nuclear Weapons''.
    The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal year 2018 
(Public Law 115-91) included several legislative provisions 
related to nuclear deterrence and the nuclear security 
enterprise. Public Law 115-91 included provisions to reduce the 
threat of nuclear weapons and materials by strengthening 
nonproliferation programs, modernizing our nuclear deterrent, 
and ensuring the safety, security, and reliability of our 
nuclear stockpile, delivery systems, and infrastructure.
    The John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for 
Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) included several 
legislative provisions related to nuclear deterrence and the 
nuclear security enterprise. Competitors like the People's 
Republic of China and the Russian Federation are investing in 
new strategic weapons to modernize their arsenals, and Public 
Law 115-232 takes a comprehensive approach to ensure our 
security and maintaining U.S. nuclear forces and makes critical 
investments to modernize America's nuclear deterrent and align 
it with these modern threats.

         Missile Defense and Conventional Prompt Global Strike

    The committee oversaw the Department of Defense's efforts 
to develop, test, and field layered missile defense 
capabilities to protect the United States, its deployed forces, 
and its friends and allies against the full range of ballistic 
missile threats.
    In the 115th Congress, the committee continued to place a 
particular emphasis on U.S. homeland missile defense 
capabilities (including the Missile Defense Agency's proposal 
and strategy for acquiring a Redesigned Kill Vehicle and 
development and deployment of Homeland Defense Radars in Alaska 
and Hawaii). The committee also continued to oversee the 
European Phased Adaptive Approach implementation, developmental 
and operational testing, force structure and inventory 
requirements, continued development of so-called ``left-of-
launch'' capabilities and exercises, and science and technology 
investments in areas such as directed energy.
    During the first session of the 115th Congress, the 
Subcommittee on Strategic Forces held a hearing on June 7, 
2017, on ``Fiscal year 2018 Priorities and Posture of Missile 
Defeat Programs and Activities'' that focused on missile 
defense activities under deployment by the Department of 
Defense, including ``left-of-launch'' ballistic missile 
defense.
    During the second session of the 115th Congress, the 
subcommittee held a hearing on April 17, 2018, on the ``Fiscal 
Year 2019 Budget Request for Missile Defense and Missile Defeat 
Programs.'' In addition, on September 5, 2018, the subcommittee 
held a classified briefing on ``Chinese and Russian Hypersonic 
Weapon Development and Testing and U.S. Hypersonic Defense 
Update'' that provided an intelligence assessment on recent 
Chinese and Russian hypersonic weapon developments. The brief 
also included an update from the Missile Defense Agency on the 
U.S. hypersonic defense program and ongoing analysis of 
alternatives.
    The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 
(Public Law 115-91) included several provisions supporting 
missile defense and defeat programs. Given the increased 
threats against the United States, particularly from Democratic 
People's Republic of Korea, Public Law 115-91 authorized up to 
28 additional ground-based interceptors, and directed the 
Missile Defense Agency, if consistent with the Ballistic 
Missile Defense Review, to develop a space-based sensor layer 
for ballistic missile defense to assure that we remain ahead of 
the threat.
    The John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for 
Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) included several 
legislative provisions supporting missile defense and defeat 
programs. The NDAA accelerated the integration of Patriot and 
Terminal High Altitude Area Defense missiles and required the 
director of the Missile Defense Agency to establish a space 
sensor layer and a boost phase intercept program, regardless of 
the outcome of the Ballistic Missile Defense Review, which 
commenced in 2017.
    In the 115th Congress, the committee continued to oversee 
Conventional Prompt (Global) Strike (CPS) activities across the 
Department of Defense and military services. The committee 
focused on current and projected warfighter requirements for 
CPS capabilities, the timelines needed to meet those 
requirements, and related policy issues related to reducing the 
risk of ambiguity. Public Law 115-91 directed the Secretary of 
Defense to deliver a CPS capability not later than September 
30, 2022. In the second session of the 115th Congress, the 
Subcommittee on Strategic Forces and the Subcommittee on 
Seapower and Projection Forces held a joint briefing led by the 
Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, 
Technology, and Logistics on the progress of the CPS program. 
Public Law 115-232 included a provision on CPS, and required 
the Secretary of Defense to validate requirements provided by 
the warfighter, in addition to providing additional funding 
above the President's budget request to accelerate development 
and testing of the system.

                        National Security Space

    In the 115th Congress, the committee continued to oversee 
the national security space programs of the Department of 
Defense, including combat support agencies and elements of the 
Department of Defense that are also part of the intelligence 
community. The committee focused on current and projected 
foreign space threats and will continue to assess the 
Department's space security and defense programs. The committee 
also focused on improving the organization and management of 
the national security space enterprise to posture the military 
to maintain the advantages we derive from space capabilities.
    The committee continued its oversight of national security 
space activities in support of warfighter operations and plans; 
space acquisition strategies that provide necessary warfighter 
capability, while reducing cost and technical risk and 
supporting the industrial base; maintaining assured access to 
space; efforts to address gaps in space capabilities for key 
warfighter needs; investments in science and technology to 
improve the capabilities of space systems; efforts to 
appropriately leverage commercial satellite services; 
exploitation of space sensor data to maximize effectiveness and 
efficiency; improvements of the synchronization between 
satellite, ground, and terminal acquisition programs; and 
efforts that develop and sustain an expert space workforce.
    In the first session of the 115th Congress, on March 29, 
2017, the Subcommittee on Strategic Forces held a joint hearing 
with the House Committee on Homeland Security Subcommittee on 
Emergency Preparedness, Response, and Communications entitled 
``Threats to Space Assets and Implications for U.S. Homeland 
Security.'' On May 19, 2017, the Subcommittee on Strategic 
Forces held a hearing on the ``Fiscal Year 2018 Priorities and 
Posture of the National Security Space Enterprise''.
    In the second session of the 115th Congress, the committee 
held a hearing on ``Space Warfighting Readiness'' on March 14, 
2018. The hearing discussed the current and future readiness 
for U.S. forces to deter an attack on space systems and, if 
deterrence fails, to successfully operate through and win in a 
conflict that extends to the space domain. On March 15, 2018, 
the Subcommittee on Strategic Forces held a hearing entitled, 
``The Fiscal Year 2019 Priorities and Posture of the National 
Security Space Enterprise''. On June 20, 2018, the Subcommittee 
on Strategic Forces held a joint hearing with the House 
Committee on Science, Space, and Technology Subcommittee on 
Space entitled, ``Space Situational Awareness: Whole of 
Government Perspectives on Roles and Responsibilities'' and 
reviewed the roles and responsibilities of particular 
departments and agencies that execute SSA missions.
    The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 
(Public Law 115-91) included several provisions related to 
national security space. Public Law 115-91 recognized that 
space, just like land, air and sea, has quickly become a 
warfighting domain. This included provisions to begin 
addressing the organizational and management challenges faced 
by national security space enterprise. Public Law 115-91 
streamlines Air Force acquisition authorities and empowers a 
single accountable organization for space forces within the Air 
Force.
    The John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for 
Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) included several 
provisions related to national security space programs, 
including those that address improvement to the acquisition 
system, personnel, and organization of space forces; space 
warfighting readiness policy; rapid, responsible and reliable 
space launch; supply chain security for certain space programs; 
the use of small- and medium-size buses for strategic payloads; 
and improving coordination and accountability across the 
Department.

                           Maritime Aviation

    The committee provided oversight of Navy's maritime 
aviation programs. The committee also continued its oversight 
efforts of the unmanned aircraft MQ-25 air-refueling aircraft 
program.
    With regard to naval aviation force structure, in the 
committee report (H. Rept. 115-200) accompanying the National 
Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, the committee 
directed the Secretary of the Navy to provide a briefing to the 
House Committee on Armed Services not later than September 30, 
2018, or 12 months after the issuance of the National Defense 
Strategy. The briefing provided estimates as to the number of 
Navy and Marine Corps aircraft by series and type needed to 
achieve the objectives of the National Defense Strategy, and to 
complement the capability resident in a 355-ship Navy with 12 
aircraft carriers. The briefing also included a detailed 
explanation of the strategy and associated force sizing and 
shaping constructs, associated scenarios and assumptions used 
to conduct the analysis, and quantification of risk using the 
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff risk management 
classifications.
    Section 126 of the John S. McCain National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) 
authorizes the Secretary of the Navy to enter into one or more 
multiyear contracts, for up to 24 E-2D Advanced Hawkeye 
aircraft, beginning in fiscal year 2019, in accordance with 
section 2306b of title 10, United States Code.
    In the committee report (H. Rept. 115-676) accompanying the 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019, the 
committee notes that the Navy has the opportunity to leverage a 
$300.0 million Air Force investment in the MS-177A maritime 
enhanced sensor, which is meant to improve maritime target 
detection and long-range imaging. This investment could 
significantly reduce procurement costs and expedite fielding. 
The committee believes that having an organic Navy MS-177A 
demonstration in the U.S. Pacific Command (PACOM) area of 
responsibility could help the Navy to assess the full range of 
anti-surface unit warfare and anti-submarine warfare 
capabilities. In addition, the MS-177A would help gather needed 
intelligence against threats in the PACOM strategic 
environment. The MS-177A would improve the Navy organic 
capability to conduct standoff anti-surface unit warfare 
intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance, and long-range 
positive identification of targets. As such committee 
authorized $23.5 million for the MS-177A maritime enhanced 
sensor demonstration program.
    The committee supports the MQ-25 unmanned air refueling 
capability. In H. Rept. 115-676, the committee noted that the 
Navy's efforts to develop and field a carrier-based unmanned 
aerial system to provide refueling as well as intelligence, 
surveillance, and reconnaissance support to the fleet. The 
committee further noted that the Chief of Naval Operations 
intends to accelerate this program by 2 years in order to 
provide this capability by 2026. To date, the Navy has not 
provided sufficient air vehicle justification. Budget documents 
stated that $598.78 million will go to Air Segment Primary 
Hardware Development with very little further justification or 
cost estimates. As such, the committee authorized a decrease of 
$116.9 million to procure one test article for the MQ-25 
Unmanned Carrier Aviation program.
    Additionally, in H. Rept. 115-200, the committee directed 
the Comptroller General of the United States to submit a report 
to the congressional defense committees by March 1, 2018, on 
the Navy's carrier based unmanned aircraft acquisition 
program(s), with specific focus on the MQ-25 that takes into 
account the revised capability development document. The report 
included the extent to which the program(s) have established 
cost, schedule, and performance goals, including test, 
production, and fielding plans and an assessment of program 
progress toward meeting those goals.
    Finally, section 220 of Public Law 115-232 required the 
Navy to fund the modification of CVN-73 during its refueling 
and overhaul period in support of future MQ-25 unmanned carrier 
aircraft operations.

                Munitions and Munitions Industrial Base

    During the 115th Congress, the committee devoted particular 
oversight to conventional and precision guided munition 
programs, to include the health of the associated industrial 
base and supplier base, as well as munition inventories. The 
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff testified before the 
committee that, ``key precision guided munitions shortfalls are 
exacerbated by ongoing operations and may impact potential 
contingency response.'' He further stated that ``our current 
global inventories are insufficient for theater missile 
defense, standoff, and air-to-air munitions needs.'' The 
Secretary of the Air Force also indicated that ``when it comes 
to munitions, we are stretched.'' The committee efforts 
primarily focused on the adequacy of current stockpiles of 
conventional munitions, as well as concerns regarding the 
ability of the industrial base to surge in order to meet 
emerging demands for overseas contingency operations. The 
committee, through official activities and legislation, worked 
to improve munition capacity, develop intelligent options for 
mitigating the bottlenecks and long-lead times required for 
munitions, mitigate the risk associated with single points of 
failure in the supplier base, as well as acquisition reform 
efforts to include stockpiling, multi-year procurement 
contracts, paying to keep additional production capacity, and 
new production techniques. Committee staff delegations and 
congressional delegations also conducted oversight visits to 
the primary critical energetic material production facilities 
that provide the energetics for munition programs.
    The Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land Forces held a 
briefing on July 27, 2017, to review the challenges facing Army 
and Air Force munition programs.
    In the committee report (H. Rept. 115-200) accompanying the 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, the 
committee directed the Secretary of the Army to provide a 
briefing to the committee on the Army's strategic plan for the 
ammunition industrial base.
    The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 
(Public Law 115-91) authorized an additional $2.0 billion to 
address munition unfunded requirements identified by the 
military service Chiefs of Staff.
    In the committee report (H. Rept. 115-676) accompanying the 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019, the 
committee cited significant concerns regarding the adequacy of 
the Army's Stinger missile inventory, as well as the resiliency 
of the associated industrial base that produces key components. 
H. Rept. 115-676 directed the Army to provide a briefing on the 
Stinger Modernization Program, to include the Army's strategy 
to mitigate the decline of the Stinger missile inventory, to 
include required funding, maintenance of the Stinger industrial 
base, and modernization of the Stinger program in the out-
years.
    The John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for 
Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) supported the budget 
request for critical munitions, and authorized additional 
funding to maintain the maximum production rate of critical 
munitions, such as small diameter bombs, joint direct attack 
munitions, hellfire missiles, advanced precision kill weapon 
systems, long range anti-ship missiles, tomahawk missiles, 
advanced medium-range air-to-air missiles, and torpedoes. 
Sections 1061 and 1067 of Public Law 115-232 improves oversight 
of the Department's management of critical munition portfolios, 
and also requires the Department to submit a separate Future 
Year's Defense Program specifically for critical munitions.

                     Electronic Warfare Enterprise

    During the 115th Congress, the committee assessed the 
electronic warfare (EW) strategy document that was released by 
the Department's Electronic Warfare Executive Committee in June 
2017. The committee sought to gain a greater understanding of 
current Joint Electro-Magnetic Spectrum Operations (JEMSO) 
efforts since release of the EW strategy document. The 
committee determined during the assessment that subsequent 
efforts to strengthen, modernize, and create synergy of effort 
across the Department related to the JEMSO enterprise may have 
stagnated within the military services, the Office of the 
Secretary of Defense, and the Office of the Chairman of the 
Joint Chiefs of Staff. The committee noted that officials 
overseeing the JEMSO enterprise needed to reinvigorate efforts 
towards achieving the goals and objectives described in the EW 
strategy due to the fact that peer adversaries are beginning to 
outpace U.S. capabilities.
    The committee continued oversight of the Department's 
implementation of all JEMSO initiatives and capabilities, and 
encouraged the Department to quickly regain asymmetric 
superiority in this warfighting domain. Section 1053 of the 
John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal 
Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) included oversight initiatives 
to enhance the governance, development of capabilities, and 
inter-service synergies of the Department's JEMSO enterprise.

                   EMERGING THREATS AND CAPABILITIES


        Investment in Future Capabilities Science and Technology

    In the 115th Congress, the subcommittee continued to 
oversee the Department of Defense's science and technology 
(S&T) activities to ensure the planning and execution of a 
balanced S&T program that reflects the national security 
priorities of the military, and is in alignment with the 
National Defense Strategy. The committee also continued to 
examine how S&T investments are integrated into strategic and 
operational plans to ensure the investments that were made, 
including in people and infrastructure, were properly aligned. 
The committee focused on achieving a better understanding of 
how S&T programs integrate intelligence analyses into the S&T 
planning cycle, as well as better cognizance of global 
developments and industry-based independent research and 
development. The committee expanded its focus to take a similar 
look at other emerging technologies, such as artificial 
intelligence and quantum computing, to see how they can 
contribute to new security strategies, and to ensure that they 
are supported by rigorous technical analysis, guidelines, and 
relevant concepts of employment.
    The Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and Capabilities held 
a related briefing on May 17, 2017, ``Technological Superiority 
and Defense Investment Planning to Mitigate Foreign Advances''; 
a hearing on March 14, 2018, ``A Review and Assessment of the 
Fiscal Year 2019 Budget Request for the Department of Defense 
Science and Technology Programs''; a briefing on June 21, 2018, 
``Artificial Intelligence Industry Roundtable''; and a hearing 
on December 11, 2018, ``Department of Defense's Artificial 
Intelligence Structure, Investments, and Applications''.
    In the committee report (H. Rept. 115-200) accompanying the 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, the 
committee included several directive reporting requirements, 
including: a briefing on the development of a long-term science 
and technology roadmap for the development of Naval energetic 
materials, both explosives and propellants; a briefing on the 
Department's plans to develop and improve additive 
manufacturing, or 3-D printing; a briefing on current 
investments in medical simulation technology and research, and 
Department-wide efforts to incorporate simulated learning 
techniques in defense medical training; and a report on how the 
Defense Innovation Unit Experiment will be sufficiently tied 
into the broader activities of the Department of Defense.
    The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 
(Public Law 115-91) included a provision that raises the limit 
on in-house capital purchases using defense working capital 
funds from $250,000 to $500,000; a provision that would require 
the Secretary of the Air Force to continue serving as the 
Department of Defense Executive Agent for the Defense 
Production Act Programs, and require the Secretary of Defense 
to complete a review and assessment of the Defense Production 
Act Title III program and provide a briefing; a provision that 
makes permanent the authority of the Secretary of Defense to 
award prizes for advanced technology achievements; a provision 
that requires the Secretaries of Defense and Energy to conduct 
a pilot program among defense laboratories, national 
laboratories, and private entities to facilitate the licensure, 
transfer, and commercialization of innovative technologies; a 
provision that codifies the research authorities of the defense 
laboratories; a provision requesting a report on educational 
opportunities in science, technology, engineering, and 
mathematics for children dependents of members of the Armed 
Forces; a provision that establishes senior scientific 
technical managers at Major Range and Test Facility Base 
Facilities, and Defense Test Resource Management Center; a 
provision that would allow United States Merchant Marine 
Academy members to participate in competitions for grants that 
have scientific or educational value to the Academy; and a 
provision that revises and updates the list of Department of 
Defense S&T reinvention laboratories.
    In the committee report (H. Rept. 115-676) accompanying the 
National Defense Authorization Act for 2019, the committee 
included several directive reporting requirements, including: 
an overview of the Navy's Small Business Innovation Research 
Automated Test and Retest Program; a briefing on the Air 
Force's wind energy radar mitigation efforts; an assessment of 
the common data environment for modeling and simulation 
capabilities; an update on counter-small tactical unmanned air 
system programs and associated threat detection technologies; 
an assessment of the future uses of synthetic biology; a plan 
for further integrating the National laboratories with defense 
innovation hubs; and a plan for protecting defense industrial 
base critical technologies.
    The John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for 
Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) included a provision that 
would establish a National Security Commission on Artificial 
Intelligence; a provision that requires the establishment of a 
Department of Defense critical technologies list; a provision 
that requires the development of a National Science and 
Technology Strategy; a provision that requires the Defense 
Technical Information Center to establish an innovators 
information repository for the Department; a provision that 
extends and codifies the authority to conduct technology 
protection features activities during the research and 
development of defense systems; a provision that reauthorizes 
the defense research and development rapid innovation program; 
a provision that expands the mission areas supported for 
expedited access to technical talent and expertise at academic 
institutions; a provision that establishes the National 
Security Innovation Activities program and authorizes funding 
in the amount of $75.0 million; a provision that establishes 
the Defense Quantum Information Science and Technology Research 
Program; a provision that establishes the a Joint Artificial 
Intelligence Research, Development, and Transition Activities 
Program; and a provision that requires a report on Defense 
Innovation Unit Experimental integration in the broader 
Department of Defense research enterprise.

                     Cyber Operations Capabilities

    Cyber operations have taken on an increasingly important 
role in military operations, as well as overall in national 
security. Accordingly, the committee continued to scrutinize 
the Department of Defense's cyber operations, organization, 
manning, and funding to ensure that the military has the 
freedom of maneuver to conduct the range of missions in the 
Nation's defense, and when called upon, to support other 
interagency and international partners. An important oversight 
role for Congress regarding the conduct of defensive and 
offensive cyber operations has been to ensure that the proper 
legal and policy frameworks are in place and followed. The 
committee also continued to scrutinize military cyber 
operations to ensure that they are properly integrated into the 
combatant commander's operational plans, and to ensure that 
adequate capabilities exist or are in development to employ 
these cyberspace operational tools with rigor and discretion to 
support a full range of options for the Nation's decision 
makers. In the course of monitoring the cybersecurity posture 
of the military, the committee continued to examine the effects 
of globalization on the assured integrity of microelectronics 
and software.
    The committee and the Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and 
Capabilities conducted several hearings and briefings within 
this area, including: February 28, 2017, ``Cyber Warfare in the 
21st Century: Threats, Challenges and Opportunities''; March 1, 
2017, ``Cyber Operations Quarterly Update''; May 23, 2017, 
``Fiscal Year 2018 Budget Request for U.S. Cyber Command: Cyber 
Mission Force Support to Department of Defense Operations''; 
September 26, 2017, ``Initiatives for Protecting Naval Vessels 
Afloat From Cyber Vulnerabilities''; November 29, 2017, ``Cyber 
Operations Quarterly Update''; December 6, 2017, ``Update on 
National Security Agency (NSA) Activities''; January 17, 2018: 
``An Update on U.S. Government Accountability Office's (GAO) 
Ongoing Cyber Reviews and Studies''; April 11, 2018, ``A Review 
and Assessment of the Department of Defense Budget, Strategy, 
Policy, and Programs for Cyber Operations and U.S. Cyber 
Command for Fiscal Year 2019''; April 11, 2018: ``Cyber 
Operations Today: Preparing for 21st Century Challenges in an 
Information-Enabled Society''; June 6, 2018, ``Cyber Operations 
Quarterly Update''.
    In the committee report (H. Rept. 115-200) accompanying the 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, the 
committee included several directive reporting requirements, 
including: an assessment, and subsequent briefing, of the 
Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement clause to 
assess compliance of industry and identify any issues and 
concerns with the quality of System Security Plans from 
contractors; an assessment, and subsequent briefing, to assess 
the Department of Defense's current and planned state of cyber 
training; a briefing on cyber talent management tools in 
development and use across the Department of Defense; an 
assessment, and subsequent briefing, on creating criteria for 
evaluating commercial threat information service providers and 
sources; and a briefing on the progress in developing the 
Persistent Training Environment.
    The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 
(Public Law 115-91) included a provision that would authorize 
service secretaries to credit any person receiving an original 
appointment as a reserve commissioned officer with a period of 
constructive service, and allows the Defense Department to 
better recruit individuals with cyberspace-related skills into 
vacant critical cyberspace positions; a provision that would 
require the Director of National Intelligence to develop a list 
of telecommunications contractors who have been found to have 
knowingly assisted or facilitated a cyber attack carried out or 
on behalf of the government of the Democratic People's Republic 
of Korea, and would prohibit the Secretary of Defense from 
entering into a contract with any entity on this list; a 
provision that would require the Secretary of Defense to submit 
to the Congress a report on all prior attempted Russian cyber 
attacks against Department of Defense systems within the last 2 
years; a provision that would require the Secretary of Defense 
to carry out a pilot program to assess the feasibility and 
advisability of an enhanced personnel management system for 
cybersecurity and legal professionals; a provision that 
included all of the congressional defense committees in the 
requirement of quarterly cyber operations briefings, as well as 
increasing the fidelity of the items included; a provision that 
would prohibit any department, agency, organization, or other 
element of the U.S. Government from using any product developed 
by Kaspersky Lab or any entity of which Kaspersky Lab has 
majority ownership; a provision that would establish the policy 
of the United States with respect to matters pertaining to 
cyberspace, cybersecurity, and cyber warfare; a provision that 
would modify the requirements and authorities germane to the 
establishment of a unified combatant command for cyber 
operations; a provision that would authorize a pilot program to 
assess the effectiveness of carrying out a full-scale talent 
management program to ensure that the cyber work force of the 
Department has the capacity needed to effectively perform its 
cyber missions and the kinetic missions impacted by cyber 
activities; a provision that would require the establishment of 
a cross-functional task force to integrate across organizations 
of the Department of Defense responsible for information 
operations, military deception, public affairs, electronic 
warfare, and cyber operations; a provision that would require 
the Secretary of Defense to incorporate the cybersecurity of 
elections systems of the states as a component of the Cyber 
Guard Exercise; a provision that would direct the Secretary of 
Defense to update its cyber scorecards; a provision that would 
establish the Strategic Cybersecurity Program; a provision that 
would require the Commander of U.S. Cyber Command to conduct an 
evaluation of alternative methods for developing, acquiring, 
and maintaining software-based cyber tools and applications for 
Cyber Command and for the cyber component commands of the Armed 
Forces; a provision that would direct the Secretary of Defense 
to submit a report on significant security risks to defense 
critical electric infrastructure; a provision that would 
require the Secretary of Defense to conduct a cyber posture 
review; a provision that would require the Secretary of the 
Army to submit to Congress a report on the Army Combat Training 
Centers and the current resident cyber capabilities and 
training at such centers; a provision that would require the 
Secretary of Defense to submit a report on the potential 
offensive and defensive cyber applications of blockchain 
technology; a provision that would require the Secretary of 
Defense to submit a report on the Department of Defense 
training infrastructure for cyber forces; a provision that 
would require the Secretary of Defense to provide a report on 
termination of the dual-hat arrangement for the Commander of 
U.S. Cyber Command; a provision that would establish the 
Department of Defense Cyber Scholarship Program; a provision 
that would develop and implement a pilot program at not more 
than 10, but at least 5, community colleges to provide 
scholarships to eligible students who are veterans of the Armed 
Forces pursing associate degrees or specialized program 
certifications in the field of cybersecurity; a provision that 
adds a scholarship-for-service condition to U.S. Code in which 
recipients of the relevant scholarships must agree to work for 
a period equal to the length of the scholarship in local, 
state, or Federal government; a provision that expands the 
definitions of ``math and science teacher'' and ``science, 
technology, engineering, or mathematics professional'' to 
include persons with relevant cybersecurity experience and 
qualifications in section 1862n-1(i) of title 42, U.S. Code; 
and a provision that would require an annual assessment of the 
cyber resiliency of the nuclear command and control system.
    In the committee report (H. Rept. 115-676) accompanying the 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019, the 
committee included several directive reporting requirements, 
including: a briefing on activities and investments the 
Department is making with respect to foreign suppliers of 
critical technologies to national defense to ensure their 
integrity, including microelectronics; a briefing on how the 
Department may expand Hacking for Defense to support the 
Department's innovation and entrepreneurial education efforts; 
a Comptroller General review of the Department of Defense's 
current military cyberspace operations; a Comptroller General 
review of the Department's information operations strategy and 
implementation efforts; a briefing on the implementation and 
utilization of the Cyber Scholarship Program; a briefing 
outlining the resources and any recommendations that will be 
required to fully address the information security continuous 
monitoring capability and comply-to-connect policy requirements 
contained in the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal 
Year 2017 (Public Law 114-328); a briefing outlining the 
specific steps the Department is taking to protect autonomous 
systems from cyberattack; a briefing on the status and 
evolution of automated cyber defense capabilities, to include 
those that automatically detect and mitigate malware and other 
threats; a plan on how the Department can leverage and partner 
with universities and industry on cyber education and training; 
a briefing on information security technologies that the 
Department employs to protect the official unclassified email 
and official unclassified mobile communications of its 
employees; and a briefing on the outcomes of its cost and 
technical analyses to implement enterprise-wide programs and 
policies for insider threat detection, user activity 
monitoring, and cyber attack detection and remediation.
    The John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for 
Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) included a provision that 
directs policy of the United States on cyberspace, 
cybersecurity, cyber warfare, and cyber deterrence; a provision 
that affirms the authority of the Secretary of Defense to 
conduct military activities and operations in cyberspace; a 
provision that provides authority to the Department to engage 
in active defense to disrupt, defeat, and deter cyber attacks 
in cyberspace; a provision that would expand the Department of 
Defense Cyber Scholarship Program scholarships and grants; a 
provision that amends a pilot program regarding cyber 
vulnerabilities of Department of Defense critical 
infrastructure to include the Defense Digital Service; a 
provision that extends the acquisition authority of the 
Commander of the U.S. Cyber Command; a provision that directs 
budget displays for cyber vulnerability evaluations and 
mitigation activities for major weapon systems of the 
Department of Defense; a provision that directs a determination 
and report regarding the roles, missions, and responsibilities 
of the Commander, Joint Force Headquarters-Department of 
Defense Information Networks of the Defense Information Support 
Agency; a provision requiring procedures and establishing 
reporting requirements for cybersecurity breaches and loss of 
personally identifiable information and controlled unclassified 
information; a provision that would limit funds, require a 
report, and implement specified capabilities for the Sharkseer 
program; a provision that requires the Department to designate 
an official for matters relating to integrating cybersecurity 
and industrial control systems within the Department of 
Defense; a provision to provide assistance for small 
manufacturers in the defense industrial supply chain on matters 
relating to cybersecurity; a provision requiring implementation 
of email and Internet website security and authentication; a 
provision requiring a demonstration of a security product 
integration framework; a provision requiring a report on the 
information security continuous monitoring program and the 
cybersecurity scorecard; a provision requiring a tier 1 
exercise of support to civil authorities for a cyber incident; 
a provision establishing a pilot program on modeling and 
simulation in support of military homeland defense operations 
in connection with cyber attacks on critical infrastructure; a 
provision establishing a pilot program authority to provide 
personnel to the Department of Homeland Security to enhance 
cybersecurity and resiliency of critical infrastructure; a 
provision that would allow the establishment of a pilot program 
on regional cyber security training center for the Army 
National Guard; a provision that establishes a Cyberspace 
Solarium Commission; and a provision that requires a study and 
report on Reserve Component cyber civil support teams.

                         Information Operations

    Engagement with foreign audiences and nuanced understanding 
of the information environment is pivotal in navigating the 
21st century security environment. Whether one is trying to 
influence nation-state actors or potential allies, counter 
violent extremist groups, or identify and counter efforts at 
deception or misinformation, strategic communication and 
information operations are key elements to success on the 
battlefield. During the 115th Congress, the committee most 
notably increased oversight and focus on understanding and 
countering state-sponsored Information Operations (IO) against 
adversaries such as the People's Republic of China, the Russian 
Federation, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, and 
others. The committee also increased oversight on the nexus and 
convergence between IO and cyber operations and cyber warfare.
    With the continued threat of violent extremist groups like 
Al Shabaab, Boko Haram, and the Islamic State in Iraq and 
Syria, the sustained need for the Department of Defense to plan 
and execute effective Information Operations continued to grow. 
Recent examples illustrate how these groups are still utilize 
social media to support the radicalization process, as well as 
planning, financing, and command and control for terrorist 
acts. The committee continued to scrutinize the programs, 
authorities, funding, and training for traditional military 
information support operations, as well as ensured such 
capabilities were integrated into contingency planning and 
theater security cooperation plans. Additionally, as emerging 
technologies like social media and big data analytics are 
forcing the Department of Defense to be more agile and 
adaptable in how it uses emerging technology, including 
flexible and agile policies for their employment, and concept 
exploration and development to determine new ways of 
operationalizing information influence. The committee monitored 
how developments in the defense space adapted and synchronized 
with broader interagency and international activities in order 
to exert influence from tactical effect to strategic effect.
    The committee held a related hearing on March 15, 2017, 
entitled ``Crafting an Information Warfare and Counter-
Propaganda Strategy for the Emerging Security Environment''.
    In the committee report (H. Rept. 115-200) accompanying the 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, the 
committee included a reporting requirements related to 
information operations: a briefing assessing the opportunities 
for support of and integration with the Global Engagement 
Center to address similar missions.
    The Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and Capabilities 
considered and reported legislation related to Information 
Operations and in all related areas of its jurisdiction that 
was ultimately included in the National Defense Authorization 
Act for Fiscal Year 2018 (Public Law 115-91). This included 
provisions to authorize and strengthen the Global Engagement 
Center within the U.S. Department of State, and provisions to 
strengthen the relationship between traditional IO functions 
and cyber warfare and cyber operations.
    The subcommittee additionally considered and reported 
legislation related to Information Operations and in all 
related areas of its jurisdiction that was ultimately included 
in John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal 
Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232). This included provisions to 
strengthen and re-authorize the Global Engagement Center and 
other inter-agency efforts. Other Information Operations 
initiatives are detailed elsewhere in this report.

    Compromises of National Security Information and Insider Threats

    In the 115th Congress, the committee continued to monitor 
the Department of Defense's efforts to identify and mitigate 
the threats to military programs, plans, operations, and 
personnel stemming from the compromise of a large amount of 
classified information through unauthorized disclosures. The 
committee monitored efforts to mitigate future compromises by 
overseeing the implementation of insider threat programs and 
other security clearance reform efforts within the executive 
branch, and the Department of Defense's compliance with the 
requirements of the Carl Levin and Howard P. ``Buck'' McKeon 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2015 (Public 
Law 113-291) regarding the Department's security practices, 
audit capabilities, and information-sharing policies. In June 
2018, the committee held a hearing titled ``Military Technology 
Transfer: Threats, Impacts, and Solutions for the Department of 
Defense'', and heard directly from senior Department of Defense 
leaders about efforts to protect Department information and 
technology. The committee also held multiple briefings about 
the Department's continued efforts to improve vetting of 
personnel to improve capabilities to detect and mitigate 
potential insider threats.

 Use of Force in Counterterrorism Operations Outside the United States 
                    and Areas of Active Hostilities

    The committee conducted extensive oversight, often in 
classified form, over the use of force in counterterrorism 
operations outside of the United States and areas of active 
hostilities. While the use of force in this area was overseen 
in all aspects, the committee paid particular attention to 
special operations and activities, and the interagency 
coordination that occurs with the U.S. intelligence community. 
In conducting this oversight, the committee also reviewed and 
considered presidential policy guidance documents and similar 
executive branch directives, and ensured that counterterrorism 
operations conducted outside of the United States and areas of 
active hostilities were in line with broader national security 
objectives, strategies, and resources. Members and staff of the 
committee conducted overseas travel to review and assess 
counterterrorism operations and activities, principally within 
the U.S. Central Command and U.S. Africa Command areas of 
responsibilities. Finally, the committee continued to 
coordinate with the House Permanent Select Committee on 
Intelligence on intelligence matters of the Department of 
Defense in the course of its annual oversight of the 
intelligence community and the authorization of appropriations 
for intelligence activities shared by the two committees.

                 Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Countering weapons of mass destruction (WMD) is a key 
mission for the Department of Defense. The proliferation and 
potential use of nuclear, chemical, and biological agents pose 
a unique and enduring threat to U.S. national security. In 
addition, emerging technologies, like synthetic biology, 
broaden the scope of potential weapons of mass destruction. To 
respond to this threat, the Department engaged in activities to 
understand current threats and vulnerabilities; control, 
defeat, disable, and dispose of WMD threats; and safeguard the 
force and manage WMD consequences. The committee and the 
Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and Capabilities continued 
reviewing the Department's countering WMD plans and programs to 
ensure the WMD threat is appropriately addressed and is 
properly resourced despite budget constraints and competing 
priorities.
    The committee and the Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and 
Capabilities held several hearings and briefings on countering 
WMD, including: a hearing on March 20, 2017, ``Hearing on High 
Consequences and Uncertain Threats: Reviewing Department of 
Defense Strategy, Policy, and Programs for Countering Weapons 
of Mass Destruction for Fiscal Year 2018''; and a hearing on 
March 22, 2018, ``Department of Defense Strategy, Policy, and 
Programs for Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction for Fiscal 
Year 2019.''
    In the committee report (H. Rept. 115-200) accompanying the 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, the 
committee included several directives related to countering 
weapons of mass destruction, including: a briefing on 
countermeasures for botulinum toxin type A and B; a briefing on 
the Department's Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and 
Nuclear Response Enterprise, which includes National Guard 
units; a briefing from the Defense Threat Reduction Agency 
(DTRA) on planned activities to promote the ability of partner 
nations to respond to WMD, including infectious disease; and a 
Comptroller General review of the Realignment of the Joint 
Improvised-Threat Defeat Organization under the DTRA.
    In the committee report (H. Rept. 115-676) accompanying the 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019, the 
committee included several directives related to countering 
weapons of mass destruction, including: a briefing on how the 
Department may leverage advancements in synthetic biology, 
genomics, and biotechnology to enhance service members' 
performance; a briefing on implementation of lessons learned 
from the Department's 2016 Ebola response; a briefing on the 
Department's efforts to secure service member genetic and 
medical information and foreign intelligence services attempts 
to collect this information on Department personnel; a 
Comptroller General of the United States review of the 
Department's preparedness to counter chemical and biological 
weapons on the Korean Peninsula; and a report on how to 
strengthen the Cooperative Threat Reduction program to address 
emerging threats and proliferation concerns.
    The John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for 
Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232), included multiple 
legislative provisions related to countering WMD. These include 
the development of a plan to streamline the Department's 
countering WMD oversight framework and an annual report on the 
work of the Countering WMD Unity of Effort Council.

                        Global War on Terrorism

    Since the 9/11 attacks, the United States has dealt al-
Qaida repeated and significant blows during the global war on 
terrorism. Despite many notable successes, al-Qaida, as well as 
its adherents and affiliates, remains active in areas of 
importance to the United States, including: the Islamic 
Republic of Afghanistan; the Islamic Republic of Pakistan; the 
Republic of Iraq; the Federal Republic of Somalia; and the 
Republic of Yemen. The committee continued to conduct 
oversight, often in classified form, over terrorism issues, 
with particular attention to special operations capabilities 
and the changing nature of al-Qaida's organization, affiliates, 
and its operations, as well as threats being posed by the 
Islamic State in Iraq and Syria. The committee continued to 
focus on efforts to build partner nation counterterrorism and 
conventional warfare capabilities to counter these threats at 
the regional and local level. As the United States strengthened 
and built partnership capacity with key allies around the 
globe, the committee remained focused on the Department of 
Defense's efforts to aggressively fight the global war on 
terror and counter radicalism in places of concern, such as 
Syria, Iraq, Pakistan, Yemen, the Horn of Africa, and North 
Africa. Committee members and staff conducted numerous overseas 
congressional delegations to review and assess ongoing U.S. and 
coalition counterterrorism operations and activities. Ensuring 
security and stability in volatile regions that cannot 
adequately govern themselves or secure their own territory 
remained a top priority for the committee.
    The committee and the Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and 
Capabilities held several related hearings in this area 
including: a hearing on March 15, 2017, ``Crafting an 
Information Warfare and Counter-Propaganda Strategy for the 
Emerging Security Environment''; a hearing on March 23, 2017, 
``High Consequences and Uncertain Threats: Reviewing Department 
of Defense Strategy, Policy, and Programs for Countering 
Weapons of Mass Destruction for Fiscal Year 2018''; a hearing 
on May 2, 2017, ``Three Decades Later: A Review and Assessment 
of U.S. Special Operations Forces 30-Years After the Creation 
of U.S. Special Operations Command''; a hearing on February 15, 
2018, ``Evolution, Transformation, and Sustainment: A Review of 
the Fiscal Year 2019 Budget Request for U.S. Special Operations 
Forces and Command''; a hearing on March 22, 2018, ``Department 
of Defense Strategy, Policy, and Programs for Countering 
Weapons of Mass Destruction for Fiscal Year 2019''; and a 
hearing on July 19, 2018, ``Department of Defense's Role in 
Foreign Assistance''.
    Similarly, the committee and the Subcommittee on Emerging 
Threats and Capabilities held several classified and/or closed 
briefings and roundtables including: a briefing on February 15, 
2017, ``Counterterrorism Operations and Intelligence Update 
Brief''; a briefing on March 21, 2017, ``Yemen Update Brief''; 
a roundtable discussion on March 29, 2017, ``The Future of 
Counterterrorism Policy: Identifying Essential Elements to 
Achieve an Effective and Sustainable Strategy''; a briefing on 
June 14, 2017, ``Counterterrorism Operations and Intelligence 
Update Brief''; a briefing on September 6, 2017, 
``Counterterrorism Operations and Intelligence Update Brief''; 
a briefing on October 26, 2017, ``Recent U.S. Military 
Operations in Niger'' in conjunction with the Full Committee; a 
briefing on December 13, 2017, ``Counterterrorism Operations 
and Intelligence Update Brief''; and a briefing on June 26, 
2018, ``Counterterrorism Operations and Intelligence Update 
Brief''.
    The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 
(Public Law 115-91) included several provisions related to the 
global war on terrorism, counterterrorism, special operations 
forces, and sensitive activities that are reported elsewhere in 
this report. Similarly, the John S. McCain National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) 
included several legislative provisions related to the global 
war on terrorism, counterterrorism, special operations forces, 
and sensitive activities that are reported elsewhere in this 
report.

                         Information Technology

    Information technology (IT) systems are critical enablers 
for the Department of Defense. The IT budget represents a major 
investment area requiring the same rigorous planning, analysis, 
and oversight as any other complex major weapon system. The 
Department recognized this area as a source of greater 
efficiencies, and has managed to reduce spending in IT by 
several billion dollars across the Future Years Defense 
Program. The committee continued to review the Department's IT 
investment planning and review processes, as well as specific 
acquisitions, to improve the ability to identify and reduce 
unwarranted duplication and eliminate programs of little value 
to the warfighter. The committee also provided robust oversight 
on the adoption of enterprise-wide cloud architecture and the 
overarching Department cloud strategy.
    The committee held related hearing on April 26, 2017, 
entitled ``Creating a Flexible and Effective Information 
Technology Management and Acquisition System: Elements for 
Success in a Rapidly Changing Landscape''; a hearing on April 
27, 2017, entitled ``Update on activities of the Electronic 
Warfare Executive Committee''; and a briefing on July 26, 2017, 
entitled ``Briefing on the Navy's Digital Warfare Office''.
    In the committee report (H. Rept. 115-200) accompanying the 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, the 
committee included several reporting requirements related to 
information technology, including a briefing on cloud computing 
coordinated with the acquisition community; a briefing on any 
current plans to demonstrate or incorporate Department-wide 
digital risk management and attribute-based access control 
capabilities into upgrades to key enabling cyber capabilities 
inside the Joint Regional Security Stacks initiative; and a 
report with a plan to carry out the timely completion of 
network consolidation and installation of Joint Regional 
Security Stacks and Multi-Protocol Label Switching at key nodes 
in the U.S.
    The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 
(Public Law 115-91) included: a provision that eliminates the 
sunset of certain provisions relating to information technology 
and extend the sunset relating to the Federal Data Center 
Consolidation Initiative; a provision that excludes defense 
business systems and major automated information systems from 
the definition of major defense acquisition program; a 
provision requiring the Defense Innovation Board to complete an 
analysis of software development and acquisition regulations 
for the Department; a provision that establishes two pilots 
that encourage the Department's use of tailoring to realign 
several major warfighting programs and defense business 
systems; a provision that directs the Secretary of Defense to 
identify software development activities and pilot the use of 
modern agile methods, to include open source approaches, as 
well as oversight metrics appropriate for agile development; a 
provision that directs the Secretary of Defense to manage the 
Department's unclassified, non-defense article, custom 
developed computer software code using open source licenses and 
an open source software repository; a provision that authorizes 
two types of funds to modernize the Federal Government's legacy 
IT and to incentivize IT savings in federal agencies; a 
provision that elevates the role of the Chief Information 
Officer and realigning its responsibilities and authorities to 
two other officials: Chief Information Warfare Officer and 
Chief Management Officer; and a provision that requires that 
procurement for each Distributed Common Ground System be 
carried out in accordance with section 2377 of title 10, United 
States Code, regarding commercial items.
    In the committee report (H. Rept. 115-676) accompanying the 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019, the 
committee included a reporting requirement related to 
information technology, including a request for information on 
the Joint Enterprise Defense Infrastructure and its impacts to 
current cloud computing services.
    The John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for 
Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) included: a provision 
that requires implementation of the recommendations of the 
final report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on the 
Design and Acquisition of Software for Defense System; a 
provision that requires the Chief Information Officer to 
develop an approach to rapidly acquire advanced network and 
cloud capabilities to conduct an analysis of the migration to 
the Joint Enterprise Defense Infrastructure, and to provide a 
report on the Department's Cloud Initiative; and a provision 
that would require the Department to establish regulations and 
a registry of providers of information technology who have 
obligations to foreign governments.

         ADDITIONAL OVERSIGHT ACTIVITIES OF THE FULL COMMITTEE


                 Full Committee Hearings and Briefings

    During the 115th Congress, the committee held a series of 
budget posture hearings and briefings in preparation for the 
fiscal year 2018 and fiscal year 2019 budgets. The hearings and 
briefings, combined with the committee's responsibility for 
assembling the annual defense authorization bill, are a central 
element in the discharge of the committee's oversight 
responsibilities. In upholding its responsibilities to mitigate 
waste, fraud, abuse, and mismanagement of Federal Government 
programs, and pursuant to House rule XI, clause 2(n), (o), and 
(p), the committee met several times to conduct oversight of 
Department of Defense activities, as noted elsewhere in this 
report.
    To inform its consideration of the fiscal year 2018 budget 
request, the committee convened a hearing on February 7, 2017, 
with military senior leaders to receive testimony on the state 
of the military. On April 5, 2017, the committee convened a 
hearing to receive testimony from the military service chiefs 
about a continuing resolution's impact on the military. The 
committee convened a hearing on June 12, 2017, to receive 
testimony from the Secretary of Defense and Chairman of the 
Joint Chiefs of Staff on the fiscal year 2018 budget request. 
The committee also sought the perspective of the commanders of 
the unified combatant commands through several briefings and 
hearings in 2017. Additionally, the committee convened a 
hearing to receive testimony from Members of Congress on their 
national defense priorities for the National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, which took place on 
April 27, 2017.
    To inform its consideration of the fiscal year 2019 budget 
request, the committee convened a hearing on March 20, 2018, 
with the Secretaries of the military departments to receive 
testimony about the fiscal year 2019 budget request and 
acquisition reform progress. The committee received testimony 
from the Secretary of Defense and the Chairman of the Joint 
Chiefs of Staff on October 3, 2017, about the U.S. defense 
strategy in South Asia, on February 6, 2018, about the National 
Defense Strategy and Nuclear Posture Review, and on April 12, 
2018, about the fiscal year 2019 budget request for the 
Department of Defense. The committee also sought the 
perspective of the commanders of the unified combatant commands 
through briefings and hearings in 2018. Additionally, the 
committee convened a hearing to receive testimony from Members 
of Congress on their national defense priorities for the 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019, which 
took place on April 11, 2018.
    In keeping with the committee's emphasis on defense reform, 
the committee convened a series of hearings and briefings 
throughout the 115th Congress to examine initial findings of 
the Section 809 Panel, future opportunities in defense reform, 
oversight and reform of the 4th Estate of the Department of 
Defense, promotion of the Department's culture of innovation, 
military service acquisition reform, and the Financial 
Improvement and Audit Remediation plan.
    Additionally, in recognition of the changing nature of 
conflict and competition, the committee met several times over 
the course of the 115th Congress to conduct hearings and 
briefings on threats and the United States' role and policies. 
Topics covered included America's role in the world, the 
evolution of hybrid warfare and its key challenges, 
cyberwarfare, the evolving threat of terrorism and effective 
counterterrorism strategies, national security threats and 
challenges, state and non-state actor influence operations, 
strategic competition with the People's Republic of China, 
readying the U.S. military for future warfare, and China's 
pursuit of emerging technologies.
    The committee also held frequent classified briefings to 
receive intelligence and operational updates on threat 
developments across the globe. These briefings informed the 
committee's oversight hearings and briefings on the 
Department's strategic reassurance and deterrence activities in 
Europe and the Asia-Pacific, and operations in Africa. They 
also informed the committee's legislative initiatives in 
readiness, capabilities, and infrastructure to ensure that the 
U.S. Armed Forces remain capable of addressing current and 
emerging conventional and unconventional threats.
    The committee also sought to emphasize and complement the 
oversight work of the subcommittees and, throughout the 115th 
Congress, conducted oversight series focused on securing the 
peace after the fall of ISIS, evaluating Department of Defense 
equipment and uniform procurement in the Republic of Iraq and 
the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, evaluating the Defense 
Contract Auditing Process, infrastructure needs and projects 
ready for immediate implementation in the nuclear security 
enterprise, and the inspector general's report about its 
investigation on allegations relating to U.S. Central Command's 
intelligence products. Lastly, the committee conducted hearings 
on the preparation the Department of Defense is undertaking to 
execute its first ever full financial audit on the financial 
statements of fiscal year 2018.

                            Budget Oversight

    On March 3, 2017, the chairman of the Committee on Armed 
Services forwarded his views and estimates regarding the budget 
request for National Defense Budget Function (050) for fiscal 
year 2018 to the Committee on the Budget. At that time, the 
President had announced a topline of $603.0 billion for fiscal 
year 2018 discretionary budget authority for national defense. 
At that funding level, a full budget submission would not 
comply with the limitations mandated by the Budget Control Act 
of 2011 (Public Law 112-25) for funding levels in fiscal year 
2018 and across all budgeted fiscal years. While the $603.0 
billion would be a 3.2 percent increase for national defense 
compared to the fiscal year 2018 funding levels proposed in 
President Obama's fiscal year 2017 budget request, the 
committee indicated that level of funding would not accomplish 
the Administration's goals.
    At the direction of the Speaker of the House, the committee 
identified funding gaps that have resulted in significant 
damage to our military in recent years, as well as the funding 
required to fulfill the specific goals set by the President. 
Proposed increases to the funding above that projected in the 
budget proposal for fiscal year 2018 include an additional 
$15.0 billion to start rebuilding toward an active Army of 
490,000 Soldiers; almost $14.0 billion to begin repairing U.S. 
Navy ships, restoring U.S. naval presence around the world, and 
recovering current readiness shortfalls; and nearly $11.0 
billion to replace worn out equipment and begin making up for 
military training missed over the last four years. The 
committee also noted that it would take nearly $4.0 billion to 
restore over-used facilities. The committee assessed that the 
total cost to begin the repair and rebuilding effort was 
approximately $640.0 billion for fiscal year 2018, or a 9.5 
percent increase.
    As requested by the chairman of the Budget Committee, the 
committee outlined its legislative priorities for the upcoming 
year. The committee noted that the annual National Defense 
Authorization Act contained all the essential authorities 
required to sustain our military and is the chief mechanism 
through which Congress exercises its Article I, Section 8 
responsibilities. The committee intended to enact a national 
defense authorization bill in 2017 as it has for 56 consecutive 
years. The committee identified that it will continue the 
practice of conducting a significant number of hearings, 
briefings, and roundtable discussions in order to better 
understand the current security environment, evaluate proposals 
for reform, and receive independent feedback on the military 
requirements necessary to support a robust strategy. The 
committee's ranking member did not join the chairman in his 
views and estimates.
    On March 9, 2018, the chairman of the Committee on Armed 
Services forwarded his views and estimates regarding the budget 
request for National Defense Budget Function (050) for fiscal 
year 2019 to the Committee on the Budget. The President's 
fiscal year 2019 budget submission complied with the 
limitations mandated by the Budget Control Act of 2011 (Public 
Law 112-25) as modified by the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 
(Public Law 115-123). The committee noted that funding levels 
provided by the Public Law 115-123 for national defense would 
begin to redress our readiness shortfalls. The 2018 agreement 
provided the Department with the increases the Secretary of 
Defense requested. However, Congress would need to follow the 
fiscal cycle through to conclusion by properly providing 
appropriations in a timely manner for the Department to execute 
these funds effectively.
    The committee noted that it will take years to address the 
readiness shortfall, and was therefore pleased to see the 
President's Budget request not only matched the funding levels 
set by the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 for fiscal year 2019, 
but maintained higher levels of funding through the Future 
Years Defense Plan (FYDP). The committee stated further that 
while changes in the security environment must always be 
considered when formulating budgets, providing the Department 
and the defense industrial base with a reliable budget that 
extends into the outyears would enable more cost effective 
decision-making. Retaining adequate budget levels in the 
outyears would be critical to continuing the positive 
trajectory Public Law 115-123 had provided for readiness 
restoration.
    The committee was also encouraged by the budget request's 
proposal to realign Overseas Contingency Operations (OCO) funds 
to the base budget starting in fiscal year 2020. As OCO 
activities become enduring requirements over time, those 
requirements should be funded in the base budget. Increases to 
base funding levels in the outyears would accommodate the 
realignment of funding for these enduring requirements, and the 
President's budget request allowed for this accommodation over 
the life of the FYDP. The committee identified that while an 
adjustment to the funding caps in the Budget Control Act would 
still be required for fiscal years 2020 and 2021, the committee 
supported early congressional action on an applicable budget 
agreement.

          ADDITIONAL OVERSIGHT ACTIVITIES OF THE SUBCOMMITTEES


           Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and Capabilities

    In coordination with the committee, the Subcommittee on 
Emerging Threats and Capabilities conducted additional 
oversight of specific issues related to the global war on 
terrorism, to include; special operations capabilities, 
counterterrorism, and counter-proliferation programs and 
activities; homeland defense and consequence management 
programs; intelligence policy, national intelligence programs, 
and Department of Defense elements of the intelligence 
community.
    In order to conduct oversight, subcommittee members and 
staff made numerous trips to countries impacted by terrorism 
and emerging threats, to include areas where U.S. forces are 
engaged in combat operations, to further understand the 
resources leveraged against terrorism and other emerging 
threats, the authorities applied in these efforts, and the 
Department of Defense's interaction with its interagency and 
international partners. These congressional and staff 
delegations were preceded by operational and intelligence 
oversight briefings to Members and staff by senior officials 
from the Department of Defense, the Department of State, and 
the intelligence community, and represented an important part 
of oversight conducted by the subcommittee. Countries visited 
include: United Arab Emirates, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, 
the State of Kuwait, the Republic of Estonia, the Republic of 
Latvia, the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, Ukraine, the 
Federal Republic of Somalia, the Republic of Djibouti, the 
Federal Republic of Germany, and the Kingdom of Belgium.
    The subcommittee considered and reported several 
legislative provisions in H.R. 2810, the National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, as passed by the House, 
the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 
(Public Law 115-91), H.R. 5515, the National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019, as passed by the House, 
and the John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for 
Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232). The provisions covered a 
range of issues within the subcommittee's jurisdiction 
including: counterterrorism and counter-proliferation programs 
and activities; U.S. Special Operations Forces; science and 
technology policy and programs, including the Defense Advanced 
Research Projects Agency; information technology and programs; 
homeland defense and consequence management programs; and 
defense intelligence policy. These specifically included: 
increased congressional oversight of cyber operations; 
requiring a cyber posture review to clarify U.S. cyber 
deterrence policy and strategy; support for Defense innovation 
to ensure technological superiority and overmatch for 
warfighters against current and future threats; reinforces 
counterterrorism and unconventional warfare capabilities by 
fully resourcing U.S. Special Operations Command's programs and 
activities; granted specific permanent authority for family 
support programs within U.S. Special Operations Command; 
advanced hypersonic weapons research, development, and 
transitional efforts within the Department; and provisions 
previously addressed elsewhere in this report.
    The subcommittee conducted three oversight hearings during 
its consideration of the fiscal year 2018 budget request, 
including the following: March 23, 2017, ``High Consequences 
and Uncertain Threats: Reviewing Department of Defense 
Strategy, Policy, and Programs for Countering Weapons of Mass 
Destruction for Fiscal Year 2018''; May 2, 2017, ``Three 
Decades Later: A Review and Assessment of U.S. Special 
Operations Forces 30-Years After the Creation of U.S. Special 
Operations Command''; and May 23, 2017, ``Fiscal Year 2018 
Budget Request for U.S. Cyber Command: Cyber Mission Force 
Support to Department of Defense Operations''.
    The subcommittee conducted four oversight hearings during 
its consideration of the fiscal year 2019 budget request, 
including the following: February 15, 2018, ``Evolution, 
Transformation, and Sustainment: A Review of the Fiscal Year 
2019 Budget Request for U.S. Special Operations Forces and 
Command''; March 14, 2018, ``A Review and Assessment of the 
Fiscal Year 2019 Budget Request for Department of Defense 
Science and Technology Programs''; March 22, 2018, ``Department 
of Defense (DoD) Strategy, Policy, and Programs for Countering 
Weapons of Mass Destruction (CWMD) for Fiscal Year 2019''; and 
April 11, 2018, ``A Review and Assessment of the Department of 
Defense Budget, Strategy, Policy, and Programs for Cyber 
Operations and U.S. Cyber Command for Fiscal Year 2019''.
    In addition to oversight hearings, the subcommittee held 
various briefings and events to conduct oversight, including 
classified briefings: February 15, 2017, ``Counterterrorism 
Operations and Intelligence Update Brief''; March 1, 2017, 
``Cyber Operations Quarterly Update''; March 1, 2017, ``Cyber 
Warfare in the 21st Century: Threats, Challenges, and 
Opportunities''; March 15, 2017, ``Crafting an Information 
Warfare and Counter-Propaganda Strategy for the Emerging 
Security Environment''; March 3, 2017, ``Industry Roundtable on 
Challenges to the Department of Defense's Information 
Technology and Cyber Infrastructure''; March 21, 2017, ``Yemen 
Update Brief''; March 29, 2017, ``The Future of 
Counterterrorism Policy: Identifying Essential Elements to 
Achieve an Effective and Sustainable Strategy''; April 4, 2017, 
``China's Information Warfare Strategy: A Conversation with 
Dean Cheng, Author of Cyber Dragon''; April 26, 2017, 
``Creating a Flexible and Effective Information Technology 
Management and Acquisition System: Elements for Success in a 
Rapidly Changing Landscape''; April 27, 2017, ``Update on 
activities of the Electronic Warfare Executive Committee (EW 
EXCOM)''; May 17, 2017, ``Technological Superiority and Defense 
Investment Planning to Mitigate Foreign Advances''; June 14, 
2017, Counterterrorism Operations and Intelligence Update 
Brief''; July 26, 2017, ``Briefing on the Navy's Digital 
Warfare Office''; September 6, 2017, ``Counterterrorism 
Operations and Intelligence Update Brief''; September 26, 2017, 
``Initiatives for Protecting Naval Vessels Afloat from Cyber 
Vulnerabilities'' jointly with the Subcommittee on Seapower and 
Projection Forces; October 26, 2017, ``Recent U.S. Military 
Operations in Niger''; November 29, 2017, ``Cyber Operations 
Quarterly Update''; December 6, 2017, ``Update on National 
Security Agency (NSA) Activities''; December 13, 2017, 
``Counterterrorism Operations and Intelligence Update Brief''; 
January 8, 2018, ``China's Pursuit of Emerging and Exponential 
Technologies''; January 17, 2018, ``An Update on U.S. 
Government Accountability Office's (GAO) Ongoing Cyber Reviews 
and Studies''; April 11, 2018, ``Cyber Operations Today: 
Preparing for 21st Century Challenges in an Information-Enabled 
Society''; June 6, 2018, ``Cyber Operations Quarterly Update''; 
June 21, 2018, ``Industry Roundtable on Artificial 
Intelligence''; June 26, 2018, ``Counterterrorism Operations 
and Intelligence Update Brief''; July 19, 2018, ``Department of 
Defense's Role in Foreign Assistance''; September 26, 2018, 
``Cyber Policies, Authorities, and Approvals for Department of 
Defense Cyber Operations''; November 14, 2018, ``Interagency 
Cyber Cooperation: Roles, Responsibilities and Authorities of 
DOD & DHS'' in coordination with the House Committee on 
Homeland Security; and December 11, 2018, ``Department of 
Defense's Artificial Intelligence Structure, Investments, and 
Applications''.

                   Subcommittee on Military Personnel

    The committee conducted oversight of several additional 
military personnel-related issues during the 115th Congress. On 
July 25, 2017, the Subcommittee on Military Personnel held a 
classified briefing on the results of a Department of Defense 
Inspector General investigation into the Military Accessions 
Vital to the National Interest (MAVNI) program. The briefers 
provided an overview of the original purpose of the program, 
and how the investigation uncovered several security issues, 
including the fact that several thousand non-citizens were 
allowed to enter the military without completed background 
investigations. As a result of the investigation, the 
Department of Defense suspended the MAVNI program and tightened 
the policies related to background investigations. On June 27, 
2018, the subcommittee held a classified follow-up briefing to 
better understand what steps have been taken to remedy the 
security concerns. In an effort to prevent future issues 
related to this program, the John S. McCain National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232) 
contained a provision that puts in place restrictions on the 
program, including limits on the number that can enlist under 
the program, as well as a requirement that all participants 
have completed background investigations before attending 
initial training.
    The committee also conducted substantial oversight of 
Arlington National Cemetery. A recent report and survey made 
clear that the cemetery was rapidly running out of burial 
space. As a result, the subcommittee held a briefing on January 
11, 2018, and a hearing on March 8, 2018, where the Members 
heard from the Arlington National Cemetery administrators and 
from veteran stakeholders. Both the briefing and the hearing 
made clear that changes are necessary to ensure that Arlington 
National Cemetery remains an active burial ground for the 
Nation's heroes. To that end, Public Law 115-232 included a 
provision that directed the Secretary of the Army to establish 
revised eligibility criteria for interment at Arlington 
National Cemetery to ensure that the cemetery remains an active 
burial ground well into the future.
    Finally, the subcommittee continued its oversight of the 
military service review board agencies. The agencies are 
charged with receiving and reviewing applications for the 
correction of military records and for reviewing requests for 
discharge upgrades. The subcommittee held a hearing on March 2, 
2017, with the directors of the agencies to gain a better 
understanding of their purpose and the nature of the 
applications they receive. On September 27, 2018, the 
subcommittee held another hearing with the review board 
agencies' directors to understand why the agencies are unable 
to meet congressionally-mandated processing timelines.
    The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 
(Public Law 115-91) contained several provisions designed to 
ensure applicants receive a fair and thorough review, including 
a provision that requires the Boards of Correction for Military 
and Naval Records consider additional medical evidence 
submitted by the applicant and grant liberal consideration of 
evidence in cases involving post-traumatic stress disorder or 
traumatic brain injury. Other provisions required a 
confidential review of discharge characterizations for victims 
of sexual assault and a pilot program to leverage 
teleconferencing technology to allow applicants to appear 
before review boards. Similarly, Public Law 115-232 contained a 
provision that extended a previous prohibition on reducing the 
civilian manning at the review board agencies. The committee 
will continue to provide oversight of this issue to ensure 
review board agency applicants receive timely and thorough 
reviews of their applications.

                       Subcommittee on Readiness

    The Subcommittee on Readiness continued oversight of 
military readiness, training, logistics, and maintenance 
issues; military construction, installations, shipyard repair 
facilities, and family housing issues; energy policy and 
programs of the Department of Defense; and civilian personnel 
and service contracting issues.
    On February 15, 2017, the subcommittee met to receive a 
classified briefing on the ``Quarterly Readiness Report to 
Congress.''
    On February 28, 2017, the subcommittee met to receive a 
roundtable briefing on ``The Department of Defense's Readiness 
Rebuilding Efforts.''
    On March 8, 2017, the subcommittee met to receive testimony 
on ``The Current State of U.S. Army Readiness.''
    On March 16, 2017, the subcommittee met to receive 
testimony on ``The Current State of U.S. Navy Readiness.''
    On March 22, 2017, the subcommittee met to receive 
testimony on ``The Current State of U.S. Air Force Readiness.''
    On March 30, 2017, the subcommittee met in joint session 
with the Subcommittee on Seapower and Projection Forces to 
receive testimony on ``The Current State of U.S. Transportation 
Command.''
    On April 5, 2017, the subcommittee met to receive testimony 
on ``The Current State of U.S. Marine Corps Readiness''
    On April 27, 2017, the subcommittee met to receive a 
roundtable briefing on ``Shipyard Readiness.''
    On June 8, 2017, the subcommittee met to receive a 
roundtable briefing on ``The Department of the Navy 2018 Budget 
Request.''
    On June 9, 2017, the subcommittee met to receive a 
roundtable briefing on ``The Department of the Army 2018 Budget 
Request.''
    On June 13, 2017, the subcommittee met to receive a 
roundtable briefing on ``The Department of the Air Force 2018 
Budget Request.''
    On July 27, 2017, the subcommittee met to receive testimony 
on ``Continued Oversight of the Transfer of Excess Military 
Equipment to Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies.''
    On September 7, 2017, the subcommittee met in joint session 
with the Subcommittee on Seapower and Projection Forces to 
receive testimony on ``Navy Readiness--Underlying Problems 
Associated with the USS Fitzgerald and USS John S. McCain.''
    On September 28, 2017, the subcommittee met to receive a 
roundtable briefing on the ``European Defense Initiative 
Training Plan, Past & Future.''
    On November 3, 2017, the subcommittee met to receive a 
roundtable briefing from the Government Accountability Office 
on ``Navy and Marine Corps Training: Further Planning Needed 
for Amphibious Operations Training.''
    On November 8, 2017, the subcommittee met to receive a 
roundtable briefing on the ``Investigation Results of the USS 
Fitzgerald and USS John S. McCain Collision Incidents.''
    On November 9, 2017, the subcommittee met to receive 
testimony on ``Aviation Readiness: What's the Flight Plan.''
    On November 29, 2017, the subcommittee met to receive a 
classified briefing on the ``Quarterly Readiness Update.''
    On December 1, 2017, the subcommittee met to receive 
testimony on ``Amphibious Warfare Readiness and Training: 
Interoperability, Shortfalls, and the Way Ahead.''
    On January 10, 2018, the subcommittee met to receive a 
roundtable briefing on ``F-35 Aircraft Sustainment 
Challenges.''
    On January 18, 2018, the subcommittee met in joint session 
with the Seapower and Projection Forces subcommittee to receive 
testimony concerning the Navy's reviews of surface forces 
operations and sustainment following recent incidents.
    On February 7, 2018, the subcommittee met to receive a 
classified briefing from the Office of the Secretary of Defense 
on a Readiness Update.
    On February 14, 2018, the subcommittee met to receive 
testimony on ``Air Force Readiness Posture.''
    On March 6, 2018, the subcommittee met to receive testimony 
on ``Marine Corps Readiness Posture.''
    On March 8, 2018, the subcommittee met in joint session 
with the Seapower and Projection Forces subcommittee to receive 
testimony on ``Mobility and Transportation Command Posture.''
    On March 20, 2018, the subcommittee met to receive 
testimony on ``Navy Readiness Posture.''
    On April 18, 2018, the subcommittee met to receive 
testimony on the ``Fiscal Year 2019 Energy, Installations and 
Environment Budget Request.''
    On April 19, 2018 the subcommittee met to receive testimony 
on the ``Army Fiscal Year 2019 Budget Request Readiness 
Posture.''
    On June 6, 2018, the subcommittee met in joint session with 
the Subcommittee on Seapower and Projection Forces to receive a 
roundtable briefing on a progress report for fixing Navy 
surface fleet readiness.
    On June 14, 2018, the subcommittee met to receive testimony 
on ``Navy and Air Force Depot Policy Issues and Infrastructure 
Concerns.''
    On June 21, 2018, the subcommittee met to receive testimony 
on a progress report for aviation mishaps and prevention.
    On June 28, 2018, the subcommittee met to receive testimony 
on ``Army and Marine Corps Depot Policy Issues and 
Infrastructure Concerns.''
    On September 13, 2018, the subcommittee met to receive 
testimony on the ``Army Futures Command: Will It Help?''
    On November 16, 2018, the subcommittee met to receive a 
briefing on ``Moving Military Families: Can We Fix A Broken 
System.''
    On December 19, 2018, the subcommittee met to receive a 
classified briefing on the ``Quarterly Readiness Update.''

             Subcommittee on Seapower and Projection Forces

    The Subcommittee on Seapower and Projection Forces provides 
oversight of Navy acquisition programs, Naval Reserve 
equipment, and Marine Corps amphibious assault vehicle programs 
(except strategic weapons, space, special operations, science 
and technology programs, and information technology programs), 
deep strike bombers and related systems, lift programs, 
seaborne unmanned aerial systems and the associated weapons 
systems sustainment. In addition, the subcommittee is 
responsible for Maritime programs under the jurisdiction of the 
committee as delineated in paragraphs 5 and 9 of clause 1(c) of 
rule X of the Rules of the House of Representatives. The 
Subcommittee on Seapower and Projection Forces also provided 
oversight on policy, such as modernization and investment 
issues, as appropriate within the subcommittee's jurisdiction. 
This includes current or future acquisition programs that 
relate to gaps in the capabilities required to execute current 
national military strategies, as well as the allocation of 
acquisition resources. This would also include military service 
specific acquisition policies as long as there is a nexus to 
the subcommittee's jurisdiction. The Subcommittee on Seapower 
and Projection Forces focused on maintaining air and sea 
dominance and superiority, as well as policies ensuring 
effective use of these forces as a strategic deterrent.
    The subcommittee conducted two oversight hearings during 
its consideration of the fiscal year 2018 budget request, 
including the following: May 24, 2017: ``Department of the Navy 
Fiscal Year 2018 Budget Request for Seapower and Projection 
Forces''; May 25, 2017: ``Department of the Air Force FY 2018 
Budget Request for Sea Power and Projection Forces''.
    In addition to oversight hearings, the subcommittee held 
various briefings and events to conduct oversight including 
classified briefings: February 14, 2017: ``Navy Requirements 
Underpinning the 355-Ship Navy''; March 8, 2017: ``An 
Independent Fleet Assessment of the U.S. Navy''; March 15, 
2017: ``B-21 Program Update''; March 21, 2017: ``Shipbuilding 
Industrial Base''; March 28, 2017: ``Maintaining Undersea 
Dominance and Projected Aircraft Carrier Shortfalls''; March 
30, 2017: ``The Current State of U.S. Transportation Command''; 
May 3, 2017: ``Littoral Combat Ships and the Transition to 
Frigate Class''; May 18, 2018: ``Amphibious Warfare in a 
Contested Environment''; June 8, 2017: ``Columbia-class 
Ballistic Missile Submarine Program Brief''; July 19, 2017: 
``Ready Reserve Force Readiness Assessment and Recapitalization 
Plan''; July 27, 2017: ``Aircraft Carrier Force Structure and 
Shock Trial Requirements''; September 7, 2017: ``Navy 
Readiness--Underlying Problems Associated with the USS 
Fitzgerald and USS John S. McCain''; September 14, 2017: 
``Bomber Vector''; September 26, 2017: ``Navy Cyber 
Vulnerabilities''; November 8, 2017: ``Comprehensive Assessment 
Related to Surface Ship Accidents in 7th Fleet''; December 6, 
2017: ``B-21 Raider''; and December 13, 2017: ``Secretary of 
Navy Independent Review''.
    The subcommittee considered and reported legislation that 
was ultimately included in the National Defense Authorization 
Act for Fiscal Year 2018 (Public Law 115-91). The legislation 
covered a range of issues, including authorization of 
appropriations for procurement programs and research, 
development, test, and evaluation programs for the Department 
of the Navy, Air Force, and Reserve Components.
    The subcommittee conducted two oversight hearings during 
its consideration of the fiscal year 2019 budget request, 
including the following: March 6, 2018: ``Department of the 
Navy FY 2019 Budget Request for Seapower and Projection 
Forces''; March 14, 2018: ``Department of the Air Force FY 2019 
Budget Request for Sea Power and Projection Forces''.
    In addition to oversight hearings, the subcommittee held 
various briefings and events to conduct oversight including 
classified briefings: January 18, 2018: ``Surface Warfare: At a 
Cross Roads''; January 30, 2018: ``Conventional Prompt Global 
Strike''; February 6, 2018: ``U.S. Air Force Support of 
Continuity of Government Operations''; February 27, 2018: ``B-
21 and Family of Systems''; March 8, 2018: ``Mobility and 
Transportation Command Posture''; March 20, 2018: ``Submarine 
Industrial Base: Options for Construction''; April 12, 2018: 
``355 Ship Navy: Delivering the Right Capabilities''; June 6, 
2018: ``Progress Report--Fixing Navy Surface Fleet Readiness''; 
July 12, 2018: ``KC-46A Program Brief''; September 5, 2018: 
``B-21''; September 28, 2018: ``Contributing Factors to C-130 
Mishaps and Other Intra-Theater Airlift Challenges''; and 
November 29, 2018: ``Advanced Russian Submarine Threats in the 
Atlantic''.
    The subcommittee considered and reported legislation that 
was ultimately included in the John S. McCain National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232). 
The legislation covered a range of issues, including 
authorization of appropriations for procurement programs and 
research, development, test, and evaluation programs for the 
Department of the Navy, Air Force, and Reserve Components.

                    Subcommittee on Strategic Forces

    In the first session of the 115th Congress, the 
Subcommittee on Strategic Forces convened for a series of 
hearings related to its oversight of the President's fiscal 
year 2018 budget request. On May 19, 2017, the subcommittee 
held a hearing on ``Fiscal Year 2018 Priorities and Posture of 
the National Security Space Enterprise''. On May 25, 2017, the 
subcommittee held a hearing on ``Fiscal Year 2018 Priorities 
for Nuclear Forces and Atomic Energy Defense Activities''. On 
June 7, 2017, the subcommittee met for a hearing on ``Fiscal 
Year 2018 Priorities and Posture of Missile Defeat Programs and 
Activities''.
    During the first session of the 115th Congress, the 
subcommittee held additional oversight hearings related to the 
following topics: nuclear deterrence and the Defense Science 
Board's perspective; threats to space assets and implications 
for homeland security; and consequences and context for the 
Russian Federation's violations of the Intermediate-Range 
Nuclear Forces Treaty.
    In the second session of the 115th Congress, the 
Subcommittee on Strategic Forces met for a series of hearings 
related to its oversight of the President's fiscal year 2019 
budget request. On March 15, 2018, the subcommittee held a 
hearing on the ``National Security Space Budget''. On March 22, 
2018, the subcommittee held a hearing on the ``Department of 
Defense Nuclear Forces and Department of Energy Budget''. On 
April 17, 2018, the subcommittee held a hearing on the ``Fiscal 
Year 2019 Budget for Missile Defense and Defeat Activities.''
    During the second session of the 115th Congress, the 
subcommittee held additional oversight hearings related to the 
following topics: The National Defense Strategy and the Nuclear 
Posture Review; Space Situational Awareness; and a posture 
hearing on the entirety of the strategic forces portfolio.
    In addition to these hearings, the subcommittee conducted 
briefings in support of its oversight on the following topics: 
U.S. strategic forces posture; national security space 
operations; foreign counter space threats and defense of 
national security space; national security space programs; 
national security space acquisition; national security space 
strategy; reports and studies on national security space reform 
from the Rumsfeld Commission to present; nuclear command, 
control, and communications system; U.S. and foreign nuclear 
weapons programs--current status and future trends; North Korea 
nuclear and missile programs; foreign nuclear programs and 
threats; and the history of the nuclear posture review.

              Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land Forces

    The Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land Forces provided 
oversight of the Departments of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, 
Air Force, and the Office of the Secretary of Defense 
acquisition programs providing tactical aircraft and missiles; 
armor and ground vehicles; munitions; rotorcraft; individual 
equipment to include tactical networks and radios; counter 
improvised explosive device equipment; intelligence, 
surveillance, and reconnaissance platforms to include unmanned 
aerial systems, and associated support equipment, including 
National Guard and Reserve equipment programs. The Subcommittee 
on Tactical Air and Land Forces also provided oversight on 
policy, such as threats and force structure requirements, as 
appropriate within the subcommittee's jurisdiction. This 
includes current or future acquisition programs that relate to 
gaps in the capabilities required to execute current national 
military strategies, as well as the allocation of acquisition 
resources. This also includes military service specific 
acquisition policies as long as there is a nexus to the 
subcommittee's jurisdiction. The Subcommittee on Tactical Air 
and Land Forces focused on maintaining Air Dominance and Air 
Superiority, as well as policies ensuring effective use of land 
forces as a strategic deterrent. The subcommittee also 
conducted oversight on addressing physiological episodes in 
fighter, attack, and training aircrafts, as well as looking 
into the Department of Defense's aviation safety mishap review 
and oversight process.
    The subcommittee conducted two oversight hearings during 
its consideration of the fiscal year 2018 budget request, 
including the following: May 24, 2017: ``Ground Force 
Modernization Budget Request''; and June 7, 2017: ``Combat 
Aviation Modernization Programs and the Fiscal Year 2018 Budget 
Request.''
    The subcommittee conducted three oversight hearings during 
its consideration of the fiscal year 2019 budget request, 
including the following: March 15, 2018: ``Fiscal Year 2019 
Budget Request on Air Force Airborne Intelligence, 
Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Programs''; April 12, 2018: 
``Fiscal Year 2019 Budget Request for Combat Aviation 
Programs''; and April 18, 2018: ``Ground Force Modernization 
Budget Request for Fiscal Year 2019''.
    In addition to oversight hearings, the subcommittee held 
various briefings and events to conduct oversight, including 
classified briefings: February 16, 2017: ``Military Services 
5th Generation Tactical Aircraft Challenges and F-35 Joint 
Strike Fighter Program Update''; March, 1, 2017: ``U.S. Ground 
Force Capability and Modernization Challenges in Eastern 
Europe''; March 10, 2017: ``The Effect of Sequestration and 
Continuing Resolutions on Marine Corps Modernization and 
Readiness''; March 16, 2017: ``The Effect of Sequestration and 
Continuing Resolutions on Army Modernization and Readiness''; 
March 28, 2017: ``Naval Strike Fighters--Issues and Concerns''; 
May 3, 2017: ``Roundtable discussion with the Commander of 
Naval Air Forces and the Commander of the Naval Air Systems 
Command Regarding Physiological Episodes in Navy T-45 
Aircraft''; May 18, 2017: ``Review of DOD Airborne ISR 
Requirements and Allocation Processes and Military Department 
Aircraft that Support Those Requirements''; July 27, 2017: 
``Update on Challenges Facing Army and Air Force Munition 
Programs and the Associated Industrial Bases''; September 13, 
2017: ``Update on Army and Marine Corps Personal Protection 
Equipment (PPE) Programs''; September 27, 2017: ``The Army's 
Tactical Network Modernization Strategy''; January 18, 2018: 
``DOD Airborne Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance (ISR) 
Force Structure Allocation Processes to Address Combatant 
Commander Airborne ISR Requirements''; February 6, 2018: 
``Addressing Physiological Episodes in Fighter, Attack, and 
Training Aircraft.'' March 7, 2018: ``The F-35 Joint Strike 
Fighter (JSF) Lightning II Program''; June 13, 2018: 
``Department of Defense Aviation Safety Mishap Review and 
Oversight Process''; and September 6, 2018: ``Update on 
Activities Related to Programs of the Air Force Rapid 
Capabilities Office''.
    The subcommittee considered and reported legislation that 
was ultimately included in the National Defense Authorization 
Act for Fiscal Year 2018 (Public Law 115-91). The legislation 
covered a range of issues, including authorization of 
appropriations for procurement programs and research, 
development, test, and evaluation programs for the Departments 
of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and the Reserve Components.
    The subcommittee considered and reported legislation that 
was ultimately included in John S. McCain National Defense 
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232). 
The legislation covered a range of issues, including 
authorization of appropriations for procurement programs and 
research, development, test, and evaluation programs for the 
Departments of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and the Reserve 
Components.

              Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations

    The Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations 
supplements and expands upon the oversight activities 
undertaken by the full committee and other subcommittees. It 
conducts comprehensive, in-depth inquiries; convenes hearings 
and briefings; and makes recommendations to the committee, 
including for potential legislative action on pressing issues 
within the committee's jurisdiction. The subcommittee's efforts 
on behalf of defense reform, the Foreign Military Sales 
process, nuclear infrastructure, and detainee matters are 
described elsewhere in this report. In addition to those 
activities, the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations 
undertook the following work:

U.S. Central Command Intelligence Products

    On February 28, 2017, the subcommittee convened a hearing 
entitled ``Investigation on Allegations Relating to USCENTCOM 
Intelligence Products''. The subject was a January 2017 
Department of Defense Inspector General (DOD IG) report that 
concluded allegations of intelligence manipulation at U.S. 
Central Command (CENTCOM) had not been substantiated, and 
suggested reforms to improve the command climate and prevent 
potential intelligence distortion. Witnesses were the Honorable 
Glenn A. Fine, Acting Inspector General, Department of Defense 
and officials from the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense 
(Intelligence), the Joint Staff, CENTCOM, and the Defense 
Intelligence Agency.

Industrial Base Issues

    The subcommittee also addressed issues related to the 
military industrial base. On May 4, 2017, the subcommittee 
convened in closed session for an intelligence briefing on 
``Foreign Threats to National Labs, Academia, and Defense-
Related Supply Chains.'' Briefers from the Department of 
Defense and the intelligence community were present.
    On May 23, 2017, the subcommittee convened in another 
closed session for a briefing on ``The Office of Manufacturing 
and Industrial Base Policy: Role and Policies Pertaining to the 
Review and Assessment of Foreign Investment in the U.S.''. A 
Department of Defense briefer addressed challenges to the 
defense manufacturing and industrial base, including potential 
threats to national labs, academia, and defense-related supply 
chains.

Procurement

    On July 25, 2017, the subcommittee held a hearing to 
receive testimony on ``Evaluating Department of Defense 
Equipment and Uniform Procurement in Iraq and Afghanistan.'' 
The hearing focused on four oversight reports that covered 
problems in the procurement and equipping of forces in the 
Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and the Republic of Iraq. The 
Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction and 
representatives from the Government Accountability Office and 
the Department of Defense Inspector General summarized their 
reports and witnesses from the Office of the Secretary of 
Defense described the steps the Department is taking to ensure 
accountability.

Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS)

    On October 3, 2017, the subcommittee received testimony on 
``Securing the Peace After the Fall of ISIL.'' The hearing 
assessed the state of U.S. planning to enable Iraq to achieve 
and maintain stability following the liberation of Mosul from 
ISIS. The hearing also addressed associated challenges, policy 
efforts, and resources required to achieve a stable political 
and security environment in Iraq. Witnesses were 
representatives from the Department of Defense, the Department 
of State, and academia.

Military Food

    On November 2, 2017, the subcommittee convened in closed 
session for a briefing on ``The Status of `Prohibited 
Ingredients' in Military Food Service''. This briefing provided 
information about Department of Defense policies regarding the 
potential exclusion of specific ingredients from military food. 
Department representatives reviewed the roles of the Joint 
Subsistence Policy Board, the military services, the Department 
of Defense Nutrition Committee, and the Defense Logistics 
Agency in setting the Department's nutritional policy, as well 
as the existence of any plans to prohibit ingredients; the 
rationale for any prospective prohibitions; the mechanisms for 
soliciting input on prospective prohibitions; and the 
implementation process and schedule for any future 
prohibitions.

Background and Security Investigation Reform

    The subcommittee, in partnership with the Subcommittee on 
Readiness, held a series of events in 2018 to address issues 
related to the security clearance process. On February 14, 
2018, the subcommittee convened in a closed session for a 
briefing on ``Reforming the Security Clearance Process.'' The 
briefing provided information about the origins and nature of 
problems with the security clearance process managed by the 
National Background Investigations Bureau (NBIB). A briefer 
from the Government Accountability Office discussed that 
organization's perspective on the extent to which the security 
clearance process had already reformed, the timeliness of the 
clearance process, and efforts by NBIB to address the backlog.
    On February 27, 2018, the subcommittee held a second closed 
briefing on the topic. This was entitled ``Background and 
Security Investigation Reforms''. The Department of Defense 
provided its first quarterly update to Congress on the 
Department's plan to assume security clearance responsibility 
from NBIB and otherwise reform the clearance process. Such 
quarterly briefings were mandated by section 925 of the 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 (Public 
Law 115-91). Briefers from the Department of Defense and NBIB 
participated.
    On April 11, 2018, the subcommittee held a third closed 
briefing on ``Security Clearance Reform: Understanding 
`Continuous Evaluation'''. The briefing provided information 
about the ``continuing evaluation'' pilot program in the 
Department of Defense and subordinate agencies, issues in the 
development and implementation of the program, and the 
potential role continuous evaluation could play in security 
clearance reform. The briefers were from the Department of 
Defense.
    A closed briefing was held on June 26, 2018. At this time, 
the subcommittee received the second required quarterly 
congressional briefing on progress made carrying out reforms to 
the background and security investigation process. Briefers 
from the Department of Defense participated.
    For the final event, the subcommittee convened a hearing on 
December 12, 2018, to receive another quarterly update. 
Testimony was provided by witnesses from the Department of 
Defense and the National Background Investigations Bureau of 
the Office of Personnel Management.

U.S. Strategy in Syria

    On September 26, 2018, the subcommittee held a hearing to 
receive testimony on ``U.S. Strategy in Syria''. The hearing 
focused on the Administration's strategic objectives in Syria, 
the authorities and resources required to achieve those 
objectives, and the methods the Administration will use to 
measure success. The Assistant Secretary of Defense for 
International Security Affairs and a representative from the 
Joint Staff described the Department of Defense's goals and 
actions in Syria.

                              PUBLICATIONS

                             HOUSE REPORTS

------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Report Number          Date Filed        Bill Number        Title
------------------------------------------------------------------------
H. Rept. 115-13..  February 16, 2017....  H.R. 393.....  To provide for
                                                          an exception
                                                          to a
                                                          limitation
                                                          against
                                                          appointment of
                                                          persons as
                                                          Secretary of
                                                          Defense within
                                                          seven years of
                                                          relief from
                                                          active duty as
                                                          a regular
                                                          commissioned
                                                          officer of the
                                                          Armed Forces
H. Rept. 115-200.  July 6, 2017.........  H.R. 2810....  National
                                                          Defense
                                                          Authorization
                                                          Act for Fiscal
                                                          Year 2018
H. Rept. 115-200,  July 11, 2017........  H.R. 2810....  National
 Part 2.                                                  Defense
                                                          Authorization
                                                          Act for Fiscal
                                                          Year 2018
H. Rept. 115-676.  May 15, 2018.........  H.R. 5515....  National
                                                          Defense
                                                          Authorization
                                                          Act for Fiscal
                                                          Year 2019
H. Rept. 115-676,  May 21, 2018.........  H.R. 5515....  National
 Part 2.                                                  Defense
                                                          Authorization
                                                          Act for Fiscal
                                                          Year 2019
------------------------------------------------------------------------

                            COMMITTEE PRINTS

    Committee Print No. 1--Rules of the Committee on Armed 
Services, House of Representatives of the United States, 115th 
Congress, 2017-2018, adopted January 12, 2017.

                         PUBLISHED PROCEEDINGS

    H.A.S.C. No. 115-1--Full Committee hearing on 
Organizational Meeting for the 115th Congress. January 12, 
2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-2--Full Committee hearing on Consideration 
of the Committee Oversight Plan for the 115th Congress. 
February 2, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-3--Full Committee hearing on The State of 
the World: National Security Threats and Challenges. February 
1, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-4--Full Committee hearing on The State of 
the Military. February 7, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-5--Full Committee hearing on The Evolving 
Threat of Terrorism and Effective Counterterrorism Strategies. 
February 14, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-6--Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land 
Forces hearing on Military Services 5th Generation Tactical 
Aircraft Challenges and F-35 Joint Strike Fighter Program 
Update. February 16, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-7--Subcommittee on Oversight and 
Investigations hearing on Department of Defense Inspector 
General Report `Investigation on Allegations Relating to 
USCENTCOM Intelligence Products'. February 28, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-8--Full Committee hearing on Cyber Warfare 
in the 21st Century: Threats, Challenges and Opportunities. 
March 1, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-9--Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land 
Forces hearing on U.S. Ground Force Capability and 
Modernization Challenges in Eastern Europe. March 1, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-10--Subcommittee on Military Personnel 
hearing on Overview of Military Review Board Agencies. March 2, 
2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-11--Full Committee hearing on Military 
Assessment of Nuclear Deterrence Requirements. March 8, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-12--Subcommittee on Readiness hearing on 
The Current State of U.S. Army Readiness. March 8, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-13--Subcommittee on Seapower and 
Projection Forces hearing on An Independent Fleet Assessment of 
the U.S. Navy. March 8, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-14--Subcommittee on Strategic Forces 
hearing on Nuclear Deterrence--The Defense Science Board's 
Perspective. March 9, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-15--Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land 
Forces hearing on The Effect of Sequestration and Continuing 
Resolutions on Marine Corps Modernization and Readiness. March 
10, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-16--Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and 
Capabilities hearing on Crafting an Information Warfare and 
Counter-Propaganda Strategy for the Emerging Security 
Environment. March 15, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-17--Subcommittee on Readiness hearing on 
The Current State of the U.S. Navy. March 16, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-18--Subcommittee on Oversight and 
Investigations hearing on Oversight Review of Infrastructure 
Needs and Projects Ready for Immediate Implementation in the 
Nuclear Security Enterprise. March 16, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-19--Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land 
Forces hearing on The Effect of Sequestration and Continuing 
Resolutions on Army Modernization and Readiness. March 16, 
2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-20--Full Committee hearing on America's 
Role in the World. March 21, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-21--Subcommittee on Military Personnel 
hearing on Social Media Policies of the Military Services. 
March 21, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-22--Full Committee hearing on The 
Evolution of Hybrid Warfare and Key Challenges. March 22, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-23--Subcommittee on Readiness hearing on 
The Current State of the U.S. Air Force. March 22, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-24--Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and 
Capabilities hearing on High Consequences and Uncertain 
Threats: Reviewing Department of Defense Strategy, Policy, and 
Programs for Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction for Fiscal 
Year 2018. March 23, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-25--Full Committee hearing on Military 
Assessment of Russian Activities and Security Challenges in 
Europe. March 28, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-26--Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land 
Forces hearing on Naval Strike Fighters--Issues and Concerns. 
March 28, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-27--Full Committee hearing on Military 
Assessment of the Security Challenges in the Greater Middle 
East. March 29, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-28--Subcommittee on Strategic Forces joint 
hearing with the House Homeland Security Subcommittee on 
Emergency Preparedness, Response, and Communications on Threats 
to Space Assets and Implications for Homeland Security. March 
29, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-29--Subcommittee on Military Personnel 
hearing on Military Pilot Shortage. March 29, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-30--Subcommittee on Seapower and 
Projection Forces joint hearing with the Subcommittee on 
Readiness on The Current State of U.S. Transportation Command. 
March 30, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-31--Subcommittee on Strategic Forces joint 
hearing with the House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on 
Terrorism, Nonproliferation, and Trade on Consequences and 
Context for Russia's Violations of the INF Treaty. March 30, 
2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-32--Full Committee hearing on Assessing 
Progress and Identifying Future Opportunities in Defense 
Reform. April 4, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-33--Full Committee hearing on Consequences 
to the Military of a Continuing Resolution. April 5, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-34--Subcommittee on Readiness hearing on 
The Current State of the U.S. Marine Corps. April 5, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-35--Subcommittee on Oversight and 
Investigations hearing on Evaluating the Defense Contract 
Auditing Process. April 6, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-36--Full Committee hearing on Military 
Assessment of the Security Challenges in the Indo-Asia-Pacific 
Region. April 26, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-37--Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and 
Capabilities hearing on Creating a Flexible and Effective 
Information Technology Management and Acquisition System: 
Elements for Success in a Rapidly Changing Landscape. April 26, 
2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-38--Full Committee hearing on Member Day--
National Defense Priorities from Members for the Fiscal Year 
2018 National Defense Authorization Act. April 27, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-39--Subcommittee on Military Personnel 
hearing on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Traumatic Brain 
Injury--Clinical and Research Program Assessment. April 27, 
2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-40--Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and 
Capabilities hearing on Three Decades Later: A Review and 
Assessment of Our Special Operations Forces 30-Years After the 
Creation of U.S. Special Operations Command. May 2, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-41--Subcommittee on Military Personnel 
hearing on Overview of the Annual Report on Sexual Harassment 
and Violence at the Military Service Academies. May 2, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-42--Subcommittee on Seapower and 
Projection Forces hearing on Littoral Combat Ships and the 
Transition to Frigate Class. May 3, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-43--Full Committee hearing on Initial 
Findings of the Section 809 Panel: Setting the Path for 
Streamlining and Improving Defense Acquisition. May 17, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-44--Subcommittee on Military Personnel 
hearing on Military Personnel Posture: FY 2018. May 17, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-45--Subcommittee on Seapower and 
Projection Forces hearing on Amphibious Warfare in a Contested 
Environment. May 18, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-46--Subcommittee on Strategic Forces 
hearing on Fiscal Year 2018 Priorities and Posture of the 
National Security Space Enterprise. May 19, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-47--Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and 
Capabilities hearing on Fiscal Year 2018 Budget Request for 
U.S. Cyber Command: Cyber Mission Force Support to Department 
of Defense Operations. May 23, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-48--Subcommittee on Seapower and 
Projection Forces hearing on Department of the Navy FY 2018 
Budget Request for Seapower and Projection Forces. May 24, 
2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-49--Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land 
Forces hearing on Ground Force Modernization Budget Request. 
May 24, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-50--Subcommittee on Seapower and 
Projection Forces hearing on Department of the Air Force FY 
2018 Budget Request for Seapower and Projection Forces. May 25, 
2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-51--Subcommittee on Strategic Forces 
hearing on Fiscal Year 2018 Priorities for Nuclear Forces and 
Atomic Energy Defense Activities. May 25, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-52--Subcommittee on Strategic Forces 
hearing on Fiscal Year 2018 Priorities and Posture of Missile 
Defeat Programs and Activities. June 7, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-53--Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land 
Forces hearing on Combat Aviation Modernization Programs and 
the Fiscal Year 2018 Budget Request. June 7, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-54--Full Committee hearing on The Fiscal 
Year 2018 National Defense Authorization Budget Request from 
the Department of Defense. June 12, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-55--Subcommittee on Oversight and 
Investigations hearing on Evaluating DOD Equipment and Uniform 
Procurement in Iraq and Afghanistan. July 25, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-56--Subcommittee on Readiness hearing on 
Continued Oversight of the Transfer of Excess Military 
Equipment to Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies. July 27, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-57--Subcommittee on Readiness joint 
hearing with the Subcommittee on Seapower and Projection Forces 
on Underlying Problems Associated with the USS Fitzgerald and 
USS John S. McCain. September 7, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-58--Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land 
Forces hearing on The Army's Tactical Network Modernization 
Strategy. September 27, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-59--Full Committee hearing on U.S. Defense 
Strategy in South Asia. October 3, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-60--Subcommittee on Oversight and 
Investigations hearing on Securing the Peace After the Fall of 
ISIL. October 3, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-61--Subcommittee on Readiness hearing on 
Aviation Readiness: What's the Flight Plan? November 9, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-62--Subcommittee on Readiness hearing on 
Amphibious Warfare Readiness & Training (Interoperability, 
Shortfalls, and the Way Ahead). December 1, 2017.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-63--Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and 
Capabilities hearing on China's Pursuit of Emerging and 
Exponential Technologies. January 9, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-64--Full Committee hearing on Department 
of Defense Update on the Financial Improvement and Audit 
Remediation (FIAR) Plan. January 10, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-65--Subcommittee on Readiness joint 
hearing with the Subcommittee on Seapower and Projection Forces 
on Surface Warfare: At a Crossroads. January 18, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-66--Full Committee hearing on Readying the 
U.S. Military for Future Warfare. January 30, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-67--Full Committee hearing on The National 
Defense Strategy and the Nuclear Posture Review. February 6, 
2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-68--Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land 
Forces hearing on Addressing Physiological Episodes in Fighter, 
Attack, and Training Aircraft. February 6, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-69--Subcommittee on Military Personnel 
hearing on Senior Leader Misconduct: Prevention and 
Accountability. February 7, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-70--Full Committee hearing on The Military 
and Security Challenges and Posture in the Indo-Pacific Region. 
February 14, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-71--Subcommittee on Readiness hearing on 
Air Force Readiness Posture. February 14, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-72--Full Committee hearing on Strategic 
Competition with China. February 15, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-73--Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and 
Capabilities hearing on Evolution, Transformation, and 
Sustainment: A Review and Assessment of the Fiscal Year 2019 
Budget Request for U.S. Special Operations Forces and Command. 
February 15, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-74--Full Committee hearing on Terrorism 
and Iran: Defense Challenges in the Middle East. February 27, 
2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-75--Full Committee hearing on National 
Security Challenges and U.S. Military Activities in Africa. 
March 6, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-76--Subcommittee on Seapower and 
Projection Forces hearing on Department of the Navy FY 2019 
Budget Request for Seapower and Projection Forces. March 6, 
2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-77--Subcommittee on Readiness hearing on 
Marine Corps Readiness Posture. March 6, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-78--Full Committee hearing on Assessing 
Military Service Acquisition Reform. March 7, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-79--Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land 
Forces hearing on The F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Lightning 
II Program. March 7, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-80--Subcommittee on Strategic Forces 
hearing on U.S. Strategic Forces Posture and the Fiscal Year 
2019 Budget Request. March 7, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-81--Subcommittee on Readiness joint 
hearing with the Subcommittee on Seapower and Projection Forces 
on Mobility and Transportation Command Posture. March 8, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-82--Subcommittee on Military Personnel 
hearing on Arlington National Cemetery Preserving the Promise. 
March 8, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-83--Full Committee hearing on Space 
Warfighting Readiness: Policies, Authorities, and Capabilities. 
March 14, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-84--Subcommittee on Seapower and 
Projection Forces hearing on Department of the Air Force FY 
2019 Budget Request for Seapower and Projection Forces. March 
14, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-85--Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and 
Capabilities hearing on A Review and Assessment of the Fiscal 
Year 2018 Budget Request for the DOD Science and Technology 
Programs. March 14, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-86--Full Committee hearing on Security 
Challenges in Europe and Posture for Inter-state Competition 
with Russia. March 15, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-87--Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land 
Forces hearing on Fiscal Year 2019 Budget Request on Air Force 
Airborne Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) 
Programs. March 15, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-88--Subcommittee on Strategic Forces 
hearing on Fiscal Year 2019 Budget Request for National 
Security Space Programs. March 15, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-89--Full Committee hearing on Assessing 
the Fiscal Year 2019 Budget Request and Acquisition Reform 
Progress. March 20, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-90--Subcommittee on Seapower and 
Projection Forces hearing on Submarine Industrial Base Options 
for Construction. March 20, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-91--Subcommittee on Readiness hearing on 
Navy Readiness Posture. March 20, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-92--Full Committee hearing on State and 
Non-State Actor Influence Operations Recommendations for U.S. 
National Security. March 21, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-93--Subcommittee on Strategic Forces 
hearing on Fiscal Year 2019 Budget Request for Nuclear Forces 
and Atomic Energy Defense Activities. March 22, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-94--Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and 
Capabilities hearing on Reviewing Department of Defense 
Strategy, Policy, and Programs for Countering Weapons of Mass 
Destruction (CWMD) for Fiscal Year 2019. March 22, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-95--Full Committee hearing on Cyber 
Operations Today: Preparing for 21st Century Challenges in an 
Information-Enabled Society. April 11, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-96--Full Committee hearing on Member Day. 
April 11, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-97--Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and 
Capabilities hearing on A Review and Assessment of the 
Department of Defense Budget, Strategy, Policy, and Programs 
for Cyber Operations and U.S. Cyber Command for Fiscal Year 
2019. April 11, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-98--Full Committee hearing on The Fiscal 
Year 2019 National Defense Authorization Budget Request from 
the Department of Defense. April 12, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-99--Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land 
Forces hearing on Fiscal Year 2019 Budget Request for Combat 
Aviation Programs. April 12, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-100--Subcommittee on Seapower and 
Projection Forces hearing on 355 Ship Navy Delivering the Right 
Capabilities. April 12, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-101--Subcommittee on Military Personnel 
hearing on Military Personnel Posture: FY 2019. April 13, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-102--Full Committee hearing on Promoting 
DOD's Culture of Innovation. April 17, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-103--Subcommittee on Strategic Forces 
hearing on Fiscal Year 2019 Budget Request for Missile Defense 
and Missile Defeat Programs. April 17, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-104--Full Committee hearing on Oversight 
and Reform of the Department of Defense 4th Estate. April 18, 
2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-105--Subcommittee on Readiness hearing on 
Fiscal Year 2019 Energy, Installations, and Environment Budget 
Request. April 18, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-106--Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land 
Forces hearing on Ground Force Modernization Budget Request for 
Fiscal Year 2019. April 18, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-107--Subcommittee on Readiness hearing on 
Army Fiscal Year 2019 Budget Request Readiness Posture. April 
19, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-108--Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land 
Forces hearing on Department of Defense Aviation Safety Mishap 
Review and Oversight Process. June 13, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-109--Subcommittee on Readiness hearing on 
Navy and Air Force Depot Policy Issues and Infrastructure 
Concerns. June 14, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-110--Subcommittee on Military Personnel 
hearing on Military Health System Reform: Pain Management, 
Opioids Prescription Management and Reporting Transparency. 
June 20, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-111--Full Committee hearing on Military 
Technology Transfer: Threats, Impacts, and Solutions for the 
Department of Defense. June 21, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-112--Subcommittee on Readiness hearing on 
Aviation Mishap Prevention--A Progress Report. June 21, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-113--Subcommittee on Strategic Forces 
joint hearing with the Committee on Science, Space and 
Technology Subcommittee on Space on Space Situational 
Awareness: Whole of Government Perspectives on Roles and 
Responsibilities. June 22, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-114--Subcommittee on Readiness hearing on 
Army and Marine Corps Depot Policy Issues and Infrastructure 
Concerns. June 28, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-115--Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and 
Capabilities hearing on Department of Defense's Role in Foreign 
Assistance. July 11, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-116--Subcommittee on Readiness hearing on 
Army Futures Command: Will it help? September 13, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-117--Full Committee hearing on The Impact 
of National Defense on the Economy, Diplomacy, and 
International Order. September 26, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-118--Subcommittee on Oversight and 
Investigations hearing on U.S. Strategy in Syria. September 26, 
2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-119--Subcommittee on Military Personnel 
hearing on Update on Military Review Board Agencies. September 
27, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115-120--Subcommittee on Seapower and 
Projection Forces hearing on Contributing Factors to C-130 
Mishaps and Other Intra-Theater Airlift Challenges. September 
28, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115 121--Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and 
Capabilities joint hearing with the Committee on Homeland 
Security Subcommittee on Cybersecurity and Infrastructure 
Protection on Interagency Cyber Cooperation: Roles, 
Responsibilities and Authorities of the Department of Defense 
and the Department of Homeland Security. November 14, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115 122--Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and 
Capabilities hearing on Department of Defense's Artificial 
Intelligence Structure, Investments, and Applications. December 
11, 2018.
    H.A.S.C. No. 115 123--Subcommittee on Oversight and 
Investigations hearing on Security Clearance Processing Status 
Report. December 12, 2018.

                             PRESS RELEASES


                             First Session

JANUARY 2017:
    1/10/2017--THORNBERRY WELCOMES NEW REPUBLICAN MEMBERS TO 
HASC
    1/11/2017--UPDATE: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: JANUARY 9-13
    1/11/2017--UPDATE 2: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: JANUARY 9-13
    1/11/2017--THORNBERRY RELEASES HASC SUBCOMMITTEE CHAIRS FOR 
115TH CONGRESS
    1/11/2017--UPDATE 3: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: JANUARY 9-13
    1/12/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN THORNBERRY
    1/12/2017--THORNBERRY PRAISES COMMITTEE'S VOTE TO SUPPORT 
WAIVER FOR MATTIS
    1/17/2017--THORNBERRY ON MANNING COMMUTATION
    1/18/2017--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: JANUARY 23-27
    1/20/2017--THORNBERRY ON MATTIS CONFIRMATION
    1/23/2017--THORNBERRY ON SECAF APPOINTMENT
    1/25/2017--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: JAN 30-FEB 3
    1/27/2017--THORNBERRY ON READINESS REVIEW
    1/31/2017--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: FEBRUARY 6-10

FEBRUARY 2017:
    2/1/2017--CHAIRMAN THORNBERRY'S OPENING REMARKS
    2/1/2017--JOINT TASK FORCE STATEMENT ON INSPECTOR GENERAL 
CENTCOM REPORT
    2/1/2017--UPDATE: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: FEBRUARY 6-10
    2/3/2017--THORNBERRY TO HOST PRESS GAGGLE MONDAY
    2/7/2017--CHAIRMEN THORNBERRY'S OPENING REMARKS: State of 
the Military
    2/18/2017--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: FEBRUARY 13-17
    2/13/2017--THORNBERRY TO HOST PRESS GAGGLE WEDNESDAY
    2/14/2017--THORNBERRY ON REPORTS OF RUSSIA'S LATEST 
VIOLATION OF INF TREATY
    2/14/2017--CHAIRMAN THORNBERRY'S OPENING REMARKS
    2/15/2017--THORNBERRY ANNOUNCES SUBCOMMITTEE MEMBERS
    2/15/2017--UPDATE: THORNBERRY TO HOST PRESS GAGGLE THURSDAY
    2/15/2017--UPDATE: THORNBERRY TO HOST PRESS GAGGLE THURSDAY 
IN 2118 RAYBURN
    2/15/2017--STEFANIK COMMENTS ON COUNTERTERRORISM BRIEFING
    2/16/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN TURNER
    2/16/2017--THORNBERRY ANNOUNCES COMMITTEE VICE CHAIRS
    2/17/2017--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: FEBRUARY 20-24
    2/20/2017--THORNBERRY ON MCMASTER FOR NSA
    2/22/2017--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: FEB 28-MAR 3
    2/27/2017--THORNBERRY ON LOW DEFENSE BUDGET OUTLINE NUMBER
    2/28/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRWOMAN HARTZLER
    2/28/2017--THORNBERRY TO HOST PRESS GAGGLE WEDNESDAY

MARCH 2017:
    3/1/2017--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: MAR 6-10
    3/1/2017--CHAIRMAN THORNBERRY'S OPENING REMARKS
    3/1/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN TURNER
    3/1/2017--STEFANIK ON QUARTERLY CYBER UPDATE
    3/2/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN COFFMAN
    3/3/2017--MEDIA ALERT: REPS. THORNBERRY, BLACKBURN, AND 
BLACK TO VISIT FT. CAMPBELL TO FOCUS ON MILITARY READINESS
    3/5/2017--THORNBERRY ON DOD INVESTIGATION INTO SOCIAL MEDIA 
SITE
    3/7/2017--THORNBERRY TO HOST PRESS GAGGLE WEDNESDAY
    3/7/2017--THORNBERRY ON DEPLOYMENT OF MISSILE DEFENSE 
SYSTEM TO SOUTH KOREA
    3/8/2017--CHAIRMAN THORNBERRY'S OPENING REMARKS
    3/8/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN WILSON
    3/8/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN WITTMAN
    3/8/2017--THORNBERRY TO HOST PRESS GAGGLE WEDNESDAY
    3/8/2017--THORNBERRY ON PASSAGE OF DOD APPROPRIATIONS
    3/9/2017--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: MAR 13-17
    3/9/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN ROGERS
    3/10/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN TURNER
    3/10/2017--UPDATE; HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: MAR 13-17
    3/13/2017--UPDATE #2: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: MAR 13-17
    3/15/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRWOMAN STEFANIK
    3/16/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN WILSON
    3/16/2017--THORNBERRY ON ADMINISTRATION'S BUDGET PROPOSAL
    3/16/2017--THORNBERRY TO HOST PRESS GAGGLE TODAY
    3/16/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRWOMAN HARTZLER
    3/16/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN TURNER
    3/16/2017--THORNBERRY ON MARINES UNITED BRIEFING
    3/20/2017--UPDATE: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: MAR 20-24
    3/21/2017--CHAIRMAN THORNBERRY'S OPENING REMARKS
    3/22/2017--CHAIRMAN THORNBERRY'S OPENING REMARKS
    3/22/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN WILSON
    3/23/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRWOMAN STEFANIK
    3/23/2017--UPDATE: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: MAR 27-31
    3/28/2017--CHAIRMAN THORNBERRY'S OPENING REMARKS
    3/28/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN TURNER
    3/28/2017--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: APRIL 3-7
    3/29/2017--CHAIRMAN THORNBERRY'S OPENING REMARKS
    3/29/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN ROGERS
    3/29/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN COFFMAN
    3/30/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN WILSON
    3/30/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN WITTMAN
    3/30/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN ROGERS
    3/31/2017--THORNBERRY ANNOUNCES SELECTION FOR COMMISSION ON 
MILITARY, NATIONAL, AND PUBLIC SERVICE

APRIL 2017:
    4/3/2017--UPDATE: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: APRIL 3-7
    4/4/2017--CHAIRMAN THORNBERRY'S OPENING REMARKS
    4/5/2017--UPDATE 2: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: APRIL 3-7
    4/5/2017--CHAIRMAN THORNBERRY'S OPENING REMARKS
    4/5/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN WILSON
    4/6/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRWOMAN HARTZLER
    4/6/2017--THORNBERRY CONGRATULATES JEANETTE JAMES ON ARMY 
CIVILIAN AWARD
    4/6/2017--THORNBERRY ON U.S. MILITARY STRIKES IN SYRIA
    4/10/2017--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: APRIL 10-21
    4/16/2017--TUNE IN TODAY: CHAIRMAN THORNBERRY ON FOX NEWS 
SUNDAY
    4/19/2017--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: APRIL 24-28
    4/24/2017--UPDATE: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: APRIL 24-28
    4/25/2017--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: MAY 1-5
    4/26/2017--CHAIRMAN THORNBERRY'S OPENING REMARKS
    4/26/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRWOMAN STEFANIK
    4/27/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN COFFMAN
    4/28/2017--UPDATE 2: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: MAY 1-5

MAY 2017:
    5/1/2017--THORNBERRY TO HOST PRESS GAGGLE TUESDAY
    5/1/2017--THORNBERRY ON SPENDING AGREEMENT
    5/1/2017--SIMMONS TO DEPART ARMED SERVICES COMMITTEE STAFF 
FOR PRIVATE SECTOR
    5/1/2017--UPDATE 2: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: MAY 1-5
    5/2/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRWOMAN STEFANIK
    5/2/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN COFFMAN
    5/3/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN WITTMAN
    5/4/2017--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: MAY 8-12
    5/10/2017--CHAIRMAN THORNBERRY ON SOUTH KOREAN ELECTION 
RESULTS
    5/15/2017--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: MAY 15-19
    5/16/2017--PRESS CONFERENCE: THORNBERRY TO RELEASE DEFENSE 
ACQUISITION BILL
    5/16/2017--HASC STAFF TO BACKGROUND PRESS ON ACQUISITION 
REFORM BILL
    5/16/2017--UPDATE 2: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: MAY 15-19
    5/16/2017--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: MAY 22-26
    5/16/2017--PRESS CONFERENCE: THORNBERRY TO RELEASE DEFENSE 
ACQUISITION BILL
    5/17/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN COFFMAN
    5/17/2017--PRESS CONFERENCE: THORNBERRY TO RELEASE DEFENSE 
ACQUISITION BILL
    5/18/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN WITTMAN
    5/18/2017--THORNBERRY INTRODUCES ACQUISITION REFORM BILL
    5/19/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN ROGERS
    5/19/2017--MONDAY: THORNBERRY AT BROOKINGS
    5/23/2017--UPDATE: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: MAY 22-26
    5/23/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRWOMAN STEFANIK
    5/24/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN WITTMAN
    5/24/2017--THORNBERRY ON PASSAGE OF PRIVATE ACT
    5/24/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN TURNER
    5/25/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN WITTMAN
    5/25/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN ROGERS
    5/26/2017--THORNBERRY INTRODUCES INDO-ASIA-PACIFIC SECURITY 
BILL
    5/30/2017--THORNBERRY LEADS TRIP TO STRENGTHEN INDO-ASIA-
PACIFIC ALLIANCES
    5/31/2017--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: JUNE 5-9
    5/31/2017--THORNBERRY ON SUCCESSFUL MISSILE DEFENSE TEST
    5/31/2017--THORNBERRY CODEL MEETS WITH JAPANESE PRIME 
MINISTER

JUNE 2017:
    6/2/2017--THORNBERRY & CODEL DISCUSS DEFENSE COOPERATION 
WITH VIETNAMESE OFFICIALS
    6/5/2017--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: JUNE 12-16
    6/7/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN ROGERS
    6/7/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN TURNER
    6/8/2017--BIPARTISAN CYBER LEGISLATION INTRODUCED
    6/8/2017--THORNBERRY, SMITH BEGIN FY18 NATIONAL DEFENSE 
AUTHORIZATION PROCESS
    6/9/2017--HASC STAFF TO HOST OF THE RECORD SESSION ON NDAA 
MARKUP LOGISTICS
    6/12/2017--CHAIRMAN THORNBERRY'S OPENING REMARKS
    6/14/2017--HASC MARKUP SCHEDULE: JUNE 21-22
    6/14/2017--HASC TO DISTRIBUTE NDAA AMENDMENTS BY EMAIL
    6/16/2017--SUBCOMMITTEE MARKUP PRESS BRIEFINGS
    6/20/2017--MARK RELEASE: SUBCOMMITTEE ON EMERGING THREATS & 
CAPABILITIES
    6/20/2017--MARK RELEASE: SUBCOMMITTEE ON MILITARY PERSONNEL
    6/20/2017--MARK RELEASE: SUBCOMMITTEE ON TACTICAL AIR & 
LAND FORCES
    6/20/2017--MARK RELEASE: SUBCOMMITTEE ON READINESS
    6/20/2017--MARK RELEASE: SUBCOMMITTEE ON SEAPOWER & 
PROJECTION FORCES
    6/20/2017--MARK RELEASE: SUBCOMMITTEE ON STRATEGIC FORCES
    6/21/2017--THORNBERRY TO HOST PRESS GAGGLE THURSDAY
    6/21/2017--UPDATE: HASC MARKUP SCHEDULE: JUNE 21-22
    6/21/2017--FY18 NDAA FULL COMMITTEE MARKUP
    6/21/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRWOMAN STEFANIK
    6/21/2017--THORNBERRY TO HOST PRESS GAGGLE THURSDAY
    6/21/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN TURNER
    6/22/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN WILSON
    6/22/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN ROGERS
    6/22/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN COFFMAN
    6/22/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN WITTMAN
    6/22/2017--TIME UPDATE: THORNBERRY TO HOST PRESS GAGGLE 
THURSDAY
    6/23/2017--THORNBERRY TO HOST PRESS GAGGLE THURSDAY
    6/26/2017--CHAIRMAN'S MARK PRESS BRIEFING
    6/26/2017--THORNBERRY RELEASE FY18 NDAA
    6/28/2017--CHAIRMAN THORNBERRY'S OPENING REMARKS
    6/29/2017--THORNBERRY ON COMMITTEE PASSAGE OF DEFENSE BILL

JULY 2017:
    7/10/2017--DEFENSE BILL COMES TO THE HOUSE FLOOR
    7/13/2017--HOUSE REPUBLICANS TO HOLD PRESS CONFERENCE ON 
THE NDAA
    7/14/2017--UPDATE: HOUSE REPUBLICANS TO HOLD PRESS 
CONFERENCE ON THE NDAA
    7/14/2017--HOUSE PASSES DEFENSE BILL
    7/19/2017--THORNBERRY ON SENATOR JOHN MCCAIN
    7/19/2017--ROGERS/COOPER ON NATIONAL SECURITY SPACE 
BRIEFING
    7/19/2017--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: JULY 24-28
    7/20/2017--ARMED SERVICES LEADERS APPOINT MEMBERS TO 
DEFENSE STRATEGY COMMISSION
    7/20/2017--UPDATE: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: JULY 24-28
    7/24/2017--UPDATE 2: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: JULY 24-28
    7/25/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRWOMAN HARTZLER
    7/25/2017--THORNBERRY ON NORTH KOREA BRIEFING
    7/25/2017--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: JULY 24-28
    7/27/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN WILSON
    7/28/2017--THORNBERRY ON NORTH KOREA MISSILE LAUNCH
    7/31/2017--ROGERS/COOPER WEIGH IN ON GPS OCX & FAB-T 
PROGRAMS

AUGUST 2017:
    8/9/2017--THORNBERRY ON THE SITUATION ON THE KOREAN 
PENINSULA
    8/11/2017--THORNBERRY ON MARINE CORPS FLIGHT PAUSE
    8/21/2017--THORNBERRY ON AFGHANISTAN STRATEGY
    8/21/2017--THORNBERRY ANNOUNCES NEW ARMED SERVICES 
LEADERSHIP TEAM
    8/21/2017--THORNBERRY COMMENTS ON NAVY READINESS
    8/23/2017--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: SEPTEMBER 4-8
    8/30/2017--THORNBERRY ON AFGHANISTAN FORCE LEVEL ACCOUNTING 
& REPORTING

SEPTEMBER 2017:
    9/1/2017--UPDATE: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: SEPTEMBER 4-8
    9/6/2017--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: SEPTEMBER 11-15
    9/7/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN WILSON
    9/7/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN WITTMAN
    9/8/2017--THORNBERRY VOTES NO ON CR
    9/11/2017--UPDATE: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: SEPTEMBER 11-15
    9/15/2017--THORNBERRY COMMENTS ON ANOTHER WEEK OF DEADLY 
MILITARY ACCIDENTS
    9/19/2017--THORNBERRY REACTS TO PRESIDENT TRUMP'S DEFENSE 
BUDGET COMMENTS
    9/20/2017--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: SEPTEMBER 25-29
    9/25/2017--UPDATE: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: SEPTEMBER 25-29
    9/26/2017--THORNBERRY PRAISES RESTRICTIONS TO OPEN SKIES 
TREATY
    9/27/2017--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: OCTOBER 2-6
    9/27/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN TURNER
    9/28/2017--READOUT OF SEXUAL ASSAULT BRIEFING BEFORE 
MILITARY PERSONNEL SUBCOMMITTEE
    9/29/2017--THORNBERRY TO HOST PRESS GAGGLE MONDAY
    9/29/2017--UPDATE: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: OCTOBER 2-6

OCTOBER 2017:
    10/2/2017--POSTPONED--THORNBERRY TO HOST PRESS GAGGLE 
MONDAY
    10/2/2017--THORNBERRY TO KEYNOTE AT HERITAGE
    10/3/2017--CHAIRMAN THORNBERRY'S OPENING REMARKS
    10/3/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRWOMAN HARTZLER
    10/5/2017--153 HOUSE REPUBLICANS SUPPORT POTUS CALL FOR 
DEFENSE BUDGET
    10/5/2017--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: OCTOBER 9-13
    10/12/2017--DEFENSE BILL GOES TO CONFERENCE
    10/13/2017--STATEMENT ON THE IRAN NUCLEAR DEAL
    10/20/2017--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: OCTOBER 23-27
    10/24/2017--NDAA CONFEREES TO MEET WEDNESDAY

NOVEMBER 2017:
    11/1/2017--THORNBERRY, FRELINGHUYSEN JOURNEY TO MIDDLE 
EAST, VISIT THE TROOPS
    11/2/2017--7TH FLEET INVESTIGATION REINFORCES READINESS 
CONCERNS
    11/2/2017--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: NOVEMBER 6-10
    11/2/2017--THORNBERRY ON ESPER NOMINATION TO SERVE AS 
SECRETARY OF THE ARMY
    11/6/2017--THORNBERRY/MCCAIN ON MISSILE DEFENSE 
SUPPLEMENTAL
    11/7/2017--COFFMAN ON DOD INVESTIGATION OF NCIC REPORTING 
ISSUES
    11/7/2017--THORNBERRY ON AIR FORCE FAILURE TO PROPERLY 
REPORT CRIMINAL RECORD OF FORMER AIRMAN
    11/8/2017--HOUSE & SENATE ARMED SERVICES COMMITTEES 
COMPLETE CONFERENCE ON NDAA FOR FISCAL YEAR 2018
    11/8/2017--ROGERS & COOPER ON FUNDAMENTAL SPACE REFORM
    11/9/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN WILSON
    11/9/2017--NDAA CONFERNCE REPORT
    11/14/2017--THORNBERRY/SMITH ON FDA PROVISION
    11/14/2017--THORNBERRY ON NDAA PASSAGE
    11/17/2017--STATEMENT BY THORNBERRY & MCCAIN ON BUDGET DEAL 
NEGOTIATIONS
    11/27/2017--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: NOVEMBER 27-DECEMBER 1
    11/29/2017--CHAIRMAN WILSON ON READINESS BRIEFING

DECEMBER 2017:
    12/1/2017--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN WILSON
    12/7/2017--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: DECEMBER 11-15
    12/12/2017--PRESIDENT SIGNS NDAA CONFERENCE REPORT
    12/13/2017--UPDATE: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: DECEMBER 11-14
    12/14/2017--THORNBERRY ON DEFENSE APPROPRIATIONS BILL

                             Second Session

JANUARY 2018:
    1/3/2018--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: JANUARY 8-12
    1/9/2018--READOUT OF YESTERDAY'S MEETING WITH EUCOM 
COMMANDER
    1/9/2018--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRWOMAN STEFANIK
    1/10/2018--CHAIRMAN THORNBERRY'S OPENING REMARKS ON 
PENTAGON AUDIT
    1/11/2018--THORNBERRY WELCOMES REP. HICE TO HASC
    1/11/2018--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: JANUARY 15-19
    1/12/2018--READOUT OF BRIEFING WITH THE ARMY AND ARLINGTON 
NATIONAL CEMETERY ADVISORY COMMITTEE
    1/17/2018--READOUT OF BRIEFING WITH GAO ON DOD CYBER 
POLICY, OPERATIONS, AND ACTIVITIES
    1/18/2018--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN WITTMAN
    1/18/2018--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN WILSON
    1/19/2018--THORNBERRY ON NATIONAL DEFENSE STRATEGY
    1/20/2018--THORNBERRY ON GOVERNMENT SHUT DOWN
    1/20/2018--THORNBERRY: ``WE NEED TO SET OUR TROOPS FREE 
FROM THIS POLITICAL DRAMA''
    1/22/2018--THORNBERRY: OUR SUPPORT FOR OUR MILITARY SHOULD 
BE UNCONDITIONAL
    1/22/2018--THORNBERRY ON ENDING THE SHUTDOWN
    1/23/2018--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: JAN 29-FEB 2
    1/24/2018--UPDATE: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: JAN 29-FEB 2
    1/30/2018--THORNBERRY ON STATE OF THE UNION
    1/30/2018--OPENING REMARKS: THORNBERRY ON FUTURE OF WARFARE
    1/30/2018--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: FEB 5-9

FEBRUARY 2018:
    2/2/2018--THORNBERRY ON NUCLEAR POSTURE REVIEW
    2/5/2018--UPDATE: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: FEB 5-9
    2/6/2018--THORNBERRY ON NATIONAL DEFENSE STRATEGY & NUCLEAR 
POSTURE REVIEW
    2/6/2018--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN TURNER
    2/7/2018--UPDATE: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: FEB 5-9
    2/7/2018--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN COFFMAN
    2/7/2018--THORNBERRY/MCCAIN ON BUDGET AGREEMENT
    2/7/2018--TODAY @ 4:15 PM--ARMED SERVICES REPUBLICANS HOLD 
PRESS CONFERENCE ON BUDGET AGREEMENT TO FUND OUR TROOPS
    2/9/2018--THORNBERRY: BIPARTISAN AGREEMENT BEGINS TO 
REBUILD AND RESTORE OUR MILITARY
    2/14/2018--THORNBERRY ON THE MILITARY & SECURITY CHALLENGES 
& POSTURE IN THE INDO-PACIFIC REGION
    2/14/2018--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN WILSON
    2/15/2018--THORNBERRY ON STRATEGIC COMPETITION WITH CHINA
    2/15/2018--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRWOMAN STEFANIK
    2/23/2018--UPDATE: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: FEB 26-MAR 2
    2/27/2018--THORNBERRY TO HOST PRESS GAGGLE
    2/27/2018--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: MAR 5-9
    2/27/2018--THORNBERRY ON TERRORISM AND IRAN: DEFENSE 
CHALLENGES IN THE MIDDLE EAST
    2/28/2018--UPDATE: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: MAR 5-9

MARCH 2018:
    3/1/2018--THORNBERRY TO KEYNOTE ON NUCLEAR POSTURE REVIEW 
AT CSIS
    3/1/2018--THORNBERRY ON PUTIN'S NUCLEAR WEAPONS 
ANNOUNCEMENT
    3/2/2018--ICYMI: THORNBERRY AT CSIS YESTERDAY
    3/5/2018--PRESS ADVISORY: THORNBERRY, SMITH ANNOUNCE OFF-
THE-RECORD NDAA 101 FOR REPORTERS
    3/6/2018--THORNBERRY ON NATIONAL SECURITY CHALLENGES AND 
U.S. MILITARY ACTIVITIES IN AFRICA
    3/6/2018--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN WITTMAN
    3/6/2018--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN WILSON
    3/6/2018--UPDATE: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: MAR 5-9
    3/7/2018--THORNBERRY ON ASSESSING MILITARY SERVICE 
ACQUISITION REFORM
    3/7/2018--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN TURNER
    3/7/2018--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN ROGERS
    3/8/2018--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN WILSON
    3/8/2018--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN WITTMAN
    3/8/2018--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN COFFMAN
    3/8/2018--PRESS ADVISORY TOMORROW: OFF-THE-RECORD NDAA 101 
FOR REPORTERS
    3/8/2018--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: MAR 12-16
    3/12/2018--UPDATE: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: MAR 12-16
    3/13/2018--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: MAR 19-23
    3/13/2018--UPDATE: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: MAR 12-16
    3/14/2018--THORNBERRY ON SPACE WARFIGHTING READINESS: 
POLICIES, AUTHORITIES, AND CAPABILITIES
    3/14/2018--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN WITTMAN
    3/14/2018--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRWOMAN STEFANIK
    3/15/2018--OPENING REMARKS: THORNBERRY ON SECURITY 
CHALLENGES IN EUROPE AND POSTURE FOR INTER-STATE COMPETITION 
WITH RUSSIA
    3/15/2018--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN TURNER
    3/15/2018--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN ROGERS
    3/20/2018--THORNBERRY ON ASSESSING THE FISCAL YEAR 2019 
BUDGET REQUEST AND ACQUISITION REFORM PROGRESS
    3/20/2018--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN WITTMAN
    3/21/2018--STEFANIK INTRODUCES ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 
LEGISLATION
    3/21/2018--UPDATE: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: MAR 19-23
    3/21/2018--UPDATE 2: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: MAR 19-23
    3/21/2018--THORNBERRY ON STATE AND NON-STATE ACTOR 
INFLUENCE OPERATIONS: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR U.S. NATIONAL 
SECURITY
    3/21/2018--THORNBERRY ON OMNIBUS SPENDING PACKAGE
    3/22/2018--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRMAN ROGERS
    3/22/2018--OPENING REMARKS OF CHAIRWOMAN STEFANIK
    3/29/2018--THORNBERRY/SMITH ANNOUNCE MARKUP SCHEDULE FOR 
FY19 NDAA
    3/29/2018--THORNBERRY RETURNS FROM EAST AFRICA TOUR

APRIL 2018:
    4/7/2018--THORNBERRY ON AVIATION ACCIDENTS: MILITARY 
READINESS AT A CRISIS POINT
    4/10/2018--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: APR 16-20
    4/11/2018--THORNBERRY ON SPEAKER RYAN
    4/12/2018--THORNBERRY ON BALANCED BUDGET AMENDMENT
    4/13/2018--THORNBERRY ON MILITARY ACTION IN SYRIA
    4/13/2018--THORNBERRY, SMITH BEGIN FY19 NATIONAL DEFENSE 
AUTHORIZATION PROCESS
    4/16/2018--UPDATE: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: APR 16-20
    4/16/2018--THORNBERRY TO KICK OFF FISCAL YEAR 2019 REFORM 
EFFORTS
    4/17/2018--THORNBERRY RELEASES BILLS TO REFORM DOD 
ACQUISITION AND ``4TH ESTATE''
    4/17/2018--UPDATE 2: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: APR 16-20
    4/18/2018--NDAA MARKUP LOGISTICS BRIEFING FOR PRESS
    4/18/2018--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: APR 23-27
    4/19/2018--NDAA MARKUP LOGISTICS BRIEFING FOR PRESS
    4/23/2018--SUBCOMMITTEE MARKUP PRESS BRIEFINGS
    4/24/2018--CHAIRMAN THORNBERRY TALKS PENTAGON REFORM WITH 
CAGW
    4/25/2018--READINESS SUBCOMMITTEE MARK
    4/25/2018--SEAPOWER & PROJECTION FORCES SUBCOMMITTEE MARK
    4/25/2018--STRATEGIC FORCES SUBCOMMITTEE MARK
    4/25/2018--EMERGING THREATS & CAPABILITIES SUBCOMMITTEE 
MARK
    4/25/2018--MILITARY PERSONNEL SUBCOMMITTEE MARK
    4/25/2018--TACTICAL AIR & LAND FORCES SUBCOMMITTEE MARK
    4/26/2018--THORNBERRY ON NIGER INVESTIGATION

MAY 2018:
    5/1/2018--HASC TO DISTRIBUTE NDAA AMENDMENTS BY EMAIL
    5/2/2018--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: MAY 7-11
    5/3/2018--CHAIRMAN'S MARK PRESS BRIEFING
    5/4/2018--FY 19 NDAA TO FOCUS ON REBUILDING & REFORM
    5/7/2018--CHAIRMAN THORNBERRY RELEASES H.R. 5515 THE 
NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT FOR FY 2019
    5/7/2018--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: MAY 14-18
    5/8/2018--THORNBERRY ON IRAN ANNOUNCEMENT
    5/10/2018--CHAIRMAN THORNBERRY ON FINAL PASSAGE
    5/14/2018--CHAIRMAN JOE WILSON LEADS TRIP TO JERUSALEM
    5/21/2018--DEFENSE BILL COMES TO THE FLOOR
    5/21/2018--TOP FACTS TO KNOW ABOUT FY 2019 NDAA
    5/24/2018--HOUSE PASSES DEFENSE BILL
    5/26/2018--HONORING THE FALLEN: CONGRESSIONAL DELEGATION 
COMMEMORATES 100TH ANNIVERSARY OF WWI ARMISTICE
    5/29/2018--CONGRESSIONAL DELEGATION FOCUSES ON NATURAL 
PARTNERSHIP WITH INDIA
    5/30/2018--DELEGATION CONCLUDES VISIT TO SRI LANKA

JUNE 2018:
    6/1/2018--HONORING SERVICE PAST AND PRESENT: DELEGATION 
VISITS PHILIPPINES
    6/3/2018--DELEGATION CONCLUDES INDO-PACIFIC MISSION AT 
SHANGRI-LA DIALOGUE
    6/6/2018--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: JUNE 11-15
    6/12/2018--THORNBERRY ON SUMMIT WITH NORTH KOREA
    6/12/2018--THORNBERRY TO HOST PRESS GAGGLE
    6/13/2018--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: JUNE 18-22
    6/18/2018--UPDATE: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: JUNE 18-22
    6/19/2018--UPDATE 2: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: JUNE 18-22
    6/21/2018--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: JUNE 25-29
    6/22/2018--READOUT: STEFANIK ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 
INDUSTRY ROUNDTABLE
    6/27/2018--THORNBERRY ON CFUS REFORMS
    6/27/2018--DEFENSE BILL GOES TO CONFERENCE
    6/29/2018--READOUT: HARTZLER LEADS OVERSIGHT OF DOD 
CLEARANCE PROCESS

JULY 2018:
    7/4/2018--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: JULY 9-13
    7/9/2018--UPDATE: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: JULY 9-13
    7/10/2018--NDAA CONFEREES TO MEET WEDNESDAY
    7/17/2018--THORNBERRY ON CR RESOLUTIONS
    7/19/2018--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: JULY 23-27
    7/23/2018--HOUSE AND SENATE ARMED SERVICES COMMITTEES 
COMPLETE CONFERENCE ON NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT FOR 
FY 2019
    7/26/2018--HOUSE PASSES NDAA CONFERENCE REPORT 359-54
    7/31/2018--THORNBERRY ON THE PASSING OF FORMER HASC 
CHAIRMAN RON DELLUMS

AUGUST 2018:
    8/9/2018--REPS ROGERS AND COOPER ON SPACE FORCE REPORT
    8/13/2018--THORNBERRY ON FY19 NDAA SIGNING
    8/25/2018--THORNBERRY ON SENATOR JOHN MCCAIN

SEPTEMBER 2018:
    9/5/2018--THORNBERRY AT CSIS: NATIONAL SECURITY AND 
POLITICS IN TURBULENT TIMES
    9/6/2018--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: SEPT 10-14
    9/6/2018--THORNBERRY ON INHOFE SELECTION TO CHAIR SASC
    9/11/2018--THORNBERRY ON FIRST MINIBUS CONFERENCE REPORT
    9/13/2018--UPDATE: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: SEPT 10-14
    9/14/2018--THORNBERRY ON DEFENSE APPROPRIATIONS CONFERENCE 
REPORT
    9/18/2018--THORNBERRY ON SENATE PASSAGE OF DEFENSE 
APPROPRIATIONS
    9/19/2018--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: SEPT 24-28
    9/24/2018--CHAIRMAN THORNBERRY TO HOST PRESS GAGGLE 
TOMORROW
    9/26/2018--THORNBERRY ON DEFENSE APPROPRIATIONS
    9/28/2018--THORNBERRY ON PRESIDENT SIGNING DEFENSE 
APPROPRIATION

OCTOBER 2018:
    10/12/2018--SPEAKER RYAN, CHAIRMAN THORNBERRY RETURN FROM 
AFGHANISTAN
    10/26/2018--THORNBERRY ON ADDITIONAL BORDER DEPLOYMENT

NOVEMBER 2018:
    11/7/2018--THORNBERRY AND SMITH MAKE APPOINTMENTS TO 
AVIATION SAFETY COMMISSION
    11/14/2018--THORNBERRY AND SMITH MAKE APPOINTMENTS TO 
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE COMMISSION
    11/14/2018--THORNBERRY ON NDS COMMISSION REPORT
    11/15/2018--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: NOVEMBER 19-23
    11/15/2018--THORNBERRY ON DOD AUDIT
    11/30/2018--WSJ: THORNBERRY AND INHOFE ON DEFENSE BUDGET

DECEMBER 2018:
    12/3/2018--UPDATE: HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: DECEMBER 3-7
    12/6/2018--HASC HEARING SCHEDULE: DECEMBER 10-14
    12/8/2018--THORNBERRY ON CJCS ANNOUNCEMENT

                                  [all]