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                                                       Calendar No. 968
110th Congress                                                   Report
 2d Session                                                     110-463




               September 15, 2008.--Ordered to be printed

          Mr. Biden, from the Committee on Foreign Relations,
                        submitted the following


                        [To accompany H.R. 176]

    The Committee on Foreign Relations, having had under 
consideration the bill (H.R. 176), to authorize the 
establishment of educational exchange and development programs 
for member countries of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), 
reports favorably thereon and recommends that the bill do pass.



  I. Purpose..........................................................1
 II. Committee Action.................................................1
III. Discussion.......................................................1
 IV. Cost Estimate....................................................3
  V. Evaluation of Regulatory Impact..................................5
 VI. Changes in Existing Law..........................................5

                               I. Purpose

    The purpose of this legislation is to establish an 
educational exchange program between the United States and 
nations of the Caribbean Community, known as CARICOM.

                          II. Committee Action

    H.R. 176 was introduced on January 4, 2007. The House of 
Representatives approved the bill on January 31, 2007 by a vote 
of 371-55. On June 24, 2008, the Committee on Foreign Relations 
ordered the bill favorably reported by voice vote, after 
approving several amendments to the bill.

                            III. Discussion

    The United States expends approximately $500 million on 
international exchanges through the Bureau of Educational and 
Cultural Exchanges at the Department of State. This is only one 
portion of international exchanges administered by the federal 
government. Over 60 federal agencies spent nearly $2 billion to 
operate or support nearly 250 international exchange programs, 
according to the most recent report of Interagency Working 
Group on U.S. Government-sponsored International Exchanges and 
Training (IAWG) (FY 2007 report, analyzing FY 2006 data).
    The IAWG reported that in FY 2006, the United States sent 
over 40,000 individuals abroad and welcomed over 880,000 
individuals from other nations. This involved 243 reported 
programs in 14 departments and 49 independent agencies. The 
approximately 920,000 participating individuals in FY 2006 were 
disproportionally distributed, drastically favoring the Near 
East (including North Africa) and Eurasia.

              Figure 1. Distribution of U.S. participants.

            Figure 2. Distribution of foreign participants.

    Figure 1, above, shows the distribution of U.S. 
participants and Figure 2, also above, shows the distribution 
of foreign participants.\1\ These data demonstrate that the 
number of participants to and from the CARICOM countries is 
relatively miniscule. The smaller populations of these 
countries compared to other regions of the world is obviously a 
factor. But measuring the participation level against total 
regional population indicates that the CARICOM region is still 
below average. A region-by-region measure indicates that, on 
average 240 persons per million participate in such programs. 
CARICOM is well below the average, with 201 participants per 
    \1\Note: Data for the pie charts courtesy of Interagency Working 
Group on U.S. Government-sponsored International Exchanges and Training 
    It is understandable, of course, that the U.S. government 
has placed considerable emphasis on exchange programs in the 
Middle East and South Asia. The Committee supports that trend. 
But we should not neglect our close allies and neighbors in the 
development of foreign policy programs, particularly when it 
comes to educational exchanges. Such exchanges can help train 
the next generation of leaders, which is particularly important 
to development, and economic and political stability in a 
region sometimes referred to as our ``third border.'' Many of 
these nations have longstanding ties to the United States, with 
close political and economic relationships. This legislation 
provides an additional framework to expand educational 
exchanges with these nations. Importantly, it requires 
participants in the program to agree to return and live in a 
CARICOM country and maintain residence there, or to agree to 
obtain employment that directly benefits the growth, progress, 
and development of one or more of the CARICOM countries.

                           IV. Cost Estimate

    In accordance with Rule XXVI, paragraph 11(a) of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate, the committee provides this 
estimate of the costs of this legislation prepared by the 
Congressional Budget Office.

                            United States Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                      Washington, DC, July 2, 2008.

Hon. Joseph R. Biden, Jr.,
Chairman, Committee on Foreign Relations,
U.S. Senate, Washington, DC.

    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for H.R. 176, the Shirley 
A. Chisholm United States-Caribbean Educational Exchange Act of 
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Sunita 
                                           Peter R. Orszag.


               Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate

                                                      July 2, 2008.

                                H.R. 176

 The Shirley A. Chisholm United States-Caribbean Educational Exchange 
                              Act of 2007

                             JUNE 24, 2008

    H.R. 176 would authorize a comprehensive program to improve 
primary and secondary education in nations in the Caribbean 
region and an educational exchange program with those same 
countries, and would authorize the appropriation of such sums 
as may be necessary over the 2008-2012 period for both 
    For this estimate, CBO assumes that H.R. 176 will be 
enacted near the start of fiscal year 2009 and that the 
estimated amounts will be appropriated each year beginning in 
fiscal year 2009. (H.R. 176 also would authorize the 
appropriation of such sums as may be necessary in 2008; 
however, those amounts are not included in this cost estimate 
because CBO assumes that no further appropriations will be 
provided in 2008 for such programs.)
    The act would authorize the Administrator of the U.S. 
Agency for International Development (USAID) to expand existing 
initiatives for teacher training and community involvement in 
school activities. Based on information from USAID, CBO 
estimates that implementing this provision would require 
funding of $15 million a year, and would cost $2 million in 
2009 and $47 million over the 2009-2013 period, assuming 
appropriation of the estimated amounts (see following table).

                                  Changes in Spending Subject to Appropriation
                                     By Fiscal Year, in Millions of Dollars
                                                       2009      2010      2011      2012      2013    2008-2013
Estimated Authorization Level......................       15        15        15        15         0         60
Estimated Outlays..................................        2         8        11        13        13         47

    H.R. 176 also would authorize the Secretary of State to 
establish an exchange program for secondary and post-secondary 
students from the region to study in the United States. 
According to the Department of State, H.R. 176 would duplicate 
existing efforts to facilitate exchange programs with Caribbean 
countries; thus, CBO estimates that implementing that provision 
would have no significant effect on spending subject to 
appropriation. Enacting the legislation would not affect direct 
spending or revenues.
    H.R. 176 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act and 
would impose no costs on state, local, or tribal governments.
    On July 20, 2007, CBO transmitted a cost estimate for H.R. 
176 as ordered reported by the House Committee on Foreign 
Affairs on June 26, 2007. The two versions of the legislation 
are similar, but CBO estimates that H.R. 176 as ordered 
reported by the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations would 
have lower costs as a result of a later assumed enactment date.
    The CBO staff contact for this estimate is Sunita D'Monte. 
This estimate was approved by Theresa Gullo, Deputy Assistant 
Director for Budget Analysis.

                   V. Evaluation of Regulatory Impact

    Pursuant to Rule XXVI, paragraph 11(b) of the Standing 
Rules of the Senate, the committee has determined that there is 
no regulatory impact as a result of this legislation.

                      VI. Changes in Existing Law

    In compliance with paragraph 12 of Rule XXVI of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate, the committee notes that no 
changes to existing law are made by this bill.