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110th Congress                                                   Report
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 2d Session                                                     110-635

======================================================================
 
                     CRANE CONSERVATION ACT OF 2008

                                _______
                                

  May 13, 2008.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

  Mr. Rahall, from the Committee on Natural Resources, submitted the 
                               following

                              R E P O R T

                        [To accompany H.R. 1771]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

  The Committee on Natural Resources, to whom was referred the 
bill (H.R. 1771) to assist in the conservation of cranes by 
supporting and providing, through projects of persons and 
organizations with expertise in crane conservation, financial 
resources for the conservation programs of countries the 
activities of which directly or indirectly affect cranes and 
the ecosystems of cranes, having considered the same, report 
favorably thereon with an amendment and recommend that the bill 
as amended do pass.
  The amendment is as follows:
  Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the 
following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

  This Act may be cited as the ``Crane Conservation Act of 2008''.

SEC. 2. PURPOSES.

  The purposes of this Act are--
          (1) to perpetuate healthy populations of cranes;
          (2) to assist in the conservation and protection of cranes by 
        supporting--
                  (A) conservation programs in countries in which 
                endangered and threatened cranes occur; and
                  (B) the efforts of private organizations committed to 
                helping cranes; and
          (3) to provide financial resources for those programs and 
        efforts.

SEC. 3. DEFINITIONS.

  In this Act:
          (1) Conservation.--
                  (A) In general.--The term ``conservation'' means the 
                use of any method or procedure to improve the viability 
                of crane populations and the quality of the ecosystems 
                and habitats on which the crane populations depend to 
                help the species achieve sufficient populations in the 
                wild to ensure the long-term viability of the species.
                  (B) Inclusions.--The term ``conservation'' includes 
                the carrying out of any activity associated with 
                scientific resource management, such as--
                          (i) protection, restoration, and management 
                        of habitat;
                          (ii) research and monitoring of known 
                        populations;
                          (iii) the provision of assistance in the 
                        development of management plans for managed 
                        crane ranges;
                          (iv) enforcement of the Convention;
                          (v) law enforcement and habitat protection 
                        through community participation;
                          (vi) reintroduction of cranes to the wild;
                          (vii) conflict resolution initiatives; and
                          (viii) community outreach and education.
          (2) Convention.--The term ``Convention'' has the meaning 
        given the term in section 3 of the Endangered Species Act of 
        1973 (16 U.S.C. 1532).
          (3) Fund.--The term ``Fund'' means the Crane Conservation 
        Fund established by section 5(a).
          (4) Secretary.--The term ``Secretary'' means the Secretary of 
        the Interior.

SEC. 4. CRANE CONSERVATION ASSISTANCE.

  (a) In General.--Subject to the availability of appropriations and in 
consultation with other appropriate Federal officials, the Secretary 
shall use amounts in the Fund to provide financial assistance for 
projects relating to the conservation of cranes for which project 
proposals are approved by the Secretary in accordance with this 
section.
  (b) Project Proposals.--
          (1) Applicants.--
                  (A) In general.--An applicant described in 
                subparagraph (B) that seeks to receive assistance under 
                this section to carry out a project relating to the 
                conservation of cranes shall submit to the Secretary a 
                project proposal that meets the requirements of this 
                section.
                  (B) Eligible applicants.--An applicant described in 
                this subparagraph is--
                          (i) any relevant wildlife management 
                        authority of a country that--
                                  (I) is located within the African, 
                                Asian, European, or North American 
                                range of a species of crane; and
                                  (II) carries out 1 or more activities 
                                that directly or indirectly affect 
                                crane populations;
                          (ii) the Secretariat of the Convention; and
                          (iii) any person or organization with 
                        demonstrated expertise in the conservation of 
                        cranes.
          (2) Required elements.--A project proposal submitted under 
        paragraph (1)(A) shall include--
                  (A) a concise statement of the purpose of the 
                project;
                  (B)(i) the name of each individual responsible for 
                conducting the project; and
                  (ii) a description of the qualifications of each of 
                those individuals;
                  (C) a concise description of--
                          (i) methods to be used to implement and 
                        assess the outcome of the project;
                          (ii) staff and community management for the 
                        project; and
                          (iii) the logistics of the project;
                  (D) an estimate of the funds and the period of time 
                required to complete the project;
                  (E) evidence of support for the project by 
                appropriate government entities of countries in which 
                the project will be conducted, if the Secretary 
                determines that such support is required to ensure the 
                success of the project;
                  (F) information regarding the source and amount of 
                matching funding available for the project; and
                  (G) any other information that the Secretary 
                considers to be necessary for evaluating the 
                eligibility of the project to receive assistance under 
                this Act.
  (c) Project Review and Approval.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary shall--
                  (A) not later than 30 days after receiving a final 
                project proposal, provide a copy of the proposal to 
                other appropriate Federal officials; and
                  (B) review each project proposal in a timely manner 
                to determine whether the proposal meets the criteria 
                described in subsection (d).
          (2) Consultation; approval or disapproval.--Not later than 
        180 days after receiving a project proposal, and subject to the 
        availability of appropriations, the Secretary, after consulting 
        with other appropriate Federal officials, shall--
                  (A) consult on the proposal with the government of 
                each country in which the project is to be carried out;
                  (B) after taking into consideration any comments 
                resulting from the consultation, approve or disapprove 
                the proposal; and
                  (C) provide written notification of the approval or 
                disapproval to--
                          (i) the applicant that submitted the 
                        proposal;
                          (ii) other appropriate Federal officials; and
                          (iii) each country described in subparagraph 
                        (A).
  (d) Criteria for Approval.--The Secretary may approve a project 
proposal under this section if the Secretary determines that the 
proposed project will enhance programs for conservation of cranes by 
assisting efforts to--
          (1) implement conservation programs;
          (2) address the conflicts between humans and cranes that 
        arise from competition for the same habitat or resources;
          (3) enhance compliance with the Convention and other 
        applicable laws that--
                  (A) prohibit or regulate the taking or trade of 
                cranes; or
                  (B) regulate the use and management of crane habitat;
          (4) develop sound scientific information on, or methods for 
        monitoring--
                  (A) the condition of crane habitat;
                  (B) crane population numbers and trends; or
                  (C) the current and projected threats to crane 
                habitat and population numbers and trends;
          (5) promote cooperative projects on the issues described in 
        paragraph (4) among--
                  (A) governmental entities;
                  (B) affected local communities;
                  (C) nongovernmental organizations; or
                  (D) other persons in the private sector;
          (6) carry out necessary scientific research on cranes;
          (7) provide relevant training to, or support technical 
        exchanges involving, staff responsible for managing cranes or 
        habitats of cranes, to enhance capacity for effective 
        conservation; or
          (8) reintroduce cranes successfully back into the wild, 
        including propagation of a sufficient number of cranes required 
        for this purpose.
  (e) Project Sustainability; Matching Funds.--To the maximum extent 
practicable, in determining whether to approve a project proposal under 
this section, the Secretary shall give preference to a proposed 
project--
          (1) that is designed to ensure effective, long-term 
        conservation of cranes and habitats of cranes; or
          (2) for which matching funds are available.
  (f) Project Reporting.--
          (1) In general.--Each person that receives assistance under 
        this section for a project shall submit to the Secretary, at 
        such periodic intervals as are determined by the Secretary, 
        reports that include all information that the Secretary, after 
        consulting with other appropriate government officials, 
        determines to be necessary to evaluate the progress and success 
        of the project for the purposes of--
                  (A) ensuring positive results;
                  (B) assessing problems; and
                  (C) fostering improvements.
          (2) Availability to the public.--Each report submitted under 
        paragraph (1), and any other documents relating to a project 
        for which financial assistance is provided under this Act, 
        shall be made available to the public.

SEC. 5. CRANE CONSERVATION FUND.

  (a) Establishment.--There is established in the Multinational Species 
Conservation Fund established by the matter under the heading 
``MULTINATIONAL SPECIES CONSERVATION FUND'' in title I of the 
Department of the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 
1999 (112 Stat. 2681-237; 16 U.S.C. 4246) a separate account to be 
known as the ``Crane Conservation Fund'', consisting of--
          (1) amounts transferred to the Secretary of the Treasury for 
        deposit into the Fund under subsection (e);
          (2) amounts appropriated to the Fund under section 7; and
          (3) any interest earned on investment of amounts in the Fund 
        under subsection (c).
  (b) Expenditures From Fund.--
          (1) In general.--Subject to paragraphs (2) and (3), upon 
        request by the Secretary, the Secretary of the Treasury shall 
        transfer from the Fund to the Secretary, without further 
        appropriation, such amounts as the Secretary determines are 
        necessary to provide assistance under section 4.
          (2) Administrative expenses.--Of the amounts in the Fund 
        available for each fiscal year, the Secretary may expend not 
        more than 3 percent, or $150,000, whichever is greater, to pay 
        the administrative expenses necessary to carry out this Act.
          (3) Limitation.--Not more than 20 percent of the amounts made 
        available from the Fund for any fiscal year may be used for 
        projects relating to the conservation of North American crane 
        species.
  (c) Investments of Amounts.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary of the Treasury shall invest 
        such portion of the Fund as is not, in the judgment of the 
        Secretary of the Treasury, required to meet current 
        withdrawals. Investments may be made only in interest-bearing 
        obligations of the United States.
          (2) Acquisition of obligations.--For the purpose of 
        investments under paragraph (1), obligations may be acquired--
                  (A) on original issue at the issue price; or
                  (B) by purchase of outstanding obligations at the 
                market price.
          (3) Sale of obligations.--Any obligation acquired by the Fund 
        may be sold by the Secretary of the Treasury at the market 
        price.
          (4) Credits to fund.--The interest on, and the proceeds from 
        the sale or redemption of, any obligations held in the Fund 
        shall be credited to and form a part of the Fund.
  (d) Transfers of Amounts.--
          (1) In general.--The amounts required to be transferred to 
        the Fund under this section shall be transferred at least 
        monthly from the general fund of the Treasury to the Fund on 
        the basis of estimates made by the Secretary of the Treasury.
          (2) Adjustments.--Proper adjustment shall be made in amounts 
        subsequently transferred to the extent prior estimates were in 
        excess of or less than the amounts required to be transferred.
  (e) Acceptance and Use of Donations.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary may accept and use donations 
        to provide assistance under section 4.
          (2) Transfer of donations.--Amounts received by the Secretary 
        in the form of donations shall be transferred to the Secretary 
        of the Treasury for deposit in the Fund.

SEC. 6. ADVISORY GROUP.

  (a) In General.--To assist in carrying out this Act, the Secretary 
may convene an advisory group consisting of individuals representing 
public and private organizations actively involved in the conservation 
of cranes.
  (b) Public Participation.--
          (1) Meetings.--The advisory group shall--
                  (A) ensure that each meeting of the advisory group is 
                open to the public; and
                  (B) provide, at each meeting, an opportunity for 
                interested persons to present oral or written 
                statements concerning items on the agenda.
          (2) Notice.--The Secretary shall provide to the public timely 
        notice of each meeting of the advisory group.
          (3) Minutes.--Minutes of each meeting of the advisory group 
        shall be kept by the Secretary and shall be made available to 
        the public.
  (c) Exemption From Federal Advisory Committee Act.--The Federal 
Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) shall not apply to the advisory 
group.

SEC. 7. FUNDING.

  There is authorized to be appropriated to the Fund $5,000,000 for 
each of fiscal years 2008 through 2012, to remain available until 
expended.

                          PURPOSE OF THE BILL

    The purpose of H.R. 1771 is to assist in the conservation 
of cranes by supporting and providing, through projects of 
persons and organizations with expertise in crane conservation, 
financial resources for the conservation programs of countries 
the activities of which directly or indirectly affect cranes 
and the ecosystems of cranes.

                  BACKGROUND AND NEED FOR LEGISLATION

    Throughout the world wildlife populations are under 
increasing stress from the encroachment of expanding human 
populations. As a result, many wildlife populations have 
declined, some precipitously, due to habitat loss or 
degradation, poaching and illegal trade, disease, political 
instability and hostile interactions with expanding human 
settlements and agriculture. The decline of populations of 
charismatic ``keystone'' wildlife species such as tigers, 
rhinoceros, elephant, great apes and sea turtles has focused 
greater attention on the need to protect wildlife and wildlife 
habitat abroad.
    The Congress has responded by creating distinct 
conservation funds within the Multinational Species 
Conservation Fund (MSCF) to provide financial assistance to 
support conservation activities to protect, recover and restore 
wildlife species and their habitats. The MSCF was created by 
Congress in 1999 as part of Title I of the Department of the 
Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations Act (16 U.S.C. 
4246). Within the fund are specific wildlife conservation 
accounts authorized under separate statutes that receive annual 
appropriations from Congress to support conservation activities 
to protect, recover or restore threatened and endangered 
species, specifically tigers, rhinoceroses, African elephants, 
Asian elephants, great apes and sea turtles.\1\ These wildlife 
species are all considered ``keystone'' or ``umbrella'' species 
which means that they enrich ecosystem function in a unique or 
significant manner through their activities, and their effect 
is disproportionate to their numerical number.\2\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\ An additional fund authorized under the Neotropical Migratory 
Bird Conservation Act was removed from the MSCF in 2006.
    \2\ National Wildlife Federation, 2007. Species At Risk (http://
www.nwf.org/wildlife/pdfs/speciesatrisk.pdf).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    More than $115 million in matching or in-kind support has 
been obtained since the first grant was awarded under the 
African Elephant Conservation Act in 1990, nearly tripling the 
effect of the $43 million in federal appropriated funds. More 
than 500 partners have worked with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service in 44 countries to protect and conserve these species. 
In addition, coordination with other federal agencies overseas, 
such as the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), 
has linked up species conservation and habitat management with 
economic development within countries with these species. In 
general, these funds are viewed as effective tools to leverage 
additional resources to implement projects that address the 
greatest conservation need.
    All of the crane species included in this legislation 
suffer from multiple stressors that have negatively affected 
their population size, distribution and potential for recovery 
which cumulatively has resulted in their being listed as 
threatened or endangered and in need of protection. Factors 
commonly acknowledged as responsible for these declines include 
upland, wetland and migratory habitat loss and fragmentation, 
diminished prey-base, poaching and illegal wildlife trade, 
environmental pollution and pesticides, disease, political 
instability, and growing human-wildlife conflicts. Certain 
predator species have been purposefully targeted for 
eradication in order to promote pastoral industries and 
expanded human settlement, but even for charismatic birds such 
as cranes which present no direct threat to humans, non-
carnivore species have been severely stressed by the ever-
increasing footprint of mankind.
    H.R. 1771 would expand the number of funds within the MSCF 
to provide similar financial assistance to conserve additional 
threatened and endangered species of cranes in the family 
Gruidae.\3\ All 15 species of crane are included in H.R. 1771. 
These species are distributed globally with the exception of 
South America. Roughly half of all crane species are found in 
Asia, South Asia and the Indian Subcontinent. Only two species 
are native to North America, the whooping crane and sandhill 
crane. According to the International Crane Foundation, six 
species of crane are considered endangered and include the 
blue, red-crowned, sarus, Siberian, wattled, and whooping 
cranes. Additionally, five species are listed as vulnerable, 
including the black crowned, black-necked, grey crowned, 
hooded, and white-naped cranes. The remaining four species (the 
Eurasian, demoiselle, brolga and sandhill cranes) are 
considered relatively stable. All crane species are listed on 
either CITES Appendices I or II and the IUCN Red List. Several 
are listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \3\ According to the International Crane Foundation, some crane 
researchers contend that there are only 14 species by combining the two 
African crowned cranes together; other researchers argue that these 
species might actually be split into 4 separate species.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

                            COMMITTEE ACTION

    H.R. 1771 was introduced on March 29, 2007 by Rep. Tammy 
Baldwin (D-WI). The bill was referred to the Committee on 
Natural Resources, and within the Committee to the Subcommittee 
on Fisheries, Wildlife and Oceans. On September 6, 2007, the 
Subcommittee held a hearing on the bill. The bill received the 
qualified support of the administration. All other witnesses 
verified the need for the legislation and testified in support 
of the bill.
    On October 4, 2007, the Subcommittee met to mark up the 
bill. Rep. Ron Kind (D-WI) offered an amendment in the nature 
of a substitute to strike 1) the findings, 2) the $25 million 
set aside from other administrative accounts, 3) land 
acquisition as an eligible grant activity, and 4) the 20 
percent funding allowance for grants that support North 
American cranes. The amendment also added an exemption for the 
Advisory Group from the rules and procedures of the Federal 
Advisory Committee Act. The amendment was adopted by voice 
vote. The bill was then forwarded as amended to the Full 
Committee by voice vote.
    On April 30, 2008, the Full Natural Resources Committee met 
to consider the bill. Fisheries, Wildlife and Oceans 
Subcommittee Chairwoman Madeleine Bordallo (D-GU) offered a 
non-controversial amendment in the nature of a substitute to 
reinsert the twenty percent annual funding allowance for grants 
that support North American cranes. The amendment was adopted 
by unanimous consent and the bill, as amended, was ordered 
favorably reported to the House of Representatives by unanimous 
consent.

                      SECTION-BY-SECTION ANALYSIS

Section 1. Short title

    Section 1 provides that this bill may be cited as the 
``Crane Conservation Act of 2008.''

Section 2. Purposes

    Section 2 states that the purposes of the bill are to 
perpetuate healthy crane populations and to assist in the 
conservation of cranes by supporting conservation programs in 
countries in which endangered and threatened cranes occur and 
the efforts of private organizations committed to helping 
cranes, and to provide financial resources for those programs 
and efforts.

Section 3. Definitions

    This section defines specific terms to be used in the 
legislation, including ``Convention'', ``Conservation'', 
``Fund'', and ``Secretary''.

Section 4. Crane conservation assistance

    This section authorizes the Secretary of the Interior to 
provide financial assistance subject to the availability of 
appropriations for projects for the conservation of cranes. The 
section specifies eligible project applicants and provides a 
detailed list of required information to be included in project 
applications. The Secretary is required to approve or 
disapprove all applications no later than 180 days after 
receiving the application and must provide written notification 
to the applicant, other appropriate federal officials and each 
country within which the project will take place.
    This section also provides the Secretary with criteria to 
evaluate and approve project applications, including a 
determination that funds will not be used for the purchase or 
lease of land. Special preference shall be given under this 
section to projects that are designed to ensure effective, 
long-term conservation of cranes and their habitats and 
applications for which there exist non-federal matching funds. 
Approved projects are required to report regularly to the 
Secretary under thissection to assess progress, foster 
improvements and ensure positive results. Such reports would be 
available to the public.

Section 5. Crane Conservation Fund

    This section would authorize establishment of Crane 
Conservation Fund as a separate account in the Multinational 
Species Conservation Fund that would consist of amounts 
appropriated by Congress, amounts donated, and any interest 
earned on the investment of funds. All funding available to the 
Secretary for program administration is limited to three 
percent or $150,000 annually, whichever is greater. The 
Secretary of the Treasury in authorized to invest un-used 
portions of the Fund in interest bearing obligations and 
interest earned shall be credited to the Fund. The Secretary of 
the Treasury would be required to transfer funds to the Fund on 
no less than a monthly schedule. Under this section, not more 
than twenty percent of the amounts available for grant 
assistance in any one year could be used for crane projects for 
North American crane species.

Section 6. Advisory group

    This section would authorize the Secretary to convene an 
advisory group exempt from requirements under the Federal 
Advisory Committee Act to incorporate stakeholder participation 
in the conservation of cranes.

Section 7. Authorization of appropriations

    Section 7 provides that the legislation would authorize $5 
million per year to be appropriated to carry out the 
legislation for each fiscal year from 2008 to 2012.

            COMMITTEE OVERSIGHT FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    Regarding clause 2(b)(1) of rule X and clause 3(c)(1) of 
rule XIII of the Rules of the House of Representatives, the 
Committee on Natural Resources' oversight findings and 
recommendations are reflected in the body of this report.

                  FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE STATEMENT

    The functions of the proposed advisory committee authorized 
in the bill are not currently being nor could they be performed 
by one or more agencies, an advisory committee already in 
existence or by enlarging the mandate of an existing advisory 
committee.

                   CONSTITUTIONAL AUTHORITY STATEMENT

    Article I, section 8 of the Constitution of the United 
States grants Congress the authority to enact this bill.

                    COMPLIANCE WITH HOUSE RULE XIII

    1. Cost of Legislation. Clause 3(d)(2) of rule XIII of the 
Rules of the House of Representatives requires an estimate and 
a comparison by the Committee of the costs which would be 
incurred in carrying out this bill. However, clause 3(d)(3)(B) 
of that rule provides that this requirement does not apply when 
the Committee has included in its report a timely submitted 
cost estimate of the bill prepared by the Director of the 
Congressional Budget Office under section 402 of the 
Congressional Budget Act of 1974.
    2. Congressional Budget Act. As required by clause 3(c)(2) 
of rule XIII of the Rules of the House of Representatives and 
section 308(a) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974, this 
bill does not contain any new budget authority, spending 
authority, credit authority, or an increase or decrease in 
revenues or tax expenditures.
    3. General Performance Goals and Objectives. As required by 
clause 3(c)(4) of rule XIII, the general performance goal or 
objective of this bill is to assist in the conservation of 
cranes by supporting and providing, through projects of persons 
and organizations with expertise in crane conservation, 
financial resources for the conservation programs of countries 
the activities of which directly or indirectly affect cranes 
and the ecosystems of cranes.
    4. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate. Under clause 
3(c)(3) of rule XIII of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives and section 403 of the Congressional Budget Act 
of 1974, the Committee has received the following cost estimate 
for this bill from the Director of the Congressional Budget 
Office:

H.R. 1771--Crane Conservation Act of 2008

    Summary: H.R. 1771 would require the U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service to establish a grant program to protect and conserve 
wild cranes. The bill would authorize the appropriation of $5 
million a year through 2012 for financial assistance to 
eligible government agencies, international or foreign 
organizations, or private entities engaged in such activities. 
Assuming appropriation of the authorized amounts (beginning in 
2009), CBO estimates that implementing H.R. 1771 would increase 
discretionary spending by $19 million over the 2009-2013 period 
and by $1 million after 2013.
    H.R. 1771 also would authorize the agency to invest 
unneeded balances of appropriated funds in federal securities 
and spend any proceeds from those investments without further 
appropriation. Enacting this legislation would therefore 
increase direct spending by an estimated $200,000 a year 
beginning in 2010. The bill also would authorize the agency to 
accept and spend (also without further appropriation) donations 
from nonfederal sources, but any increase in revenues (from 
donations) would be offset by additional direct spending of 
such amounts.
    H.R. 1771 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA) 
and would impose no costs on state, local, or tribal 
governments.
    Estimated cost to the Federal Government: The estimated 
budgetary impact of H.R. 1771 is shown in the following table. 
For this estimate, CBO assumes that the legislation will be 
enacted near the end of fiscal year 2008 and that authorized 
amounts will be provided as specified in the bill, beginning 
with fiscal year 2009. Estimated outlays are based on 
historical spending patterns for similar programs. The costs of 
this legislation fall within budget function 300 (natural 
resources and environment).

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                  By fiscal year, in millions of dollars--
                                                          ------------------------------------------------------
                                                              2009       2010       2011       2012       2013
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                CHANGES IN SPENDING SUBJECT TO APPROPRIATION \1\

Authorization Level......................................          5          5          5          5          0
Estimated Outlays........................................          2          3          4          5         5
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Enacting H.R. 1771 also would increase direct spending by an estimated $200,000 a year, beginning in 2010,
  from the use of interest on appropriation balances.

    Intergovernmental and private-sector impact: H.R. 1771 
contains no intergovernmental or private-sector mandates as 
defined in UMRA and would impose no costs on state, local, or 
tribal governments.
    Estimate prepared by: Federal costs: Deborah Reis; Impact 
on state, local, and tribal governments: Neil Hood; Impact on 
the private sector: Amy Petz.
    Estimate approved by: Peter H. Fontaine, Assistant Director 
for Budget Analysis.

                    COMPLIANCE WITH PUBLIC LAW 104-4

    This bill contains no unfunded mandates.

                           EARMARK STATEMENT

    H.R. 1771 does not contain any congressional earmarks, 
limited tax benefits, or limited tariff benefits as defined in 
clause 9(d), 9(e) or 9(f) of rule XXI.

                PREEMPTION OF STATE, LOCAL OR TRIBAL LAW

    This bill is not intended to preempt any State, local or 
tribal law.

                        CHANGES IN EXISTING LAW

    If enacted, this bill would make no changes in existing 
law.