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113th Congress  }                                            {   Report
  2d Session    }               SENATE                       {  113-133
_______________________________________________________________________

                                                       Calendar No. 292
 
 NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION COMMISSIONED OFFICER 
                      CORPS AMENDMENTS ACT OF 2013 

                               __________

                              R E P O R T

                                 of the

           COMMITTEE ON COMMERCE, SCIENCE, AND TRANSPORTATION

                                   on

                                S. 1068

                  [GRAPHIC(S) NOT AVAILABLE IN TIFF FORMAT]

                January 8, 2014.--Ordered to be printed

                               ----------
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       SENATE COMMITTEE ON COMMERCE, SCIENCE, AND TRANSPORTATION
                    one hundred thirteenth congress
                             second session

            JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER IV, West Virginia, Chairman
BARBARA BOXER, California            JOHN THUNE, South Dakota
BILL NELSON, Florida                 ROGER F. WICKER, Mississippi
MARIA CANTWELL, Washington           ROY BLUNT, Missouri
MARK PRYOR, Arkansas                 MARCO RUBIO, Florida
CLAIRE McCASKILL, Missouri           KELLY AYOTTE, New Hampshire
AMY KLOBUCHAR, Minnesota             DEAN HELLER, Nevada
MARK WARNER, Virginia                DANIEL COATS, Indiana
MARK BEGICH, Alaska                  TIM SCOTT, South Carolina
RICHARD BLUMENTHAL, Connecticut      TED CRUZ, Texas
BRIAN SCHATZ, Hawaii                 DEB FISCHER, Nebraska
ED MARKEY, New Mexico                RON JOHNSON, Wisconsin
CORY BOOKER, Massachusetts
                     Ellen Doneski, Staff Director
                     John Williams, General Counsel
              David Schwietert, Republican Staff Director
              Nick Rossi, Republican Deputy Staff Director
               Rebecca Seidel, Republican General Counsel



                                                       Calendar No. 292

113th Congress  }                                            {   Report
  2d Session    }               SENATE                       {  113-133

=======================================================================

 NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION COMMISSIONED OFFICER 
                      CORPS AMENDMENTS ACT OF 2013

                                _______
                                

                January 8, 2014.--Ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

     Mr. Rockefeller, from the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
                Transportation, submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                         [To accompany S. 1068]

    The Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, to 
which was referred the bill (S. 1068) to reauthorize and amend 
the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 
Commissioned Officer Corps Act of 2002, and for other purposes, 
having considered the same, reports favorably thereon with an 
amendment (in the nature of a substitute) and recommends that 
the bill (as amended) do pass.

                          Purpose of the Bill

    The purpose of S. 1068 is to reauthorize and amend the 
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned 
Officer Corps Act of 2002 (Act of 2002) and make a number of 
improvements, clarifications, and refinements to the statutory 
authorities of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration (NOAA).

                          Background and Needs

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 
Commissioned Officer Corps (NOAA Corps) is one of the seven 
uniformed services of the United States. Five of these 
uniformed services are the armed forces of the Army, Navy, Air 
Force, Marines, and Coast Guard, and the remaining two are the 
commissioned corps of NOAA and the commission corps of the U.S. 
Public Health Service (USPHS). The approximately 320 officers 
of the NOAA Corps make up approximately 3 percent of NOAA's 
personnel. Officers can be found operating one of NOAA's ships 
or aircraft to provide support to meet NOAA's missions, and 
additionally facilitate research projects, conduct diving 
operations, and serve in staff positions throughout the agency. 
Duties and areas of operations can range from launching a 
weather balloon at the South Pole, conducting hydrographic or 
fishery surveys in Alaska, maintaining buoys in the tropical 
Pacific, and flying survey aircraft into hurricanes to provide 
accurate weather forecasts. During times of war or national 
emergency, NOAA Corps officers can assume positions of 
leadership and command in the Armed Forces.
    The NOAA Corps traces its roots back to the former Survey 
of the Coast, established in 1807 by President Thomas 
Jefferson. The NOAA Corps today provides a cadre of 
professionals trained in engineering, earth sciences, 
oceanography, meteorology, fisheries science, and other related 
disciplines. Like other uniformed services, NOAA Corps officers 
spend much of their careers away from family and friends, 
serving aboard NOAA ships and aircraft which frequently deploy 
up to eight or nine months a year.
    This bill is intended to update and better align NOAA 
Corps' obligations, human resource requirements, and benefits 
with those of officers in the other uniformed services. There 
is no overall spending increase in the bill, however. The 
creation of an ``Officer Candidate'' rank, which includes lower 
pay during training, is expected to generate modest savings. 
Any spending on new programs authorized by the legislation is 
intended to be capped at the amount of savings generated by the 
forecasted decrease in allocated ``Officer Candidate'' pay.

                         Summary of Provisions

    S. 1068 would update the NOAA Corps' tools and authorities 
needed to successfully carry out its missions, particularly to 
develop and sustain robust applicant pools to improve 
recruiting of minority candidates. These authorities are needed 
to improve diversity in the NOAA Corps and allow for retention 
of highly-skilled female NOAA Corps officers. Other uniformed 
services and the private sector have many incentive programs 
used to entice minority students with a science or engineering 
background, making it more difficult for the NOAA Corps to 
compete for those candidates. This bill would give the NOAA 
Corps the tools and authorities to recruit and to compete for 
these candidates, including: a pre-commissioning educational 
assistance program for students who agree to serve in the NOAA 
Corps; an education loan repayment program for students with 
critical technical skills; and an education loan interest 
repayment program for officers in the first three years of 
active duty. This bill also would authorize a sabbatical 
program to allow officers to leave the service (and receive no 
pay or benefits) for a few years for personal reasons such as 
starting a family.
    This bill also tightens the requirements expected of 
officers. For instance, the bill would authorize NOAA to bind 
NOAA Corps officers by contract or obligation, and require 
stricter physical fitness requirements. The bill also would 
allow NOAA to defer service termination and retirements if 
needed to support the agency's service needs. This bill 
streamlines procedures for appointment and promotion of junior 
officers and more closely aligns the NOAA Corps with other 
uniformed services, thereby improving the Service's ability to 
carry out NOAA's missions. Finally, this bill would create a 
new ``Officer Candidate'' rank for officers entering duty for a 
period of initial training, require officers to meet U. S. 
Coast Guard physical fitness standards, and add the authority 
to require a period of obligated service after initial 
training.

                          Legislative History

    Senator Begich introduced S. 1068 on May 23, 2013, with 
Senators Schatz and Wicker joining as original cosponsors of 
the bill. Senators Blumenthal, Cantwell, Cochran, Merkley, 
Mikulski, and Nelson are also non-original cosponsors of the 
legislation. A similar bill, The NOAA Corps Amendments Act of 
2012, passed the Senate by unanimous consent in the 112th 
Congress (S. 2388).
    On July 30, 2013, the Committee met in open executive 
session and, by voice vote, ordered S. 1068 reported with one 
accepted amendment: Senator Begich offered an amendment to 
update three clerical references. The amendment would delete 
the words ``and promotions generally'' in the table of 
contents, to comport with the new section title proposed by the 
bill. Further, the amendment would make changes to reflect 
updated renumbering of the title regarding Pay and Allowances 
of the Uniformed Services (37 U.S.C. 101 et seq.). 
Specifically, the references in section 406 of the bill 
relating to recruiting expenses should be to section 488 of 
title 37, United States Code, and references relating to 
funeral honors duty should be to section 495 of title 37, 
United States Code.
    The Committee, without objection, ordered S. 1068 be 
reported favorably, as amended, by an amendment in the nature 
of a substitute.

                            Estimated Costs

    In accordance with paragraph 11(a) of rule XXVI of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate and section 403 of the 
Congressional Budget Act of 1974, the Committee provides the 
following cost estimate, prepared by the Congressional Budget 
Office:

S. 1068--National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned 
        Officer Corps Amendments Act of 2013

    S. 1068 would modify certain personnel policies for the 
commissioned officer corps of the National Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Based on information 
provided by NOAA, CBO estimates that implementing the 
legislation would have no significant impact on the federal 
budget. Enacting the legislation could affect offsetting 
receipts (a credit against direct spending) from payments made 
by individuals who enter the corps but fail to complete their 
required service obligations as well as revenues from fines 
levied on individuals who wear the uniform of the NOAA 
commissioned officer corps without proper authorization. 
Therefore, pay-as-you-go procedures apply. However, CBO 
estimates that any such effects would be insignificant.
    The bill would establish service requirements for 
individuals enlisting in the NOAA commissioned officer corps. 
Under the bill, any officer who fails to meet those 
requirements would be obligated to repay NOAA an amount equal 
to the costs incurred to train that officer. Based on 
information provided by NOAA regarding the cost of such 
training, CBO estimates that the total amount of payments to 
NOAA from officers who fail to meet their service obligations 
would be minimal.
    S. 1068 also would make it illegal for any individual to 
wear the uniform of the NOAA commissioned officer corps without 
proper authorization. Violators would be subject to criminal 
penalties; however, CBO estimates that any amounts collected 
would be minimal and would be offset by associated direct 
spending.
    In addition, the legislation would authorize NOAA to spend 
appropriated funds to recruit corps members. In 2013, the 
agency did not allocate any appropriated funds for such 
activities. On average, the corps admits about 30 new members 
each year. Based on information regarding the costs of 
recruiting for other uniformed services, CBO estimates that 
implementing this provision would cost less than $300,000 a 
year, assuming the availability of appropriated funds.
    Finally, the bill would authorize NOAA to pay certain 
expenses related to higher education for individuals serving in 
the commissioned officer corps or individuals who commit to 
serving in the corps after completing a college degree. Based 
on information provided by the agency about the number of 
officers who would receive such assistance, CBO estimates that 
implementing this provision would cost less than $200,000 a 
year, assuming the availability of appropriated funds.
    The bill would impose intergovernmental and private-sector 
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA). 
The bill would increase the costs of complying with existing 
mandates by increasing the number of personnel in the NOAA 
commissioned officer corps who are eligible for protections 
under the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act (SCRA) and the 
Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act 
(USERRA). Protections under those acts require public and 
private entities to grant active-duty personnel various 
allowances relative to business and tax transactions and court 
procedures. The bill would impose an additional 
intergovernmental mandate by preempting state and local laws 
relating to jury exemptions.
    Because the increase in the number of active-duty 
servicemembers covered by SCRA and USERRA would be so small, 
CBO expects that the incremental cost of compliance also would 
be small. Therefore, CBO estimates that the aggregate cost of 
the mandates would fall below the annual thresholds established 
in UMRA for intergovernmental and private-sector mandates ($75 
million and $150 million in 2013, respectively, adjusted 
annually for inflation).
    The CBO staff contacts for this estimate are Jeff LaFave 
(for federal costs), J'nell L. Blanco (for the 
intergovernmental impact), and Amy Petz (for the impact on the 
private sector). The estimate was approved by Theresa Gullo, 
Deputy Assistant Director for Budget Analysis.

                           Regulatory Impact

    In accordance with paragraph 11(b) of rule XXVI of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate, the Committee provides the 
following evaluation of the regulatory impact of the 
legislation, as reported:

                       number of persons covered

    The bill would modify certain personnel policies for the 
approximately 320 officers of the NOAA Corps. It would not 
increase or decrease the number of individuals regulated.

                            economic impact

    The bill does not include new authorization of funds, and 
is not expected to have an adverse impact on the Nation's 
economy. It is anticipated that enacting the legislation could 
have a modest positive effect through the authorization of fine 
collection and receipt of payments.

                                privacy

    The bill would not have any adverse impact on the personal 
privacy of individuals.

                               paperwork

    The Committee does not anticipate a major increase in 
paperwork burdens resulting from the passage of this 
legislation. Section 502 of the Act would require the 
development of a report to Congress.

                   Congressionally Directed Spending

    In compliance with paragraph 4(b) of rule XLIV of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate, the Committee provides that no 
provisions contained in the bill, as reported, meet the 
definition of congressionally directed spending items under the 
rule.

                      Section-by-Section Analysis


Section 1. Short title; table of contents.

    This section would provide that the Act be cited as the 
``National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned 
Officer Corps Amendments Act of 2013''.

                      TITLE I--GENERAL PROVISIONS


Section 101. Strength and distribution in grade.

    This section would formally establish the commissioned 
grades of the NOAA Corps that have historically existed. It 
also would limit the distribution of officers in senior ranks, 
and allow the Secretary of Commerce (Secretary) flexibility to 
establish distribution in grades for junior ranks. This 
establishes the same distribution in grade as the Navy.

Section 102. Exclusion of officers recalled from retired status and 
        positions of importance and responsibility from number of 
        authorized commission officers.

    This section would allow NOAA Corps officers temporarily 
recalled from retirement and 3 Flag Officers to not be counted 
against the NOAA Corps' statutorily authorized operational 
strength. The NOAA Corps currently cannot recall officers from 
retired status to assist in disaster response, a limitation 
that constrained NOAA's response to the Deepwater Horizon oil 
blowout and ongoing spill in 2010.

Section 103. Obligated service requirement.

    This section would provide legislative authority to bind 
NOAA Corps officers by contract or obligation. The NOAA Corps 
currently does not have any legislative authority to bind 
officers to service by contract or obligation. Theoretically, 
an officer could receive training (costs up to $100,000, 
depending on type of training) and resign from the NOAA Corps 
shortly thereafter. The other uniformed services require an 
obligated service for appointment, training, promotion, etc. of 
officers to ensure they receive an adequate return on 
investment in these categories.

Section 104. Training and physical fitness.

    This section would amend subtitle A of title II of the Act 
of 2002 (33 U.S.C. 3001 et seq.) and give the Secretary the 
authority to conduct officer training and correspondence 
courses, including establishing and operating a basic officer 
training program to provide initial indoctrination and maritime 
vocational training for officer candidates as well as refresher 
training, mid-career training, aviation training, and such 
other training as the Secretary considers necessary for officer 
development and proficiency. This section would require the 
Secretary to ensure that officers maintain a high physical 
state of readiness in preparation for functioning, to meet the 
standards of the Coast Guard. NOAA Corps officers now serve 
alongside Coast Guard officers in joint Officer Candidate 
School classes, and therefore NOAA Corps officers must meet the 
standards of physical fitness for officers that are 
substantially equivalent to those prescribed for officers in 
the Coast Guard. Officers who do not meet body composition or 
physical fitness standards over a certain period can be 
administratively separated (i.e., fired).

            TITLE II--APPOINTMENTS AND PROMOTION OF OFFICERS


Section 201. Appointments.

    This section would amend section 221 of the Act of 2002 (33 
U.S.C. 3021) to give the NOAA Corps the authority to bestow an 
original appointment of an officer to be appropriate for the 
qualification, experience, and length of service of the 
appointee to meet current NOAA Corps science education 
standards. This section would give the NOAA Corps the same 
authority as other uniformed services to commission junior 
officers, without seeking advice and consent of the U.S. 
Senate. This section would also allow officers to be re-
appointed to the grade they left the NOAA Corps. The current 
statute limits original appointments to the grades of ensign, 
lieutenant (junior grade), and lieutenant. The NOAA Corps would 
like to implement a new retention tool to allow officers to 
temporarily separate and pursue personal goals or other 
opportunities outside the Service, while providing a mechanism 
for their return to active duty. This section would allow that 
policy to be implemented, and would be expected to assist the 
NOAA Corps in retaining senior female officers.

Section 202. Personnel boards.

    This section would amend section 222 of the Act of 2002 (33 
U.S.C. 3022) and allow retired, recalled officers as well as 
more junior officers to serve on personnel boards. The current 
law does not allow retired or active officers below the pay 
grade of commander to serve on personnel boards, and makes it 
very difficult to form personnel boards, due to the Corps' 
inherent small size. This section would allow officers to serve 
on personnel boards if they are above the permanent grade of 
the officer(s) under consideration by the board and allow 
retired officers to be voluntarily recalled to serve on 
personnel boards, when necessary.

Section 203. Delegation of authority for appointments and promotions to 
        permanent grades.

    This section would require the President to also make 
delegations to the Deputy Secretary or NOAA Administrator for 
periods when there is no Secretary. Corps promotions and 
appointments have been made difficult during periods when there 
has been no Secretary to sign said appointments or promotions.

Section 204. Temporary appointments.

    This section would amend section 229 of the Act of 2002 (33 
U.S.C. 3029) and allow the NOAA Corps to appoint junior 
officers without seeking the Senate's advice and consent, 
reducing both executive branch and Senatorial workloads.

Section 205. Officer candidates.

    Currently, officers entering the NOAA Corps for initial 
training are directly commissioned as officers on their first 
day. All other services have a period when the individual is an 
``Officer Candidate'' before receiving a commission. This 
section would amend subtitle B of title II of the Act of 2002 
(33 U.S.C. 3021 et seq.) and give NOAA the authority to create 
an ``Officer Candidate'' rank, with reduced pay. This would 
result in savings of approximately $115,000 annually, which 
could be used to pay for officer precommissioning and education 
programs established elsewhere in this bill.

Section 206. Procurement of personnel.

    This section would authorize the NOAA Corps to engage in 
recruiting activities, similar to statutory provisions 
applicable to the Coast Guard.

            TITLE III--SEPARATION AND RETIREMENT OF OFFICERS


Section 301. Involuntary retirement or separation.

    This section would give the NOAA Corps authority to defer 
an officer's involuntary retirement or separation due to 
medical conditions or the Service's needs across all ranks. 
Currently NOAA can defer involuntary separation of Lieutenant 
Commanders and below, but it cannot for Commanders and 
Captains.

Section 302. Separation pay.

    This section would remove a loophole in existing law that 
allows those voluntarily leaving the Service to manipulate the 
system to get separation. Separation pay is normally used to 
compensate a member who is being forced out due to non-
selection by a promotion board. Under current law, officers who 
wanted to leave the service could theoretically seek to not be 
promoted, be separated due to non-promotion, and yet still 
receive separation pay to accompany their basically voluntary 
resignation.

                     TITLE IV--RIGHTS AND BENEFITS


Section 401. Education loan repayment program.

    This section would also amend subtitle E of title II of the 
Act of 2002 (33 U.S.C. 3071 et seq.) to allow the NOAA Corps 
the authority to repay education loans. The NOAA Corps does not 
have the same education loan repayment recruiting incentives as 
the other uniformed services. Without these authorities, the 
NOAA Corps has trouble recruiting highly qualified students 
with the science and engineering degrees the NOAA Corps 
requires.

Section 402. Interest payment program.

    This section would amend subtitle E of title II of the Act 
of 2002 (33 U.S.C. 3071 et seq.) such that the Secretary may 
pay the interest on student loans of eligible officers. The 
NOAA Corps does not have the same authority for the repayment 
of interests on education loans as the other uniformed 
services. The Department of Defense and the Coast Guard offer 
the interest payment program as a recruiting incentive. This 
section would provide the statutory authority for the repayment 
of interest payments on educational loans for up to 36 months 
while the officer is serving. This section is intended to help 
the NOAA Corps compete for highly qualified students.

Section 403. Student pre-commissioning education assistance program.

    This section would amend subtitle E of title II of the Act 
of 2002 (33 U.S.C. 3071 et seq.) to establish a student pre-
commissioning education assistance program. The NOAA Corps does 
not have the same authority for student pre-commissioning 
assistance program as the other uniformed services. For 
example, the Coast Guard offers a student pre-commissioning 
assistance program as a recruiting incentive for students at 
primarily minority-serving institutions. This would again help 
the NOAA Corps compete for highly qualified students.

Section 404. Limitation on educational assistance.

    This section would limit the total amount expended by the 
Secretary for educational assistance programs for NOAA Corps 
officers. Specifically, expenditures under sections 401, 402, 
and 403 of the Act would be limited to savings due to the 
creation of an ``Officer Candidate'' rank (under section 205 of 
the Act).

Section 405. Applicability of certain provisions of title 10, United 
        States Code.

    This section and several of those that follow would make 
minor amendments to section 261(a) of the Act of 2002 (33 
U.S.C. 3071(a)), which outlines the rules of law that apply to 
the Armed Forces as extended to the NOAA Corps. First, current 
law does not allow a NOAA Corps officer to administer the oath 
of enlistment or appointment to a son, daughter, or other 
relative or friend who may be appointed as an officer or 
enlisting in one of the other Services. Second, the NOAA Corps 
does not have the legislative authority for correction of 
errors or removal of injustices from current and former NOAA 
Corps officers' records. Third, this section would provide the 
authority used by the other uniformed services to exempt 
personnel from service on State and local juries when such 
service would interfere unreasonably with performance of an 
officer's uniformed service duties.

Section 406. Applicability of certain provisions of title 37, United 
        States Code.

    This section would amend subtitle E of title II of the Act 
of 2002 (33 U.S.C. 3071 et seq.) and provide authority for 
accession bonuses for new officers with critical skills, 
allowing the NOAA Corps to compete for applicants, as well as 
miscellaneous authorities for pay (for funeral duty, recruiting 
expenses, etc.) that other uniformed services have.

Section 407. Applicability of certain provisions of competitive service 
        law.

    This section would amend section 3304(f) of title 5, United 
States Code, and ensure that officers of the NOAA Corps and 
USPHS are considered Federal employees when applying for jobs 
only open to Federal employees. Currently, they are not.

Section 408. Eligibility of all members of uniformed services for 
        legion of merit award.

    This section would amend section 1121 of title 10, United 
States Code, and allow the officers of the NOAA Corps and USPHS 
to receive the Legion of Merit Award.

Section 409. Application of Employment and Reemployment Rights of 
        Members of the Uniformed Services to members of commissioned 
        officer corps.

    This section would amend section 4303(16) of title 38, 
United States Code, and extend the Uniformed Services 
Employment and Reemployment Rights Act (USERRA) prohibition 
against employment discrimination against uniformed service 
members to the NOAA Corps.

Section 410. Protected communications for commissioned officer corps 
        and prohibition of retaliatory personnel actions.

    Currently, the NOAA Corps and USPHS officers fall between 
the cracks in whistleblower protection. Neither the regulations 
that protect military members nor the regulations that protect 
civil servants protect them. This section would ensure that the 
whistleblower protections under section 1034 of title 10, 
United States Code, also cover members of the NOAA Corps.

Section 411. Criminal penalties for wearing uniform without authority.

    This section would extend military regulations governing 
the wearing of uniform without authority to NOAA Corps 
officers.

                         TITLE V--OTHER MATTERS


Section 501. Technical correction.

    This section would make a minor grammatical technical 
correction to section 101(21)(C) of title 38, United States 
Code.

Sections 502 and 503. Report and effective date.

    Section 502 of the Act would require a report, not later 
than 90 days after the enactment of this Act, on the current 
and future needs of the NOAA Corps, as well as identification 
of areas of duplication or redundancy before the changes in the 
bill go into effect under section 503 of the Act.

                        Changes in Existing Law

    In compliance with paragraph 12 of rule XXVI of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate, changes in existing law made by 
the bill, as reported, are shown as follows (existing law 
proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new 
material is printed in italic, existing law in which no change 
is proposed is shown in roman):

 NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION COMMISSIONED OFFICER 
                           CORPS ACT OF 2002

                        [33 U.S.C. 3001 et seq.]

SEC. 212. DEFINITIONS.

                            [33 U.S.C. 3002]

  (a) Applicability of Definitions in Title 10, United States 
Code.--Except as provided in subsection (b), the definitions 
provided in section 101 of title 10, United States Code, apply 
to the provisions of this title.
  (b) Additional Definitions.--In this title:
          (1) Active duty.--The term ``active duty'' means 
        full-time duty in the active service of a uniformed 
        service.
          (2) Grade.--The term ``grade'' means a step or 
        degree, in a graduated scale of office or rank, that is 
        established and designated as a grade by law or 
        regulation.
          (3) Officer.--The term ``officer'' means an officer 
        of the commissioned corps.
          (4) Officer candidate.--The term ``officer 
        candidate'' means an individual who is enrolled in the 
        basic officer training program of the Administration 
        and is under consideration for appointment as an 
        officer under section 221(a)(2)(A).
          [(4)] (5) Flag officer.--The term ``flag officer'' 
        means an officer serving in, or having the grade of, 
        vice admiral, rear admiral, or rear admiral (lower 
        half).
          [(5)] (6) Secretary.--The term ``Secretary'' means 
        the Secretary of Commerce.
          [(6)] (7) Administration.--The term 
        ``Administration'' means the National Oceanic and 
        Atmospheric Administration.

[SEC. 214. STRENGTH AND DISTRIBUTION IN GRADE.

                            [33 U.S.C. 3004]

  [(a) Relative Rank; Proportion.--Of the total authorized 
number of officers on the lineal list of the commissioned 
corps, there are authorized numbers in permanent grade, in 
relative rank with officers of the Navy, in proportions as 
follows:
          [(1) 8 in the grade of captain.
          [(2) 14 in the grade of commander.
          [(3) 19 in the grade of lieutenant commander.
          [(4) 23 in the grade of lieutenant.
          [(5) 18 in the grade of lieutenant (junior grade).
          [(6) 18 in the grade of ensign.
  [(b) Computation of Number in Grade.--
          [(1) In general.--Subject to paragraph (2), whenever 
        a final fraction occurs in computing the authorized 
        number of officers in a grade, the nearest whole number 
        shall be taken, and if the fraction is one-half the 
        next higher whole number shall be taken.
          [(2) Limitation on increase in total number.--The 
        total number of officers on the lineal list authorized 
        by law may not be increased as the result of the 
        computations prescribed in this section, and if 
        necessary the number of officers in the lowest grade 
        shall be reduced accordingly.
  [(c) Preservation of Grade and Pay, etc.--No officer may be 
reduced in grade or pay or separated from the commissioned 
corps as the result of a computation made to determine the 
authorized number of officers in the various grades.
  [(d) Filling of Vacancies; Additional Numbers.--Nothing in 
this section may be construed as requiring the filling of any 
vacancy or as prohibiting additional numbers in any grade to 
compensate for vacancies existing in higher grades.
  [(e) Temporary Increase in Numbers.--The total number of 
officers authorized by law to be on the lineal list during a 
fiscal year may be temporarily exceeded so long as the average 
number on that list during that fiscal year does not exceed the 
authorized number.]

SEC. 214. STRENGTH AND DISTRIBUTION IN GRADE.

  (a) Grades.--The commissioned grades in the commissioned 
officer corps of the Administration are the following, in 
relative rank with officers of the Navy:
          (1) Vice admiral.
          (2) Rear admiral.
          (3) Rear admiral (lower half).
          (4) Captain.
          (5) Commander.
          (6) Lieutenant commander.
          (7) Lieutenant.
          (8) Lieutenant (junior grade).
          (9) Ensign.
  (b) Proportion.--
          (1) In general.--The officers on the lineal list 
        shall be distributed in grade in the following 
        percentages:
                  (A) 8 in the grade of captain.
                  (B) 14 in the grade of commander.
                  (C) 19 in the grade of lieutenant commander.
          (2) Grades below lieutenant commander.--The Secretary 
        shall prescribe, with respect to the distribution on 
        the lineal list in grade, the percentages applicable to 
        the grades of lieutenant, lieutenant (junior grade), 
        and ensign.
  (c) Annual Computation of Number in Grade.--
          (1) In general.--Not less frequently than once each 
        year, the Secretary shall make a computation to 
        determine the number of officers on the lineal list 
        authorized to be serving in each grade.
          (2) Method of computation.--The number in each grade 
        shall be computed by applying the applicable percentage 
        to the total number of such officers serving on active 
        duty on the date the computation is made.
          (3) Fractions.--If a final fraction occurs in 
        computing the authorized number of officers in a grade, 
        the nearest whole number shall be taken. If the 
        fraction is \1/2\, the next higher whole number shall 
        be taken.
  (d) Temporary Increase in Numbers.--The total number of 
officers authorized by law to be on the lineal list during a 
fiscal year may be temporarily exceeded if the average number 
on that list during that fiscal year does not exceed the 
authorized number.
  (e) Positions of Importance and Responsibility.--Officers 
serving in positions designated under section 228(a) and 
officers recalled from retired status shall not be counted when 
computing authorized strengths under subsection (c) and shall 
not count against those strengths.
  (f) Preservation of Grade and Pay.--No officer may be reduced 
in grade or pay or separated from the commissioned officer 
corps of the Administration as the result of a computation made 
to determine the authorized number of officers in the various 
grades.

SEC. 215. NUMBER OF AUTHORIZED COMMISSIONED OFFICERS.

                            [33 U.S.C. 3005]

  [Effective] (a)  In General._Effective October 1, 2009, the 
total number of authorized commissioned officers on the lineal 
list of the commissioned corps of the National Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Administration shall be increased from 321 to 379 
if--
          (1) the Secretary has submitted to the Congress--
                  (A) the Administration's ship 
                recapitalization plan for fiscal years 2010 
                through 2024;
                  (B) the Administration's aircraft 
                remodernization plan; and
                  (C) supporting workforce management plans;
          (2) appropriated funding is available; and
          (3) the Secretary has justified organizational needs 
        for the commissioned corps for each such fiscal year.
  (b) Positions of Importance and Responsibility.--Officers 
serving in positions designated under section 228 and officers 
recalled from retired status--
          (1) may not be counted in determining the total 
        number of authorized officers on the lineal list under 
        this section; and
          (2) may not count against such number.

SEC. 216. OBLIGATED SERVICE REQUIREMENT.

  (a) In General.--
          (1) Rulemaking.--The Secretary shall prescribe the 
        obligated service requirements for appointments, 
        training, promotions, separations, continuations, and 
        retirement of officers not otherwise covered by law.
          (2) Written agreements.--The Secretary and officers 
        shall enter into written agreements that describe the 
        officers' obligated service requirements prescribed 
        under paragraph (1) in return for such appointments, 
        training, promotions, separations, and retirements as 
        the Secretary considers appropriate.
  (b) Repayment for Failure To Satisfy Requirements.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary may require an officer 
        who fails to meet the service requirements prescribed 
        under subsection (a)(1) to reimburse the Secretary in 
        an amount that bears the same ratio to the total costs 
        of the training provided to that officer by the 
        Secretary as the unserved portion of active duty bears 
        to the total period of active duty the officer agreed 
        to serve.
          (2) Obligation as debt to united states.--An 
        obligation to reimburse the Secretary under paragraph 
        (1) shall be considered for all purposes as a debt owed 
        to the United States.
          (3) Discharge in bankruptcy.--A discharge in 
        bankruptcy under title 11 that is entered less than 5 
        years after the termination of a written agreement 
        entered into under subsection (a)(2) does not discharge 
        the individual signing the agreement from a debt 
        arising under such agreement.
  (c) Waiver or Suspension of Compliance.--The Secretary may 
waive the service obligation of an officer who--
          (1) becomes unqualified to serve on active duty in 
        the commissioned officer corps of the Administration 
        because of a circumstance not within the control of 
        that officer; or
          (2) is--
                  (A) not physically qualified for appointment; 
                and
                  (B) determined to be unqualified for service 
                in the commissioned officer corps of the 
                Administration because of a physical or medical 
                condition that was not the result of the 
                officer's own misconduct or grossly negligent 
                conduct.

SEC. 217. TRAINING AND PHYSICAL FITNESS.

  (a) Training.--The Secretary may take such measures as may be 
necessary to ensure that officers are prepared to carry out 
their duties in the commissioned officer corps of the 
Administration and proficient in the skills necessary to carry 
out such duties. Such measures may include the following:
          (1) Carrying out training programs and correspondence 
        courses, including establishing and operating a basic 
        officer training program to provide initial 
        indoctrination and maritime vocational training for 
        officer candidates as well as refresher training, mid-
        career training, aviation training, and such other 
        training as the Secretary considers necessary for 
        officer development and proficiency.
          (2) Providing officers and officer candidates with 
        books and school supplies.
          (3) Acquiring such equipment as may be necessary for 
        training and instructional purposes.
  (b) Physical Fitness.--The Secretary shall ensure that 
officers maintain a high physical state of readiness by 
establishing standards of physical fitness for officers that 
are substantially equivalent to those prescribed for officers 
in the Coast Guard.

[SEC. 221. ORIGINAL APPOINTMENTS.

                            [33 U.S.C. 3021]

  [(a) In General.--
          [(1) Grades.--Original appointments may be made in 
        the grades of ensign, lieutenant (junior grade), and 
        lieutenant.
          [(2) Qualifications.--Under regulations prescribed by 
        the Secretary, such an appointment may be given only to 
        a person who--
                  [(A) meets the qualification requirements 
                specified in paragraphs (1) through (4) of 
                section 532(a) of title 10, United States Code; 
                and
                  [(B) has such other special qualifications as 
                the Secretary may prescribe by regulation.
          [(3) Examination.--A person may be given such an 
        appointment only after passage of a mental and physical 
        examination given in accordance with regulations 
        prescribed by the Secretary.
          [(4) Revocation of commission of officers found not 
        qualified.--President may revoke the commission of any 
        officer appointed under this section during the 
        officer's first three years of service if the officer 
        is found not qualified for the service. Any such 
        revocation shall be made under regulations prescribed 
        by the President.
  [(b) Lineal List.--Each person appointed under this section 
shall be placed on the lineal list in a position commensurate 
with that person's age, education, and experience, in 
accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary.
  [(c) Service Credit Upon Original Appointment in Grade Above 
Ensign.--
          [(1) In general.--For the purposes of basic pay, a 
        person appointed under this section in the grade of 
        lieutenant shall be credited as having, on the date of 
        that appointment, three years of service, and a person 
        appointed under this section in the grade of lieutenant 
        (junior grade) shall be credited as having, as of the 
        date of that appointment, 1 1/2 years of service.
          [(2) Higher credit under other law.--If a person 
        appointed under this section is entitled to credit for 
        the purpose of basic pay under any other provision of 
        law that would exceed the amount of credit authorized 
        by paragraph (1), that person shall be credited with 
        that amount of service in lieu of the credit authorized 
        by paragraph (1).]

SEC. 221. ORIGINAL APPOINTMENTS AND REAPPOINTMENTS.

  (a) Original Appointments.--
          (1) Grades.--
                  (A) In general.--Except as provided in 
                subparagraph (B), an original appointment of an 
                officer may be made in such grades as may be 
                appropriate for--
                          (i) the qualification, experience, 
                        and length of service of the appointee; 
                        and
                          (ii) the commissioned officer corps 
                        of the Administration.
                  (B) Appointment of officer candidates.--
                          (i) Limitation on grade.--An original 
                        appointment of an officer candidate, 
                        upon graduation from the basic officer 
                        training program of the commissioned 
                        officer corps of the Administration, 
                        may not be made in any other grade than 
                        ensign.
                          (ii) Rank.--Officer candidates 
                        receiving appointments as ensigns upon 
                        graduation from basic officer training 
                        program shall take rank according to 
                        their proficiency as shown by the order 
                        of their merit at date of graduation.
          (2) Source of appointments.--An original appointment 
        may be made from among the following:
                  (A) Graduates of the basic officer training 
                program of the commissioned officer corps of 
                the Administration.
                  (B) Graduates of the military service 
                academies of the United States who otherwise 
                meet the academic standards for enrollment in 
                the training program described in subparagraph 
                (A).
                  (C) Licensed officers of the United States 
                merchant marine who have served 2 or more years 
                aboard a vessel of the United States in the 
                capacity of a licensed officer, who otherwise 
                meet the academic standards for enrollment in 
                the training program described in subparagraph 
                (A).
          (3) Military service academies of the united states 
        defined.--In this subsection, the term `military 
        service academies of the United States' means the 
        following:
                  (A) The United States Military Academy, West 
                Point, New York.
                  (B) The United States Naval Academy, 
                Annapolis, Maryland.
                  (C) The United States Air Force Academy, 
                Colorado Springs, Colorado.
                  (D) The United States Coast Guard Academy, 
                New London, Connecticut.
                  (E) The United States Merchant Marine 
                Academy, Kings Point, New York.
  (b) Reappointment.--
          (1) In general.--Except as provided in paragraph (2), 
        an individual who previously served in the commissioned 
        officer corps of the Administration may be appointed by 
        the Secretary to the grade the individual held prior to 
        separation.
          (2) Reappointments to higher grades.--An appointment 
        under paragraph (1) to a position of importance and 
        responsibility designated under section 228 may only be 
        made by the President.
  (c) Qualifications.--An appointment under subsection (a) or 
(b) may not be given to an individual until the individual's 
mental, moral, physical, and professional fitness to perform 
the duties of an officer has been established under such 
regulations as the Secretary shall prescribe.
  (d) Precedence of Appointees.--Appointees under this section 
shall take precedence in the grade to which appointed in 
accordance with the dates of their commissions as commissioned 
officers in such grade. Appointees whose dates of commission 
are the same shall take precedence with each other as the 
Secretary shall determine.
  (e) Inter-Service Transfers.--For inter-service transfers (as 
described in the Department of Defense Directive 1300.4 (dated 
December 27, 2006)) the Secretary shall--
          (1) coordinate with the Secretary of Defense and the 
        Secretary of the Department in which the Coast Guard is 
        operating to promote and streamline inter-service 
        transfers;
          (2) give preference to such inter-service transfers 
        for recruitment purposes as determined appropriate by 
        the Secretary; and
          (3) reappoint such inter-service transfers to the 
        equivalent grade in the commissioned officer corps.

[SEC. 222. PERSONNEL BOARDS.

                            [33 U.S.C. 3022]

  [(a) Convening.--At least once a year and at such other times 
as the Secretary determines necessary, the Secretary shall 
convene a personnel board. A personnel board shall consist of 
not less than five officers on the lineal list in the permanent 
grade of commander or above.
  [(b) Duties.--Each personnel board shall--
          [(1) recommend to the Secretary such changes in the 
        lineal list as the board may determine; and
          [(2) make selections and recommendations to the 
        Secretary and President for the appointment, promotion, 
        separation, continuation, and retirement of officers as 
        prescribed in this subtitle and subtitle C.
  [(c) Action on Recommendations Not Acceptable.--In a case in 
which any recommendation by a board convened under subsection 
(a) is not accepted by the Secretary or the President, the 
board shall make such further recommendations as are 
acceptable.]

SEC. 222. PERSONNEL BOARDS.

  (a) Convening.--Not less frequently than once each year and 
at such other times as the Secretary determines necessary, the 
Secretary shall convene a personnel board.
  (b) Membership.--
          (1) In general.--A board convened under subsection 
        (a) shall consist of 5 or more officers who are serving 
        in or above the permanent grade of the officers under 
        consideration by the board.
          (2) Retired officers.--Officers on the retired list 
        may be recalled to serve on such personnel boards as 
        the Secretary considers necessary.
          (3) No membership on 2 successive boards.--No officer 
        may be a member of 2 successive personnel boards 
        convened to consider officers of the same grade for 
        promotion or separation.
  (c) Duties.--Each personnel board shall--
          (1) recommend to the Secretary such changes as may be 
        necessary to correct any erroneous position on the 
        lineal list that was caused by administrative error; 
        and
          (2) make selections and recommendations to the 
        Secretary and the President for the appointment, 
        promotion, involuntary separation, continuation, and 
        involuntary retirement of officers in the commissioned 
        officer corps of the Administration as prescribed in 
        this title.
  (d) Action on Recommendations Not Acceptable.--If any 
recommendation by a board convened under subsection (a) is not 
accepted by the Secretary or the President, the board shall 
make such further recommendations as the Secretary or the 
President consider appropriate.

SEC. 226. APPOINTMENTS AND PROMOTIONS TO PERMANENT GRADES.

                            [33 U.S.C. 3026]

  [Appointments] (a)  In General._  Appointments in and 
promotions to all permanent grades shall be made by the 
President.
  (b) Delegation of Appointment Authority.--If the President 
delegates authority to the Secretary to make appointments under 
this section, the President shall, during a period in which the 
position of the Secretary is vacant, delegate such authority to 
the Deputy Secretary of Commerce or the Under Secretary for 
Oceans and Atmosphere during such period.

[SEC. 229. TEMPORARY APPOINTMENTS AND PROMOTIONS GENERALLY.

                            [33 U.S.C. 3029]

  [(a) Ensign.--Temporary appointments in the grade of ensign 
may be made by the President. Each such temporary appointment 
terminates at the close of the next regular session of the 
Congress.
  [(b) Lieutenant (Junior Grade).--Officers in the permanent 
grade of ensign may be temporarily promoted to and appointed in 
the grade of lieutenant (junior grade) by the President 
whenever vacancies exist in higher grades.
  [(c) Any One Grade.--When determined by the Secretary to be 
in the best interest of the service, officers in any permanent 
grade may be temporarily promoted one grade by the President. 
Any such temporary promotion terminates upon the transfer of 
the officer to a new assignment.]

SEC. 229. TEMPORARY APPOINTMENTS.

  (a) Appointments by President.--Temporary appointments in the 
grade of ensign, lieutenant junior grade, or lieutenant may be 
made by the President.
  (b) Termination.--A temporary appointment to a position under 
subsection (a) shall terminate upon approval of a permanent 
appointment for such position made by the President.
  (c) Order of Precedence.--Appointees under subsection (a) 
shall take precedence in the grade to which appointed in 
accordance with the dates of their appointments as officers in 
such grade. The order of precedence of appointees who are 
appointed on the same date shall be determined by the 
Secretary.
  (d) Any One Grade.--When determined by the Secretary to be in 
the best interest of the commissioned officer corps, officers 
in any permanent grade may be temporarily promoted one grade by 
the President. Any such temporary promotion terminates upon the 
transfer of the officer to a new assignment.
  (e) Delegation of Appointment Authority.--If the President 
delegates authority to the Secretary to make appointments under 
this section, the President shall, during a period in which the 
position of the Secretary is vacant, delegate such authority to 
the Deputy Secretary of Commerce or the Under Secretary for 
Oceans and Atmosphere during such period.

SEC. 234. OFFICER CANDIDATES.

  (a) Determination of Number.--The Secretary shall determine 
the number of appointments of officer candidates.
  (b) Appointment.--Appointment of officer candidates shall be 
made under regulations which the Secretary shall prescribe, 
including regulations with respect to determining age limits, 
methods of selection of officer candidates, term of service as 
an officer candidate before graduation from the program, and 
all other matters affecting such appointment.
  (c) Dismissal.--The Secretary may dismiss from the basic 
officer training program of the Administration any officer 
candidate who, during the officer candidate's term as an 
officer candidate, the Secretary considers unsatisfactory in 
either academics or conduct, or not adapted for a career in the 
commissioned officer corps of the Administration. Officer 
candidates shall be subject to rules governing discipline 
prescribed by the Director of the National Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps.
  (d) Agreement.--
          (1) In general.--Each officer candidate shall sign an 
        agreement with the Secretary in accordance with section 
        216(a)(2) regarding the officer candidate's term of 
        service in the commissioned officer corps of the 
        Administration.
          (2) Elements.--An agreement signed by an officer 
        candidate under paragraph (1) shall provide that the 
        officer candidate agrees to the following:
                  (A) That the officer candidate will complete 
                the course of instruction at the basic officer 
                training program of the Administration.
                  (B) That upon graduation from the such 
                program, the officer candidate--
                          (i) will accept an appointment, if 
                        tendered, as an officer; and
                          (ii) will serve on active duty for at 
                        least 4 years immediately after such 
                        appointment.
  (e) Regulations.--The Secretary shall prescribe regulations 
to carry out this section. Such regulations shall include--
          (1) standards for determining what constitutes a 
        breach of an agreement signed under such subsection 
        (d)(1); and
          (2) procedures for determining whether such a breach 
        has occurred.
  (f) Repayment.--An officer candidate or former officer 
candidate who does not fulfill the terms of the obligation to 
serve as specified under section (d) shall be subject to the 
repayment provisions of section 216(b).

SEC. 235. PROCUREMENT OF PERSONNEL.

  The Secretary may make such expenditures as the Secretary 
considers necessary in order to obtain recruits for the 
commissioned officer corps of the Administration, including 
advertising.

SEC. 241. INVOLUNTARY RETIREMENT OR SEPARATION.

                            [33 U.S.C. 3041]

  (a) Transfer of Officers to Retired List; Separation from 
Service.--As recommended by a personnel board convened under 
section 222--
          (1) an officer in the permanent grade of captain or 
        commander may be transferred to the retired list; and
          (2) an officer in the permanent grade of lieutenant 
        commander, lieutenant, or lieutenant (junior grade) who 
        is not qualified for retirement may be separated from 
        the service.
  (b) Computations.--In any fiscal year, the total number of 
officers selected for retirement or separation under subsection 
(a) plus the number of officers retired for age may not exceed 
the whole number nearest 4 percent of the total number of 
officers authorized to be on the active list, except as 
otherwise provided by law.
  (c) Effective Date of Retirements and Separations.--A 
retirement or separation under subsection (a) shall take effect 
on the first day of the sixth month beginning after the date on 
which the Secretary approves the retirement or separation, 
except that if the officer concerned requests an earlier 
retirement or separation date, the date shall be as determined 
by the Secretary.
  (d) Deferment of Retirement or Separation for Medical 
Reasons.--
          (1) In general.--If the Secretary determines that the 
        evaluation of the medical condition of an officer 
        requires hospitalization or medical observation that 
        cannot be completed with confidence in a manner 
        consistent with the officer's well being before the 
        date on which the officer would otherwise be required 
        to retire or be separated under this section, the 
        Secretary may defer the retirement or separation of the 
        officer.
          (2) Consent required.--A deferment may only be made 
        with the written consent of the officer involved. If 
        the officer does not provide written consent to the 
        deferment, the officer shall be retired or separated as 
        scheduled.
          (3) Limitation.--A deferral of retirement or 
        separation under this subsection may not extend for 
        more than 30 days after completion of the evaluation 
        requiring hospitalization or medical observation.

SEC. 242. SEPARATION PAY.

                            [33 U.S.C. 3042]

  (a) Authorization of Payment.--An officer who is separated 
under section 241(a)(2) and who has completed more than three 
years of continuous active service immediately before that 
separation is entitled to separation pay computed under 
subsection (b) unless the Secretary determines that the 
conditions under which the officer is separated do not warrant 
payment of that pay.
  (b) Amount of Separation Pay.--
          (1) Six or more years.--In the case of an officer who 
        has completed six or more years of continuous active 
        service immediately before that separation, the amount 
        of separation pay to be paid to the officer under this 
        section is 10 percent of the product of--
                  (A) the years of active service creditable to 
                the officer; and
                  (B) 12 times the monthly basic pay to which 
                the officer was entitled at the time of 
                separation.
          (2) Three to six years.--In the case of an officer 
        who has completed three or more but fewer than six 
        years of continuous active service immediately before 
        that separation, the amount of separation pay to be 
        paid to the officer under this section is one-half of 
        the amount computed under paragraph (1).
  (c) Other Conditions, Requirements, and Administrative 
Provisions.--The provisions of subsections (f), (g), and (h) of 
section 1174 of title 10, United States Code, shall apply to 
separation pay under this section in the same manner as such 
provisions apply to separation pay under that section.
  (d) Exception.--An officer discharged for twice failing 
selection for promotion to the next higher grade is not 
entitled to separation pay under this section if the officer--
          (1) expresses a desire not to be selected for 
        promotion; or
          (2) requests removal from the list of selectees.

SEC. 261. APPLICABILITY OF CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF TITLE 10, UNITED 
                    STATES CODE.

                            [33 U.S.C. 3071]

  (a) Provisions Made Applicable to the Corps.--The rules of 
law that apply to the Armed Forces under the following 
provisions of title 10, United States Code, as those provisions 
are in effect from time to time, apply also to the commissioned 
officer corps of the Administration:
          (1) Chapter 40, relating to leave.
          (2) Section 533(b), relating to constructive service.
          (3) Section 716, relating to transfers between the 
        armed forces and to and from National Oceanic and 
        Atmospheric Administration.
          (4) Section 771, relating to unauthorized wearing of 
        uniforms.
          (5) Section 774, relating to wearing religious 
        apparel while in uniform.
          (6) Section 982, relating to service on State and 
        local juries.
          (7) Section 1031, relating to administration of 
        oaths.
          (8) Section 1034, relating to protected 
        communications and prohibition of retaliatory personnel 
        actions.
          [(4)](9) Section 1035, relating to deposits of 
        savings.
          [(5)](10) Section 1036, relating to transportation 
        and travel allowances for escorts for dependents of 
        members.
          [(6)](11) Section 1052, relating to reimbursement for 
        adoption expenses.
          [(11)](12) Chapter 58, relating to the Benefits and 
        Services for members being separated or recently 
        separated.
          [(7)](13) Section 1174a, relating to special 
        separation benefits (except that benefits under 
        subsection (b)(2)(B) of such section are subject to the 
        availability of appropriations for such purpose and are 
        provided at the discretion of the Secretary of 
        Commerce).
          [(8)](14) Chapter 61, relating to retirement or 
        separation for physical disability.
          [(9)](15) Chapter 69, relating to retired grade, 
        except sections 1370, 1375, and 1376.
          [(10)](16) Chapter 71, relating to computation of 
        retired pay.
          [(11)](17) Chapter 73, relating to annuities based on 
        retired or retainer pay.
          [(12)](18) Subchapter II of chapter 75, relating to 
        death benefits.
          (19) Subchapter I of chapter 88, relating to Military 
        Family Programs.
          (20) Section 2005, relating to advanced education 
        assistance, active duty agreements, and reimbursement 
        requirements.
          [(13)](21) Section 2634, relating to transportation 
        of motor vehicles for members on permanent change of 
        station.
          [(14)](22) Sections 2731 and 2735, relating to 
        property loss incident to service.
          [(15)](23) Section 2771, relating to final settlement 
        of accounts of deceased members.
          [(16)](24) Such other provisions of subtitle A of 
        that title as may be adopted for applicability to the 
        commissioned officer corps of the National Oceanic and 
        Atmospheric Administration by any other provision of 
        law.
  (b) References.--The authority vested by title 10, United 
States Code, in the ``military departments'', ``the Secretary 
concerned'', or ``the Secretary of Defense'' with respect to 
the provisions of law referred to in subsection (a) shall be 
exercised, with respect to the commissioned officer corps of 
the Administration, by the Secretary of Commerce or the 
Secretary's designee.

SEC. 261A. APPLICABILITY OF CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF TITLE 37, UNITED 
                    STATES CODE.

  (a) Provisions Made Applicable to Commissioned Officer 
Corps.--The provisions of law applicable to the Armed Forces 
under the following provisions of title 37, United States Code, 
shall apply to the commissioned officer corps of the 
Administration:
          (1) Section 324, relating to accession bonuses for 
        new officers in critical skills.
          (2) Section 403(f)(3), relating to prescribing 
        regulations defining the terms ``field duty'' and ``sea 
        duty''.
          (3) Section 403(l), relating to temporary 
        continuation of housing allowance for dependents of 
        members dying on active duty.
          (4) Section 414(a)(2), relating to personal money 
        allowance while serving as Director of the National 
        Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned 
        Officer Corps.
          (5) Section 488, relating to allowances for 
        recruiting expenses.
          (6) Section 495, relating to allowances for funeral 
        honors duty.
  (b) References.--The authority vested by title 37, United 
States Code, in the ``military departments'', ``the Secretary 
concerned'', or ``the Secretary of Defense'' with respect to 
the provisions of law referred to in subsection (a) shall be 
exercised, with respect to the commissioned officer corps of 
the Administration, by the Secretary of Commerce or the 
Secretary's designee.

SEC. 267. EDUCATION LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM.

  (a) Authority To Repay Education Loans.--For the purpose of 
maintaining adequate numbers of officers of the commissioned 
officer corps of the Administration on active duty who have 
skills required by the commissioned officer corps, the 
Secretary may repay, in the case of a person described in 
subsection (b), a loan that--
          (1) was used by the person to finance education; and
          (2) was obtained from a governmental entity, private 
        financial institution, educational institution, or 
        other authorized entity.
  (b) Eligible Persons.--To be eligible to obtain a loan 
repayment under this section, a person must--
          (1) satisfy 1 of the requirements specified in 
        subsection (c);
          (2) be fully qualified for, or hold, an appointment 
        as a commissioned officer in the commissioned officer 
        corps of the Administration; and
          (3) sign a written agreement to serve on active duty, 
        or, if on active duty, to remain on active duty for a 
        period in addition to any other incurred active duty 
        obligation.
  (c) Academic and Professional Requirements.--One of the 
following academic requirements must be satisfied for purposes 
of determining the eligibility of an individual for a loan 
repayment under this section:
          (1) The person is fully qualified in a profession 
        that the Secretary has determined to be necessary to 
        meet identified skill shortages in the commissioned 
        officer corps.
          (2) The person is enrolled as a full-time student in 
        the final year of a course of study at an accredited 
        educational institution (as determined by the Secretary 
        of Education) leading to a degree in a profession that 
        will meet identified skill shortages in the 
        commissioned officer corps.
  (d) Loan Repayments.--
          (1) In general.--Subject to the limits established 
        under paragraph (2), a loan repayment under this 
        section may consist of the payment of the principal, 
        interest, and related expenses of a loan obtained by a 
        person described in subsection (b).
          (2) Limitation on amount.--For each year of obligated 
        service that a person agrees to serve in an agreement 
        described in subsection (b)(3), the Secretary may pay 
        not more than the amount specified in section 
        2173(e)(2) of title 10, United States Code.
  (e) Active Duty Service Obligation.--
          (1) In general.--A person entering into an agreement 
        described in subsection (b)(3) incurs an active duty 
        service obligation.
          (2) Length of obligation determined under 
        regulations.--
                  (A) In general.--Except as provided in 
                subparagraph (B), the length of the obligation 
                under paragraph (1) shall be determined under 
                regulations prescribed by the Secretary.
                  (B) Minimum obligation.--The regulations 
                prescribed under subparagraph (A) may not 
                provide for a period of obligation of less than 
                1 year for each maximum annual amount, or 
                portion thereof, paid on behalf of the person 
                for qualified loans.
          (3) Persons on active duty before entering into 
        agreement.--The active duty service obligation of 
        persons on active duty before entering into the 
        agreement shall be served after the conclusion of any 
        other obligation incurred under the agreement.
  (f) Effect of Failure To Complete Obligation.--
          (1) Alternative obligations.--An officer who is 
        relieved of the officer's active duty obligation under 
        this section before the completion of that obligation 
        may be given any alternative obligation, at the 
        discretion of the Secretary.
          (2) Repayment.--An officer who does not complete the 
        period of active duty specified in the agreement 
        entered into under subsection (b)(3), or the 
        alternative obligation imposed under paragraph (1), 
        shall be subject to the repayment provisions under 
        section 216.
  (g) Rulemaking.--The Secretary shall prescribe regulations to 
carry out this section, including--
          (1) standards for qualified loans and authorized 
        payees; and
          (2) other terms and conditions for the making of loan 
        repayments.

SEC. 268. INTEREST PAYMENT PROGRAM.

  (a) Authority.--The Secretary may pay the interest and any 
special allowances that accrue on 1 or more student loans of an 
eligible officer, in accordance with this section.
  (b) Eligible Officers.--An officer is eligible for the 
benefit described in subsection (a) while the officer--
          (1) is serving on active duty;
          (2) has not completed more than 3 years of service on 
        active duty;
          (3) is the debtor on 1 or more unpaid loans described 
        in subsection (c); and
          (4) is not in default on any such loan.
  (c) Student Loans.--The authority to make payments under 
subsection (a) may be exercised with respect to the following 
loans:
          (1) A loan made, insured, or guaranteed under part B 
        of title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 
        U.S.C. 1071 et seq.).
          (2) A loan made under part D of such title (20 U.S.C. 
        1087a et seq.).
          (3) A loan made under part E of such title (20 U.S.C. 
        1087aa et seq.).
  (d) Maximum Benefit.--Interest and any special allowance may 
be paid on behalf of an officer under this section for any of 
the 36 consecutive months during which the officer is eligible 
under subsection (b).
  (e) Funds for Payments.--The Secretary may use amounts 
appropriated for the pay and allowances of personnel of the 
commissioned officer corps of the Administration for payments 
under this section.
  (f) Coordination With Secretary of Education.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary shall consult with the 
        Secretary of Education regarding the administration of 
        this section.
          (2) Transfer of funds.--The Secretary shall transfer 
        to the Secretary of Education the funds necessary--
                  (A) to pay interest and special allowances on 
                student loans under this section (in accordance 
                with sections 428(o), 455(l), and 464(j) of the 
                Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 
                1078(o), 1087e(l), and 1087dd(j)); and
                  (B) to reimburse the Secretary of Education 
                for any reasonable administrative costs 
                incurred by the Secretary in coordinating the 
                program under this section with the 
                administration of the student loan programs 
                under parts B, D, and E of title IV of the 
                Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1071 et 
                seq., 1087a et seq., 1087aa et seq.).
  (g) Special Allowance Defined.--In this section, the term 
``special allowance'' means a special allowance that is payable 
under section 438 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 
U.S.C. 1087-1).

SEC. 269. STUDENT PRE-COMMISSIONING EDUCATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM.

  (a) Authority To Provide Financial Assistance.--For the 
purpose of maintaining adequate numbers of officers of the 
commissioned officer corps of the Administration on active 
duty, the Secretary may provide financial assistance to a 
person described in subsection (b) for expenses of the person 
while the person is pursuing on a full-time basis at an 
accredited educational institution (as determined by the 
Secretary of Education) a program of education approved by the 
Secretary that leads to--
          (1) a baccalaureate degree in not more than 5 
        academic years; or
          (2) a postbaccalaureate degree.
  (b) Eligible Persons.--
          (1) In general.--A person is eligible to obtain 
        financial assistance under subsection (a) if the 
        person--
                  (A) is enrolled on a full-time basis in a 
                program of education referred to in subsection 
                (a) at any educational institution described in 
                such subsection;
                  (B) meets all of the requirements for 
                acceptance into the commissioned officer corps 
                of the Administration except for the completion 
                of a baccalaureate degree; and
                  (C) enters into a written agreement with the 
                Secretary described in paragraph (2).
          (2) Agreement.--A written agreement referred to in 
        paragraph (1)(C) is an agreement between the person and 
        the Secretary in which the person agrees--
                  (A) to accept an appointment as an officer, 
                if tendered; and
                  (B) upon completion of the person's 
                educational program, agrees to serve on active 
                duty, immediately after appointment, for--
                          (i) up to 3 years if the person 
                        received less than 3 years of 
                        assistance; and
                          (ii) up to 5 years if the person 
                        received at least 3 years of 
                        assistance.
  (c) Qualifying Expenses.--Expenses for which financial 
assistance may be provided under subsection (a) are the 
following:
          (1) Tuition and fees charged by the educational 
        institution involved.
          (2) The cost of books.
          (3) In the case of a program of education leading to 
        a baccalaureate degree, laboratory expenses.
          (4) Such other expenses as the Secretary considers 
        appropriate.
  (d) Limitation on Amount.--The Secretary shall prescribe the 
amount of financial assistance provided to a person under 
subsection (a), which may not exceed the amount specified in 
section 2173(e)(2) of title 10, United States Code, for each 
year of obligated service that a person agrees to serve in an 
agreement described in subsection (b)(2).
  (e) Duration of Assistance.--Financial assistance may be 
provided to a person under subsection (a) for not more than 5 
consecutive academic years.
  (f) Subsistence Allowance.--
          (1) In general.--A person who receives financial 
        assistance under subsection (a) shall be entitled to a 
        monthly subsistence allowance at a rate prescribed 
        under paragraph (2) for the duration of the period for 
        which the person receives such financial assistance.
          (2) Determination of amount.--The Secretary shall 
        prescribe monthly rates for subsistence allowance 
        provided under paragraph (1), which shall be equal to 
        the amount specified in section 2144(a) of title 10, 
        United States Code.
  (g) Initial Clothing Allowance.--
          (1) Training.--The Secretary may prescribe a sum 
        which shall be credited to each person who receives 
        financial assistance under subsection (a) to cover the 
        cost of the person's initial clothing and equipment 
        issue.
          (2) Appointment.--Upon completion of the program of 
        education for which a person receives financial 
        assistance under subsection (a) and acceptance of 
        appointment in the commissioned officer corps of the 
        Administration, the person may be issued a subsequent 
        clothing allowance equivalent to that normally provided 
        to a newly appointed officer.
  (h) Termination of Financial Assistance.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary shall terminate the 
        assistance provided to a person under this section if--
                  (A) the Secretary accepts a request by the 
                person to be released from an agreement 
                described in subsection (b)(2);
                  (B) the misconduct of the person results in a 
                failure to complete the period of active duty 
                required under the agreement; or
                  (C) the person fails to fulfill any term or 
                condition of the agreement.
          (2) Reimbursement.--The Secretary may require a 
        person who receives assistance described in subsection 
        (c), (f), or (g) under an agreement entered into under 
        subsection (b)(1)(C) to reimburse the Secretary in an 
        amount that bears the same ratio to the total costs of 
        the assistance provided to that person as the unserved 
        portion of active duty bears to the total period of 
        active duty the officer agreed to serve under the 
        agreement.
          (3) Waiver.--The Secretary may waive the service 
        obligation of a person through an agreement entered 
        into under subsection (b)(1)(C) if the person--
                  (A) becomes unqualified to serve on active 
                duty in the commissioned officer corps of the 
                Administration because of a circumstance not 
                within the control of that person; or
                  (B) is--
                          (i) not physically qualified for 
                        appointment; and
                          (ii) determined to be unqualified for 
                        service in the commissioned officer 
                        corps of the Administration because of 
                        a physical or medical condition that 
                        was not the result of the person's own 
                        misconduct or grossly negligent 
                        conduct.
          (4) Obligation as debt to united states.--An 
        obligation to reimburse the Secretary imposed under 
        paragraph (2) is, for all purposes, a debt owed to the 
        United States.
          (5) Discharge in bankruptcy.--A discharge in 
        bankruptcy under title 11, United States Code, that is 
        entered less than 5 years after the termination of a 
        written agreement entered into under subsection 
        (b)(1)(C) does not discharge the person signing the 
        agreement from a debt arising under such agreement or 
        under paragraph (2).
  (i) Regulations.--The Secretary may promulgate such 
regulations and orders as the Secretary considers appropriate 
to carry out this section.

                      HIGHER EDUCATION ACT OF 1965

                            [79 Stat. 1219]

SEC. 428. FEDERAL PAYMENTS TO REDUCE STUDENT INTEREST COSTS.

[20 U.S.C. 1078]

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


  (o) [Armed Forces Student Loan Interest Payment Program.--]  
Armed Forces and NOAA Commissioned Officer Corps Student Loan 
Interest Payment Programs._
          (1) Authority.--Using funds received by transfer to 
        the Secretary under section 2174 of title 10, United 
        States Code, or section 264 of the National Oceanic and 
        Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps 
        Act of 2002 for the payment of interest and any special 
        allowance on a loan to a member of the Armed Forces or 
        an officer in the commissioned officer corps of the 
        National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 
        respectively, that is made, insured, or guaranteed 
        under this part, the Secretary shall pay the interest 
        and special allowance on such loan as due for a period 
        not in excess of 36 consecutive months. The Secretary 
        may not pay interest or any special allowance on such a 
        loan out of any funds other than funds that have been 
        so transferred.
          (2) Forbearance.--During the period in which the 
        Secretary is making payments on a loan under paragraph 
        (1), the lender shall grant the borrower forbearance in 
        accordance with the guaranty agreement under subsection 
        (c)(3)(A)(i)(IV).
          (3) Special allowance defined.--For the purposes of 
        this subsection, the term ``special allowance'' means a 
        special allowance that is payable with respect to a 
        loan under section 438.

SEC. 455. TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF LOANS.

[20 U.S.C. 1087e]

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


  (l) [Armed Forces Student Loan Interest Payment Program.--]  
Armed Forces and NOAA Commissioned Officer Corps Student Loan 
Interest Payment Programs._
          (1) Authority.--Using funds received by transfer to 
        the Secretary under section 2174 of title 10, United 
        States Code, or section 264 of the National Oceanic and 
        Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps 
        Act of 2002 for the payment of interest on a loan made 
        under this part to a member of the Armed Forces or an 
        officer in the commissioned officer corps of the 
        National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 
        respectively, the Secretary shall pay the interest on 
        the loan as due for a period not in excess of 36 
        consecutive months. The Secretary may not pay interest 
        on such a loan out of any funds other than funds that 
        have been so transferred.
          (2) Forbearance.--During the period in which the 
        Secretary is making payments on a loan under paragraph 
        (1), the Secretary shall grant the borrower 
        forbearance, in the form of a temporary cessation of 
        all payments on the loan other than the payments of 
        interest on the loan that are made under that 
        paragraph.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 464. TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF LOANS.

[20 U.S.C. 1087jj]

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


  (j) [Armed Forces Student Loan Interest Payment Program.--]  
Armed Forces and NOAA Commissioned Officer Corps Student Loan 
Interest Payment Programs._
          (1) Authority.--Using funds received by transfer to 
        the Secretary under section 2174 of title 10, United 
        States Code, or section 264 of the National Oceanic and 
        Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps 
        Act of 2002 for the payment of interest on a loan made 
        under this part to a member of the Armed Forces or an 
        officer in the commissioned officer corps of the 
        National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 
        respectively, the Secretary shall pay the interest on 
        the loan as due for a period not in excess of 36 
        consecutive months. The Secretary may not pay interest 
        on such a loan out of any funds other than funds that 
        have been so transferred.
          (2) Forbearance.--During the period in which the 
        Secretary is making payments on a loan under paragraph 
        (1), the institution of higher education shall grant 
        the borrower forbearance in accordance with subsection 
        (e)(1)(C).

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


             TITLE 5. GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATION AND EMPLOYEES

 3304. Competitive service; examinations

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


  (f)
          (1) Preference eligibles or veterans who have been 
        separated from the armed forces and members of the 
        commissioned officer corps of the National Oceanic and 
        Atmospheric Administration (or its predecessor 
        organization the Coast and Geodetic Survey) separated 
        from such uniformed service under honorable conditions 
        after 3 years or more of active service may not be 
        denied the opportunity to compete for vacant positions 
        for which the agency making the announcement will 
        accept applications from individuals outside its own 
        workforce under merit promotion procedures.
          (2) If selected, a preference eligible [or veteran] , 
        veteran, or member described in paragraph (1) shall 
        receive a career or career-conditional appointment, as 
        appropriate.
          (3) This subsection shall not be construed to confer 
        an entitlement to veterans' preference that is not 
        otherwise required by law.
          (4) The area of consideration for all merit promotion 
        announcements which include consideration of 
        individuals of the Federal workforce shall indicate 
        that preference eligibles and veterans who have been 
        separated from the armed forces and members of the 
        commissioned officer corps of the National Oceanic and 
        Atmospheric Administration (or its predecessor 
        organization the Coast and Geodetic Survey) separated 
        from such uniformed service under honorable conditions 
        after 3 years or more of active service are eligible to 
        apply. The announcements shall be publicized in 
        accordance with section 3327.
          (5) The Office of Personnel Management shall 
        prescribe regulations necessary for the administration 
        of this subsection. The regulations shall ensure that 
        an individual who has completed an initial tour of 
        active duty is not excluded from the application of 
        this subsection because of having been released from 
        such tour of duty shortly before completing 3 years of 
        active service, having been honorably released from 
        such duty.

                         TITLE 10. ARMED FORCES

                   CHAPTER 57. DECORATIONS AND AWARDS

 1121. Legion of Merit: award

  The President, under regulations to be prescribed by him, may 
award a decoration called the ``Legion of Merit'', having 
suitable appurtenances and devices and not more than four 
degrees, to any member of the [armed forces] uniformed services 
of the United States or of any friendly foreign nation who, 
after September 8, 1939, has distinguished himself by 
exceptionally meritorious conduct in performing outstanding 
services.

                TITLE 18. CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

                             PART I. CRIMES

                CHAPTER 33. EMBLEMS, INSIGNIA, AND NAMES

 702. Uniform of armed forces and Public Health Service

  Whoever, in any place within the jurisdiction of the United 
States or in the Canal Zone, without authority, wears the 
uniform or a distinctive part thereof or anything similar to a 
distinctive part of the uniform of any of the armed forces of 
the United States, Public Health [Service or any] Service, the 
commissioned officer corps of the National Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Administration, or any auxiliary of such, shall be 
fined under this title or imprisoned not more than six months, 
or both.

         TITLE 37. PAY AND ALLOWANCES OF THE UNIFORMED SERVICES

                          CHAPTER 3. BASIC PAY

 203. Rates

  (a)
          (1) The rates of monthly basic pay for members of the 
        uniformed services within each pay grade are those 
        prescribed in accordance with section 1009 of this 
        title or as otherwise prescribed by law.
          (2) Notwithstanding the rates of basic pay in effect 
        at any time as provided by law, the rates of basic pay 
        payable for commissioned officers in pay grades O-7 
        through O-10 may not exceed the monthly equivalent of 
        the rate of pay for level II of the Executive Schedule, 
        and the rates of basic pay payable for all other 
        officers and for enlisted members may not exceed the 
        monthly equivalent of the rate of pay for level V of 
        the Executive Schedule.
  (b) While serving as a permanent professor at the United 
States Military Academy, the United States Naval Academy, or 
the United States Air Force Academy or as a member of the 
permanent commissioned teaching staff at the United States 
Coast Guard Academy, an officer who has over 36 years of 
service computed under section 205 of this title is, in 
addition to the pay and allowances to which he is otherwise 
entitled under this title, entitled to additional pay in the 
amount of $250 a month. This additional pay may not be used in 
the computation of retired pay.
  (c) A cadet at the United States Military Academy, the United 
States Air Force Academy, or the Coast Guard Academy, or a 
midshipman at the United States Naval Academy, is entitled to 
monthly cadet pay, or midshipman pay, at the monthly rate equal 
to 35 percent of the basic pay of a commissioned officer in the 
pay grade O-1 with less than two years of service.
  (d)
          (1) The basic pay of a commissioned officer who is in 
        pay grade O-1, O-2, or O-3 and who is credited with a 
        total of over four years' service described in 
        paragraph (2) shall be computed in the same manner as 
        the basic pay of a commissioned officer in the same pay 
        grade who has been credited with over four years' 
        active service as an enlisted member.
          (2) Service to be taken into account for purposes of 
        computing basic pay under paragraph (1) is as follows:
                  (A) Active service as a warrant officer or as 
                a warrant officer and an enlisted member.
                  (B) Service as a warrant officer, as an 
                enlisted member, or as a warrant officer and an 
                enlisted member, for which at least 1,460 
                points have been credited to the officer for 
                the purposes of section 12732(a)(2) of title 
                10.
  (e)
          (1) A student at the United States Military Academy 
        Preparatory School, the United States Naval Academy 
        Preparatory School, or the United States Air Force 
        Academy Preparatory School who was selected to attend 
        the preparatory school from civilian life is entitled 
        to monthly student pay at the same rate as provided for 
        cadets and midshipmen under subsection (c).
          (2) A student at a preparatory school referred to in 
        paragraph (1) who, at the time of the student's 
        selection to attend the preparatory school, was an 
        enlisted member of the uniformed services shall receive 
        monthly basic pay at the rate prescribed for the 
        student's pay grade and years of service as an enlisted 
        member or at the rate provided for cadets and 
        midshipmen under subsection (c), whichever is greater.
          (3) The monthly student pay of a student described in 
        paragraph (1) shall be treated for purposes of the 
        accrual charge for the Department of Defense Military 
        Retirement Fund established under section 1461 of title 
        10 in the same manner as monthly cadet pay or 
        midshipman pay under subsection (c).
  (f)(1) An officer candidate enrolled in the basic officer 
training program of the commissioned officer corps of the 
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is entitled, 
while participating in such program, to monthly officer 
candidate pay at monthly rate equal to the basic pay of an 
enlisted member in the pay grade E-5 with less than 2 years 
service.
  (2) An individual who graduates from such program shall 
receive credit for the time spent participating in such program 
as if such time were time served while on active duty as a 
commissioned officer. If the individual does not graduate from 
such program, such time shall not be considered creditable for 
active duty or pay.

                      TITLE 38. VETERANS' BENEFITS

                           CHAPTER 1. GENERAL

 101. Definitions

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


          (21) The term ``active duty'' means--
                  (A) full-time duty in the Armed Forces, other 
                than active duty for training;
                  (B) full-time duty (other than for training 
                purposes) as a commissioned officer of the 
                Regular or Reserve Corps of the Public Health 
                Service
                          (i) on or after July 29, 1945, or
                          (ii) before that date under 
                        circumstances affording entitlement to 
                        ``full military benefits'' or
                          (iii) at any time, for the purposes 
                        of chapter 13 of this title;
                  (C) full-time duty as a commissioned officer 
                in the commissioned officer corps of the 
                National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 
                or its predecessor organization the Coast and 
                Geodetic Survey
                          (i) on or after July 29, 1945, or
                          (ii) before that date
                                  (I) while on transfer to one 
                                of the Armed Forces, or
                                  (II) while, in time of war or 
                                national emergency declared by 
                                the President, assigned to duty 
                                on a project for one of the 
                                Armed Forces in an area 
                                determined by the Secretary of 
                                Defense to be of immediate 
                                military hazard, or
                                  (III) in the Philippine 
                                Islands on December 7, 1941, 
                                and continuously in such 
                                islands thereafter, or
                          (iii) at any time, for the purposes 
                        of chapter 13 of this title;
                  (D) service as a cadet at the United States 
                Military, Air Force, or Coast Guard Academy, or 
                as a midshipman at the United States Naval 
                Academy; and
                  (E) authorized travel to or from such duty or 
                service.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


   CHAPTER 43. EMPLOYMENT AND REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS OF MEMBERS OF THE 
                           UNIFORMED SERVICES

 4303. Definitions

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


          (16) The term ``uniformed services'' means the Armed 
        Forces, the Army National Guard and the Air National 
        Guard when engaged in active duty for training, 
        inactive duty training, or full-time National Guard 
        duty, the commissioned corps of the Public Health 
        Service, the commissioned officer corps of the National 
        Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and any other 
        category of persons designated by the President in time 
        of war or national emergency.