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110th Congress                                            Rept. 110-605
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 2d Session                                                      Part 1

======================================================================



 
         GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH AND DATA MANAGEMENT ACT OF 2007

                                _______
                                

 April 24, 2008.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

Mr. Gordon of Tennessee, from the Committee on Science and Technology, 
                        submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                        [To accompany H.R. 906]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

    The Committee on Science and Technology, to whom was 
referred the bill (H.R. 906) to promote and coordinate global 
change research, and for other purposes, having considered the 
same, report favorably thereon with an amendment and recommend 
that the bill as amended do pass.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
   I. Amendment.......................................................2
  II. Purpose of the Bill.............................................9
 III. Background and Need for the Legislation.........................9
  IV. Hearing Summary................................................12
   V. Committee Actions..............................................14
  VI. Summary of Major Provisions of the Bill, As Reported...........16
 VII. Section-by-Section Analysis (by Title and Section), As Reported17
VIII. Committee Views................................................20
  IX. Cost Estimate..................................................24
   X. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate......................24
  XI. Compliance with Public Law 104-4...............................25
 XII. Committee Oversight Findings and Recommendations...............26
XIII. Statement on General Performance Goals and Objectives..........26
 XIV. Constitutional Authority Statement.............................26
  XV. Federal Advisory Committee Statement...........................26
 XVI. Congressional Accountability Act...............................26
XVII. Earmark Identification.........................................26
XVIII.Statement on Preemption of State, Local, or Tribal Law.........26

 XIX. Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported..........26
  XX. Committee Recommendations......................................35
 XXI. Proceedings of the Subcommittee Markup.........................36
XXII. Proceedings of the Full Committee Markup.......................98
XXIII.Exchange of Letters...........................................151


                              I. Amendment

  The amendment is as follows:
  Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the 
following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

  This Act may be cited as the ``Global Change Research and Data 
Management Act of 2007''.

                    TITLE I--GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH

SEC. 101. FINDINGS AND PURPOSE.

  (a) Findings.--The Congress makes the following findings:
          (1) Industrial, agricultural, and other human activities, 
        coupled with an expanding world population, are contributing to 
        processes of global change that are significantly altering the 
        Earth habitat.
          (2) Such human-induced changes, in conjunction with natural 
        fluctuations, may lead to significant alterations of world 
        climate patterns. Over the next century, these changes could 
        adversely affect world agricultural and marine production, 
        coastal habitability, biological diversity, human health, 
        global social and political stability, and global economic 
        activity.
          (3) Developments in interdisciplinary Earth sciences, global 
        observing systems, and satellite and computing technologies 
        make possible significant scientific understanding of global 
        changes and their effects, and have resulted in the significant 
        expansion of environmental data and information.
          (4) Development of effective policies to prevent, mitigate, 
        and adapt to global change will rely on improvement in 
        scientific understanding of global environmental processes and 
        on development of information that is of use to decisionmakers 
        at the local, regional, and national levels.
          (5) Although the United States Global Change Research Program 
        has made significant contributions to understanding Earth's 
        climate and the anthropogenic influences on Earth's climate and 
        its ecosystems, the Program now needs to produce more 
        information to meet the expressed needs of decisionmakers.
          (6) Predictions of future climate conditions for specific 
        regions have considerable uncertainty and are unlikely to be 
        confirmed in a time period necessary to inform decisions on 
        land, water, and resource management. However, improved 
        understanding of global change should be used to assist 
        decisionmakers in the development of policies to ensure that 
        ecological, social, and economic systems are resilient under a 
        variety of plausible climate futures.
          (7) In order to most effectively meet the needs of 
        decisionmakers, both the research agenda of the United States 
        Global Change Research Program and its implementation must be 
        informed by continuous feedback from documented users of 
        information generated by the Program.
  (b) Purpose.--The purpose of this title is to provide for the 
continuation and coordination of a comprehensive and integrated United 
States observation, research, and outreach program which will assist 
the Nation and the world to understand, assess, predict, and respond to 
the effects of human-induced and natural processes of global change.

SEC. 102. DEFINITIONS.

  For purposes of this title--
          (1) the term ``global change'' means human-induced or natural 
        changes in the global environment (including alterations in 
        climate, land productivity, oceans or other water resources, 
        atmospheric chemistry, biodiversity, and ecological systems) 
        that may alter the capacity of the Earth to sustain life;
          (2) the term ``global change research'' means study, 
        monitoring, assessment, prediction, and information management 
        activities to describe and understand--
                  (A) the interactive physical, chemical, and 
                biological processes that regulate the total Earth 
                system;
                  (B) the unique environment that the Earth provides 
                for life;
                  (C) changes that are occurring in the Earth system; 
                and
                  (D) the manner in which such system, environment, and 
                changes are influenced by human actions;
          (3) the term ``interagency committee'' means the interagency 
        committee established under section 103;
          (4) the term ``Plan'' means the National Global Change 
        Research and Assessment Plan developed under section 105;
          (5) the term ``Program'' means the United States Global 
        Change Research Program established under section 104; and
          (6) the term ``regional climate change'' means the natural or 
        human-induced changes manifested in the local or regional 
        environment (including alterations in weather patterns, land 
        productivity, water resources, sea level rise, atmospheric 
        chemistry, biodiversity, and ecological systems) that may alter 
        the capacity of a specific region to support current or future 
        social and economic activity or natural ecosystems.

SEC. 103. INTERAGENCY COOPERATION AND COORDINATION.

  (a) Establishment.--The President shall establish or designate an 
interagency committee to ensure cooperation and coordination of all 
Federal research activities pertaining to processes of global change 
for the purpose of increasing the overall effectiveness and 
productivity of Federal global change research efforts. The interagency 
committee shall include representatives of both agencies conducting 
global change research and agencies with authority over resources 
likely to be affected by global change.
  (b) Functions of the Interagency Committee.--The interagency 
committee shall--
          (1) serve as the forum for developing the Plan and for 
        overseeing its implementation;
          (2) serve as the forum for developing the vulnerability 
        assessment under section 107;
          (3) ensure cooperation among Federal agencies with respect to 
        global change research activities;
          (4) work with academic, State, industry, and other groups 
        conducting global change research, to provide for periodic 
        public and peer review of the Program;
          (5) cooperate with the Secretary of State in--
                  (A) providing representation at international 
                meetings and conferences on global change research in 
                which the United States participates; and
                  (B) coordinating the Federal activities of the United 
                States with programs of other nations and with 
                international global change research activities;
          (6) work with appropriate Federal, State, regional, and local 
        authorities to ensure that the Program is designed to produce 
        information needed to develop policies to reduce the 
        vulnerability of the United States and other regions to global 
        change;
          (7) facilitate ongoing dialog and information exchange with 
        regional, State, and local governments and other user 
        communities; and
          (8) identify additional decisionmaking groups that may use 
        information generated through the Program.

SEC. 104. UNITED STATES GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH PROGRAM.

  (a) Establishment.--The President shall establish an interagency 
United States Global Change Research Program to improve understanding 
of global change, to respond to the information needs of communities 
and decisionmakers, and to provide periodic assessments of the 
vulnerability of the United States and other regions to global and 
regional climate change. The Program shall be implemented in accordance 
with the Plan.
  (b) Lead Agency.--The lead agency for the United States Global Change 
Research Program shall be the Office of Science and Technology Policy.
  (c) Interagency Program Activities.--The Director of the Office of 
Science and Technology Policy, in consultation with the interagency 
committee, shall identify activities included in the Plan that involve 
participation by 2 or more agencies in the Program, and that do not 
fall within the current fiscal year budget allocations of those 
participating agencies, to fulfill the requirements of this Act. The 
Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall allocate 
funds to the agencies to conduct the identified interagency activities. 
Such activities may include--
          (1) development of scenarios for climate, land-cover change, 
        population growth, and socioeconomic development;
          (2) calibration and testing of alternative regional and 
        global climate models;
          (3) identification of economic sectors and regional climatic 
        zones; and
          (4) convening regional workshops to facilitate information 
        exchange and involvement of regional, State, and local 
        decisionmakers, non-Federal experts, and other stakeholder 
        groups in the activities of the Program.
  (d) Workshops.--The Director shall ensure that at least one workshop 
is held per year in each region identified by the Plan under section 
105(b)(11) to facilitate information exchange and outreach to regional, 
State, and local stakeholders as required by this Act.
  (e) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to the Office of Science and Technology Policy for 
carrying out this section $10,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2008 
through 2013.

SEC. 105. NATIONAL GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH AND ASSESSMENT PLAN.

  (a) In General.--The President shall develop a National Global Change 
Research and Assessment Plan for implementation of the Program. The 
Plan shall contain recommendations for global change research and 
assessment. The President shall submit an outline for the development 
of the Plan to the Congress within 1 year after the date of enactment 
of this Act, and shall submit a completed Plan to the Congress within 3 
years after the date of enactment of this Act. Revised Plans shall be 
submitted to the Congress at least once every 5 years thereafter. In 
the development of each Plan, the President shall conduct a formal 
assessment process under this section to determine the needs of 
appropriate Federal, State, regional, and local authorities and other 
interested parties regarding the types of information needed by them in 
developing policies to reduce society's vulnerability to global change 
and shall utilize these assessments, including the reviews by the 
National Academy of Sciences and the National Governors Association 
under subsections (e) and (f), in developing the Plan.
  (b) Contents of the Plan.--The Plan shall--
          (1) establish, for the 10-year period beginning in the year 
        the Plan is submitted, the goals and priorities for Federal 
        global change research which most effectively advance 
        scientific understanding of global change and provide 
        information of use to Federal, State, regional, and local 
        authorities in the development of policies relating to global 
        change;
          (2) describe specific activities, including efforts to 
        determine user information needs, research activities, data 
        collection, database development, and data analysis 
        requirements, development of regional scenarios, assessment of 
        model predictability, assessment of climate change impacts, 
        participation in international research efforts, and 
        information management, required to achieve such goals and 
        priorities;
          (3) identify relevant programs and activities of the Federal 
        agencies that contribute to the Program directly and 
        indirectly;
          (4) set forth the role of each Federal agency in implementing 
        the Plan;
          (5) consider and utilize, as appropriate, reports and studies 
        conducted by Federal agencies, the National Research Council, 
        or other entities;
          (6) make recommendations for the coordination of the global 
        change research and assessment activities of the United States 
        with such activities of other nations and international 
        organizations, including--
                  (A) a description of the extent and nature of 
                international cooperative activities;
                  (B) bilateral and multilateral efforts to provide 
                worldwide access to scientific data and information; 
                and
                  (C) improving participation by developing nations in 
                international global change research and environmental 
                data collection;
          (7) detail budget requirements for Federal global change 
        research and assessment activities to be conducted under the 
        Plan;
          (8) catalog the type of information identified by appropriate 
        Federal, State, regional, and local decisionmakers needed to 
        develop policies to reduce society's vulnerability to global 
        change and indicate how the planned research will meet these 
        decisionmakers' information needs;
          (9) identify the observing systems currently employed in 
        collecting data relevant to global and regional climate change 
        research and prioritize additional observation systems that may 
        be needed to ensure adequate data collection and monitoring of 
        global change;
          (10) describe specific activities designed to facilitate 
        outreach and data and information exchange with regional, 
        State, and local governments and other user communities; and
          (11) identify and describe regions of the United States that 
        are likely to experience similar impacts of global change or 
        are likely to share similar vulnerabilities to global change.
  (c) Research Elements.--The Plan shall include at a minimum the 
following research elements:
          (1) Global measurements, establishing worldwide to regional 
        scale observations prioritized to understand global change and 
        to meet the information needs of decisionmakers on all relevant 
        spatial and time scales.
          (2) Information on economic, demographic, and technological 
        trends that contribute to changes in the Earth system and that 
        influence society's vulnerability to global and regional 
        climate change.
          (3) Development of indicators and baseline databases to 
        document global change, including changes in species 
        distribution and behavior, extent of glaciations, and changes 
        in sea level.
          (4) Studies of historical changes in the Earth system, using 
        evidence from the geological and fossil record.
          (5) Assessments of predictability using quantitative models 
        of the Earth system to simulate global and regional 
        environmental processes and trends.
          (6) Focused research initiatives to understand the nature of 
        and interaction among physical, chemical, biological, land use, 
        and social processes related to global and regional climate 
        change.
          (7) Focused research initiatives to determine and then meet 
        the information needs of appropriate Federal, State, and 
        regional decisionmakers.
  (d) Information Management.--The Plan shall incorporate, to the 
extent practicable, the recommendations relating to data acquisition, 
management, integration, and archiving made by the interagency climate 
and other global change data management working group established under 
section 203.
  (e) National Academy of Sciences Evaluation.--The President shall 
enter into an agreement with the National Academy of Sciences under 
which the Academy shall--
          (1) evaluate the scientific content of the Plan; and
          (2) recommend priorities for future global and regional 
        climate change research and assessment.
  (f) National Governors Association Evaluation.--The President shall 
enter into an agreement with the National Governors Association Center 
for Best Practices under which that Center shall--
          (1) evaluate the utility to State, local, and regional 
        decisionmakers of each Plan and of the anticipated and actual 
        information outputs of the Program for development of State, 
        local, and regional policies to reduce vulnerability to global 
        change; and
          (2) recommend priorities for future global and regional 
        climate change research and assessment.
  (g) Public Participation.--In developing the Plan, the President 
shall consult with representatives of academic, State, industry, and 
environmental groups. Not later than 90 days before the President 
submits the Plan, or any revision thereof, to the Congress, a summary 
of the proposed Plan shall be published in the Federal Register for a 
public comment period of not less than 60 days.

SEC. 106. BUDGET COORDINATION.

  (a) In General.--The President shall provide general guidance to each 
Federal agency participating in the Program with respect to the 
preparation of requests for appropriations for activities related to 
the Program.
  (b) Consideration in President's Budget.--The President shall submit, 
at the time of his annual budget request to Congress, a description of 
those items in each agency's annual budget which are elements of the 
Program.

SEC. 107. VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT.

  (a) Requirement.--Within 1 year after the date of enactment of this 
Act, and at least once every 5 years thereafter, the President shall 
submit to the Congress an assessment which--
          (1) integrates, evaluates, and interprets the findings of the 
        Program and discusses the scientific uncertainties associated 
        with such findings;
          (2) analyzes current trends in global change, both human-
        induced and natural, and projects major trends for the 
        subsequent 25 to 100 years;
          (3) based on indicators and baselines developed under section 
        105(c)(3), as well as other measurements, analyzes changes to 
        the natural environment, land and water resources, and 
        biological diversity in--
                  (A) major geographic regions of the United States; 
                and
                  (B) other continents;
          (4) analyzes the effects of global change, including the 
        changes described in paragraph (3), on food and fiber 
        production, energy production and use, transportation, human 
        health and welfare, water availability and coastal 
        infrastructure, and human social and economic systems, 
        including providing information about the differential impacts 
        on specific geographic regions within the United States, on 
        people of different income levels within those regions, and for 
        rural and urban areas within those regions; and
          (5) summarizes the vulnerability of different geographic 
        regions of the world to global change and analyzes the 
        implications of global change for the United States, including 
        international assistance, population displacement, food and 
        resource availability, and national security.
  (b) Use of Related Reports.--To the extent appropriate, the 
assessment produced pursuant to this section may coordinate with, 
consider, incorporate, or otherwise make use of related reports, 
assessments, or information produced by the United States Global Change 
Research Program, regional, State, and local entities, and 
international organizations, including the World Meteorological 
Organization and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

SEC. 108. POLICY ASSESSMENT.

  Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, and at 
least once every 4 years thereafter, the President shall enter into a 
joint agreement with the National Academy of Public Administration and 
the National Academy of Sciences under which the Academies shall--
          (1) document current policy options being implemented by 
        Federal, State, and local governments to mitigate or adapt to 
        the effects of global and regional climate change;
          (2) evaluate the realized and anticipated effectiveness of 
        those current policy options in meeting mitigation and 
        adaptation goals;
          (3) identify and evaluate a range of additional policy 
        options and infrastructure for mitigating or adapting to the 
        effects of global and regional climate change;
          (4) analyze the adoption rates of policies and technologies 
        available to reduce the vulnerability of society to global 
        change with an evaluation of the market and policy obstacles to 
        their adoption in the United States; and
          (5) evaluate the distribution of economic costs and benefits 
        of these policy options across different United States economic 
        sectors.

SEC. 109. ANNUAL REPORT.

  Each year at the time of submission to the Congress of the 
President's budget request, the President shall submit to the Congress 
a report on the activities conducted pursuant to this title, 
including--
          (1) a description of the activities of the Program during the 
        past fiscal year;
          (2) a description of the activities planned in the next 
        fiscal year toward achieving the goals of the Plan; and
          (3) a description of the groups or categories of State, 
        local, and regional decisionmakers identified as potential 
        users of the information generated through the Program and a 
        description of the activities used to facilitate consultations 
        with and outreach to these groups, coordinated through the work 
        of the interagency committee.

SEC. 110. RELATION TO OTHER AUTHORITIES.

  The President shall--
          (1) ensure that relevant research, assessment, and outreach 
        activities of the National Climate Program, established by the 
        National Climate Program Act (15 U.S.C. 2901 et seq.), are 
        considered in developing national global and regional climate 
        change research and assessment efforts; and
          (2) facilitate ongoing dialog and information exchange with 
        regional, State, and local governments and other user 
        communities through programs authorized in the National Climate 
        Program Act (15 U.S.C. 2901 et seq.).

SEC. 111. REPEAL.

  The Global Change Research Act of 1990 (15 U.S.C. 2921 et seq.) is 
repealed.

SEC. 112. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH INFORMATION.

  The President shall establish or designate a Global Change Research 
Information Exchange to make scientific research and other information 
produced through or utilized by the Program which would be useful in 
preventing, mitigating, or adapting to the effects of global change 
accessible through electronic means.

SEC. 113. ICE SHEET STUDY AND REPORT.

  (a) Study.--
          (1) Requirement.--The Director of the National Science 
        Foundation and the Administrator of National Oceanic and 
        Atmospheric Administration shall enter into an arrangement with 
        the National Academy of Sciences to complete a study of the 
        current status of ice sheet melt, as caused by climate change, 
        with implications for global sea level rise.
          (2) Contents.--The study shall take into consideration--
                  (A) the past research completed related to ice sheet 
                melt as reviewed by Working Group I of the 
                Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change;
                  (B) additional research completed since the fall of 
                2005 that was not included in the Working Group I 
                report due to time constraints; and
                  (C) the need for an accurate assessment of changes in 
                ice sheet spreading, changes in ice sheet flow, self-
                lubrication, the corresponding effect on ice sheets, 
                and current modeling capabilities.
          (3) Report.--Not later than 18 months after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the National Academy of Sciences shall 
        transmit to the Committee on Science and Technology of the 
        House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, 
        Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report on the key 
        findings of the study conducted under subsection (a), along 
        with recommendations for additional research related to ice 
        sheet melt and corresponding sea level rise.

SEC. 114. HURRICANE FREQUENCY AND INTENSITY STUDY AND REPORT.

   (a) Study.--
          (1) Requirement.--The Administrator of the National Oceanic 
        and Atmospheric Administration and the Director of the National 
        Science Foundation shall enter into an arrangement with the 
        National Academy of Sciences to complete a study of the current 
        state of the science on the potential impacts of climate change 
        on patterns of hurricane and typhoon development, including 
        storm intensity, track, and frequency, and the implications for 
        hurricane-prone and typhoon-prone coastal regions.
          (2) Contents.--The study shall take into consideration--
                  (A) the past research completed related to hurricane 
                and typhoon development, track, and intensity as 
                reviewed by Working Groups I and II of the 
                Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change;
                  (B) additional research completed since the fall of 
                2005 that was not included in the Working Group I and 
                II reports due to time constraints;
                  (C) the need for accurate assessment of potential 
                changes in hurricane and typhoon intensity, track, and 
                frequency and of the current modeling and forecasting 
                capabilities and the need for improvements in 
                forecasting of these parameters; and
                  (D) the need for additional research and monitoring 
                to improve forecasting of hurricanes and typhoons and 
                to understand the relationship between climate change 
                and hurricane and typhoon development.
          (3) Report.--Not later than 18 months after the date of 
        enactment of this Act, the National Academy of Sciences shall 
        transmit to the Committee on Science and Technology of the 
        House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, 
        Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report on the key 
        findings of the study conducted under subsection (a).

       TITLE II--CLIMATE AND OTHER GLOBAL CHANGE DATA MANAGEMENT

SEC. 201. FINDINGS AND PURPOSES.

  (a) Findings.--The Congress makes the following findings:
          (1) Federal agencies have a primary mission to manage and 
        archive climate and other global change data obtained through 
        their research, development, or operational activities.
          (2) Maintenance of climate and global change data records is 
        essential to present and future studies of the Earth's 
        atmosphere, biogeochemical cycles, and climate.
          (3) Federal capabilities for the management and archiving of 
        these data have not kept pace with advances in satellite and 
        other observational technologies that have vastly expanded the 
        type and amount of information that can be collected.
          (4) Proposals and plans for expansion of global observing 
        networks should include plans for the management of data to be 
        collected and budgets reflecting the cost of support for 
        management and archiving of data.
  (b) Purposes.--The purposes of this title are to establish climate 
and other global change data management and archiving as Federal agency 
missions, and to establish Federal policies for managing and archiving 
climate and other global change data.

SEC. 202. DEFINITIONS.

  For purposes of this title--
          (1) the term ``metadata'' means information describing the 
        content, quality, condition, and other characteristics of 
        climate and other global change data, compiled, to the maximum 
        extent possible, consistent with the requirements of the 
        ``Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata'' (FGDC-STD-
        001-1998) issued by the Federal Geographic Data Committee, or 
        any successor standard approved by the working group; and
          (2) the term ``working group'' means the interagency climate 
        and other global change data management working group 
        established under section 203.

SEC. 203. INTERAGENCY CLIMATE AND OTHER GLOBAL CHANGE DATA MANAGEMENT 
                    WORKING GROUP.

  (a) Establishment.--The President shall establish or designate an 
interagency climate and other global change data management working 
group to make recommendations for coordinating Federal climate and 
other global change data management and archiving activities.
  (b) Membership.--The working group shall include the Administrator of 
the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Administrator of 
the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Secretary of 
Energy, the Secretary of Defense, the Director of the National Science 
Foundation, the Director of the United States Geological Survey, the 
Archivist of the United States, the Administrator of the Environmental 
Protection Agency, the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, or 
their designees, and representatives of any other Federal agencies the 
President considers appropriate.
  (c) Reports.--Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the working group shall transmit a report to the Congress 
containing the elements described in subsection (d). Not later than 4 
years after the initial report under this subsection, and at least once 
every 4 years thereafter, the working group shall transmit reports 
updating the previous report. In preparing reports under this 
subsection, the working group shall consult with expected users of the 
data collected and archived by the Program.
  (d) Contents.--The reports and updates required under subsection (c) 
shall--
          (1) include recommendations for the establishment, 
        maintenance, and accessibility of a catalog identifying all 
        available climate and other global change data sets;
          (2) identify climate and other global change data collections 
        in danger of being lost and recommend actions to prevent such 
        loss;
          (3) identify gaps in climate and other global change data and 
        recommend actions to fill those gaps;
          (4) identify effective and compatible procedures for climate 
        and other global change data collection, management, and 
        retention and make recommendations for ensuring their use by 
        Federal agencies and other appropriate entities;
          (5) develop and propose a coordinated strategy for funding 
        and allocating responsibilities among Federal agencies for 
        climate and other global change data collection, management, 
        and retention;
          (6) make recommendations for ensuring that particular 
        attention is paid to the collection, management, and archiving 
        of metadata;
          (7) make recommendations for ensuring a unified and 
        coordinated Federal capital investment strategy with respect to 
        climate and other global change data collection, management, 
        and archiving;
          (8) evaluate the data record from each observing system and 
        make recommendations to ensure that delivered data are free 
        from time-dependent biases and random errors before they are 
        transferred to long-term archives; and
          (9) evaluate optimal design of observation system components 
        to ensure a cost-effective, adequate set of observations 
        detecting and tracking global change.

     TITLE III--INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH

SEC. 301. FINDINGS AND PURPOSES.

  (a) Findings.--The Congress makes the following findings:
          (1) Pooling of international resources and scientific 
        capabilities will be essential to a successful international 
        global change program.
          (2) While international scientific planning is already 
        underway, there is currently no comprehensive intergovernmental 
        mechanism for planning, coordinating, or implementing research 
        to understand global change and to mitigate possible adverse 
        effects.
          (3) An international global change research program will be 
        important in building future consensus on methods for reducing 
        global environmental degradation.
          (4) The United States, as a world leader in environmental and 
        Earth sciences, should help provide leadership in developing 
        and implementing an international global change research 
        program.
  (b) Purposes.--The purposes of this title are to--
          (1) promote international, intergovernmental cooperation on 
        global change research;
          (2) involve scientists and policymakers from developing 
        nations in such cooperative global change research programs; 
        and
          (3) promote international efforts to provide technical and 
        other assistance to developing nations which will facilitate 
        improvements in their domestic standard of living while 
        minimizing damage to the global or regional environment.

SEC. 302. INTERNATIONAL DISCUSSIONS.

  (a) Global Change Research.--The President shall direct the Secretary 
of State to initiate discussions with other nations leading toward 
international protocols and other agreements to coordinate global 
change research activities. Such discussions should include the 
following issues:
          (1) Allocation of costs in global change research programs, 
        especially with respect to major capital projects.
          (2) Coordination of global change research plans with those 
        developed by international organizations such as the 
        International Council on Scientific Unions, the World 
        Meteorological Organization, and the United Nations Environment 
        Program.
          (3) Establishment of global change research centers and 
        training programs for scientists, especially those from 
        developing nations.
          (4) Development of innovative methods for management of 
        international global change research, including the use of new 
        or existing intergovernmental organizations for the 
        coordination or funding of global change research.
          (5) Establishment of international offices to disseminate 
        information useful in identifying, preventing, mitigating, or 
        adapting to the possible effects of global change.
  (b) Energy Research.--The President shall direct the Secretary of 
State (in cooperation with the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of 
Commerce, the United States Trade Representative, and other appropriate 
Federal agents) to initiate discussions with other nations leading 
toward an international research protocol for cooperation on the 
development of energy technologies which have minimally adverse effects 
on the environment. Such discussions should include the following 
issues:
          (1) Creation of an international cooperative program to fund 
        research related to energy efficiency and conservation, solar 
        and other renewable energy sources, and passively safe and 
        diversion-resistant nuclear reactors.
          (2) Creation of an international cooperative program to 
        develop low-cost energy technologies which are appropriate to 
        the environmental, economic, and social needs of developing 
        nations.
          (3) Exchange of information concerning environmentally safe 
        energy technologies and practices, including those described in 
        paragraphs (1) and (2).

                        II. Purpose of the Bill

    The purpose of H.R. 906 is to promote and coordinate 
interagency global change research including the reorientation 
of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), increase 
the overall effectiveness and productivity of Federal global 
change research efforts, produce policy relevant information, 
and facilitate greater exchange of that information with 
regional, State, and local governments and other non-federal 
user groups and with the international community.

              III. Background and Need for the Legislation

    The nation's first Climate Program preceded the USGCRP and 
was established by the National Climate Program Act (P.L. 95-
367) in 1978. The Climate Program was intended to conduct 
climate research, provide climate information, and support 
policy decisions to ``assist the Nation and the world to 
understand and respond to natural and human-induced climate 
processes and their implications'' (P.L. 95-367, Sec. 3). It 
was established as an interagency program coordinated through a 
National Climate Program Office within the National Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). By the mid-1980s Congress 
began to consider expanding the Climate Program. At the time, 
the Program was thought to be producing high quality science, 
but it was not providing information that would lead to policy 
responses to threats from climate change.
    In 1987, White House Science Advisor William Graham formed 
the Committee on Earth Sciences within the Federal Coordinating 
Council on Science, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET). The 
purpose of this Committee was to ``increase the overall 
effectiveness and productivity of Federal R & D efforts 
directed toward an understanding of the Earth as a global 
system'' (CES 1987).
    After several years of work, Congress passed, and President 
Bush signed, The U.S. Global Change Research Act of 1990 (P.L. 
101-606), which established the U.S. Global Change Research 
Program we have today. The Program is aimed at understanding 
and responding to global change, including the cumulative 
effects of human activities and natural processes on the 
environment, and promoting discussions toward international 
protocols in global change research.
    The law codified the interagency structure put in place by 
the Reagan Administration and defined the agencies that would 
participate in the Program. The law also requires the 
development of a series of 10-year plans for the conduct of 
research on global change by the federal government to 
``advance scientific understanding of global change and provide 
usable information on which to base policy decisions related to 
global change;'' an evaluation of the Plan by the National 
Research Council; the coordination of agency budgets for global 
change research; and a report to Congress every four years on 
the consequences of climate change.
    While research plans have been produced periodically by the 
Program and reviewed by the National Research Council as 
required by the law, the production of periodic assessments 
based upon the findings of the Program and the effects of 
global change on natural systems and sectors of the economy has 
been lacking. There has been only one comprehensive report 
published since the beginning of the Program satisfying this 
requirement of the law--the National Assessment on Climate 
Change published in 2001.
    The current Administration continues a number of 
initiatives previously conducted under the Global Change 
Research Act. The Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) is 
charged with integrating science on global change produced by 
federal agencies. The Program is producing a series of twenty 
one synthesis and assessment products on a range of subjects 
(http://www.climatescience.gov/). The Administration also has a 
Climate Change Research Initiative (CCRI) and the Climate 
Change Technology Program (CCTP), with NOAA and DOE designated 
as the lead agencies, respectively. The role of the CCRI is to 
reduce the significant remaining uncertainties associated with 
understanding human-induced climate change and facilitate full 
use of scientific information in policy and decision making on 
possible response strategies for adaptation and mitigation. The 
role of the CCTP is to focus Federal research and development 
efforts on the identification and development of technologies 
to reduce and avoid greenhouse gas emissions, capture and 
sequester emissions, and increase energy efficiency.
    Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate 
Change (UNFCCC), major industrialized nations, including the 
U.S., made a voluntary pledge to reduce their greenhouse gas 
emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2000.
    In 1990, total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions were 6,148 
teragrams of carbon dioxide equivalents (Tg CO2 
Eq.). By 2000, total U.S. emissions about 14 percent above 1990 
levels, or 7,033 Tg CO2 Eq. U.S. emissions have 
fluctuated from 2000 through 2006, with several years showing a 
slight decline from 2000 emissions. U.S. emissions for 2006 
were estimated to be 7,054 Tg CO2 Eq.\1\ The 
voluntary goal set in UNFCCC has proven to be very challenging, 
and to date, no industrialized nation has achieved it.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \1\U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Inventory of U.S. 
Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2006. Report No. EPA 430-R-08-
005; April 15, 2008, Executive Summary p ES-12, Table ES-4. Recent 
Trends in U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks by Chapter/IPCC 
Sector (Tg CO2 Eq.).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The Administration's policy has three basic objectives: 
slowing the growth of emissions; strengthening science, 
technology and institutions; and enhancing international 
cooperation. While the current Administration is meeting its 
climate change policy objectives and the rate of growth for 
U.S. emissions has been reduced, U.S. emissions of greenhouse 
gases have not yet stabilized and continue to grow. There is 
still much to be done if we are to return to a goal of stopping 
the growth of greenhouse gas emissions and eventually reversing 
them.
    The requested budget for the major climate change programs 
in 2007 was estimated by the Congressional Research Service 
(CRS) to be 4.90 billion dollars. Of this total, the science 
program request totaled 1.7 billion dollars.\2\ The 
participating agencies include virtually every department in 
the federal government: NASA, NSF, NOAA, DOE, USDA, DOI, HHS, 
EPA, the Smithsonian Institution and DOD. The core agencies 
that have contributed to climate change science are NASA, NOAA, 
NSF, and DOE.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \2\Congressional Research Service (2007). Climate Change: Federal 
Expenditures; January 22; p. 3; Table 1. RL33817.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Absent coordinated federal direction on adapting to climate 
change impacts, regions and states have taken action on their 
own to develop integrated plans to serve multiple user 
communities. Regional plans eliminate duplication for states 
with similar geographic makeup and help businesses by bringing 
greater uniformity and predictability to state rules and 
regulations. For example, Powering the Plains is a regional 
initiative, involving participants from the Dakotas, Minnesota, 
Iowa, and Wisconsin, which aims to develop strategies, 
policies, and demonstration projects for alternative energy 
sources. The Southwest Climate Change Initiative will allow 
Arizona and New Mexico to work together to reduce greenhouse 
gases and address the impacts of climate change in the region. 
Other such projects include the Northeast Regional Greenhouse 
Gas Initiative (RGGI), The Clean and Diversified Energy 
Initiative launched by the Western Governors Association, The 
West Coast Governors' Global Warming Initiative, and the New 
England Governors' and Eastern Canadian Premiers' Climate 
Action Plan. These regional and state programs would greatly 
benefit from information products generated by a user-driven 
climate change research program, as established in H.R. 906.
    The USGCRP has continued to produce high quality science 
and advance our knowledge of Earth's climate system. However, 
the Program has not produced sufficient policy analyses and 
impact assessments. It has not produced information in formats 
that are user-friendly to a wide range of individuals and 
organizations seeking information about climate variability and 
change and its relationship to concentrations of greenhouse 
gases in the atmosphere. The information is generally not 
available in a manner that will be of ready assistance to 
decision makers at the federal, state, and local level working 
on the development of adaptation and mitigation strategies.
    H.R. 906 directs the Program to develop assessments of 
vulnerability to climate change and to develop policy 
assessments that will evaluate alternative strategies for 
responding, adapting, and mitigating climate change that is 
projected to occur under different atmospheric concentrations 
of greenhouse gases.
    The components of the core science programs of the USGCRP 
continue to produce useful scientific information and better, 
more refined understanding of the climate system. H.R. 906 does 
not eliminate these programs and activities. However, H.R. 906 
shifts the emphasis to the production of information that is 
needed to develop strategies to cope with current climate 
change and to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions to reduce the 
magnitude of future climate impacts. To ensure the Program 
produces policy-relevant information, H.R. 906 includes a 
review of the Program by the National Governors Association's 
Center for Best Practices.

                          IV. Hearing Summary

    On Thursday, May 3, 2007 the Subcommittee on Energy and 
Environment, Committee on Science and Technology held a hearing 
on H.R. 906, The Global Climate Change Research and Data and 
Management Act of 2007 to hear testimony on H.R. 906 from the 
following witnesses:
     Dr. Philip Mote, Office of Washington State 
Climatologist and Affiliate Professor at the University of 
Washington. Dr. Mote is a research scientist at the University 
of Washington, in the Climate Impacts Group (CIG), and an 
Affiliate Professor in the Department of Atmospheric Sciences. 
In addition, Dr. Mote works as a consultant at Northwest 
Research Associates specializing in the dynamics of the 
tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.
     Dr. Michael MacCracken, President of the 
International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric 
Sciences of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics. 
Dr. MacCracken is the Chief Scientist for Climate Change 
Programs with the Climate Institute in Washington DC. He served 
as the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) first 
Executive from 1993-1997.
     Dr. Jack Fellows, Vice President at the University 
Center for Atmospheric Research (UCAR). Dr. Fellows is the Vice 
President for Corporate Affairs at UCAR and the Director of 
UCAR's Office of Programs (UOP).
     Mr. Franklin Nutter, President of the Reinsurance 
Association of America and Member of UCAR's Board of Trustees. 
Mr. Nutter also served on the NCAR Advisory Council and the 
Weather Coalition, a group of private companies, associations, 
and universities advocating for the advancement of weather 
research and applications.
     Ms. Sarah Bittleman, Office of the Governor of 
Oregon, Theodore R. Kulongoski, on behalf of the Western 
Governors Association. Ms. Sarah Bittleman is the Director of 
the Governor of Oregon's Washington D.C. office.
     Dr. James Mahoney, Environmental Consultant. From 
April 2, 2002 to March 30, 2006 Dr. Mahoney was Assistant 
Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere, and Deputy 
Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Organization (NOAA). During this period, Dr. Mahoney served as 
the Director of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP).

                           SUMMARY OF HEARING

    Dr. MacCracken spoke to the Program's assessments from his 
experience as the former Executive Director for the USGCRP. He 
explained the Program's novelty and success depends upon its 
ability to not only coordinate the activities of 10 agencies, 
but also several regions. MacCracken noted that while providing 
information to Congress to support policy development is 
certainly important, preparing for and adapting and responding 
to the impacts of climate change must start locally and 
regionally.
    Dr. Fellows addressed the strengths and weaknesses of the 
Program. He explained the Program specializes in producing the 
sound scientific basics for policymaking, acting as a unique 
interagency mechanism for coordination and planning, and tying 
research and observational strategies to user needs. The 
Program has, however, been weakened by political influences and 
climate politics, and has been overshadowed by other 
priorities. According to Fellows the legislation is timely and 
necessary, but could be strengthened by highlighting the 
Program's priorities and identifying a Program Director and 
Office.
    Dr. Mahoney's testimony focused on Program management. 
While management is the responsibility of the executive branch, 
Mahoney explains Congress needs to guide the establishment and 
fund a management and coordination office. There needs to be a 
central location, most likely in the Office of Management and 
Budget (OMB), to solidify the separate parts of the 13 
collaborating agencies. He also noted that in developing better 
user-friendly resources, the Program requires better 
communication and education strategies, not a de-emphasis on 
scientific assessments. Finally Mahoney suggests avoiding 
duplication by coordinating reports and output with the 
international community.
    Mr. Nutter discussed the role of global change for 
reinsurance, or the insurance of insurance, companies. In 2005, 
the total global insured catastrophe losses were $83 billion 
and experts expect these losses to double every ten years. 
Nutter believes H.R. 906 will provide the necessary information 
to enhance risk assessment and lead to improved insurance 
markets.
    Dr. Mote began his remarks by highlighting the societal 
demands for information about climate and what such demands 
mean locally. The regional and state level focus on climate 
change described in the legislation is valuable in connecting 
stakeholder needs. He recommends establishing a national 
program that translates high quality, modeling information into 
local stakeholder needs.
    Ms. Bittleman testified on behalf of the Western Governor's 
Association and expressed the need for comprehensive user-
driven information. The legislation would involve the National 
Governor's Association in evaluating the Program's research 
Plan from a user perspective. Bittleman explained that 
decision-makers in government and the private sector need 
reliable information so they can plan and respond accordingly.
    Members' questions focused on the structure and timeline of 
the Program. Witnesses explained the director for the USGCRP 
needs to have sufficient authority to make decisions about and 
make budget decisions over the Program. Witnesses also 
suggested sequencing the various reports throughout a four or 
five year period rather than requesting a ten-year Research 
Plan, an Annual Plan, a Vulnerability Plan and a Policy Plan 
within the first year.

                          V. Committee Actions


                          SUBCOMMITTEE ACTION

    On February 7, 2007, Representative Mark Udall, for himself 
and Representative Robert Inglis, introduced H.R. 906, The 
Global Climate Change Research Data and Management Act of 2007.
    The Subcommittee on Energy and Environment met to consider 
H.R. 906 on June 6, 2007 and consider the following amendment 
to the bill:
    A Manager's amendment offered by Mr. Udall made a number of 
technical and substantive changes to the bill. The amendment 
adds outreach as an explicit purpose of the U.S. Global Change 
Science Program. It adds a new definition in Section 102 for 
regional climate change and makes conforming changes to reflect 
the new definition throughout the bill. In Section 103, the 
amendment adds information exchange and outreach with regional, 
State, and local governments and other user communities as a 
function of the Interagency Committee. It amends Section 105 to 
require a single Research and Assessment Plan and changes the 
deadlines for submission to Congress for the Plan's outline, 
the Plan, and subsequent revisions to it to one year, 3 years, 
and every 5 years, respectively and adds a description of 
outreach activities as a required element of the Plan. In 
Section 107, the amendment restores the requirement from the 
original law for making projections of climate change over 25- 
and 100-year time horizons and adds water availability and 
coastal infrastructure to the list of effects of global change 
the Program should assess. It also ties the Assessments 
required in Sec. 107 to the schedule and contents of the IPCC 
Working Group Reports to facilitate maximum use of resources 
used to produce these reports and distribution of the 
information contained within them. It amends Section 110 to 
direct the President to utilize the authorities in the 1978 
National Climate Program Act as a mechanism to facilitate 
ongoing information exchange with regional, State, and local 
governments and other user communities. Finally, it amends 
Section 203 to establish a 4-year reporting cycle for the 
Interagency Working Group on Climate Data after the first 
report is produced. The amendment was agreed to by voice vote.
    Mr. Inglis moved that the Subcommittee favorably report the 
bill, H.R. 906, to the Full Committee on Science and 
Technology. The motion was agreed to by a voice vote.

                         FULL COMMITTEE ACTION

    The Science and Technology Committee met to consider H.R. 
906, as well as other legislation, on June 27, 2007 and 
consider the following amendments to the bill:
    1. A manager's amendment offered by Mr. Udall which, in 
addition to changes of a technical nature, includes a 
requirement in Section 103 for the Interagency Committee to 
subdivide the U.S. into regions that are likely to experience 
similar impacts or to share similar vulnerabilities to global 
change; changed language in Section 107 to require the Program 
to summarize the vulnerabilities to climate change for all 
regions of the world and analyze the implications for the U.S. 
and its international interests; incorporated language provided 
by the Administration to ensure that the information used to 
produce the IPCC reports and other assessments and reports is 
fully utilized and incorporated into the assessments required 
under Section 107; strikes Section 303 of the bill and adds a 
new Section 112 directing the President to designate a Global 
Change Research Information Exchange too make information 
accessible through electronic means. The amendment was agreed 
to by voice vote.
    2. An amendment offered by Mr. Udall that designates the 
Office of Science & Technology Policy (OSTP) as the lead agency 
of the USGCRP, creating a single point of contact responsible 
for the Program and authorizing $10 million per year for OSTP 
to perform interagency tasks designated within the Strategic 
Plan. This will allow for the distribution of specific funds to 
cover these activities which now are not funded through any of 
the individual agencies' budgets. The amendment was agreed to 
by voice vote.
    3. An amendment offered by Mr. Gingrey that directs the 
President to commission the National Academy of Sciences and 
National Academy of Public Administration to do a policy 
analysis that includes: an evaluation of implemented and 
proposed policy options for adapting to and mitigating climate 
change with respect to their costs and benefits, their adoption 
rates and the barriers to their adoption. The amendment was 
agreed to by voice vote.
    4. An amendment offered by Ms. Woolsey that directs the 
National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to commission an Ice Sheet 
Study by the National Academy of Sciences to examine the 
current status of ice sheet melt related to climate change and 
its implications for global sea level rise. The amendment was 
agreed to by voice vote.
    5. An amendment offered by Ms. Johnson that directs NOAA 
and NSF to commission a study by the National Academy of 
Sciences to examine the current state of the science on the 
potential impacts of climate change on patterns of hurricane 
and typhoon development, including storm intensity, track and 
frequency and the implications for hurricane- and typhoon-prone 
coastal regions. The amendment was agreed to by voice vote.
    Mr. Hall moved that the Full Committee favorably report the 
bill, H.R. 906, to the Full Committee on Science and 
Technology. The motion was agreed to by a voice vote.

        VI. Summary of Major Provisions of the Bill, as Reported

    H.R. 906 re-orients the U.S. Global Change Research Program 
(USGCRP) to produce more policy-relevant information and 
facilitate greater exchange of that information with regional, 
State, and local governments and with other non-federal user 
groups. H.R. 906 directs the President to designate an 
interagency committee to coordinate all federal research 
activities in the area of global change and to facilitate the 
use of that information by agencies with authority over 
resources likely to be affected by global change. The 
interagency committee is directed to develop and implement a 
Research and Assessment Plan to guide and communicate the 
results of the Program, respectively. The Plan is revised on a 
5-year cycle.
    Section 104 designates the Office of Science and Technology 
Policy (OSTP) as the lead agency for the Program and authorizes 
$10 million per year to fund activities that are included in 
the Plan, that involve two or more participating agencies, and 
for which no funding is provided in individual agency budgets. 
The Director of OSTP is required to conduct at least one 
workshop in each of the regions of the U.S. identified under 
the Plan to facilitate information exchange between the federal 
program and regional, state, and local governments and other 
interested non-federal parties.
    Section 105 requires a review of the Plan for its 
scientific merit by the National Academy of Sciences. In order 
to ensure the policy-relevance of information produced through 
this Program, H.R. 906 includes a review of the Research and 
Assessment Plan by the Center for Best Practices of the 
National Governors Association. The Center will convene a group 
under a contract from the federal government to assess the Plan 
from the perspective of regional, State, and local governments. 
The Plan is also subject to a public comment period of at least 
60 days.
    H.R. 906 continues the current Program activities in 
climate and global change research, but it emphasizes the need 
to produce tangible, policy-relevant products that periodically 
synthesize the information generated by this Program. Section 
107 requires the President to submit to Congress an assessment 
that integrates the scientific findings of the Program, 
analyzes current trends in global change and projects the 
trends for 25- and 100-year periods into the future; analyzes 
changes in the environment and key socioeconomic sectors for 
major geographic regions of the U.S.; and analyzes the 
implications of the potential impacts of global change in other 
regions of the world on the U.S. and on U.S. international 
assistance and other international interests.
    In addition, H.R. 906 requires a policy assessment intended 
to provide information about the range of policy options 
available to adapt and mitigate climate change. It also 
includes authorization for several targeted studies by the 
National Academy of Sciences on two subjects with important 
implications for the U.S., especially for coastal communities: 
the potential for significant sea level rise due to ice sheet 
melting and the potential for increased intensity of hurricanes 
and typhoons.
    H.R. 906 also directs the President to designate an 
interagency committee to coordinate the collection, management, 
archiving, and distribution of the many data bases and data 
sets controlled by various agencies of the federal government. 
The committee is required to report to Congress on the status 
of global observing networks, the maintenance of climate and 
global change data records, and the status of efforts to better 
coordinate the data collection, archiving and distribution 
functions of all participating federal agencies.
    Finally, H.R. 906 directs the President through the 
Secretary of State to facilitate U.S. leadership and 
participation in international global change research efforts 
and energy research.

  VII. Section-by-Section Analysis (by Title and Section), as Reported


                    TITLE I: GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH

Section 101: Findings and purpose

    The purpose of the bill is to reauthorize and amend the 
1990 law authorizing the U.S. Global Change Research Program to 
provide for a continued Earth and climate observation, 
research, and outreach program. The bill also authorizes the 
Program to provide information that will enable us to 
understand the potential impacts of climate change on both 
regional and global scales and to provide information that will 
allow federal, state, and local governments to adapt and 
respond to the effects of climate change.

Section 102: Definitions

    Section 102 defines the following terms for the purposes of 
this legislation: global change, global change research, 
regional climate change, interagency committee, Plan, and 
Program.

Section 103: Interagency cooperation and coordination

    Establishes an interagency committee to oversee and 
coordinate the Program and defines the functions of the 
interagency committee, including the function of facilitating 
ongoing information exchange between the Program and regional, 
State, and local governments and other user communities.

Section 104: United States global climate change research program

    Section 104 directs the President to establish an 
interagency U.S. Global Research Program. The Office of Science 
and Technology (OSTP) is established as the lead agency for the 
U.S. Global Change Research Program, and the Director of OSTP 
is responsible for the distribution of funds to cover 
interagency activities of the Program that are not funded 
through any of the individual agencies' budgets. A sum of $10 
million dollars is authorized to be appropriated to OSTP for 
each fiscal year from FY 2008 to FY 2013.

Section 105: National global change research and assessment plan

    Section 105 directs the President to develop and deliver to 
Congress an initial outline of the Plan to guide the 
interagency activities conducted under the U.S. Global Change 
Research Program, the completed Plan in three years, and an 
updated Plan every five years. This section defines the 
contents of the Plan and the minimum research elements of the 
Plan. It also directs that the Plan incorporate the 
recommendations of the interagency working group established 
under Section 203.
    The section also requires two evaluations of the Plan, one 
by the National Academy of Sciences, for the review of the 
scientific merit of the proposed program, and the other for a 
review by the Center for Best Practices of the National 
Governors Association to evaluate the proposed program's 
utility for meeting the information needs of state, local and 
regional decision-makers. This section also provides for public 
review of the Plan including its publication in the Federal 
Register with a comment period of at least 60 days.

Section 106: Budget coordination

    Section 106 requires the President to provide guidance to 
each Federal agency participating in the Program to identify 
funds to carry out the Program and to include a request for the 
activities in his annual budget.

Section 107: Vulnerability assessment

    Section 107 requires the President to submit an assessment 
to Congress one year after enactment and then at intervals of 
every five years. The section defines the contents of the 
assessment to include: a summary of the scientific findings of 
the Program and the uncertainties associated with the findings; 
analyses of changes to natural systems at regional and 
continental scales; analyses of the effects of global change on 
human social and economic systems at regional and continental 
scales; analyses of regional vulnerabilities to global change; 
and summary of policies and technologies to reduce the 
identified vulnerabilities and their rates of adoption.

Section 108: Policy assessment

    Section 108 requires the President to enter into an 
agreement with the National Academy of Public Administration 
and the National Academy of Sciences to do a policy analysis 
that includes: an evaluation of implemented and proposed policy 
options for adapting to and mitigating climate change with 
respect to their costs and benefits, their adoption rates and 
the barriers to their adoption the costs and benefits of 
mitigation and adaptation policy options for addressing climate 
change. This assessment is due not later than 1 year after the 
enactment of this legislation and at least once every 4 years 
thereafter.

Section 109: Annual report

    Section 109 requires the President to submit an annual 
report to Congress with a description of the activities of the 
Plan during the past fiscal year, a description of the 
activities planned for the next fiscal year, and a description 
of the decision makers identified as potential users and the 
activities used to facilitate consultation with those user 
groups.

Section 110: Relation to other authorities

    Section 110 requires coordination of the activities 
authorized under this program with those of the National 
Climate Program.

Section 111: Repeal

    This section repeals the Global Change Research Act of 
1990.

Section 112: Global change research information

    Section 112 requires the President to establish or 
designate a Global Research Information Exchange to make 
scientific research available to use in preventing, mitigating, 
or adapting to the effects of global change through electronic 
means.

Section 113: Ice sheet study and report

    Section 113 requires the Director of the National Science 
Foundation and the Administrator of the National Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Administration to enter into an agreement with the 
National Academy of Sciences to complete a study to examine the 
current status of ice sheet melt in relation to climate change 
and its implications for global sea level rise. The study shall 
be completed no later than 18 months after the bill is enacted.

Section 114: Hurricane frequency and intensity study and report

    Section 114 requires the Administrator of the National 
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Director of the 
National Science Foundation to enter into an agreement with the 
National Academy of Sciences to evaluate the current state of 
the science on the potential impacts of climate change on 
patterns of hurricane and typhoon development, including storm 
intensity, track and frequency and the implications for 
hurricane- and typhoon-prone coastal regions.

       TITLE II: CLIMATE AND OTHER GLOBAL CHANGE DATA MANAGEMENT

Section 201: Findings and purposes

    Section 201 establishes climate and global change data 
management and archiving as federal agency missions and 
establishes policies for managing and archiving these data.

Section 202: Definitions

    Section 202 defines the following terms for the purposes of 
this legislation: metadata and working group.

Section 203: Interagency climate and other global change data 
        management working group

    Section 203 directs the President to establish an 
interagency working group to coordinate Federal global change 
data management and archiving activities. The section also 
defines the membership in the interagency group and requires 
the working group to report to Congress with recommendations 
for the maintenance and archiving of data related to global 
change.

     TITLE III: INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH

Section 301: Findings and purpose

    The purpose of this title is to promote international 
cooperation on global change research.

Section 302: International discussions

    Section 302 directs the President to initiate discussion 
with other nations on coordination global change research. It 
also directs the President to initiate discussion with other 
nations on cooperation of research and development of energy 
technologies that have minimal adverse effects on the 
environment.

                         VIII. Committee Views

    The debate about whether climate change is occurring and 
about whether human activity has contributed to it is over. As 
our population, economy, and infrastructure have grown, 
pressure on the natural resources upon which we depend has 
increased along with the need for strategies to adapt and 
mitigate climate change. The impacts of climate change are only 
exacerbating already sparse resources and deadly natural 
disasters.
    For all of these reasons, it is the Committee's view that 
the U.S. Global Change Research Program should produce more 
information that is readily useable by decision makers and 
resource managers in government and in the private sector. 
People throughout this country and in the rest of the world 
need information they can use to develop response, adaptation, 
and mitigation strategies to make our communities, our 
businesses, and our nation more resilient and less vulnerable 
to climate change.
    The U.S. Global Change Research Program has produced high 
quality science and greatly expanded our understanding of 
Earth's climate system and improved projections of the likely 
changes in the system we will experience due to increased 
greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere.
    The Committee believes the emphasis of the Program needs to 
be on producing more information at the regional scale. The 
Committee recognizes that regional scale models of climate and 
the data sets to support them are not as fully developed as the 
global climate models. However, programs such as NOAA's 
Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA) Program 
produce information at this scale. The Committee believes the 
Program should be placing greater emphasis on improvement of 
our understanding of the implications of global climate change 
on different regions of the country since this is a more 
realistic scale for development of adaptation and mitigation 
strategies. The Committee commends the Administration for their 
efforts to include regionally-based information in several of 
the twenty one assessment reports\3\ they are producing under 
the USGCRP and for their effort to develop methodologies that 
will permit further regional analyses to be performed in future 
reports.
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    \3\U.S. Climate Change Science Program. Impacts of Climate Change 
Variability on Transportation Systems and Infrastructure: Gulf Coast 
Study, Phase I. Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.7, March 2008. 439 
pp. and Effects of Climate Change on energy Production and Use in the 
United States, Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.5, October 2007.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    H.R. 906 includes changes to the provisions in P.L. 101-606 
that establish the interagency committee that implements the 
USGCRP. Over the life of this Program, and through different 
administrations, the structure of the interagency group 
governing the USGCRP has deviated from the specific structure 
included in Section 102 of P.L. 101-606. The changes adopted by 
the Committee to existing law in Section 103 of H.R. 906 
reflect this reality and the Committee's view that the 
Administration should have the flexibility to select the 
specific structure for the interagency committee governing this 
program.
    Current law designates a chairperson selected from among 
the agency representatives that serve on the interagency 
committee to lead the work of the committee. The leadership of 
the committee rotates among various agencies under current law. 
Witnesses appearing before the Committee testified to the need 
for a designated lead for the Program. The Committee believes 
the USGCRP needs consistent leadership. The use of the 
interagency office to guide this Program would also ensure the 
Program was not viewed as the primary responsibility of the 
single agency or department that currently is chairing the 
interagency group, but as a true interagency effort. The 
Committee believes that the Director of the Office of Science 
and Technology Policy (OSTP) should take on this role and H.R. 
906, Section 104 designates OSTP as the lead agency for the 
USGCRP. The functions of the OSTP Director included in Section 
204 of P.L. 94-282 are consistent with the need for leadership 
on the scientific and policy issues addressed through the 
USGCRP. As an interagency office, OSTP is positioned to take a 
broad view of overall government resources and capabilities 
that must be brought together to address climate and other 
global environmental change. The Committee expects the Director 
of OSTP to work with the OMB to ensure that agency budget 
allocations are sufficient to meet the Program goals outlined 
in the Program Plan.
    Individual agency budgets include funding for programs that 
are part of the USGCRP. These are often dual purpose programs 
in that they are activities of the USGCRP and they also are 
directly related to the mission and statutory obligations of 
the individual agency. The Committee recognizes that there are 
a number of activities essential to the USGCRP that are not 
funded in individual agency budgets. The Committee believes 
that funds must be available to support activities of the 
USGCRP that are not funded within individual agency budgets and 
require the participation of two or more agencies. Witnesses at 
the hearing identified several activities that fall into this 
category and the Committee explicitly included several such 
activities in H.R. 906. As lead agency for the Program, OSTP 
has been authorized funds that are to be utilized for this 
purpose. Activities associated with information exchange and 
outreach functions of the USGCRP are not funded through 
individual agency budgets, and the Committee believes 
communication between the USGCRP and non-federal entities is 
essential to ensure that information produced by the USGCRP is 
relevant to decision-makers in state and local governments as 
well as in the private sector.
    The Committee included specific direction to hold annual 
workshops in each of the regions of the country identified in 
accordance with the Program. The Committee believes the 
activities of the USGCRP have been too concentrated within the 
federal government and insufficient opportunities have been 
provided for dialogue and information exchange with resource 
managers, planners, and other decision makers at the state and 
local government level and with the private sector. The ongoing 
dialogue and exchange of information provided through these 
workshops will assist federal agencies participating in the 
USGCRP to focus the Program to ensure it will serve the 
information needs of the organizations that are developing, and 
will continue to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies 
to reduce society's vulnerability to climate change.
    The Committee believes the USGCRP should produce periodic 
assessments that synthesize the knowledge gained through this 
program and as a means to convey information about the likely 
impacts of climate change for key sectors of the U.S. economy, 
for natural ecosystems, and for communities in different 
regions of the U.S. In addition to the potential impacts, the 
Committee believes the USGCRP assessments should include 
information about vulnerability to climate change to guide the 
development strategies that will reduce the identified 
vulnerabilities. Although current law requires assessments to 
be produced every four years, the Program has produced only one 
assessment since the law was enacted in 1990. The Committee 
believes the assessment function is essential. Scientists 
associated with the USGCRP have produced significant 
contributions toward the production of four assessments for the 
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
    The Committee does not intend to create a separate, dual 
process to that of the IPCC for the development of the 
assessments required under H.R. 906. The Committee believes 
that much of the information needed to produce the assessments 
under this Act may be drawn from reports produced for the IPCC 
and information and reports produced through the USGCRP and 
other existing programs. The Committee adopted language in 
Section 107(b) of H.R. 906 to clarify its intention that 
assessment reports periodically synthesize and organize 
existing information to identify key trends and findings that 
decision makers can evaluate and use to guide policy 
development. Since research is ongoing, periodic updates to 
highlight new information are also needed. To be of maximum 
utility to decision makers, the assessments should be concise 
and the Committee anticipates these documents would be similar 
to the Summaries for Policymakers produced for the IPCC.
    The Committee is aware of the Administration's current 
efforts to produce twenty one assessment products under the 
USGCRP on a variety of topics. The Committee anticipates these 
reports in conjunction with the material from the recent IPCC 
reports will include the information necessary to meet the 
first deadline in Section 107 of this legislation.
    Section 105 of H.R. 906 requires the Plan for the USGCRP to 
tie its research to the information needs of the people making 
decisions about development and resources at all levels of 
government. It also requires the Plan to identify observing 
systems needed to ensure adequate monitoring of climate and 
global change. The Plan also must identify and describe the 
regions of the U.S. that will become the focus of climate and 
global change research and assessment at the regional scale. 
The Committee believes the research of the USGCRP must be 
guided by a Plan that incorporates user information needs. 
Furthermore, the Committee believes the research Plan should be 
evaluated to ensure its scientific merit and to ensure the 
relevance of USGCRP research to the user community. The 
Committee believes the National Academy of Sciences' review of 
past USGCRP research Plans has been an effective means to guide 
the development of the science undertaken by the Program. The 
Committee believes review of the Plan by the National 
Governors' Association Center for Best Practices would provide 
a similar guidance to the USGCRP on the potential for the 
research to deliver the policy relevant information needed to 
guide development of adaptation and mitigation policies. The 
Committee anticipates the Center will coordinate with regional 
governors' associations and appropriate county and state 
organizations when undertaking their review of the Plan.
    The Committee recognizes that climate change policies are 
being developed and implemented by state and local governments 
in many areas of the country. There are numerous options under 
consideration to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt 
to changes in resource availability or in climate that are 
already being experienced in some areas, including policies to 
address climate impacts or resource constraints that result 
from local land-use changes. The Committee recognizes that 
alternative policy choices will impact different groups in 
society and different sectors of the economy with respect to 
the costs and benefits of their implementation. H.R. 906 
includes a requirement for a periodic policy assessment by the 
National Academy of Public Administration and the National 
Academy of Sciences. The Committee believes an assessment 
comparing the resulting emission reductions and the 
distribution of costs and benefits of the different policy 
options being implemented across the U.S. would promote greater 
dialogue and accelerate development, selection, and 
implementation of cost-effective policies to address climate 
and global change. The Committee recognizes that the two 
Academies are entirely different organizations. The Committee 
intends this joint study to draw upon the particular analytical 
strengths of each organization to produce a comprehensive 
report.
    Coastal areas account for much of the fastest population 
growth and expansion of infrastructure, development, and 
commerce, and the U.S. has an extensive coastline that is home 
to 53 percent of the population. Two projected impacts of 
climate change are of particular concern to these areas: sea 
level rise and the potential for increased frequency and 
intensity of hurricanes. Due to the vulnerability of our 
population and the potential for severe economic disruption in 
our coastal areas, the Committee believes we would benefit from 
a review of the most recent science and recommendations for 
increased attention to refine the projections of the potential 
impacts due to these phenomena prior to the next comprehensive 
climate change impact review by the IPCC. Sections 113 and 114 
of H.R. 906 require the administration to contract with the 
National Academy of Sciences to convene a panel of scientists 
to complete studies of these two phenomena. The Committee 
believes these studies should be initiated shortly after the 
bill becomes law.
    The many agencies of the federal government gather data and 
information at many times and geographic scales in the 
performance of their missions and to meet their statutory 
obligations. In achieving the goals of the Plan envisioned in 
this legislation, the data collection, management and archiving 
issues now facing the agencies will increase in magnitude as 
policymakers seek answers to questions on regional as well as 
global levels. The Committee believes federal agencies must 
coordinate their data and information collection activities to 
support climate and global change research and development and 
the production of national and regional assessments of the 
potential impacts of changes in climate and other 
environmental, economic and social conditions. Better 
coordination will ensure the Nation receives the full benefit 
of the significant investments made in climate and global 
change research. The Committee recognizes the Administration 
has organized such an interagency committee like that outlined 
in Title II, believes its activity will continue to be of vital 
importance in the future, and intends this language to give its 
work a statutory foundation.
    The Committee directs that these data and information 
resources be catalogued and made available to the public. 
Finally, because studies investigating the Earth's variation 
over long time scales are fundamental to our understanding of 
global change, the federal government must ensure it has 
adequate plans to assure the continuing availability of these 
resources by providing for proper archiving in the decades to 
come.

                           IX. Cost Estimate

    A cost estimate and comparison prepared by the Director of 
the Congressional Budget Office under section 402 of the 
Congressional Budget Act of 1974 has been timely submitted to 
the Committee on Science and Technology prior to the filing of 
this report and is included in Section X of this report 
pursuant to House rule XIII, clause 3(c)(3).
    H.R. 906 does not contain new budget authority, credit 
authority, or changes in revenues or tax expenditures. Assuming 
that the sums authorized under the bill are appropriated, H.R. 
906 does authorize additional discretionary spending, as 
described in the Congressional Budget Office report on the 
bill, which is contained in Section X of this report.

              X. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate


H.R. 906--Global Change Research and Data Management Act of 2007

    Summary: H.R. 906 would repeal the Global Change Research 
Act of 1990 and replace it with the text of this legislation, 
aimed at supporting research on natural and human-induced 
changes in the global environment and coordinating interagency 
research programs.
    CBO estimates that implementing H.R. 906 would cost $10 
million in 2008 and about $50 million over the 2008-2012 
period, subject to appropriation of the specified and necessary 
funds. Enacting the bill would not affect direct spending or 
revenues.
    H.R. 906 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA). 
Any costs to state and local governments would be incurred 
voluntarily.
    Estimated cost to the Federal Government: The estimated 
budgetary impact of H.R. 906 is shown in the following table. 
The costs of this legislation fall within budget functions 250 
(general science, space, and technology) and 800 (general 
government).


------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                      By fiscal year, in millions of
                                                 dollars--
                                 ---------------------------------------
                                   2008    2009    2010    2011    2012
------------------------------------------------------------------------
              CHANGES IN SPENDING SUBJECT TO APPROPRIATION

United States Global Change
 Research Program:
    Authorization Level.........      10      10      10      10      10
    Estimated Outlays...........       8      10      10      10      10
Reports:
    Estimated Authorization            2       1       *       *       *
     Level......................
    Estimated Outlays...........       2       1       *       *       *
Total Changes:
    Estimated Authorization           12      11      10      10      10
     Level......................
    Estimated Outlays...........      10      11      10      10     10
------------------------------------------------------------------------
* = less than $500,000.

    Basis of estimate: For this estimate, CBO assumes that the 
legislation will be enacted near the start of fiscal year 2008, 
that the specified and necessary amounts will be appropriated 
for each fiscal year, and that outlays will follow historical 
trends for similar activities. CBO estimates that implementing 
H.R. 906 would cost $10 million in 2008 and about $50 million 
over the 2008-2012 period.

United States Global Change Research Program

    Section 104 would establish an interagency United States 
Global Change Research Program and authorize the appropriation 
of $10 million a year over the 2008-2013 period. Under this 
program, the Office of Science and Technology Policy would work 
with other federal agencies on climate change programs and 
workshops. Assuming appropriation of the specified amounts, CBO 
estimates that implementing this program would cost $8 million 
in 2008 and $48 million over the 2008-2012 period.

Reports

    H.R. 906 would require reports by the National Academy of 
Sciences within 18 months of enactment on the status of the 
earth's ice sheets, and on the impact of climate change on the 
frequency and severity of hurricanes and typhoons. The 
legislation also would establish an interagency working group 
to report on the coordination of activities related to the 
management and archival of federal climate and global change 
data. Based on the cost of similar studies, CBO estimates that 
the reports would cost $3 million over the 2008-2012 period.
    Intergovernmental and private-sector impact: H.R. 906 
contains no intergovernmental or private-sector mandates as 
defined in UMRA. The bill would require the responsible federal 
entities to consult with state, regional, and local 
authorities. Any costs to state and local governments would be 
incurred voluntarily.
    Estimate prepared by: Federal Costs: Matthew Pickford. 
Impact on State, Local, and Tribal Governments: Neil Hood. 
Impact on the Private Sector: Amy Petz.
    Estimate approved by: Peter H. Fontaine, Deputy Assistant 
Director for Budget Analysis.

                  XI. Compliance With Public Law 104-4

    H.R. 906 contains no unfunded mandates.

         XII. Committee Oversight Findings and Recommendations

    The oversight findings and recommendations of the Committee 
on Science and Technology are reflected in the body of this 
report.

      XIII. Statement on General Performance Goals and Objectives 

    Pursuant to clause 3(c) of House rule XIII, the goal of 
H.R. 906 is to advance global change research through 
interagency cooperation and coordination; by establishing an 
interagency United States Global Change Research Program, a 
National Global Change Research Plan, and an interagency 
climate and other global change data management working group; 
and through international cooperation in global change 
research.

                XIV. Constitutional Authority Statement

    Article I, section 8 of the Constitution of the United 
States grants Congress the authority to enact H.R. 906.

                XV. Federal Advisory Committee Statement

    H.R. 906 does not establish nor authorize the establishment 
of any advisory committee.

                 XVI. Congressional Accountability Act

    The Committee finds that H.R. 906 does not relate to the 
terms and conditions of employment or access to public services 
or accommodations within the meaning of section 102(b)(3) of 
the Congressional Accountability Act (Public Law 104-1).

                      XVII. Earmark Identification

    H.R. 906 does not contain any congressional earmarks, 
limited tax benefits, or limited tariff benefits as defined in 
clause 9(d), 9(e), or 9(f) of rule XXI.

     XVIII. Statement on Preemption of State, Local, or Tribal Law

    This bill is not intended to preempt any state, local, or 
tribal law.

       XIX. Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported

  In compliance with clause 3(e) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, changes in existing law made by 
the bill, as reported, are shown as follows (existing law 
proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new 
matter is printed in italic, existing law in which no change is 
proposed is shown in roman):

                   GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH ACT OF 1990

 AN ACT To require the establishment of a United States Global Change 
   Research Program aimed at understanding and responding to global 
   change, including the cumulative effects of human activities and 
  natural processes on the environment, to promote discussions toward 
   international protocols in global change research, and for other 
                               purposes.

  Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of 
the United States of America in Congress assembled,

[SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

  [This Act may be cited as the ``Global Change Research Act of 
1990''.

[SEC. 2. DEFINITIONS.

  [As used in this Act, the term--
          [(1) ``Committee'' means the Committee on Earth and 
        Environmental Sciences established under section 102;
          [(2) ``Council'' means the Federal Coordinating 
        Council on Science, Engineering, and Technology;
          [(3) ``global change'' means changes in the global 
        environment (including alterations in climate, land 
        productivity, oceans or other water resources, 
        atmospheric chemistry, and ecological systems) that may 
        alter the capacity of the Earth to sustain life;
          [(4) ``global change research'' means study, 
        monitoring, assessment, prediction, and information 
        management activities to describe and understand--
                  [(A) the interactive physical, chemical, and 
                biological processes that regulate the total 
                Earth system;
                  [(B) the unique environment that the Earth 
                provides for life;
                  [(C) changes that are occurring in the Earth 
                system; and
                  [(D) the manner in which such system, 
                environment, and changes are influenced by 
                human actions;
          [(5) ``Plan'' means the National Global Change 
        Research Plan developed under section 104, or any 
        revision thereof; and
          [(6) ``Program'' means the United States Global 
        Change Research Program established under section 103.

         [TITLE I--UNITED STATES GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH PROGRAM

[SEC. 101. FINDINGS AND PURPOSE.

  [(a) Findings.--The Congress makes the following findings:
          [(1) Industrial, agricultural, and other human 
        activities, coupled with an expanding world population, 
        are contributing to processes of global change that may 
        significantly alter the Earth habitat within a few 
        human generations.
          [(2) Such human-induced changes, in conjunction with 
        natural fluctuations, may lead to significant global 
        warming and thus alter world climate patterns and 
        increase global sea levels. Over the next century, 
        these consequences could adversely affect world 
        agricultural and marine production, coastal 
        habitability, biological diversity, human health, and 
        global economic and social well-being.
          [(3) The release of chlorofluorocarbons and other 
        stratospheric ozone-depleting substances is rapidly 
        reducing the ability of the atmosphere to screen out 
        harmful ultraviolet radiation, which could adversely 
        affect human health and ecological systems.
          [(4) Development of effective policies to abate, 
        mitigate, and cope with global change will rely on 
        greatly improved scientific understanding of global 
        environmental processes and on our ability to 
        distinguish human-induced from natural global change.
          [(5) New developments in interdisciplinary Earth 
        sciences, global observing systems, and computing 
        technology make possible significant advances in the 
        scientific understanding and prediction of these global 
        changes and their effects.
          [(6) Although significant Federal global change 
        research efforts are underway, an effective Federal 
        research program will require efficient interagency 
        coordination, and coordination with the research 
        activities of State, private, and international 
        entities.
  [(b) Purpose.--The purpose of this title is to provide for 
development and coordination of a comprehensive and integrated 
United States research program which will assist the Nation and 
the world to understand, assess, predict, and respond to human-
induced and natural processes of global change.

[SEC. 102. COMMITTEE ON EARTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES.

  [(a) Establishment.--The President, through the Council, 
shall establish a Committee on Earth and Environmental 
Sciences. The Committee shall carry out Council functions under 
section 401 of the National Science and Technology Policy, 
Organization, and Priorities Act of 1976 (42 U.S.C. 6651) 
relating to global change research, for the purpose of 
increasing the overall effectiveness and productivity of 
Federal global change research efforts.
  [(b) Membership.--The Committee shall consist of at least one 
representative from--
          [(1) the National Science Foundation;
          [(2) the National Aeronautics and Space 
        Administration;
          [(3) the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
        Administration of the Department of Commerce;
          [(4) the Environmental Protection Agency;
          [(5) the Department of Energy;
          [(6) the Department of State;
          [(7) the Department of Defense;
          [(8) the Department of the Interior;
          [(9) the Department of Agriculture;
          [(10) the Department of Transportation;
          [(11) the Office of Management and Budget;
          [(12) the Office of Science and Technology Policy;
          [(13) the Council on Environmental Quality;
          [(14) the National Institute of Environmental Health 
        Sciences of the National Institutes of Health; and
          [(15) such other agencies and departments of the 
        United States as the President or the Chairman of the 
        Council considers appropriate.
Such representatives shall be high ranking officials of their 
agency or department, wherever possible the head of the portion 
of that agency or department that is most revelant to the 
purpose of the title described in section 101(b).
  [(c) Chairperson.--The Chairman of the Council, in 
consultation with the Committee, biennially shall select one of 
the Committee members to serve as Chairperson. The Chairperson 
shall be knowledgeable and experienced with regard to the 
administration of scientific research programs, and shall be a 
representative of an agency that contributes substantially, in 
terms of scientific research capability and budget, to the 
Program.
  [(d) Support Personnel.--An Executive Secretary shall be 
appointed by the Chairperson of the Committee, with the 
approval of the Committee. The Executive Secretary shall be a 
permanent employee of one of the agencies or departments 
represented on the Committee, and shall remain in the employ of 
such agency or department. The Chairman of the Council shall 
have the authority to make personnel decisions regarding any 
employees detailed to the Council for purposes of working on 
business of the Committee pursuant to section 401 of the 
National Science and Technology Policy, Organization, and 
Priorities Act of 1976 (42 U.S.C. 6651).
  [(e) Functions Relative to Global Change.--The Council, 
through the Committee, shall be responsible for planning and 
coordinating the Program. In carrying out this responsibility, 
the Committee shall--
          [(1) serve as the forum for developing the Plan and 
        for overseeing its implementation;
          [(2) improve cooperation among Federal agencies and 
        departments with respect to global change research 
        activities;
          [(3) provide budgetary advice as specified in section 
        105;
          [(4) work with academic, State, industry, and other 
        groups conducting global change research, to provide 
        for periodic public and peer review of the Program;
          [(5) cooperate with the Secretary of State in--
                  [(A) providing representation at 
                international meetings and conferences on 
                global change research in which the United 
                States participates; and
                  [(B) coordinating the Federal activities of 
                the United States with programs of other 
                nations and with international global change 
                research activities such as the International 
                Geosphere-Biosphere Program;
          [(6) consult with actual and potential users of the 
        results of the Program to ensure that such results are 
        useful in developing national and international policy 
        responses to global change; and
          [(7) report at least annually to the President and 
        the Congress, through the Chairman of the Council, on 
        Federal global change research priorities, policies, 
        and programs.

[SEC. 103. UNITED STATES GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH PROGRAM.

  [The President shall establish an interagency United States 
Global Change Research Program to improve understanding of 
global change. The Program shall be implemented by the Plan 
developed under section 104.

[SEC. 104. NATIONAL GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH PLAN.

  [(a) In General.--The Chairman of the Council, through the 
Committee, shall develop a National Global Change Research Plan 
for implementation of the Program. The Plan shall contain 
recommendations for national global change research. The 
Chairman of the Council shall submit the Plan to the Congress 
within one year after the date of enactment of this title, and 
a revised Plan shall be submitted at least once every three 
years thereafter.
  [(b) Contents of the Plan.--The Plan shall--
          [(1) establish, for the 10-year period beginning in 
        the year the Plan is submitted, the goals and 
        priorities for Federal global change research which 
        most effectively advance scientific understanding of 
        global change and provide usable information on which 
        to base policy decisions relating to global change;
          [(2) describe specific activities, including research 
        activities, data collection and data analysis 
        requirements, predictive modeling, participation in 
        international research efforts, and information 
        management, required to achieve such goals and 
        priorities;
          [(3) identify and address, as appropriate, relevant 
        programs and activities of the Federal agencies and 
        departments represented on the Committee that 
        contribute to the Program;
          [(4) set forth the role of each Federal agency and 
        department in implementing the Plan;
          [(5) consider and utilize, as appropriate, reports 
        and studies conducted by Federal agencies and 
        departments, the National Research Council, or other 
        entities;
          [(6) make recommendations for the coordination of the 
        global change research activities of the United States 
        with such activities of other nations and international 
        organizations, including--
                  [(A) a description of the extent and nature 
                of necessary international cooperation;
                  [(B) the development by the Committee, in 
                consultation when appropriate with the National 
                Space Council, of proposals for cooperation on 
                major capital projects;
                  [(C) bilateral and multilateral proposals for 
                improving worldwide access to scientific data 
                and information; and
                  [(D) methods for improving participation in 
                international global change research by 
                developing nations; and
          [(7) estimate, to the extent practicable, Federal 
        funding for global change research activities to be 
        conducted under the Plan.
  [(c) Research Elements.--The Plan shall provide for, but not 
be limited to, the following research elements:
          [(1) Global measurements, establishing worldwide 
        observations necessary to understand the physical, 
        chemical, and biological processes responsible for 
        changes in the Earth system on all relevant spatial and 
        time scales.
          [(2) Documentation of global change, including the 
        development of mechanisms for recording changes that 
        will actually occur in the Earth system over the coming 
        decades.
          [(3) Studies of earlier changes in the Earth system, 
        using evidence from the geological and fossil record.
          [(4) Predictions, using quantitative models of the 
        Earth system to identify and simulate global 
        environmental processes and trends, and the regional 
        implications of such processes and trends.
          [(5) Focused research initiatives to understand the 
        nature of and interaction among physical, chemical, 
        biological, and social processes related to global 
        change.
  [(d) Information Management.--The Plan shall provide 
recommendations for collaboration within the Federal Government 
and among nations to--
          [(1) establish, develop, and maintain information 
        bases, including necessary management systems which 
        will promote consistent, efficient, and compatible 
        transfer and use of data;
          [(2) create globally accessible formats for data 
        collected by various international sources; and
          [(3) combine and interpret data from various sources 
        to produce information readily usable by policymakers 
        attempting to formulate effective strategies for 
        preventing, mitigating, and adapting to the effects of 
        global change.
  [(e) National Research Council Evaluation.--The Chairman of 
the Council shall enter into an agreement with the National 
Research Council under which the National Research Council 
shall--
          [(1) evaluate the scientific content of the Plan; and
          [(2) provide information and advice obtained from 
        United States and international sources, and 
        recommended priorities for future global change 
        research.
  [(f) Public Participation.--In developing the Plan, the 
Committee shall consult with academic, State, industry, and 
environmental groups and representatives. Not later than 90 
days before the Chairman of the Council submits the Plan, or 
any revision thereof, to the Congress, a summary of the 
proposed Plan shall be published in the Federal Register for a 
public comment period of not less than 60 days.

[SEC. 105. BUDGET COORDINATION.

  [(a) Committee Guidance.--The Committee shall each year 
provide general guidance to each Federal agency or department 
participating in the Program with respect to the preparation of 
requests for appropriations for activities related to the 
Program.
  [(b) Submission of Reports With Agency Appropriations 
Requests.--(1) Working in conjunction with the Committee, each 
Federal agency or department involved in global change research 
shall include with its annual request for appropriations 
submitted to the President under section 1108 of title 31, 
United States Code, a report which--
          [(A) identifies each element of the proposed global 
        change research activities of the agency or department;
          [(B) specifies whether each element (i) contributes 
        directly to the Program or (ii) contributes indirectly 
        but in important ways to the Program; and
          [(C) states the portion of its request for 
        appropriations allocated to each element of the 
        Program.
  [(2) Each agency or department that submits a report under 
paragraph (1) shall submit such report simultaneously to the 
Committee.
  [(c) Consideration in President's Budget.--(1) The President 
shall, in a timely fashion, provide the Committee with an 
opportunity to review and comment on the budget estimate of 
each agency and department involved in global change research 
in the context of the Plan.
  [(2) The President shall identify in each annual budget 
submitted to the Congress under section 1105 of title 31, 
United States Code, those items in each agency's or 
department's annual budget which are elements of the Program.

[SEC. 106. SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT.

  [On a periodic basis (not less frequently than every 4 
years), the Council, through the Committee, shall prepare and 
submit to the President and the Congress an assessment which--
          [(1) integrates, evaluates, and interprets the 
        findings of the Program and discusses the scientific 
        uncertainties associated with such findings;
          [(2) analyzes the effects of global change on the 
        natural environment, agriculture, energy production and 
        use, land and water resources, transportation, human 
        health and welfare, human social systems, and 
        biological diversity; and
          [(3) analyzes current trends in global change, both 
        human-induced and natural, and projects major trends 
        for the subsequent 25 to 100 years.

[SEC. 107. ANNUAL REPORT.

  [(a) General.--Each year at the time of submission to the 
Congress of the President's budget, the Chairman of the Council 
shall submit to the Congress a report on the activities 
conducted by the Committee pursuant to this title, including--
          [(1) a summary of the achievements of the Program 
        during the period covered by the report and of 
        priorities for future global change research;
          [(2) an analysis of the progress made toward 
        achieving the goals of the Plan;
          [(3) expenditures required by each agency or 
        department for carrying out its portion of the Program, 
        including--
                  [(A) the amounts spent during the fiscal year 
                most recently ended;
                  [(B) the amounts expected to be spent during 
                the current fiscal year; and
                  [(C) the amounts requested for the fiscal 
                year for which the budget is being submitted.
  [(b) Recommendations.--The report required by subsection (b) 
shall include recommendations by the President concerning--
          [(1) changes in agency or department roles needed to 
        improve implementation of the Plan; and
          [(2) additional legislation which may be required to 
        achieve the purposes of this title.

[SEC. 108. RELATION TO OTHER AUTHORITIES.

  [(a) National Climate Program Research Activities.--The 
President, the Chairman of the Council, and the Secretary of 
Commerce shall ensure that relevant research activities of the 
National Climate Program, established by the National Climate 
Program Act (15 U.S.C. 2901 et seq.), are considered in 
developing national global change research efforts.
  [(b) Availability of Research Findings.--The President, the 
Chairman of the Council, and the heads of the agencies and 
departments represented on the Committee, shall ensure that the 
research findings of the Committee, and of Federal agencies and 
departments, are available to--
          [(1) the Environmental Protection Agency for use in 
        the formulation of a coordinated national policy on 
        global climate change pursuant to section 1103 of the 
        Global Climate Protection Act of 1987 (15 U.S.C. 2901 
        note); and
          [(2) all Federal agencies and departments for use in 
        the formulation of coordinated national policies for 
        responding to human-induced and natural processes of 
        global change pursuant to other statutory 
        responsibilities and obligations.
  [(c) Effect on Federal Response Actions.--Nothing in this 
title shall be construed, interpreted, or applied to preclude 
or delay the planning or implementation of any Federal action 
designed, in whole or in part, to address the threats of 
stratospheric ozone depletion or global climate change.

     [TITLE II--INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH

[SEC. 201. SHORT TITLE.

  [This title may be cited as the ``International Cooperation 
in Global Change Research Act of 1990''.

[SEC. 202. FINDINGS AND PURPOSES.

  [(a) Findings.--The Congress makes the following findings:
          [(1) Pooling of international resources and 
        scientific capabilities will be essential to a 
        successful international global change program.
          [(2) While international scientific planning is 
        already underway, there is currently no comprehensive 
        intergovernmental mechanism for planning, coordinating, 
        or implementing research to understand global change 
        and to mitigate possible adverse effects.
          [(3) An international global change research program 
        will be important in building future consensus on 
        methods for reducing global environmental degradation.
          [(4) The United States, as a world leader in 
        environmental and Earth sciences, should help provide 
        leadership in developing and implementing an 
        international global change research program.
  [(b) Purposes.--The purposes of this title are to--
          [(1) promote international, intergovernmental 
        cooperation on global change research;
          [(2) involve scientists and policymakers from 
        developing nations in such cooperative global change 
        research programs; and
          [(3) promote international efforts to provide 
        technical and other assistance to developing nations 
        which will facilitate improvements in their domestic 
        standard of living while minimizing damage to the 
        global or regional environment.

[SEC. 203. INTERNATIONAL DISCUSSIONS.

  [(a) Global Change Research.--The President should direct the 
Secretary of State, in cooperation with the Committee, to 
initiate discussions with other nations leading toward 
international protocols and other agreements to coordinate 
global change research activities. Such discussions should 
include the following issues:
          [(1) Allocation of costs in global change research 
        programs, especially with respect to major capital 
        projects.
          [(2) Coordination of global change research plans 
        with those developed by international organizations 
        such as the International Council on Scientific Unions, 
        the World Meteorological Organization, and the United 
        Nations Environment Program.
          [(3) Establishment of global change research centers 
        and training programs for scientists, especially those 
        from developing nations.
          [(4) Development of innovative methods for management 
        of international global change research, including--
                  [(A) use of new or existing intergovernmental 
                organizations for the coordination or funding 
                of global change research; and
                  [(B) creation of a limited foundation for 
                global change research.
          [(5) The prompt establishment of international 
        projects to--
                  [(A) create globally accessible formats for 
                data collected by various international 
                sources; and
                  [(B) combine and interpret data from various 
                sources to produce information readily usable 
                by policymakers attempting to formulate 
                effective strategies for preventing, 
                mitigating, and adapting to possible adverse 
                effects of global change.
          [(6) Establishment of international offices to 
        disseminate information useful in identifying, 
        preventing, mitigating, or adapting to the possible 
        effects of global change.
  [(b) Energy Research.--The President should direct the 
Secretary of State (in cooperation with the Secretary of 
Energy, the Secretary of Commerce, the United States Trade 
Representative, and other appropriate members of the Committee) 
to initiate discussions with other nations leading toward an 
international research protocol for cooperation on the 
development of energy technologies which have minimally adverse 
effects on the environment. Such discussions should include, 
but not be limited to, the following issues:
          [(1) Creation of an international cooperative program 
        to fund research related to energy efficiency, solar 
        and other renewable energy sources, and passively safe 
        and diversion-resistant nuclear reactors.
          [(2) Creation of an international cooperative program 
        to develop low cost energy technologies which are 
        appropriate to the environmental, economic, and social 
        needs of developing nations.
          [(3) Exchange of information concerning 
        environmentally safe energy technologies and practices, 
        including those described in paragraphs (1) and (2).

[SEC. 204. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH INFORMATION OFFICE.

  [Not more than 180 days after the date of enactment of this 
Act, the President shall, in consultation with the Committee 
and all relevant Federal agencies, establish an Office of 
Global Change Research Information. The purpose of the Office 
shall be to disseminate to foreign governments, businesses, and 
institutions, as well as the citizens of foreign countries, 
scientific research information available in the United States 
which would be useful in preventing, mitigating, or adapting to 
the effects of global change. Such information shall include, 
but need not be limited to, results of scientific research and 
development on technologies useful for--
          [(1) reducing energy consumption through conservation 
        and energy efficiency;
          [(2) promoting the use of solar and renewable energy 
        sources which reduce the amount of greenhouse gases 
        released into the atmosphere;
          [(3) developing replacements for chlorofluorocarbons, 
        halons, and other ozone-depleting substances which 
        exhibit a significantly reduced potential for depleting 
        stratospheric ozone;
          [(4) promoting the conservation of forest resources 
        which help reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the 
        atmosphere;
          [(5) assisting developing countries in ecological 
        pest management practices and in the proper use of 
        agricultural, and industrial chemicals; and
          [(6) promoting recycling and source reduction of 
        pollutants in order to reduce the volume of waste which 
        must be disposed of, thus decreasing energy use and 
        greenhouse gas emissions.

                    [TITLE III--GROWTH DECISION AID

[SEC. 301. STUDY AND DECISION AID.

  [(a) The Secretary of Commerce shall conduct a study of the 
implications and potential consequences of growth and 
development on urban, suburban, and rural communities. Based 
upon the findings of the study, the Secretary shall produce a 
decision aid to assist State and local authorities in planning 
and managing urban, suburban, and rural growth and development 
while preserving community character.
  [(b) The Secretary of Commerce shall consult with other 
appropriate Federal departments and agencies as necessary in 
carrying out this section.
  [(c) The Secretary of Commerce shall submit to the Congress a 
report containing the decision aid produced under subsection 
(a) no later than January 30, 1992. The Secretary shall notify 
appropriate State and local authorities that such decision aid 
is available on request.]

                     XX. Committee Recommendations

    On June 13, 2007, the Committee on Science and Technology 
favorably reported H.R. 906, as amended, by a voice vote and 
recommended its enactment.


   XXI. PROCEEDINGS OF THE MARKUP BY THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON ENERGY AND 
ENVIRONMENT ON H.R. 906, THE GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH AND DATA MANAGEMENT 
                              ACT OF 2007

                              ----------                              


                        WEDNESDAY, JUNE 6, 2007

                  House of Representatives,
            Subcommittee on Energy and Environment,
                       Committee on Science and Technology,
                                                    Washington, DC.

    The Subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 9:44 a.m., in 
Room 2318 of the Rayburn House Office Building, Hon. Nick 
Lampson [Chairman of the Subcommittee] presiding.
    Chairman Lampson. Good morning. The Subcommittee on Energy 
and Environment will come to order. Pursuant to notice, the 
Subcommittee on Energy and Environment meets to consider the 
following measures: H.R. 906, the Global Change Research and 
Data Management Act of 2007; H.R. 2304, the Advanced Geothermal 
Energy Research and Development Act of 2007; and H.R. 2313, the 
Marine Renewable Energy Research and Development Act of 2007.
    We will now proceed with the markup beginning with opening 
statements, and I will begin.
    Today the Subcommittee will consider three bills: H.R. 906, 
the Global Change Research and Data Management Act; H.R. 2304, 
the Advanced Geothermal Energy Research and Development Act; 
and H.R. 2313, the Marine Renewable Energy Research and 
Development Act of 2007.
    First, we will take up H.R. 906, the Global Change Research 
and Data Management Act of 2007, which will re-orient the 
current interagency climate research program to produce 
information that supports efforts of resource managers, 
businesses and individuals to understand and reduce our 
vulnerability to extreme weather events and climate change.
    The U.S. Global Change Research Program has been in 
existence in some form since the late 1970s. This important 
program has vastly expanded our knowledge of Earth's land, 
water and atmospheric systems. However, fires, droughts, 
hurricanes and other natural events have highlighted our 
increasing vulnerability to extreme weather and climate 
changes. With better planning and implementation adaptation 
strategies, these costs can be reduced.
    Next, we will consider two pieces of legislation to expand 
our country's renewable energy portfolio in the areas of 
geothermal and ocean power. These resources are both 
potentially vast in size and have potential to provide clean 
power at competitive rates but they require support to advance 
to the stage of commercial viability.
    H.R. 2304, the Advanced Geothermal Energy Research and 
Development Act of 2007, would reinvigorate geothermal research 
and development in this country. It would provide support and 
guidance for researchers to develop technologies capable of 
tapping into the vast quantities of thermal energy that is 
stored in the Earth's crust.
    H.R. 2313, the Marine Renewable Energy Research and 
Development Act of 2007, would support renewable energy 
development by exploiting the energy of ocean tides and 
currents. Today this promising industry is at roughly the same 
development stage that wind was back 20 years ago. With the 
support provided by this bill, this industry is posed to grow 
into a significant contributor of clean electricity to our 
nation's power grid.
    In short, these bills are about addressing overlooked 
opportunities in our collective efforts to create good American 
jobs, diversify our energy supply, increase our security and 
reduce the environmental impact of energy production. All three 
pieces of legislation are important to our environment and our 
economy. Therefore, I urge their passage and I look forward to 
getting them to the House Floor.
    [The prepared statement of Chairman Lampson follows:]
              Prepared Statement of Chairman Nick Lampson
    Today, the Subcommittee we will consider three bills, H.R. 906, the 
Global Change Research and Data Management Act; H.R. 2304, the Advanced 
Geothermal Energy Research and Development Act; and H.R. 2313, the 
Marine Renewable Energy Research and Development Act.
    First, we will take up H.R. 906, the Global Change Research and 
Data Management Act of 2007, which will re-orient the current 
interagency climate research program to produce information that 
supports efforts of resource managers, businesses, and individuals to 
understand and reduce our vulnerability to extreme weather events and 
to climate change.
    The U.S. Global Change Research Program has been in existence in 
some form since the late 1970s. This important program has vastly 
expanded our knowledge of Earth's land, water, and atmospheric systems.
    However, fires, droughts, hurricanes, and other natural events have 
highlighted our increasing vulnerability to extreme weather and climate 
changes. With better planning and implementation of adaptation 
strategies these costs can be reduced.
    Next, we will consider two pieces of legislation to expand our 
country's renewable energy portfolio in the areas of geothermal and 
ocean power. These resources are both potentially vast in size and have 
potential to provide clean power at competitive rates, but they require 
support to advance to the stage of commercial viability.
    H.R. 2304, the Advanced Geothermal Energy Research and Development 
Act of 2007, would reinvigorate geothermal research and development in 
this country. It would provide support and guidance for researchers to 
develop technologies capable of tapping into the vast quantities of 
thermal energy that is stored in the Earth's crust.
    H.R. 2313, the Marine Renewable Energy Research and Development Act 
of 2007, would support renewable energy development by exploiting the 
energy of ocean tides and currents.
    Today, this promising industry is at roughly the same developmental 
stage that wind was at 20 years ago. With the support provided by this 
bill, this industry is poised to grow into a significant contributor of 
clean electricity to our nation's power grid.
    In short, these bills are about addressing overlooked opportunities 
in our collective efforts to create good American jobs, diversify our 
energy supply, increase our security, and reduce the environmental 
impact of energy production.
    All three pieces of legislation are important to our environment 
and our economy. Therefore, I urge their passage, and look forward to 
getting them to the House Floor.

    Chairman Lampson. At this time I will recognize Mr. Inglis 
to present his opening remarks.
    Mr. Inglis. Thank you, Mr. Chairman, and thank you for 
holding this markup.
    I am happy to be a co-sponsor of Mr. Udall's bill, the 
Global Change Research and Data Management Act. For a number of 
years, the U.S. Global Research Program has coordinated a 
successful interagency research program on global environmental 
change and implications of a changing climate for society. H.R. 
906 continues support for this research and makes that research 
user-friendly for federal, State and local decision-makers who 
are tasked with the job of creating policies that address the 
challenges associated with climate change.
    We also have an opportunity to address the development of 
clean, renewable energy sources in today's markup of H.R. 2304, 
the Advanced Geothermal Energy Research and Development Act, 
and H.R. 2313, the Marine Renewable Energy Research and 
Development Act. Geothermal and marine-related energy should be 
sources of energy for us and I am looking forward to promoting 
research that will make these alternatives commercially 
feasible. I hope we can build on what we have already learned 
and that experienced scientists in that program have already 
achieved and move forward to even greater use of these sources 
of energy.
    And Mr. Chairman, I hope that by the time that we have 
concluded opening statements, that more Members will appear 
from the Republican conference that is still underway, and when 
they do, I suppose we will have a quorum for votes on these 
bills.
    [The prepared statement of Mr. Inglis follows:]
            Prepared Statement of Representative Bob Inglis
    Thank you for holding this markup, Mr. Chairman.
    I'm happy to be a co-sponsor of Mr. Udall's bill, the Global Change 
Research and Data Management Act. For many years, the United States 
Global Research Program has coordinated a successful interagency 
research program on global environment change and implications of a 
changing climate for society. H.R. 906 continues support for this 
research, and makes that research ``user-friendly'' for federal, State, 
and local decision-makers who are tasked with the job of creating 
policies that address the challenges associated with climate change.
    We also have an opportunity to address the development of clean, 
renewable energy sources in today's markup of H.R. 2304, the Advanced 
Geothermal Energy Research and Development Act, and H.R. 2313, the 
Marine Renewable Energy Research and Development Act. Geothermal and 
marine-related energy should be sources of energy for us, and I'm 
looking forward to promoting research that will make these alternatives 
commercially affordable. I hope that we can build on what we've already 
learned and that experienced scientists and other professionals are 
included so that duplication does not occur.
    Thank you again, Mr. Chairman, and I look forward to working with 
you to advance this legislation.

    Chairman Lampson. We will be ready for the votes when they 
come in. We may get a little ahead of them.
    Without objection, Members may place statements in the 
record at this point.
    We will now consider H.R. 906, the Global Change Research 
and Data Management Act of 2007, and I will yield Mr. Udall 
five minutes to describe this bill.
    Mr. Udall. Thank you, Mr. Chairman, and thank you for 
bringing the bill up for markup today.
    In February, Representative Inglis and I introduced H.R. 
906, the Global Change Research and Data Management Act of 
2007. The debate about whether climate change is occurring and 
about whether human activity has contributed to it is over. As 
our population, economy and infrastructure have grown, we have 
put more pressure on the natural resources we all depend upon. 
The fires, droughts, severe storms and other natural events 
that we experience every year exact a tremendous toll on our 
society. We must reduce the human and economic costs of these 
events by making our communities more resilient and less 
vulnerable to their impacts.
    For all these reasons, we need the U.S. Global Change 
Research Program to produce more information that is readily 
available to decision-makers and resource managers in 
government and in the private sector.
    People throughout this country and in the rest of the world 
need information they can use to develop response, adaptation 
and mitigation strategies to make our communities, our business 
and our nation more resilient and less vulnerable to the 
changes that are inevitable.
    The USGCRP has significantly advanced our scientific 
knowledge of Earth's atmosphere and climate and has provided us 
with a wealth of new data and information about the functioning 
of our planet. We need to continue to expand this knowledge. 
However, we need to increase the output of information to 
decision-makers that will assist them in developing adaptation 
and response strategies to the effects of global change.
    I believe that we must move to reduce greenhouse gas 
emissions if we are to avoid future increases in surface 
temperature that will trigger severe impacts that we cannot 
overcome with adaptation strategies. However, and I think this 
is an important point, Mr. Chairman, this bill does not 
regulate greenhouse gas emission levels or mandate any specific 
policy approach for addressing climate change.
    We will need economic and technical information as well as 
information about system responses and climate responses to 
different concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere 
to design cost-effective policies to achieve emission 
reductions and avoid dangerous impacts of future climate 
change.
    The USGCRP should be the vehicle for providing this 
information. H.R. 906 will improve the outreach and information 
exchange aspects of the program and make the information that 
it provides much more useful.
    Again, I want to thank my good friend from South Carolina, 
Representative Inglis, for working with me on H.R. 906, and I 
ask our colleagues to support this important legislation.
    [The prepared statement of Mr. Udall follows:]
            Prepared Statement of Representative Mark Udall
    Thank you, Chairman Lampson, for bringing this bill up for markup 
today.
    This February, I, along with Representative Bob Inglis, introduced 
H.R. 906, the Global Change Research and Data Management Act of 2007.
    The debate about whether climate change is occurring and about 
whether human activity has contributed to it is over. As our 
population, economy, and infrastructure have grown, we have put more 
pressure on the natural resources we all depend upon.
    The fires, droughts, severe storms and other natural events that we 
experience every year exact a tremendous toll on our society.
    We must reduce the human and economic costs of these events by 
making our communities more resilient and less vulnerable to their 
impacts.
    For all of these reasons, we need the U.S. Global Change Research 
Program to produce more information that is readily usable by decision 
makers and resource managers in government and in the private sector.
    People throughout this country and in the rest of the world need 
information they can use to develop response, adaptation, and 
mitigation strategies to make our communities, our businesses, and our 
nation more resilient and less vulnerable to the changes that are 
inevitable.
    The USGCRP has significantly advanced our scientific knowledge of 
Earth's atmosphere and climate and has provided us with a wealth of new 
data and information about the functioning of our planet. We need to 
continue to expand this knowledge.
    However, we need to increase the output of information to decision-
makers that will assist them in developing adaptation and response 
strategies to the effects of global change.
    I believe that we must move to reduce greenhouse gas emissions if 
we are to avoid future increases in surface temperature that will 
trigger severe impacts that we cannot overcome with adaptation 
strategies.
    However, this bill does not regulate greenhouse gas emission levels 
or mandate any specific policy approach for addressing climate change.
    We will need economic and technical information as well as 
information about system responses and climate responses to different 
concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere to design cost 
effective policies to achieve emission reductions and avoid dangerous 
impacts of future climate change.
    The USGCRP should be the vehicle for providing this information. 
H.R. 906 will improve the outreach and information exchange aspects of 
this Program and make the information that it provides more useful.
    Again, I thank my colleague, Rep. Inglis for working with me on 
H.R. 906. I ask our colleagues to support this important legislation.

    Chairman Lampson. Thank you, Mr. Udall.
    I recognize Mr. Inglis to present any remarks on the bill.
    Mr. Inglis. As I said, Mr. Chairman, in my opening 
statement, I am very happy to be a co-sponsor of Mr. Udall's 
bill. I think it will help to prepare local governments, State 
governments for the impacts of global climate change and the 
coordination makes sense. We gather information and it makes 
sense to make that available in a user-friendly kind of way. So 
I am pleased with the bill and hope that we are going to have a 
quorum here soon to pass it.
    Chairman Lampson. We are working on that quorum. Does 
anyone wish to be recognized to speak on this? Ms. Biggert is 
recognized for five minutes.
    Ms. Biggert. Mr. Chairman, I am concerned, you know, that 
this meeting is being held at 9:30 when the Republicans have a 
caucus, you know, so we have to leave to come here and I think 
that I don't ever remember that having happened. I think it is 
important for us to have the opportunity to speak on this, so I 
would make a point of order that a quorum is not present.
    Chairman Lampson. Your point of order is noticed. We can 
suspend and wait until we have a discussion, if that is what 
you desire.
    Ms. Biggert. It is not what I so desire. I think that is 
what is proper under our rules.
    Chairman Lampson. A quorum is assumed to be present unless 
someone objects, and with your objection we will suspend.
    Ms. Biggert. I ask unanimous consent to withdraw my motion. 
I just wanted to make the point that the timing is such that I 
would hope that that wouldn't happen again.
    Chairman Lampson. Any objection? Seeing none, thank you, we 
will proceed. Okay. And we have a quorum at this point in time.
    I ask unanimous consent that the bill is considered as read 
and open to amendment at any point and that Members proceed 
with the amendments in order of the roster. Without objection, 
it is so ordered.
    Mr. Udall. Mr. Chairman, I have an amendment at the desk.
    Chairman Lampson. The first amendment on the roster is an 
amendment in the nature of a substitute offered by the 
gentleman from Colorado. I ask unanimous consent that the 
amendment in the nature of a substitute be treated as original 
text for the purposes of amendment under the five-minute rule. 
Without objection, so ordered.
    Mr. Udall, the Clerk will report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment in the nature of a substitute to H.R. 
906 offered by Mr. Udall of Colorado and Mr. Inglis of South 
Carolina.
    Chairman Lampson. I ask unanimous consent to dispense with 
the reading. Without objection, so ordered. I recognize the 
gentleman from Colorado for five minutes to explain the 
substitute amendment.
    Mr. Udall. Thank you, Mr. Chairman, and this amendment in 
the nature of a substitute incorporates a series of changes to 
the legislation that were suggested by witnesses at our 
hearing, outside groups and individuals who provided comments. 
Again I want to thank my very good friend from South Carolina, 
Mr. Inglis, for working with me, a fully working partnership 
here to develop and incorporate these changes.
    The comments that I reference address several broad themes. 
First was the need for the program to provide more 
geographically refined information to assist decision-makers at 
the regional, State and local levels that will be designing and 
implementing adaptation and mitigation strategies to cope with 
not only current but future climate change. To address this, we 
added a definition of regional climate change that incorporates 
changes that are not strictly climate-related but also changes 
because of population increases, changes in land use and 
development patterns. Throughout this substitute we have 
included specific references to global and regional climate 
change information, both in the planning and the execution of 
the program.
    Secondly, a number of witnesses at our hearing told us that 
we were asking for too much too soon. The original bill had a 
strategic plan, a vulnerability assessment and a policy 
assessment all due within one year of enactment. The substitute 
changes the time line for these products. In the first year we 
are now asking that the Administration produce an outline 
describing the steps that they will take for strategic plan 
development. Then the new strategic plan will be due three 
years after the bill is enacted and then the plan will undergo 
revision every five years. We have retained the original 
timeline for delivery of the vulnerability assessment, and that 
is because we all believe that the required information for the 
assessment is contained in the Working Group I and Working 
Group II reports issued within the last few months by the IPCC, 
the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and while we 
would like to see as much of this information as possible 
tailored to help us understand the changes we will face here in 
the United States, we believe the U.S.-relevant content of 
these reports can be highlighted and repackaged within a year's 
time to fulfill the requirement of this section. We have 
extended the cycle for future assessments by one year to every 
five years.
    The original, referencing back to the law in the 1990s, 
contains several provisions to indicate that the activities of 
the USGCRP should be coordinated with the activities that the 
United States was participating in internationally. We retained 
those provisions and added a new one in Section 107 to 
emphasize the importance of making maximum use of the 
information gathered. The IPCC has produced four substantial 
reports since the first one was released in 1990. During that 
same time period the U.S. Global Change Research Program has 
produced just one assessment. The IPCC process has benefited a 
great deal from the involvement of U.S. scientists and U.S. 
investments in climate research and we should be benefiting 
here at home as well. Better coordination of these two efforts 
and more involvement with regionally-based groups would achieve 
that goal. We have not yet changed the timeline for the 
production of the policy assessment required in Section 108 of 
the bill and we will do that during the Full Committee markup. 
A Member of the Committee has expressed an interest in working 
on that section of the bill, and I believe that we will come to 
agreement shortly on text to replace that section.
    We are also awaiting some information from the 
Administration on climate-related reports to see if we can 
further accommodate their concerns about too onerous reporting 
burden for the program.
    And finally, we heard from witnesses and outside groups 
that this program needs to foster more interaction between 
decision-makers at regional, State and local levels and other 
non-governmental organizations and businesses that may be 
impacted by changes occurring both at the regional and the 
global levels. We have added language to expand the outreach 
and information exchange purposes and tasks associated with 
this program.
    Now, the USGCRP should not just produce a series of 
reports. It should continue to expand our knowledge of the 
Earth's climate system. The program should facilitate an 
ongoing exchange of information that will support the 
development, implementation and evolution of adaptation and 
mitigation strategies to maintain the viability of natural and 
human-managed systems. We still have some other items to 
address prior to marking this up in the Full Committee. I look 
forward to further productive discussions that will yield an 
even better bill, and again I want to thank my colleague, Mr. 
Inglis, for his support and the friendship and partnership on 
this important legislation.
    [The prepared statement of Mr. Udall follows:]
            Prepared Statement of Representative Mark Udall
    Mr. Chairman, I have an amendment at the desk.
    The amendment in the nature of a substitute to H.R. 906 
incorporates a series of changes to the legislation that were suggested 
by witnesses at our hearing, outside groups, and individuals who 
provided comments on the bill. I want to thank Rep. Inglis for working 
with me to develop and incorporate these changes.
    We received many constrictive comments and suggestions on H.R. 906. 
In general, the comments addressed several broad themes.
    First was the need for the Program to provide more geographically 
refined information to assist decision-makers at the regional, State, 
and local levels that will be designing and implementing adaptation and 
mitigation strategies to cope with current and future climate change.
    To address this, we have added a definition of regional climate 
change that incorporates changes that are not strictly climate-related, 
but also changes because of population increases, changes in land use, 
and development patterns. Throughout the Substitute we have included 
specific references to global and regional climate change information 
both in the planning and execution of the program.
    Second, a number of witnesses at our hearing told us that we were 
asking for too much too soon. The original bill had a Strategic Plan, a 
Vulnerability Assessment, and a Policy Assessment all due within one 
year of enactment.
    The Substitute changes the time line for these products. In the 
first year, we are now asking that the Administration produce an 
outline describing the steps that they will take to produce a Strategic 
Plan for research and assessment. The new Strategic Plan will be due 
three years after the bill is enacted. Then, the Plan will undergo 
revision every five years.
    We have retained the original timeline of H.R. 906 for delivery of 
the Vulnerability Assessment. This is because we believe the required 
information for this assessment is contained in the Working Group I and 
Working Group II reports issued within the last few months by the 
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
    While we would like to see as much of this information as possible 
tailored to help us understand the changes we will face here in the 
U.S., we believe the U.S.-relevant content of these reports can be 
highlighted and repackaged within a year's time to fulfill the 
requirement of this section. We have extended the cycle for producing 
further assessments by one year to every five years.
    The original law contained several provisions to indicate the 
activities of the U.S. Global Change Research Program should be 
coordinated with the activities the U.S. was participating in 
internationally. We have retained these provisions and added a new one 
in Section 107 to emphasize the importance of making maximum use of the 
information gathered anal synthesized in efforts such as the production 
of IPCC documents.
    The IPCC has produced four substantial reports since the first one 
was released in 1990. During that same time period, the U.S. Global 
Change Research Program. has produced one assessment. The IPCC process 
has benefited a great deal from the involvement of U.S. scientists and 
U.S. investments in climate research. We should be benefiting here at 
home as well. Better coordination of these two efforts and more 
involvement with regionally-based groups would achieve that goal.
    We have not yet changed the time line for the production of the 
Policy Assessment required in Section 108 of the bill. We will do that 
during the Full Committee markup. A Member of the Committee has 
expressed an interest in working on that Section of the bill and I 
believe we will come to agreement shortly on text to replace that 
section.
    We are also awaiting some information from the Administration on 
climate-related reports to see if we can further accommodate their 
concerns about too onerous a reporting burden for the Program.
    Finally, we heard from witnesses and outside groups that this 
Program needs to foster more interaction between decision-makers at 
regional, State, and local levels and other non-governmental 
organizations and businesses that may be impacted by changes occurring 
at the regional and global scales. We have added language to expand the 
outreach and information exchange purposes and tasks associated with 
this Program.
    The U.S. Global Change Research Program should not just produce a 
series of Reports. It should continue to expand our knowledge of the 
Earth's climate system. The Program should facilitate an ongoing 
exchange of information that will support the development, 
implementation, and evolution of adaptation and mitigation strategies 
to maintain the viability of our natural and human-managed systems.
    We still have some other items to address prior to marking up this 
bill in the Full Committee. I look forward to further productive 
discussions that will yield a better bill.
    Once again, I thank my colleague and co-sponsor, Mr. Inglis for 
working with me on this legislation. I urge support for the amendment 
and for H.R. 906.

    Chairman Lampson. Thank you, Mr. Udall. Is there further 
discussion on the amendment?
    Mr. Inglis. I might just add, Mr. Chairman, that this shows 
that hearings really do matter because what happened here is 
witnesses testified, we heard some information from them, and 
as a result the bill was improved. So I thank the gentleman for 
making these improvements. I am happy to co-sponsor the 
manager's amendment as well.
    Chairman Lampson. Anyone else wish to be recognized?
    Are there any amendments to the amendment in the nature of 
a substitute? If not, the vote occurs on the amendment in the 
nature of a substitute. All in favor, say aye. Those opposed, 
say no. The ayes have it and the amendment is agreed to, and I 
would note that we do have a quorum present for that vote. 
Pursuant to Rule 2T, further proceedings on this matter are 
postponed until after further notice from the Chair.
    Are there any other amendments? Hearing none, the vote is 
on the bill, H.R. 906, the Global Change Research and Data 
Management Act of 2007, as amended. All those in favor, say 
aye. Those opposed, no. The ayes have it.
    I recognize Mr. Inglis for a motion.
    Mr. Inglis. Mr. Chairman, I move that the Subcommittee 
report H.R. 906 as amended to the Full Committee. Furthermore, 
I move that the staff be instructed to prepare the Subcommittee 
legislative report and make necessary technical and conforming 
changes to the bill as amended in accordance with the 
recommendations of the Subcommittee.
    Chairman Lampson. The question is on the motion to report 
the bill favorably. Those in favor of the motion will signify 
by saying aye. Those opposed, say no. The ayes have it, and the 
bill is favorably reported.
    Without objection the motion to reconsider is laid upon the 
table. Subcommittee Members may submit additional or Minority 
views on the measure.
    I want to thank the Members for their attendance, and this 
concludes our Subcommittee markup. We are adjourned.
    [Whereupon, at 10:25 a.m., the Subcommittee was adjourned.]
                               Appendix:

                              ----------                              


        H.R. 906, Section-by-Section Analysis, Amendment Roster


                Section-by-Section Analysis of H.R. 906,
                Global Climate Change Research Data and
                         Management Act of 2007
Purpose: To promote and coordinate global change research, and for 
other purposes.

Title I: Global Change Research

Section 101: Findings and Purpose

    The purpose of the bill is to reauthorize and amend the 1990 law 
authorizing the U.S. Global Change Research Program to provide for a 
continued Earth and climate observation and research program. The bill 
also authorizes the program to provide information that will enable us 
to understand the potential impacts of climate change or both regional 
and global scales and to provide information that will allow Federal, 
State, and local governments to adapt and respond to the effects of 
global change.

Section 102: Definitions

    Section 102 defines the following terms for the purposes of this 
legislation: global change, global change research, interagency 
committee, plan, and program.

Section 103: Interagency Cooperation and Coordination

    Establishes an interagency committee to oversee and coordinate the 
program and define the functions of the interagency committee.

Section 104: United States Global Climate Change Research Program

    Section 104 directs the President to establish an interagency U.S. 
Global Research Program.

Section 105: National Global Change Research Plan

    Section 105 directs the President to develop an initial Plan to 
guide the interagency activities conducted under the U.S. Global Change 
Research Program and to update the Plan every four years. This section 
also defines the contents of the plan and the minimum research elements 
of the plan. This section also provides for two evaluations of the 
plan, one by the National Academy of Sciences, for the review of the 
scientific merit of the program plan. The other, for a review by the 
Center for Best Practices of the National Governors Association for a 
review of the plan's utility for meeting the information needs of 
State, local and regional decision-makers. This section also provides 
for public review of the plan including its publication in the Federal 
Register with a comment period of at least 60 days.

Section 106: Budget Coordination

    Section 106 requires the President to provide guidance to each 
federal agency participating in the program to identify funds to carry 
out the program and to include a request for the activities of this 
program in his annual budget.

Section 107: Vulnerability Assessment

    Section 107 requires the President to submit an assessment to 
Congress one year after enactment and then at intervals of every four 
years. The section defines the contents of the assessment to include: a 
summary of the findings of the Program and the uncertainty associated 
with the findings; analyses of changes to natural systems at regional 
and continental scales; analyses of the effects of global change on 
human social and economic systems at regional and continental scales; 
analyses of regional vulnerabilities to global change; and analyses of 
policies and technologies to reduce the identified vulnerabilities and 
their rates of adoption.

Section 108: Policy Assessment

    Section 108 requires the President to submit periodic Policy 
Assessments to Congress evaluating current policy options being 
utilized by Federal, State, and local governments to mitigate or adapt 
to the effects of global change.

Section 109: Annual Report

    Section 109 requires the President to submit an annual report to 
Congress with a summary of the achievements of the Program, an analysis 
of the progress made towards achieving its goals, and a list of 
potential users of the information created by the Program.

Section 110: Relation to Other Authorities

    Section 110 requires coordination of the activities authorized 
under this program with those of the National Climate Program. This 
section also repeals the Global Change Research Act of 1990.

Title II: Climate and Other Global Change Data Management

Section 201: Findings and Purposes

    Section 201 establishes climate and global change data management 
and archiving as federal agency missions and establishes policies for 
managing and archiving these data.

Section 202: Definitions

    Section 202 defines the following terms for the purposes of this 
legislation: metadata and working group.

Section 203: Interagency Climate and Other Global Change Data 
Management Working Group

    Section 203 directs the President to establish and interagency 
working group to coordinate federal global change data management and 
archiving activities. The section also defines the membership in the 
interagency group and requires the working group to report to Congress 
with recommendations for the maintenance and archiving of data related 
to global change.

Title III: International Cooperation in Global Change Research

Section 301: Findings and Purpose

    The purpose of this title is to promote international cooperation 
on global change research.

Section 302: International Discussions

    Section 302 directs the President to initiate discussion with other 
nations on coordination of global change research. It also directs the 
President to initiate discussion with other nations on cooperation of 
research and development of energy technologies that have minimal 
adverse effects on the environment.

Section 303: Global Change Research Information Office

    Section 303 directs the President to establish an Office of Global 
Change Research Information to disseminate foreign governments, 
businesses, and institutions information which would be useful in 
preventing, mitigating, or adapting the effects of global change.




XXII. PROCEEDINGS OF THE FULL COMMITTEE MARKUP ON H.R. 906, THE GLOBAL 
            CHANGE RESEARCH AND DATA MANAGEMENT ACT OF 2007

                              ----------                              


                        WEDNESDAY, JUNE 27, 2007

                  House of Representatives,
                       Committee on Science and Technology,
                                                    Washington, DC.

    The Committee met, pursuant to call, at 10:08 a.m., in Room 
2318 of the Rayburn House Office Building, Hon. Bart Gordon 
[Chairman of the Committee] presiding.
    Chairman Gordon. The Committee will come to order.
    Pursuant to notice, the Committee on Science and Technology 
meets to consider the following measures: H.R. 906, the Global 
Change Research and Data Management Act of 2007; H.R. 1933, the 
Department of Energy Carbon Capture and Storage Research, 
Development, and Demonstration Act of 2007; H.R. 2773, the 
Biofuels Research and Development Enhancement Act; and H.R. 
2774, the Solar Energy Research and Investment Act of 2007.
    I know that we have a lot of other markups going on today, 
so we are going to try to proceed, but I would like to make a 
couple of announcements at first. Now, some of the Members have 
been interested in the trip we are going to be taking, the 
fact-finding trip we are taking to Greenland the weekend of 
July the 19th. We should know today about--we have a plane, but 
we still have concern about in-country travel, because we can't 
use our plane there, because of the lengths of the runway. We 
should know more about that today, so we will know the size and 
the number of folks that we can take.
    Also, you have received a letter through your office, but I 
will remind you, in case you didn't know, that there is going 
to be a climate change meeting of the UN Framework Convention 
on Climate Change, the parent body that oversees the Kyoto 
Protocol. It will be held in Bali from December the 3rd to the 
14th. There will be important areas of discussion. It will 
include carbon sequestration, reforestation, avoiding 
deforestation, and carbon trading. There will be about 10,000 
international delegates there. We will not, or as Members, we 
will not be a credentialed participant, but we will be able to 
interact with those folks that are there. We will not be taking 
a Science Committee group as a whole, but we do have some 
slots, I think, that will be made available to us, for 
individuals that would like to go. But again, when you put 
10,000 people there, it is going to be crowded, and so, you 
need to let us know soon.
    And finally, I think that we should all say happy birthday 
to Margaret today. We congratulate her on surviving one more, 
and hope there will be more to come.
    Mr. Lampson. And happy anniversary to you and your wife, 
Mr. Chairman.
    Chairman Gordon. Thank you for reminding me. By the way, 
from 7:00 to 9:00 will be a good time to call votes, because I 
am not going to be here tonight.
    With concern about global climate change, the high gas and 
electricity prices, and our growing reliance on unstable energy 
supplying nations, energy has come to the forefront of our 
constituents' awareness, and has been placed at the top of the 
Congressional to-do list. Here, on the Science and Technology 
Committee, we have responded with an aggressive energy agenda. 
With the addition of four bills, that we are going to mark up 
today, this committee will contribute an even dozen pieces of 
bipartisan legislation that made a vital contribution to the 
national strategy to put U.S. and the world on track to a more 
sustainable future.
    First, we will consider H.R. 906. Mr. Udall and Mr. Inglis, 
the Ranking Member of the Energy and Environment Subcommittee 
and co-sponsor of the bill, have worked together to produce 
this legislation. H.R. 906 re-orients the U.S. Global Change 
Research Program to produce more policy relevant climate 
information for regional, State, and local governments, and 
other groups.
    We will then take up H.R. 1933, by Representative Udall, 
which sets out the next steps in DOE's carbon mitigation 
strategies. In addition to ongoing research in carbon 
management, the bill authorizes DOE to conduct demonstrations 
on large scale Carbon Capture and Storage technologies, through 
partnerships with industrial, academic, and government 
entities. Because we will continue to use our abundant 
resources of coal to meet our energy needs for the foreseeable 
future, it is critical that we demonstrate an integrated system 
of capture, transportation, and storage of carbon dioxide, at a 
scale that encourages industry to start making technological 
choices.
    Next, the Committee will take up a bill by the Chairman of 
the Energy and Environment Subcommittee, Representative Nick 
Lampson. H.R. 2773, the Biofuels Research and Development 
Enhancement Act, will better coordinate and compile information 
from federal biofuels research programs, and focus biofuels 
research on infrastructure needs and efficiency of biorefinery 
technologies. H.R. 2773 also provides for the in depth study of 
several challenges facing broader of biofuels, and increases 
the funding levels of biofuels research.
    Finally, we will consider H.R. 2774, the Solar Energy 
Research and Advancement Act of 2007, introduced by 
Congresswoman Giffords. This bill creates an R&D; program on 
energy storage technology for concentrating solar plants, which 
allows for the use of solar energy, even when the sun isn't 
shining. It also asks DOE to conduct studies on how to best 
integrate concentrating solar plants within the grid, and ways 
to reduce water uses in these plants. In addition, it creates a 
workforce training program for solar installation and 
maintenance, which is critical to making solar power a real 
energy option across the Nation.
    For each of these bills, the Energy and Environment 
Subcommittee held legislative hearings, had markups, where we 
heard valuable witness testimony, and facilitated good Member 
discussions on the barriers and possible pathways to these 
programs. And as you know, we are not alone in this effort. The 
Energy and Commerce Committee is marking up a series of bills 
today, at this very moment, and my friend, Congressman Hall, as 
well as a few of the folks in the Majority, are on both 
committees, so we are monitoring that, and if you see a dust 
cloud here at some point, we will be moving to the other 
committee to make those votes, but I am sure we will be left in 
good hands here, and we will continue with this markup.
    In conclusion, I want to urge my colleagues to support 
these bills. I know that the Committee's pace has been very 
aggressive, and it has been difficult at times for all of us. 
However, I believe the products that have resulted from this 
process demonstrate the value of this committee, and its 
bipartisan work reflects the entire membership.
    The bottom line is that we are going to have an energy bill 
in July. The Science Committee is going to, in a bipartisan 
way, make a major, major contribution with that. There are 
going to be several other committees that will have bills. We 
are going to get a reference from most of those, sequential, 
which we will also put our mark on. Every bill that has come 
out of this committee has been bipartisan, all but one. We will 
see what happens today, but so far, all but one has been 
unanimous, and so, I think everyone on this committee can go 
home, and claim a great deal of credit for what I think will be 
not an enormously comprehensive, but a good bill, a step 
forward, that will pass by a large margin on the House Floor in 
July.
    So now, I recognize Mr. Hall to present his opening 
remarks.
    [The prepared statement of Chairman Gordon follows:]
               Prepared Statement of Chairman Bart Gordon
    With concerns about global climate change, high gas and electricity 
prices, and our growing reliance on unstable energy-supplying nations, 
energy has come to the forefront of our constituents' awareness and has 
been placed at the top of the Congressional ``To-Do'' list.
    Here on the Science and Technology Committee we have responded with 
an aggressive energy agenda.
    With the addition of the four bills we are marking up today, this 
committee will contribute an even dozen pieces of legislation that make 
a vital contribution to the national strategy to put the U.S., and the 
world, on track to a more sustainable future.
    First we will consider H.R. 906. Mr. Udall and Mr. Inglis, the 
Ranking Member of the Energy and Environment Subcommittee and co-
sponsor of the bill, have worked together to produce this legislation.
    H.R. 906 re-orients the U.S. Global Change Research Program to 
produce more policy-relevant climate information for regional, State, 
and local governments and other user groups.
    We will then take up H.R. 1933 by Rep. Udall, which sets out the 
next steps in DOE's carbon mitigation strategies. In addition to 
ongoing research in carbon management, the bill authorizes DOE to 
conduct demonstrations of large-scale carbon capture and storage 
technologies through partnerships with industrial, academic and 
government entities.
    Because we will continue to use our abundant resources of coal to 
meet our energy needs for the foreseeable future, it is critical that 
we demonstrate an integrated system of capture, transportation, and 
storage of carbon dioxide at a scale that encourages industry to start 
making technology choices.
    Next, the Committee will take up a bill by the Chairman of the 
Energy & Environment Subcommittee, Rep. Nick Lampson. H.R. 2773, the 
Biofuels Research and Development Enhancement Act, will better 
coordinate and compile information from federal biofuels research 
programs and focus biofuels research on infrastructure needs and 
efficiency of biorefinery technologies.
    H.R. 2773 also provides for the in-depth study of several 
challenges facing broader use of biofuels and increases the funding 
levels for biofuels research.
    Finally, we will consider H.R. 2774, the Solar Energy Research and 
Advancement Act of 2007, introduced by Congresswoman Giffords. This 
bill creates an R&D; program on energy storage technology for 
concentrating solar power plants, which allows for the use of solar 
energy even when the sun isn't shining.
    It also asks DOE to conduct studies on how to best integrate 
concentrating solar plants with the grid, and ways to reduce water 
usage in these plants. In addition, it creates a workforce training 
program for solar installation and maintenance, which is critical to 
making solar power a real energy option across the country.
    For each of these bills the Energy and Environment Subcommittee 
held legislative hearings and markups where we heard valuable witness 
testimony and facilitated good Member discussions on the barriers and 
possible pathways for these programs.
    And, as you all may know, we are not alone in this effort today. 
The Energy and Commerce Committee is also marking up a series of energy 
bills and I, along with Ranking Member Hall and a few others, may have 
to excuse myself for votes in that committee.
    In conclusion, I urge my colleagues to support these four bills. I 
know the Committee's pace has been very aggressive and that has been 
difficult at times for all of us. However, I believe the products that 
have resulted from this process demonstrate the value of this committee 
and its work and it reflects well on the entire membership.
    I want to thank all the Members for their cooperation and 
participation.

    Mr. Hall. Thank you, Mr. Chairman, and I will try not to 
take the full length of time, and make one statement. I will be 
glad, as I am sure you will and others, when this month passes.
    I understand that you and your fellow Chairmen and other 
Members have been working, I guess, under the usual pressure of 
this first year, to get and report bills out of the Committee, 
and sometimes, I fear that when we rush things through, we 
don't get the best end-product we could have, if we had more 
time to fully vet the language, but I guess we will be working 
that as we go.
    You have done a good job of working with us, and I thank 
you for that. While I think improvements in the bill before us 
today are going to occur through amendments to be offered, I 
think they could be improved further, and I hope we will have 
other opportunities to do this, as the bill moves to the Floor. 
It is also my hope and understanding that, going forward, there 
will be more of an effort to have both sides working together, 
as we craft legislation to come before this committee. We will 
have more time. I think this would improve not only the quality 
of work we produce, but also, the bipartisan way in which they 
are handled.
    With that said, I support and believe it is important to 
our country's energy future to keep all options on the table, 
and we strive to do that with the three energy bills before us. 
One of our greatest challenges as a Nation is energy self-
sufficiency. We need to break our dependence on foreign sources 
of energy from countries we don't trust and who don't trust us. 
To do that, we need to be honest and practical about what needs 
to be done to get to that point.
    Solar and biofuels are an important source of domestic 
energy, but they are also limited in their scope. It is 
important that we continue to research and develop the 
resources we know exist domestically, and currently provide 
reliable, affordable, and clean sources of energy. I look 
forward to working with the Committee and working with you, Mr. 
Chairman, in the months ahead, to address this reality, so that 
Americans can enjoy more energy choices at a lower cost.
    I yield back.
    [The statement of Mr. Hall follows:]
           Prepared Statement of Representative Ralph M. Hall
    Thank you Mr. Chairman. In the interest of time, I will keep my 
statement brief and say that I will be glad when this month is over. I 
understand that you and your fellow Chairmen have been working under 
pressure from the Speaker to report bills out of committee, but I fear 
that sometimes when things are rushed through, we don't get the best 
end-products we could have if we had more time to fully vet the 
language. While I think there are improvements in the bills before us 
today with the Subcommittee markup last week and the amendments to be 
offered today, I think that they could still be improved upon, and I 
hope that we'll have other opportunities to do so. It is also my hope 
and understanding that going forward, there will be more of an effort 
to have both sides working together as we craft legislation to come 
before the Committee. I think this would improve not only the quality 
of work we produce, but also the bipartisan way in which they are 
handled.
    With that said, I support what we're doing here today. It's 
important to our country's energy future to keep all options on table, 
and we continue to do that with the three energy bills before us.
    With that I yield back the balance of my time.

    Chairman Gordon. Thank you, Mr. Chairman, or rather, thank 
you, Mr. Hall.
    Let me also say that you may not know, but I met privately 
and personally with the Republican, both the staff from the 
Members, as well as the Committee staff the other day, to talk 
about how we can, you know, do what I think is a good job even 
better. There were compliments in some areas of the 
consultation. There were suggestions for improvement in the 
others. I have asked for them to put together models of how 
they see things done, and good ways that we have done it, and 
if we haven't done it as well as we would like, so those kind 
of models, we are going to continue to work together.
    I am a new Chairman, there is a lot of new staff, and we 
are going to get this thing better and better, as we go along, 
because I truly believe that more consultation gets us a 
bipartisan bill, a consensus bill, and we are all going to be 
better off.
    So, does anyone else wish to be recognized?
    All right. Then I ask unanimous consent that the bill is 
considered as read and open to amendment at any point, and that 
the Members proceed with the amendments in the order on the 
roster. Without objection, so ordered.
    The first amendment on the roster is a manager's amendment 
offered by the gentleman from Colorado, Mr. Udall. Are you 
ready to proceed with your amendment?
    Mr. Udall. Mr. Chairman, I am. If I might, can I make a 
statement on the bill itself?
    Chairman Gordon. And you have an amendment at the desk?
    Mr. Udall. Mr. Chairman, I have a bill at the desk, and if 
I might, I would like to make a statement on the bill itself.
    Chairman Gordon. The Clerk will report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment to H.R. 906, offered by Mr. Udall of 
Colorado.
    Chairman Gordon. Okay. All right. Excuse me, Mr. Udall, I 
guess my gavel got in front of your request to make a 
statement. Let me recognize, once again, you for a statement, 
and anyone else that would like to.
    Mr. Udall. Thank you, Chairman Gordon, for bringing the 
bill up today, and if I could, I would like to just briefly 
describe it. I introduced H.R. 906, the Global Change Research 
and Data Management Act of 2007, with my colleague from South 
Carolina, Mr. Inglis, earlier this year.
    Climate change is occurring. Its impacts are already being 
felt across the country, from Alaska's melting tundra to more 
intensive droughts across the West. Although we are still 
debating how to address this challenge at the federal level, we 
will have to confront climate change soon, and with some mix of 
mitigation and adaptation. The increase in extreme weather 
events along will have a large human and economic cost.
    H.R. 906 will set us in the right direction, by expanding 
and improving the U.S. Global Change Research Program to 
provide more user-driven research and information. We will need 
economic and technical information, as well as information 
about system responses, and climate responses to different 
concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, to design 
cost-effective policies to achieve reductions, and avoid 
dangerous impacts of future climate change.
    The program should be the vehicle providing us information. 
H.R. 906 will improve the outreach and information exchange 
aspects of this program, and make the information that it 
provides more useful. This program has contributed 
significantly to our knowledge about climate change in our 
planet's environment since its formation in 1990, but we now 
need to expand this information, and tailor it to the needs of 
decision-makers confronted with management and mitigation 
challenges.
    I should add that I believe that we must cut our carbon 
dioxide emissions as a part of our response to climate change. 
However, H.R. 906 deals with a research program. The 
legislation does not create a cap and trade program or any 
other regulations.
    And Mr. Chairman, before closing, I would truly like to 
thank the staff on both sides of the aisle for their hard work 
on this legislation. We are lucky to have such an excellent 
staff on the Science and Technology Committee. And again, I 
want to thank my colleague, Representative Inglis, for working 
with me on H.R. 906, and I would ask our colleagues to support 
this important legislation.
    I yield back.
    [The prepared statement of Mr. Udall follows:]
            Prepared Statement of Representative Mark Udall
    Thank you, Chairman Gordon, for bringing this bill up for markup 
today.
    I introduced H.R. 906, the Global Change Research and Data 
Management Act of 2007, with my colleague from South Carolina, Mr. 
Inglis, earlier this year.
    Climate change is occurring--its impacts are already being felt 
across the country, from Alaska's melting tundra to more intense 
droughts across the West.
    Although we are still debating how to address this challenge at the 
federal level, we will have to confront climate change soon and with 
some mix of mitigation and adaptation. The increase in extreme weather 
events alone will have a very large human and economic cost.
    H.R. 906 will set us in the right direction by expanding and 
improving the U.S. Global Change Research Program to provide more user-
driven research and information.
    We will need economic and technical information as well as 
information about system responses and climate responses to different 
concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere to design cost 
effective policies to achieve reductions and avoid dangerous impacts of 
future climate change.
    The program should be the vehicle for providing this information. 
H.R. 906 will improve the outreach and information exchange aspects of 
this program and make the information that it provides more useful.
    The program has contributed significantly to our knowledge about 
climate change and our planet's environment since its formation in 
1990--but we now need to expand this information and tailor it to the 
needs of decision-makers confronted with management and mitigation 
challenges.
    I should add that I believe that we must cut our carbon dioxide 
emissions as part of our response to climate change.
    However, H.R. 906 deals with a research program--the legislation 
does not create a cap and trade program or any other regulations.
    Before closing, I'd like to thank the staff on both sides for their 
hard work on this legislation. We are lucky to have such an excellent 
staff on the Science and Technology Committee.
    Again, I thank my colleague, Rep. Inglis for working with me on 
H.R. 906. I ask our colleagues to support this important legislation.

    Chairman Gordon. Thank you, Mr. Udall. I recognize Mr. Hall 
to present any opening remarks.
    Mr. Hall. Mr. Chairman, I will be very brief. Mr. Udall 
laid it out very well. This bill reorients the U.S. Interagency 
Climate Change Science Program to make it a little more 
responsive to the needs of State and local resource managers, 
and I am also pleased that the Committee held a hearing on the 
bill, and took the time to consult with both sides of the aisle 
on it.
    And I think with that, I yield back my time.
    Chairman Gordon. Does anyone else wish to be recognized? If 
not, I ask unanimous consent that the bill is considered as 
read and open to amendment at any point, and that the Members 
proceed with the amendments in the order on the roster. Without 
objection, so ordered.
    The first amendment on the roster is a manager's amendment, 
offered by the gentleman from Colorado, Mr. Udall. Are you 
ready to proceed with your amendment?
    Mr. Udall. Mr. Chairman, I am, and I have an amendment at 
the desk.
    Chairman Gordon. The Clerk will report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment to H.R. 906, offered by Mr. Udall of 
Colorado, amendment #067.
    Chairman Gordon. I ask unanimous consent to dispense with 
the reading. Without objection, so ordered.
    The gentleman is recognized for five minutes to explain the 
amendment.
    Mr. Udall. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. The manager's amendment 
incorporates a series of additional changes to the legislation. 
Again, I want to thank my good friend, Representative Inglis, 
for working with me to develop and incorporate these changes.
    There are a few minor changes to refine several provisions 
in the bill, and in addition to those changes, there are three 
more significant changes or additions to the bill. I would like 
to briefly touch on those three changes.
    First, we have added a requirement for the Interagency 
Committee to subdivide the U.S. into regions that are likely to 
experience similar impacts, or share similar vulnerabilities to 
global change. We made this addition to facilitate the 
implementation of a requirement for regional workshops with 
outside stakeholders contained in the amendment that will be 
offered in a few minutes. It is also necessary to define these 
regions, if we are to develop more refined projections of 
climate change impacts, and design adaptation and mitigation 
strategies tailored to regional conditions.
    We also refined the language requiring the program to 
assess the vulnerabilities to climate change for all regions of 
the world. The IPCC process provides a good basis for that. We 
are directing the program to utilize that information to 
analyze the implications for the United States. Changes in 
other parts of the world will impact us indirectly, and we need 
to understand what those indirect impacts are likely to be.
    We also consulted with the Administration. They had some 
concerns that the language we adopted in the Subcommittee did 
not achieve our goal of ensuring maximum use of the information 
produced by the Global Change Research Program, as incorporated 
into IPCC reports. We have incorporated language that the 
Administration provided, to accommodate their concerns, and to 
ensure that the information used to produce the reports and 
other assessments is fully utilized and incorporated into the 
assessments required under this Act.
    And finally, we amended Section 303 of the original bill, 
and moved it into Title I. Section 303 was part of the original 
1990 law. It required the Administration to establish an 
information office to facilitate the distribution of the 
program's information domestically and internationally. The 
program does maintain a website, so we decided to modernize 
Section 303 to reflect the new reality of electronic 
communication. The new Section 112 requires the establishment 
or designation of a Global Change Research Information Exchange 
that will make information from the program and other sources 
available through electronic means.
    Again, I want to thank my colleague, Mr. Inglis, for 
working with me on this amendment and the legislation, and I 
would urge adoption of the amendment.
    Chairman Gordon. Is there further discussion of the 
amendment? If no, the vote occurs on the amendment. All in 
favor, say aye. Aye. Those opposed, no. The ayes have it. The 
amendment is agreed to.
    The second amendment on the roster is offered also by the 
gentleman from Colorado, Mr. Udall. Are you ready to proceed 
with your amendment?
    Mr. Udall. Mr. Chairman, I have an amendment at the desk.
    Chairman Gordon. The Clerk will report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment to H.R. 906, offered by Mr. Udall of 
Colorado, amendment #066.
    Chairman Gordon. I ask unanimous consent to dispense with 
the reading. Without objection, so ordered.
    The gentleman is recognized for five minutes to explain the 
amendment.
    Mr. Udall. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
    One of the most consistent comments we have received during 
the hearing and throughout the written comments was the need 
for a strong advocate in the Administration with corresponding 
budget authority.
    After the hearing, I should say at the hearing on H.R. 906, 
we heard testimony from multiple witnesses explaining the need 
for a lead agency of the U.S. Global Climate Research Program.
    Dr. Mahoney, former Director of the Climate Change Science 
Program, stated that to be successful, a program like this must 
have a reasonably funded management and coordination office 
with a sense of permanence to it.
    During questioning, Dr. Jack Fellows, Vice President at the 
University Center for Atmospheric Research, explained: ``I do 
think there is an argument to be made for the U.S. Global 
Change Research Program to be close enough to political power 
to make the kind of decisions and tradeoffs that you would 
across an agency, and to have some level of budget authority 
that can help to encourage or provide incentives for people to 
make investments in the highest priority areas of the 
program.''
    I have worked with my colleague and cosponsor, Mr. Inglis, 
to craft a solution to this longstanding problem in the U.S. 
Global Change Research Program. The amendment may not go as far 
as some would advocate, but we believe it does address the 
shortcoming of the program our witnesses and others identified.
    The amendment designates the Office of Science and 
Technology Policy as the lead agency of the U.S. Global Climate 
Change Program, and a single point of contact responsible for 
the program, the Director of OSTP. OSTP has a long history of 
involvement with the USGCRP, and its designation as a lead 
agency is consistent with its purposes, as defined in the 
National Science and Technology Policy Organization and 
Priorities Act of 1976. That was the law that created OSTP.
    The amendment also authorizes OSTP to perform interagency 
tasks. The Director of OSTP, in consultation with the 
Interagency Committee for the program, is required to identify 
activities included in the strategic plan that involve the 
participation of two or more agencies, and that are required by 
the Act. The identified activities are those that do not have 
budget allocations within the individual agencies. The Director 
then has the authority to allocate funding to get these tasks 
done. The funds could be used for activities such as 
development of scenarios needed to make projections of climate 
change and its impacts, calibrating and testing alternative 
models, identification and definition of economic sectors and 
regional climatic zones, and convening regional workshops to 
facilitate outreach with regional, State, and local 
governments, and other non-federal stakeholders.
    We have heard from many of the outside groups about the 
value of regular forums for exchange of information. The 
amendment requires the Director to ensure that at least one 
workshop will be held in each region annually--to facilitate 
the exchange of information between the program and other 
organizations--and individuals with an interest in climate 
change.
    The amendment authorizes $10 million per year for these 
activities, and again, I want to thank Mr. Inglis for working 
with me on this amendment, and I urge my colleagues to support 
this amendment, and yield back the balance of my time.
    Chairman Gordon. Thank you, Mr. Udall. Mr. Inglis, you are 
here just in time, if you would like to make a comment on your 
amendment.
    Mr. Inglis. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I am happy to be a co-
sponsor of Mr. Udall's bill, the Global Climate Change Research 
and Data Management Act.
    For many years, the United States Global Research Program 
has coordinated a successful interagency research program on 
global environmental change and implications of a changing 
climate for society. H.R. 906 continues support for this 
research, and makes the research user-friendly for federal, 
State, and local decision-makers who are tasked with the job of 
creating policies that address the challenges associated with 
climate change.
    I urge my colleagues to support this bill, and I yield back 
the balance of my time.
    Chairman Gordon. Thank you, Mr. Inglis, for your help on 
this amendment and the bill in general. Is there any further 
discussion on the amendment?
    If no, the vote occurs on the amendment. All in favor, say 
aye. Aye. Opposed, no. The ayes have it. The amendment is 
agreed to.
    The third amendment on the roster is offered by the 
gentleman from Georgia, Dr. Gingrey. Are you ready to proceed 
with your amendment?
    Mr. Gingrey. I am, Mr. Chairman. I have an amendment at the 
desk.
    Chairman Gordon. The Clerk will report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment to H.R. 906, offered by Mr. Gingrey of 
Georgia, amendment #037.
    Chairman Gordon. I ask unanimous consent to dispense with 
the reading. Without objection, so ordered.
    The gentleman is recognized for five minutes.
    Mr. Gingrey. Mr. Chairman, thank you. During the hearings, 
of course, we heard from a number of expert witnesses, and the 
question always, in my mind, and in the mind of many other 
Members of the Committee, and I think on both sides of the 
aisle, is not so much a question of the science in regard to 
climate change, but the action that we take as decision-makers 
in regard to adaptation and/or mitigation.
    And in this bill, which I think H.R. 906, and I commend Mr. 
Udall and Mr. Inglis for bringing it forward, an excellent 
piece of legislation, but Section 108 calls for the 
Administration to report to, on a timely basis, to the 
Congress, an initial report, I think within one year after 
passage of the bill, and then, every three years thereafter.
    My amendment basically would assign this responsibility, it 
would have the Administration, whatever Administration that 
might be, to contract with the National Academy of Public 
Administration, and the National Academy of Sciences, for them 
to submit those reports, so that we get information that in no 
way, shape, or form would be biased in regard to not just what 
we should do and recommend to our global partners, but also, 
our State and local communities, in regard to what policies are 
being used in the way of adaptation and mitigation, how are 
they working, and what is the cost-benefit analysis of that, as 
we get down to making these tough decisions.
    So, I understand, Mr. Chairman, that the amendment has been 
favorably looked upon by Mr. Udall and by you, Mr. Chairman, 
and I am pleased with that, so I would again, offer that 
amendment to the Committee, and ask for its approval.
    [The prepared statement of Mr. Gingrey follows:]
           Prepared Statement of Representative Phil Gingrey
    Mr. Chairman, I thank you for the opportunity to offer this 
amendment, and I thank Mr. Udall and Mr. Inglis for working with me on 
it and agreeing to accept it. My amendment changes section 108, the 
policy assessment. My amendment directs a neutral party, rather than 
the Administration, to:

          assess current policies being implemented by Federal, 
        State, and local governments to mitigate or adapt to the 
        effects of global and regional climate change;

          evaluate effectiveness of those policies;

          identify and evaluate a range of additional policy 
        options and infrastructure for mitigating or adapting to the 
        effects of global and regional climate change; and

          evaluate the distribution of economic costs and 
        benefits of these policy options across different United States 
        economic sectors.

    This study will be performed jointly by the National Academy of 
Sciences and the National Academy of Public Administration, both highly 
respected organizations.
    Mr. Chairman, I believe this study will get exactly the type of 
information we all seek--what are the options for adapting to and 
mitigating climate change, what will those get us, and what will they 
cost.
    I yield back the balance of my time.

    Chairman Gordon. Thank you, Dr. Gingrey. It is a good 
amendment. Clearly, we should not be making recommendations 
that we don't know the full impact or the cost, and I think 
this amendment will help us to be able to obtain that 
information.
    Does anyone wish----
    Mr. Udall. Mr. Chairman, I would move to strike the last 
word.
    Chairman Gordon. The gentleman is recognized for five 
minutes.
    Mr. Udall. Just briefly, I want to thank Mr. Gingrey for 
offering this important amendment, and my friend from Georgia 
asked a great question at the third IPCC hearing. Now that we 
know that climate change is happening, what do we do about it? 
What is the best way to reduce the impacts of climate change, 
while also preserving the American way of life? We must find 
solutions that reduce emissions, but also protect jobs.
    And my friend from Georgia, clearly, your amendment will 
help us figure out which strategies make the most sense moving 
forward, and I think it improves the legislation. Thank you for 
being engaged, and I am proud to support your amendment.
    Chairman Gordon. Is there further discussion on the 
amendment? If no, the vote occurs on the amendment. All in 
favor, say aye. Aye. Those opposed, no. The ayes have it. The 
amendment is agreed to.
    The fourth amendment on the roster is offered by the 
gentlelady from California, Ms. Woolsey.
    Ms. Woolsey. Mr. Chairman, I have an amendment at the desk.
    Chairman Gordon. The Clerk will report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment to H.R. 906, offered by Ms. Woolsey of 
California.
    Chairman Gordon. I ask unanimous consent to dispense with 
the reading. Without objection, so ordered.
    The gentlelady is recognized for five minutes to explain 
her amendment.
    Ms. Woolsey. Mr. Chairman, my amendment commissions a study 
to examine how climate change is causing the melting of the ice 
sheet, and how that melting will affect sea level rise.
    On February 2, 2007, Mr. Chairman, the Intergovernmental 
Panel on Climate Change, the IPCC, released its report 
detailing the current state of scientific knowledge on climate 
change. A week later, this committee held a hearing to 
investigate this report and the findings of the IPCC Working 
Group I, and at that hearing, we learned that Working Group I 
had greatly underestimated their projections of sea level rise, 
because the data that was available to them at the time did not 
include some of the greatest threats to sea level rise, the ice 
sheets of Greenland and Antarctica.
    Therefore, Mr. Chairman, many scientists now argue that on 
the current warming trend, we really could completely melt the 
Greenland ice shelf, adding seven meters to sea level, while 
the eventual disintegration of the West Antarctic ice sheet 
remains controversial. So, this melting, if it happened, would 
add another seven meters to the sea level. These are 
frightening statistics.
    We have to know more about them, and that is why my 
amendment directs the National Science Foundation to enter into 
an arrangement with NOAA and NAS to complete a study, and we 
then can be more accurate in what we are determining our needs 
will be. And the IPCC report, when it includes Greenland and 
Antarctica, could make the difference between whether we are 
looking at two feet or 40 feet predicted based on global 
warming.
    [The prepared statement of Ms. Woolsey follows:]
           Prepared Statement of Representative Lynn Woolsey
    Mr. Chairman, my amendment commissions a study to examine how 
climate change is causing the melting of the ice sheet and how that 
melting will effect sea level rise.
    On February 2, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 
released its report detailing the current state of scientific knowledge 
on climate change. A week later, this committee held a hearing to 
investigate this report and the findings of the IPCC Working Group I.
    At that hearing, we learned that Working Group I had to greatly 
underestimate their projections of sea level rise because the data that 
was available to them at the time did not include some of the greatest 
threats to sea level rise, the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica.
    The IPCC report did project a sea level rise of less than two ft. 
by 2100 but, because of uncertainty in the scientific literature, it 
excluded the rapidly melting ice sheets in Greenland and West 
Antarctica. Since the completion of the report much new research has 
been published illustrating the possible impacts of climate change on 
the ice sheets. It turns out that the Greenland ice sheet is melting 
more rapidly than anyone could have predicted and so the effect of sea 
level rise will be much greater than predicted if we do not act quickly 
to reduce the build up of greenhouse gases.
    In fact, many scientists now argue that on the current warming 
trend will completely melt the Greenland ice shelf, adding seven meters 
to sea level. While the eventual disintegration of the West Antarctic 
ice sheet remains controversial, its melting would add another seven 
meters to the sea level.
    These are frightening statistics that require answers before the 
next IPCC report, which may not be published until six years from now.
    That's why my amendment directs the National Science Foundation 
(NSF) to enter into an arrangement with the National Academy of 
Sciences (NAS) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 
(NOAA) to complete a study of the current status of ice sheet melt, as 
caused by climate change, with implications for global sea level rise. 
This amendment will help to address this research deficit and help to 
bring clarity to the issue of future sea level rise.
    Mr. Chairman, there is a big difference between the conservative 
estimate of two feet included in the IPCC report that excludes 
Greenland and Antarctica and the over 40 feet predicted more recently 
in other reports. We need to have sound science to know the threat we 
are facing, especially in coastal districts like mine.
    I urge the adoption of this amendment and yield back the balance of 
my time.

    Chairman Gordon. I thank the gentlelady. This is a good 
amendment, particularly with someone who represents a coastal 
constituency.
    Ms. Woolsey. We don't want to get washed away.
    Chairman Gordon. I understand your concern.
    Is there further discussion on the amendment? If no, the 
vote occurs on the amendment. All in favor, say aye. Aye. 
Opposed, no. The ayes have it. The amendment is agreed to.
    The fifth amendment on the roster is offered by the 
gentlelady from Texas, Ms. Johnson. Are you ready to proceed 
with your amendment?
    Ms. Johnson. Mr. Chairman, I have an amendment at the desk.
    Chairman Gordon. The Clerk will report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment to H.R. 906, offered by Ms. Eddie 
Bernice Johnson of Texas.
    Chairman Gordon. I ask unanimous consent to dispense with 
the reading. Without objection, so ordered.
    The gentlelady is recognized for five minutes to explain 
her amendment.
    Ms. Johnson. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. The amendment will 
add critical information that scientists will need to better 
understand the formation, track, and intensity of hurricanes, 
as well as the implications and potential impact due to climate 
change.
    As we know, this nation, especially the Gulf Coast, has 
suffered immense damage due to past hurricanes. This year's 
hurricane season is predicted to be intense as well. Our nation 
requires comprehensive and improved hurricane research on 
frequency and intensity, and on the relationship between 
climate change and hurricane development.
    We need to adequately utilize the expertise of our nation's 
scientists through our National Academies. Investing in this 
research study enables us to better plan, and mitigate these 
disastrous impacts. My amendment directs the NOAA Administrator 
and the National Science Foundation Director to work with the 
National Academy of Sciences to complete a study of the current 
data on the impacts of climate change on hurricane formation, 
its track, and frequency.
    The study should take into consideration the information 
gained by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, as 
well as additional information that has amassed since the fall 
of 2005. Our country remains extremely vulnerable to severe 
damage and loss of life from natural disasters, and since 2001, 
hurricane damage has cost our nation an average of $35.1 
billion in economic loss per year. In the past two years, 
hurricanes have resulted in over 1,450 innocent lives lost.
    This study will provide information on scientific findings 
relating to rapid storm intensity change, relationships among 
storm size, motion, and intensity, the internal dynamics of 
hurricanes, and the manner in which they interact with the 
environment.
    Mr. Chairman, detrimental climate change will only increase 
the need for a report of this nature. It is imperative for 
Congress to have access to status reports on scientific 
findings, and to shape responsible policies relative to climate 
change.
    And thank you for allowing me to offer this amendment and I 
urge my colleagues to accept it, and I yield back the balance 
of my time.
    [The prepared statement of Ms. Johnson follows:]
       Prepared Statement of Representative Eddie Bernice Johnson
    Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
    This amendment will add critical information scientists will need 
to better understand the formation, track, and intensity of hurricanes, 
as well as the implications and potential impacts due to climate 
change.
    As we know, this nation, especially the Gulf region, has suffered 
immense damage due to past hurricanes; this year's hurricane season is 
predicted to be intense as well.
    Our nation requires comprehensive and improved hurricane research 
on frequency and intensity, and on the relationship between climate 
change and hurricane development.
    We need to adequately utilize the expertise of our nation's 
scientists through the National Academies.
    Investing in this research study enables us to better plan and 
mitigate these disastrous impacts.
    My amendment directs the NOAA Administrator and NSF Director to 
work with the National Academy of Sciences to complete a study of the 
current data on the impacts of climate change on hurricane formation, 
track and frequency.
    The study should take into consideration the information gained by 
the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change as well as additional 
information that has amassed since the fall of 2005.
    Our country remains extremely vulnerable to severe damage and loss 
of life from natural disasters.
    Since 2001, hurricane damage has cost our nation an average of 
$35.1 billion in economic losses per year. In the past two years, 
hurricanes have resulted in over 1,450 innocent lives lost.
    The study will provide information on scientific findings relating 
to rapid storm intensity change, relationships among storm size, motion 
and intensity, the internal dynamics of hurricanes and the manner in 
which they interact with the environment.
    Mr. Chairman, detrimental climate change will only increase the 
need for a report of this nature. It is imperative for Congress to have 
access to status reports on scientific findings to shape responsible 
policies relative to climate change.
    Thank you allowing me to offer this amendment. I urge my colleagues 
to accept it and yield back the balance of my time.

    Chairman Gordon. Thank you, Ms. Johnson.
    Is there further discussion on the amendment? If no, the 
vote occurs on the amendment. All in favor, say aye. Aye. 
Opposed, no. The ayes have it. The amendment is agreed to.
    Ms. Johnson. Thank you.
    Chairman Gordon. Are there other amendments? If no, the 
vote is on the bill, H.R. 906, as amended. All those in favor 
will say aye. Aye. Opposed, no. In the opinion of the Chair, 
the ayes have it.
    I recognize Mr. Hall for a motion.
    Mr. Hall. Mr. Chairman, I move that the Committee favorably 
report H.R. 906, as amended, with the House, with the 
recommendation that the bill, as amended, do pass. Furthermore, 
I move that the staff be instructed to prepare the legislative 
report, and make necessary technical and conforming changes, 
and that the Chairman take all necessary steps to bring the 
bill before the House for consideration.
    I yield back.
    Chairman Gordon. The question is on the motion to report 
the bill favorably. Those in favor of the motion will signify 
by saying aye. Aye. Opposed, no. The ayes have it. The bill is 
reported favorably.
    Without objection, the motion to reconsider is laid upon 
the table. The Members will have two subsequent calendar days 
in which to submit supplemental, Minority, or additional views 
on the measure, ending Monday, July the 2nd, at 9:00 a.m. I 
move, pursuant to Clause 1 of Rule 22 of the Rules of the House 
of Representatives that the Committee authorize the Chairman to 
offer such motions as may be necessary in the House to adopt 
and pass H.R. 906, the Global Change Research Data Management 
Act of 2007, as amendment. Without objection, so ordered.
    I thank all of you, the hard core that are still here. We 
had a good day. Four more bills of a dozen that will go into a 
good Energy Bill next month, and again, a bipartisan, everybody 
go home and take credit. Thank you.
    [Whereupon, at 1:10 p.m., the Committee was adjourned.]
                               Appendix:

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                 H.R. 906 as reported, Amendment Roster