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                                                       Calendar No. 481
112th Congress                                                   Report
                                 SENATE
 2d Session                                                     112-194

======================================================================



 
                     SENATOR PAUL SIMON WATER FOR 
                         THE WORLD ACT OF 2011

                                _______
                                

                 July 31, 2012.--Ordered to be printed

          Mr. Kerry, from the Committee on Foreign Relations,
                        submitted the following

                                 REPORT

                         [To accompany S. 641]

    The Committee on Foreign Relations, having had under 
consideration the bill S. 641, to provide 100,000,000 people 
with first-time access to safe drinking water and sanitation on 
a sustainable basis within six years by improving the capacity 
of the United States Government to fully implement the Senator 
Paul Simon Water for the Poor Act of 2005, reports favorably 
thereon and recommends that the bill do pass.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page

  I. Purpose..........................................................1
 II. Committee Action.................................................1
III. Discussion.......................................................1
 IV. Cost Estimate....................................................4
  V. Evaluation of Regulatory Impact..................................7
 VI. Changes in Existing Law..........................................7

                               I. Purpose

    The purpose of S. 641 is to target underdeveloped countries 
with focused initiatives to improve access to clean water and 
sanitation.

                          II. Committee Action

    S. 641 was introduced by Senator Durbin on March 17, 2011. 
On June 19, 2012, the committee considered S.641 and ordered it 
reported favorably without amendment by voice vote.

                            III. Discussion

    S. 641, the Senator Paul Simon Water for the World Act of 
2011 (the ``Act''), builds on the progress achieved through the 
2005 Senator Paul Simon Water for the Poor Act (P.L. 109-121) 
by seeking to provide 100 million people with first-time access 
to safe drinking water and sanitation on a sustainable basis 
within six years through direct funding, development 
activities, and partnerships to meet this goal.
    It supports strengthening the infrastructure at United 
States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the 
State Department to ensure that water remains a development 
priority. It also fosters global cooperation on research and 
technology development, including regional partnerships among 
experts on clean water. Lastly, it provides technical 
assistance and capacity-building to develop expertise within 
countries facing water and sanitation challenges.
    Since its enactment, the 2005 Water for the Poor Act has 
achieved much success. For example in 2009, under the 
provisions of the Act, the U.S. provided nearly 2 million 
people with first-time access to an improved source of drinking 
water and more than 1.5 million people to improved sanitation. 
Then in FY 2010, as a result of USAID investments, some 2.8 
million people gained improved access to safe drinking water, 
and 2.9 million gained improved access to sanitation. However, 
water will continue to be one of the world's most pressing 
problems over the next century.
    Nearly one billion people continue to lack access to clean, 
safe water, and as many as three billion may face shortages by 
2025 due in part to the effects of climate change. And two 
people out of every five in the world do not have access to 
basic sanitation services. Inadequate water and sanitation 
contribute to nearly ten percent of the world's disease and 
more than two million deaths each year. Competition over water 
resources that are either dwindling or inadequate for growing 
populations is contributing to tension and conflict in Sudan 
and other countries.
    The committee recognizes that the Water for the World Act 
can help strengthen global security by defusing tensions that 
are growing within and among nations as people react to the 
shortage of clean water and other emerging crises.
    The Act includes the establishment of the ``Senior Advisor 
for Water'' at USAID and a ``Special Coordinator for 
International Water,'' at the Department of State to allow 
greater efficiency and flexibility to implement clean water and 
sanitation programs. The committee recognizes that the purpose 
and intent of the Act should focus on providing safe drinking 
water, sanitation and hygiene, but the committee also 
recognizes that broad benefits can derive from water resource 
management activities and believes it is important to allow 
country priorities and specific mission expertise to guide the 
design of water related programs.
    The committee notes that in past years, efforts by USAID 
and other agencies to implement the Act have not always 
occurred in a comprehensive or integrated fashion. It is 
important that development efforts related to water are 
integrated within a broader country development framework and 
reflect needs and priorities identified by the country in 
question. Section 6 includes an important amendment to the 2005 
Water for the Poor Act to emphasize this point, directing the 
water coordinator to:
          [T]ake actions to ensure that the safe water and 
        sanitation strategy is integrated into any review or 
        development of a Federal strategy for global 
        development, global health, or global food security 
        that sets forth or establishes the United States 
        mission for global development, guidelines for 
        assistance programs, and how development policy will be 
        coordinated with policies governing trade, immigration, 
        and other relevant international issues.


    Water activities should not take place in isolation or in a 
vacuum but should be integrated in a broader development 
framework. The committee believes there are many different ways 
to lead to improved access to safe drinking water, and that 
infrastructure investments and related management activities 
are important components to that equation. Finally, the 
committee observes that in a time of scarce development 
resources and significant development funds diverted to 
regional foreign policy priorities, official U.S. development 
assistance towards water activities, by itself, may not lead to 
achievement of the Act's goal. However, direct funding is but 
one means to achieve the safe drinking water goal--the Act 
specifically notes that development activities and outside 
partnerships are other means by which 100 million people may be 
provided with safe drinking water within six years of 
enactment.
    The sections below detail several important improvements 
included in the legislation.


    Developing United States Government Capacity.  Section 5 
amends section 135 of the Foreign Assistance Act and requires 
the Administrator of USAID to designate a ``Senior Advisor for 
Water'' to coordinate and conduct the activities described in 
Section 5 and the 2005 Water for Poor Act. Duties include 
developing and overseeing implementation and coordination in 
high priority countries of country-specific water strategies 
and expertise. This section also requires the Secretary of 
State to establish within the State Department a ``Special 
Coordinator for International Water'' to report to the Under 
Secretary for Democracy and Global Affairs. This official will 
be responsible for overseeing and coordinating the diplomatic 
policy of the United States with respect to global freshwater 
issues and ensures that these issues are represented both 
within the United States Government and in key international 
fora. The committee looks forward to a more streamlined, 
integrated, accountable and coordinated approach to addressing 
the challenges of increasing access to safe drinking water and 
sanitation in high priority countries in the context of broader 
resource management activities.


    Safe Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy. Section 6 
amends Section 6 of the 2005 Water for Poor Act to require that 
the safe water and sanitation strategy provided for in the Act 
includes an assessment of all U.S. government foreign 
assistance allocated to the drinking water and sanitation 
sector during the previous 3 fiscal years and across all U.S. 
government agencies and programs. The committee recognizes the 
importance of achieving the 100 million people goal for 
enabling first-time access to safe water and sanitation. To 
this end, this section includes recommendations on what the 
United States would need to do to support this goal, and how 
the U.S. Government can leverage critical outside partnerships 
in support of this goal.


    Water and Sanitation Institutional Capacity-building 
Program.  Section 7 amends the 2005 Water for the Poor Act to 
provide for the establishment of a water and sanitation 
institutional capacity-building program in high priority 
countries. This section mandates the creation of a program for 
both the host country institutions and officials responsible 
for water and sanitation in countries that receive assistance 
to have access to training in a comprehensive set of areas. 
These areas include 1) affordable, equitable and sustainable 
access to safe drinking water and sanitation, 2) education 
about the dangers of unsafe drinking water and sanitation, and 
3) the encouragement of behavioral changes to reduce 
individuals' risk of disease due to these conditions. Given the 
benefit of this type of program, this section includes the 
ability for the Secretary of State and Administrator of USAID 
to expand this program to additional countries beyond those 
designated as high priority.


    Monitoring and Evaluation. Section 9 states a Sense of the 
Congress regarding the importance for consistent and systematic 
evaluation of the impacts of foreign assistance and the 
importance of the design of assistance programs. This section 
also highlights the significance of high quality evaluation and 
lessons learned within agencies managing foreign assistance 
programs.


    Update Report Regarding Water for Peace and Security. 
Section 10 amends Section 11(b) of the 2005 Water for the Poor 
Act to add to the reporting requirement an assessment of 
current and likely future political tensions and a 
multidisciplinary assessment of the expected impacts of changes 
to water supplies and agricultural productivity. The committee 
also recognizes that one of the effects of global climate 
change is impacts on water supplies and expects that these 
variables will be included in the report.


    Comptroller General Report on Effectiveness and Efficiency. 
Section 11 includes a requirement that the Comptroller General 
of the United States submit a report with recommendations as 
appropriate on the effectiveness and efficiency of United 
States efforts to provide safe water and sanitation for 
developing countries.

                           IV. Cost Estimate

    In accordance with Rule XXVI, paragraph 11(a) of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate, the committee provides this 
estimate of the costs of this legislation prepared by the 
Congressional Budget Office.


                            United States Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                      Washington, DC, July 2, 2012.

Hon. John F. Kerry,
Chairman, Committee on Foreign Relations,
U.S. Senate, Washington, DC.

    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for S. 641, the Senator 
Paul Simon Water for the World Act of 2011.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Sunita 
D'Monte.
          Sincerely,
                                      Douglas W. Elmendorf.

Enclosure.


cc: Hon. Richard G. Lugar,
    Ranking Member.
                                ------                                


               Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate

                                                      July 2, 2012.

                                 S. 641


           Senator Paul Simon Water for the World Act of 2011


  AS ORDERED REPORTED BY THE SENATE COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS ON 
                             JUNE 19, 2012

                               A. SUMMARY

    S. 641 would authorize foreign assistance to provide first-
time access to safe water and sanitation for 100 million people 
in certain developing countries within six years of enactment. 
In addition, the bill would require the Secretary of State and 
the Administrator of the U.S. Agency for International 
Development (USAID) to designate staff at USAID missions abroad 
and in Washington, D.C., that would develop, implement, and 
monitor new and expanded programs of water supply, sanitation, 
and technical assistance. CBO estimates that implementing the 
bill would cost $5.6 billion over the 2013-2017 period, 
assuming appropriation of the necessary amounts.
    Pay-as-you-go procedures do not apply to this legislation 
because it would not affect direct spending or revenues.
    S. 641 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA) 
and would not affect the budgets of state, local, or tribal 
governments.

              B. ESTIMATED COST TO THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

    The estimated budgetary impact of S. 641 is shown in the 
following table. The costs of this legislation fall within 
budget function 150 (international affairs).

                             Changes in Spending Subject to Appropriation for S. 641
                                     By Fiscal Year, in Millions of Dollars
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                 2013      2014      2015      2016      2017       2013-2017
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Safe Water and Sanitation Assistance
  Estimated Authorization Level..............    1,875     1,901     1,931     1,963     1,999            9,669
  Estimated Outlays..........................       47       704     1,370     1,672     1,792            5,585
Overseas Personnel
  Estimated Authorization Level..............        9         9         9         9        10               46
  Estimated Outlays..........................        5         8         9         9         9               40
Washington, D.C., Personnel
  Estimated Authorization Level..............        3         3         3         3         3               15
  Estimated Outlays..........................        2         3         3         3         3               14
    Total Changes
      Estimated Authorization Level..........    1,887     1,913     1,943     1,975     2,012            9,730
      Estimated Outlays......................       54       715     1,382     1,684     1,804            5,639
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note: Numbers may not sum to totals because of rounding.



                          C. BASIS OF ESTIMATE

    For this estimate, CBO assumes that S. 641 will be enacted 
by the end of 2012, that the necessary amounts will be 
appropriated each year, and that outlays will follow historical 
spending patterns for existing programs.

Current Funding for Water-Related Activities

    In 2010, USAID obligated about $643 million for all water-
related foreign assistance, such as sound management of water 
resources and sustainable water supply, sanitation, and hygiene 
[WASH] facilities. Those amounts are funding activities aimed 
at improved access to safe water for almost three million 
people and improved access to sanitation for almost three 
million people. Other agencies--primarily the Millennium 
Challenge Corporation--also provide water- and sanitation-
related assistance. In 2012, the Congress specified that of the 
amounts appropriated by the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 
2012 (Public Law 112-74) not less than $315 million should be 
made available for such assistance.

Safe Water and Sanitation Assistance

    Section 4 would set a target of enabling first-time access 
to safe water and sanitation, on a sustainable basis, for 100 
million people in high-priority countries over six years. CBO 
assumes that each year over the 2013-2018 period, the Congress 
would appropriate the amounts necessary for USAID to initiate 
WASH activities that would enable such access to one-sixth of 
the target population (about 17 million people). However, we 
expect that many of those people would not actually receive 
access to improved water supply and sanitation until after 2017 
because it would take time to obligate funds and execute the 
projects.
    Based on information from the State Department, USAID and 
nonfederal organizations, CBO estimates that it would cost an 
average of $150 per person in 2013 to provide such access to 
safe water and sanitation. However, section 5 would require 
that at least 25 percent of the funding required to meet the 
bill's target be provided by nonfederal entities, such as 
international organizations, private donors, and not-for-profit 
organizations. After adjusting for that requirement, we 
estimate that meeting the bill's target would require annual 
appropriations of $1.9 billion in 2013 and about $9.7 billion 
over the 2013-2017 period for WASH activities. Assuming 
appropriation of those amounts, CBO estimates that implementing 
that provision would cost almost $5.6 billion over the 2013-
2017 period. (The remainder of the amounts we estimate would be 
authorized would be spent after 2017.)

Overseas Personnel

    Section 7 would require USAID to build the capacity of 
foreign countries to promote access to safe water and 
sanitation and to designate staff at the USAID mission in each 
high-priority country to coordinate in-country implementation 
of USAID's water-sector assistance programs. Most USAID 
missions in high-priority countries do not have any Foreign 
Service officers working on such activities full-time, although 
those missions do employ staff that work on them part-time as 
part of a broader portfolio. Based on information from USAID, 
CBO estimates that the agency would have to hire the equivalent 
of about 25 full-time employees to locally manage the expanded 
water-sector programs in high-priority countries at an annual 
cost per person of about $350,000. On that basis, and adjusting 
for expected inflation, CBO estimates that implementing section 
7 would cost $40 million over the 2013-2017 period, assuming 
appropriation of the necessary amounts.

Washington, D.C., Personnel

    Section 5 would require the Secretary of State and the 
Administrator of USAID to designate staff in Washington, D.C., 
to coordinate global water policy and to develop and oversee 
water strategies for each high-priority country. Based on 
information from the two agencies, we estimate that those 
agencies would have to hire the equivalent of 15 full-time 
employees to centrally manage the expanded water-sector 
programs at an annual cost per person of about $200,000. On 
that basis, and adjusting for expected inflation, CBO estimates 
that implementing section 5 would have a discretionary cost of 
$14 million over the 2013-2017 period, assuming appropriation 
of the necessary amounts.

PAY-AS-YOU-GO CONSIDERATIONS:

    None.

INTERGOVERNMENTAL AND PRIVATE-SECTOR IMPACT:

    S. 641 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in UMRA and would not affect the budgets of 
state, local, or tribal governments.

ESTIMATE PREPARED BY:

    Federal Costs: Sunita D'Monte
    Impact on State, Local, and Tribal Governments: J'nell L. 
Blanco
    Impact on the Private Sector: Marin Randall

ESTIMATE APPROVED BY:

    Theresa Gullo, Deputy Assistant Director for Budget 
Analysis

                   V. Evaluation of Regulatory Impact

    Pursuant to Rule XXVI, paragraph 11(b) of the Standing 
Rules of the Senate, the committee has determined that there is 
no regulatory impact as a result of this legislation.

                      VI. Changes in Existing Law

    In compliance with Rule XXVI, paragraph 12 of the Standing 
Rules of the Senate, changes in existing law made by the bill, 
as reported, are shown as follows (existing law proposed to be 
omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new matter is printed in 
italic, existing law in which no change is proposed is shown in 
roman).

FOREIGN ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1961

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *



SEC. 135. ASSISTANCE TO PROVIDE SAFE WATER AND SANITATION.

    (a) Purposes.--The purposes of assistance authorized by 
this section are--

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (d) Local Currency.--* * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (e) Senior Advisor for Water.--
          (1) In general.--To carry out the purposes of 
        subsection (a), the Administrator of the United States 
        Agency for International Development shall designate a 
        senior advisor to coordinate and conduct the activities 
        described in this section and the Senator Paul Simon 
        Water for the Poor Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-121). 
        The Advisor shall report directly to the Administrator 
        and be known as the ``Senior Advisor for Water''. The 
        initial Senior Advisor for Water shall be the 
        individual serving as the USAID Global Water 
        Coordinator as of the date of the enactment of the 
        Senator Paul Simon Water for the World Act of 2010.
          (2) Duties.--The Advisor shall--
                  (A) implement this section and the Senator 
                Paul Simon Water for the Poor Act of 2005 
                (Public Law 109-121);
                  (B) develop and oversee implementation in 
                high priority countries of country-specific 
                water strategies and expertise, in coordination 
                with appropriate United States Agency for 
                International Development Mission Directors, to 
                enable the goal of providing 100,000,000 
                additional people with sustainable access to 
                safe water and sanitation through direct 
                funding, development activities, and 
                partnerships within 6 years of the date of the 
                enactment of the Senator Paul Simon Water for 
                the World Act of 2011; and
                  (C) place primary emphasis on providing safe, 
                affordable, and sustainable drinking water, 
                sanitation, and hygiene in a manner that--
                          (i) is consistent with sound water 
                        resource management principles; and
                          (ii) utilizes such approaches as 
                        direct service provision, capacity 
                        building, institutional strengthening, 
                        regulatory reform, and partnership 
                        collaboration; and
                  (D) integrate water strategies with country-
                specific or regional food security strategies.
          (3) Capacity.--The Advisor shall be designated 
        appropriate staff and may utilize interagency details 
        or partnerships with universities, civil society, and 
        the private sector, as needed, to strengthen 
        implementation capacity.
          (4) Funding sources.--The Advisor shall ensure that 
        at least 25 percent of the overall funding necessary to 
        meet the global goal set forth under paragraph (2)(B) 
        is provided by non-Federal sources, including foreign 
        governments, international institutions, and through 
        partnerships with universities, civil society, and the 
        private sector, including private and corporate 
        foundations.
    (f) Special Coordinator for International Water--
          (1) Establishment.--To increase the capacity of the 
        Department of State to address international issues 
        regarding safe water, sanitation, integrated river 
        basin management, and other international water 
        programs, the Secretary of State shall establish a 
        Special Coordinator for International Water (referred 
        to in this subsection as the `Special Coordinator'), 
        who shall report to the Under Secretary for Democracy 
        and Global Affairs. The initial Special Coordinator 
        shall be the individual serving as Special Coordinator 
        for Water Resources as of the date of the enactment of 
        the Senator Paul Simon Water for the World Act of 2011.
          (2) Duties.--The Special Coordinator shall--
                  (A) oversee and coordinate the diplomatic 
                policy of the United States Government with 
                respect to global freshwater issues, including 
                interagency coordination related to--
                          (i) sustainable access to safe 
                        drinking water, sanitation, and 
                        hygiene;
                          (ii) integrated river basin and 
                        watershed management;
                          (iii) global food security;
                          (iv) transboundary conflict;
                          (v) agricultural and urban 
                        productivity of water resources;
                          (vi) disaster recovery, response, and 
                        rebuilding;
                          (vii) pollution mitigation; and
                          (viii) adaptation to hydrologic 
                        change due to climate variability; and
                  (B) ensure that international freshwater 
                issues are represented--
                          (i) within the United States 
                        Government; and
                          (ii) in key diplomatic, development, 
                        and scientific efforts with other 
                        nations and multilateral organizations.
          (3) Support staff.--The Special Coordinator shall be 
        designated appropriate staff to support the duties 
        described in paragraph (2).

                     SENATOR PAUL SIMON WATER FOR 
THE POOR ACT OF 2005

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *



SEC. 6. SAFE WATER, SANITATION, AND HYGIENE STRATEGY.

    (a) Strategy.--The President, acting through the Secretary 
of State, shall develop a strategy to further the United States 
foreign assistance objective to provide affordable and 
equitable access to safe water and sanitation in developing 
countries, as described in section 135 of the Foreign 
Assistance Act of 1961, as added by section 5(a) of this Act.
    (b) Consultation.The strategy required by subsection (a) 
shall be developed in consultation with the Administrator of 
the United States Agency for International Development, the 
heads of other appropriate Federal departments and agencies, 
international organizations, international financial 
institutions, recipient governments, United States and 
international nongovernmental organizations, indigenous civil 
society, and other appropriate entities. The Special 
Coordinator for International Water established under section 
135(f) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 
2152h(f)) shall take actions to ensure that the safe water and 
sanitation strategy is integrated into any review or 
development of a Federal strategy for global development, 
global health, or global food security that sets forth or 
establishes the United States mission for global development, 
guidelines for assistance programs, and how development policy 
will be coordinated with policies governing trade, immigration, 
and other relevant international issues.
    (c) Implementation.--The Secretary of State, acting through 
the Administrator of the United States Agency for International 
Development, shall implement the strategy required by 
subsection (a). The strategy may also be implemented in part by 
other Federal departments and agencies, as appropriate. In 
developing the program activities needed to implement the 
strategy, the Secretary shall consider the results of the 
assessment described in subsection (e)(9).

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (e) Content.--The strategy required by subsection (a) shall 
include--
          (1) an assessment of the activities that have been 
        carried out, or that are planned to be carried out, by 
        all appropriate Federal departments and agencies to 
        improve affordable and equitable access to safe water 
        and sanitation in all countries that receive assistance 
        from the United States;
          (2) specific and measurable goals, benchmarks, and 
        timetables to achieve the objective described in 
        subsection (a);
          (3) an assessment of the level of funding and other 
        assistance for United States water and sanitation 
        programs neededeach year to achieve the goals, 
        benchmarks, and timetables described in paragraph (2);
          (4) methods to coordinate and integrate United States 
        water and sanitation assistance programs with other 
        United States development assistance programs to 
        achieve the objective described in subsection (a);
          (5) methods to better coordinate United States water 
        and sanitation assistance programs with programs of 
        other donor countries and entities to achieve the 
        objective described in subsection (a); [and]
          (6) an assessment of the commitment of governments of 
        countries that receive assistance under section 135 of 
        the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as added by section 
        5(a) of this Act, to policies or policy reforms that 
        support affordable and equitable access by the people 
        of such countries to safe water and sanitation[.] ;
          (7) an assessment of all United States Government 
        foreign assistance allocated to the drinking water and 
        sanitation sector during the 3 previous fiscal years, 
        across all United States Government agencies and 
        programs, including an assessment of the extent to 
        which the United States Government's efforts are 
        reaching and supporting the goal of enabling first-time 
        access to safe water and sanitation on a sustainable 
        basis for 100,000,000 people in high priority 
        countries;
          (8) recommendations on what the United States 
        Government would need to do to achieve and support the 
        goals referred to in paragraph (7), in support of the 
        United Nation's Millennium Development Goal on access 
        to safe drinking water; and
          (9) an assessment of best practices for mobilizing 
        and leveraging the financial and technical capacity of 
        business, governments, nongovernmental organizations, 
        and civil society in forming public-private 
        partnerships that measurably increase access to safe, 
        affordable, drinking water and sanitation.

SEC. 7. MONITORING REQUIREMENT.

    The Secretary of State and the Administrator of the United 
States Agency for International Development shall monitor the 
implementation of assistance under section 135 of the Foreign 
Assistance Act of 1961, as added by section 5(a) of this Act, 
to ensure that the assistance is reaching its intended targets 
and meeting the intended purposes of assistance.

SEC. 8. SENSE OF CONGRESS REGARDING DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL CAPACITY.

    It is the sense of Congress that the Secretary of State 
should expand current programs and develop new programs, as 
necessary, to train local water and sanitation managers and 
other officials of countries that receive assistance under 
section 135 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as added by 
section 5(a) of this Act.

SEC. 9. WATER AND SANITATION INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY-BUILDING PROGRAM.

    (a) Establishment.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary of State and the 
        Administrator of the United States Agency for 
        International Development (referred to in this section 
        as the ``Secretary'' and the ``Administrator,'' 
        respectively), in consultation with host country 
        institutions, the Centers for Disease Control and 
        Prevention, the Department of Agriculture, and other 
        agencies, as appropriate, shall establish, in 
        coordination with mission directors in high priority 
        countries, a program to build the capacity of host 
        country institutions and officials responsible for 
        water and sanitation in countries that receive 
        assistance under section 135 of the Foreign Assistance 
        Act of 1961, including training at appropriate levels, 
        to--
                  (A) provide affordable, equitable, and 
                sustainable access to safe drinking water and 
                sanitation;
                  (B) educate the populations of such countries 
                about the dangers of unsafe drinking water and 
                lack of proper sanitation; and
                  (C) encourage behavior change to reduce 
                individuals' risk of disease from unsafe 
                drinking water and lack of proper sanitation 
                and hygiene.
          (2) Expansion.--The Secretary and the Administrator 
        may establish the program described in this section in 
        additional countries if the receipt of such capacity 
        building would be beneficial for promoting access to 
        safe drinking water and sanitation, with due 
        consideration given to good governance.
          (3) Capacity.--The Secretary and the Administrator--
                  (A) should designate appropriate staff with 
                relevant expertise to carry out the strategy 
                developed under section 6; and
                  (B) may utilize, as needed, interagency 
                details or partnerships with universities, 
                civil society, and the private sector to 
                strengthen implementation capacity.
    (b) Designation.--The United States Agency for 
International Development Mission Director for each country 
receiving a `high priority' designation under section 6(f) and 
for each region containing a country receiving such designation 
shall report annually to Congress on the status of--
          (1) designating safe drinking water and sanitation as 
        a strategic objective;
          (2) integrating the water strategy into a food 
        security strategy;
          (3) assigning an employee of the United States Agency 
        for International Development as in-country water and 
        sanitation manager to coordinate the in-country 
        implementation of this Act and section 135 of the 
        Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2152h) with 
        host country officials at various levels of government 
        responsible for water and sanitation, the Department of 
        State, and other relevant United States Government 
        agencies; and
          (4) coordinating with the Development Credit 
        Authority and the Global Development Alliance to 
        further the purposes of this Act.

SEC. [9.] 10. SENSE OF CONGRESS REGARDING ADDITIONAL WATER AND 
                    SANITATION PROGRAMS.

    It is the sense of the Congress that--
          (1) the United States should further support, as 
        appropriate, water and sanitation activities of United 
        Nations agencies, such as the United Nations Children's 
        Fund (UNICEF), the United Nations Development Programme 
        (UNDP), and the United Nations Environment Programme 
        (UNEP); and
          (2) the Secretary of the Treasury should instruct 
        each United States Executive Director at the 
        multilateral development banks (within the meaning of 
        section 1701(c) of the International Financial 
        Institutions Act) to encourage the inclusion of water 
        and sanitation programs as a critical element of their 
        development assistance.

SEC. [10.] 11. REPORT REGARDING WATER FOR PEACE AND SECURITY.

    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that 
United States programs to support and encourage efforts around 
the world to develop river basin, aquifer, and other 
watershedwide mechanisms for governance and cooperation are 
critical components of long-term United States national 
security and should be expanded.
    (b) Report.--The Secretary of State, in consultation with 
the Administrator of the United States Agency for International 
Development, shall submit to the Committee on International 
Relations of the House of Representatives and the Committee on 
Foreign Relations of the Senate a report on efforts that the 
United States is making to support and promote programs that 
develop river basin, aquifer, and other watershed-wide 
mechanisms for governance and cooperation.

SEC. [11.] 12. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

    (a) In General.--There are authorized to be appropriated 
for fiscal year 2006 and each subsequent fiscal year such sums 
as may be necessary to carry out this Act and the amendments 
made by this Act.
    (b) Other Amounts.--Amounts appropriated pursuant to the 
authorization of appropriations in subsection (a) shall be in 
addition to the amounts otherwise available to carry out this 
Act and the amendments made by this Act.
    (c) Availability.--Amounts appropriated pursuant to the 
authorization of appropriations under subsection (a) are 
authorized to remain available until expended.