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109th Congress                                                   Report
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 2d Session                                                     109-525

======================================================================



 
                    RESEARCH FOR COMPETITIVENESS ACT

                                _______
                                

 June 22, 2006.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

  Mr. Boehlert, from the Committee on Science, submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                        [To accompany H.R. 5356]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

  The Committee on Science, to whom was referred the bill (H.R. 
5356) to authorize the National Science Foundation and the 
Department of Energy Office of Science to provide grants to 
early career researchers to establish innovative research 
programs and integrate education and research, and for other 
purposes, having considered the same, report favorably thereon 
with amendments and recommend that the bill as amended do pass.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
   I. Amendment.......................................................2
  II. Purpose of the Bill.............................................7
 III. Background and Need for the Legislation.........................7
  IV. Summary of Hearings.............................................8
   V. Committee Actions...............................................9
  VI. Summary of Major Provisions of the Bill, as Reported...........10
 VII. Section-by-Section Analysis (By Title and Section), as Reported10
VIII. Committee Views................................................14
  IX. Cost Estimate..................................................16
   X. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate......................16
  XI. Compliance With Public-Law 104-4 (Unfunded Mandates)...........18
 XII. Committee Oversight Findings and Recommendations...............18
XIII. Statement on General Performance Goals and Objectives..........18
 XIV. Constitutional Authority Statement.............................19
  XV. Federal Advisory Committee Statement...........................19
 XVI. Congressional Accountability Act...............................19
XVII. Statement on Preemption of State, Local, or Tribal Law.........19
XVIII.Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported..........19

 XIX. Committee Recommendations......................................19
  XX. Proceedings of Full Committee Markup...........................20

                               Amendment

  The amendments are as follows:
  Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the 
following:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

  This Act may be cited as the ``Research for Competitiveness Act''.

SEC. 2. NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION EARLY CAREER AWARDS FOR SCIENCE AND 
                    ENGINEERING RESEARCHERS.

  (a) In General.--The Director of the National Science Foundation 
shall carry out a program to award grants to scientists and engineers 
at the early stage of their careers at institutions of higher education 
and organizations described in subsection (c)(2) to conduct research in 
fields relevant to the mission of the Foundation. The existing Faculty 
Early Career Development (CAREER) Program may be designated as the 
mechanism for awarding such grants.
  (b) Size and Duration of Award.--The duration of awards under this 
section shall be 5 years, and the amount per year shall be at least 
$80,000.
  (c) Eligibility.--Award recipients shall be individuals who are 
employed in a tenure-track position as an assistant professor or 
equivalent title, or who hold an equivalent position, at--
          (1) an institution of higher education in the United States; 
        or
          (2) an organization in the United States that is a nonprofit, 
        nondegree-granting research organization such as a museum, 
        observatory, or research laboratory.
  (d) Selection.--Award recipients shall be selected on a competitive, 
merit-reviewed basis.
  (e) Selection Process and Criteria for Awards.--An applicant seeking 
funding under this section shall submit a proposal to the Director at 
such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the 
Director may require. In evaluating the proposals submitted under this 
section, the Director shall consider, at a minimum--
          (1) the intellectual merit of the proposed work;
          (2) the innovative or transformative nature of the proposed 
        research;
          (3) the extent to which the proposal integrates research and 
        education, including undergraduate education in science and 
        engineering disciplines; and
          (4) the potential of the applicant for leadership at the 
        frontiers of knowledge.
  (f) Awards.--In awarding grants under this section, the Director 
shall endeavor to ensure that the recipients are from a variety of 
types of institutions of higher education and nonprofit, nondegree-
granting research organizations. In support of this goal, the Director 
shall broadly disseminate information about when and how to apply for 
grants under this section, including by conducting outreach to 
Historically Black Colleges and Universities that are part B 
institutions as defined in section 322(2) of the Higher Education Act 
of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1061(2)) and minority institutions (as defined in 
section 365(3) of that Act (20 U.S.C. 1067k(3))).
  (g) Authorization of Appropriations.--For each of the fiscal years 
2007 through 2011, the Director shall allocate at least 3.5 percent of 
funds appropriated to the National Science Foundation for Research and 
Related Activities to the grants program under this section.
  (h) Report.--Not later than 6 months after the date of enactment of 
this Act, the Director shall transmit to the Committee on Science of 
the House of Representatives and to the Committee on Commerce, Science, 
and Transportation of the Senate a report describing the distribution 
of the institutions of the awardees of the Faculty Early Career 
Development Program since fiscal year 2001 among each of the categories 
of institutions of higher education defined by the Carnegie Foundation 
for the Advancement of Teaching and the organizations in subsection 
(c)(2).
  (i) Evaluation.--Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment 
of this Act, the Director shall transmit to the Committee on Science of 
the House of Representatives and to the Committee on Commerce, Science, 
and Transportation of the Senate a report evaluating the impact of the 
Faculty Early Career Development Program on the ability of young 
faculty to compete for National Science Foundation research grants.

SEC. 3. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EARLY CAREER AWARDS FOR SCIENCE AND 
                    ENGINEERING RESEARCHERS.

  (a) In General.--The Director of the Office of Science of the 
Department of Energy shall carry out a program to award grants to 
scientists and engineers at the early stage of their careers at 
institutions of higher education and organizations described in 
subsection (c)(2) to conduct research in fields relevant to the mission 
of the Department.
  (b) Size and Duration of Award.--The duration of awards under this 
section shall be up to 5 years, and the amount per year shall be at 
least $80,000.
  (c) Eligibility.--Award recipients shall be individuals who are 
employed in a tenure-track position as an assistant professor or 
equivalent title, or who hold an equivalent position, at--
          (1) an institution of higher education in the United States; 
        or
          (2) an organization in the United States that is a nonprofit, 
        nondegree-granting research organization such as a museum, 
        observatory, or research laboratory.
  (d) Selection.--Award recipients shall be selected on a competitive, 
merit-reviewed basis.
  (e) Selection Process and Criteria for Awards.--An applicant seeking 
funding under this section shall submit a proposal to the Director at 
such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the 
Director may require. In evaluating the proposals submitted under this 
section, the Director shall consider, at a minimum--
          (1) the intellectual merit of the proposed work;
          (2) the innovative or transformative nature of the proposed 
        research;
          (3) the extent to which the proposal integrates research and 
        education, including undergraduate education in science and 
        engineering disciplines; and
          (4) the potential of the applicant for leadership at the 
        frontiers of knowledge.
  (f) Collaboration With National Laboratories.--In awarding grants 
under this section, the Director shall give priority to proposals in 
which the proposed work includes collaboration with the Department of 
Energy National Laboratories.
  (g) Awards.--In awarding grants under this section, the Director 
shall endeavor to ensure that the recipients are from a variety of 
types of institutions of higher education and nonprofit, nondegree-
granting research organizations. In support of this goal, the Director 
shall broadly disseminate information about when and how to apply for 
grants under this section, including by conducting outreach to 
Historically Black Colleges and Universities that are part B 
institutions as defined in section 322(2) of the Higher Education Act 
of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1061(2)) and minority institutions (as defined in 
section 365(3) of that Act (20 U.S.C. 1067k(3))).
  (h) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to the Secretary of Energy to carry out the Director's 
responsibilities under this section $25,000,000 for each of the fiscal 
years 2007 through 2011.
  (i) Report on Recruiting and Retaining Early Career Science and 
Engineering Researchers at the National Laboratories.--Not later than 3 
months after the date of enactment of this Act, the Director shall 
transmit to the Committee on Science of the House of Representatives 
and to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate a 
report on efforts to recruit and retain young scientists and engineers 
at the early stages of their careers at the Department of Energy 
National Laboratories. The report shall include--
          (1) a description of Department of Energy and National 
        Laboratory policies and procedures, including financial 
        incentives, awards, promotions, time set aside for independent 
        research, access to equipment or facilities, and other forms of 
        recognition, designed to attract and retain young scientists 
        and engineers;
          (2) an evaluation of the impact of these incentives on the 
        careers of young scientists and engineers at Department of 
        Energy National Laboratories, and also on the quality of the 
        research at the National Laboratories and in Department of 
        Energy programs;
          (3) a description of what barriers, if any, exist to efforts 
        to recruit and retain young scientists and engineers, including 
        limited availability of full time equivalent positions, legal 
        and procedural requirements, and pay grading systems; and
          (4) the amount of funding devoted to efforts to recruit and 
        retain young researchers and the source of such funds.

SEC. 4. REPORT ON NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY 
                    EFFORTS TO RECRUIT AND RETAIN EARLY CAREER SCIENCE 
                    AND ENGINEERING RESEARCHERS.

  Not later than 3 months after the date of enactment of this Act, the 
Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology shall 
transmit to the Committee on Science of the House of Representatives 
and to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the 
Senate a report on efforts to recruit and retain young scientists and 
engineers at the early stages of their careers at the National 
Institute of Standards and Technology laboratories and joint 
institutes. The report shall include--
          (1) a description of National Institute of Standards and 
        Technology policies and procedures, including financial 
        incentives, awards, promotions, time set aside for independent 
        research, access to equipment or facilities, and other forms of 
        recognition, designed to attract and retain young scientists 
        and engineers;
          (2) an evaluation of the impact of these incentives on the 
        careers of young scientists and engineers at the National 
        Institute of Standards and Technology, and also on the quality 
        of the research at the National Institute of Standards and 
        Technology's laboratories and in the National Institute of 
        Standards and Technology's programs;
          (3) a description of what barriers, if any, exist to efforts 
        to recruit and retain young scientists and engineers, including 
        limited availability of full time equivalent positions, legal 
        and procedural requirements, and pay grading systems; and
          (4) the amount of funding devoted to efforts to recruit and 
        retain young researchers and the source of such funds.

SEC. 5. NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION RESEARCH AWARD MATCH PROGRAM.

  (a) In General.--The Director of the National Science Foundation 
shall carry out a program to award grants on a competitive, merit-
reviewed basis to scientists and engineers at the early stage of their 
careers at institutions of higher education and organizations described 
in subsection (c)(2) to conduct high-risk, high-return research. The 
program shall support fundamental research with the potential for 
significant scientific or technical advancement.
  (b) Size and Duration of Award.--
          (1) Base award.--The duration of awards under this section 
        shall be up to 5 years, and the amount per year shall be up to 
        $75,000. The funding awarded under this paragraph shall not be 
        contingent on the receipt of funds under paragraph (2).
          (2) Matching award.--Each year that a recipient is receiving 
        funding under paragraph (1), the National Science Foundation 
        shall match any funds the recipient receives from United States 
        industry for work in the area described in the recipient's 
        application for the award, up to an additional $37,500.
  (c) Eligibility.--Applicants for awards under this section shall be 
individuals who are employed in a tenure-track position as an assistant 
professor or equivalent title, or who hold an equivalent position, at--
          (1) an institution of higher education in the United States; 
        or
          (2) an organization in the United States that is a nonprofit, 
        nondegree-granting research organization such as a museum, 
        observatory, or research laboratory.
However, a recipient awarded a grant under this section may continue to 
receive funding under the grant regardless of whether the recipient has 
been granted tenure after the awarding of the grant.
  (d) Outreach.--The Director shall broadly disseminate information 
about when and how to apply for grants under this section, including by 
conducting outreach to Historically Black Colleges and Universities 
that are part B institutions as defined in section 322(2) of the Higher 
Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1061(2)) and minority institutions (as 
defined in section 365(3) of that Act (20 U.S.C. 1067k(3))).
  (e) Application.--Applicants for awards under this section shall 
submit to the Director--
          (1) a curriculum vitae or resume, including a list of 
        publications and a description of any activities demonstrating 
        leadership or educational activities;
          (2) a description of research areas of interest;
          (3) letters of recommendation; and
          (4) any other materials the Director requires.
  (f) Criteria for Awards.--In establishing criteria for evaluation of 
applications for grants under this section, the Director shall 
include--
          (1) the potential of the applicant for leadership at the 
        frontiers of knowledge;
          (2) the potential innovative or transformative nature of 
        research in the areas of interest described in the application;
          (3) the creativity of the applicant as determined by criteria 
        set by the Director, including creativity demonstrated in past 
        research activities; and
          (4) the potential interest to industry of research in the 
        areas of interest described in the application.
  (g) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to the Director of the National Science Foundation to 
carry out this section--
          (1) $3,000,000 for fiscal year 2007;
          (2) $6,000,000 for fiscal year 2008;
          (3) $9,000,000 for fiscal year 2009;
          (4) $12,000,000 for fiscal year 2010; and
          (5) $15,000,000 for fiscal year 2011.

SEC. 6. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY RESEARCH AWARD MATCH PROGRAM.

  (a) In General.--The Director of the Office of Science of the 
Department of Energy shall carry out a program to award grants on a 
competitive, merit-reviewed basis to scientists and engineers at the 
early stage of their careers at institutions of higher education and 
organizations described in subsection (d)(2) to conduct high-risk, 
high-return research in areas related to energy production, storage, 
and use. The program shall support fundamental research with the 
potential for significant scientific or technical advancement.
  (b) Involvement of Department of Energy Organizations.--In carrying 
out this program, the Director shall consult with the research, 
development, demonstration, and commercial application programs of the 
Office of Nuclear Energy Research and Development, the Office of Fossil 
Energy, and the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewables.
  (c) Size and Duration of Award.--
          (1) Base award.--The duration of awards under this section 
        shall be up to 5 years, and the amount per year shall be up to 
        $75,000. The funding awarded under this paragraph shall not be 
        contingent on the receipt of funds under paragraph (2).
          (2) Matching award.--Each year that a recipient is receiving 
        funding under paragraph (1), the Department of Energy Office of 
        Science shall match any funds the recipient receives from 
        United States industry for work in the area described in the 
        recipient's application for the award, up to an additional 
        $37,500.
  (d) Eligibility.--Applicants for awards under this section shall be 
individuals who are employed in a tenure-track position as an assistant 
professor or equivalent title, or who hold an equivalent position, at--
          (1) an institution of higher education in the United States; 
        or
          (2) an organization in the United States that is a nonprofit, 
        nondegree-granting research organization such as a museum, 
        observatory, or research laboratory.
However, a recipient awarded a grant under this section may continue to 
receive funding under the grant regardless of whether the recipient has 
been granted tenure after the awarding of the grant.
  (e) Outreach.--The Director shall broadly disseminate information 
about when and how to apply for grants under this section, including by 
conducting outreach to Historically Black Colleges and Universities 
that are part B institutions as defined in section 322(2) of the Higher 
Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1061(2)) and minority institutions (as 
defined in section 365(3) of that Act (20 U.S.C. 1067k(3))).
  (f) Application.--Applicants for awards under this section shall 
submit to the Director--
          (1) a curriculum vitae or resume, including a list of 
        publications and a description of any activities demonstrating 
        leadership or educational activities;
          (2) a description of research areas of interest;
          (3) letters of recommendation; and
          (4) any other materials the Director requires.
  (g) Criteria for Awards.--In establishing criteria for evaluation of 
applications for the grants awarded under subsection (a), the Director 
shall include--
          (1) the potential for leadership at the frontiers of 
        knowledge by the applicant;
          (2) the potential innovative or transformative nature of 
        research in the areas of interest described in the application;
          (3) the creativity of the applicant as determined by criteria 
        set by the Director, including creativity demonstrated in past 
        research activities; and
          (4) the potential interest to industry of research in the 
        areas of interest described in the application.
  (h) Collaboration With National Laboratories.--In awarding grants 
under this section, the Director may give priority to applications in 
which the proposed work includes collaboration with the Department of 
Energy National Laboratories.
  (i) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to the Secretary of Energy to carry out the Director's 
responsibilities under this section--
          (1) $2,000,000 for fiscal year 2007;
          (2) $4,000,000 for fiscal year 2008;
          (3) $6,000,000 for fiscal year 2009;
          (4) $8,000,000 for fiscal year 2010; and
          (5) $10,000,000 for fiscal year 2011.

SEC. 7. MAJOR RESEARCH INSTRUMENTATION.

  (a) National Science Foundation Program.--Awards under the Major 
Research Instrumentation Program described in section 13 of the 
National Science Foundation Authorization Act of 2002 shall range in 
amount between $100,000 and $20,000,000 and may be used to support the 
operations and maintenance of instrumentation and equipment acquired 
under the program.
  (b) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized to be 
appropriated to the National Science Foundation for this program, 
$94,200,000 for fiscal year 2007, $100,800,000 for fiscal year 2008, 
$107,800,000 for fiscal year 2009, $115,300,000 for fiscal year 2010, 
and $123,400,000 for fiscal year 2011.

SEC. 8. DONATIONS.

  Section 11(f) of the National Science Foundation Act of 1950 (42 
U.S.C. 1870(f)) is amended by inserting at the end before the semicolon 
``, except that funds may be donated for specific prize competitions''.

SEC. 9. PROGRAM TO FOSTER CROSS-DISCIPLINARY RESEARCH.

  (a) In General.--The Director shall establish a program to award 
grants for long-term, potentially path-breaking, basic research 
designed to simultaneously advance the physical and nonbiomedical life 
sciences.
  (b) Merit Review.--Grants shall be awarded under this section on a 
competitive, merit-reviewed basis. The Director shall ensure that 
review panels for proposals received under this section include both 
physical scientists and nonbiomedical life scientists, and, when 
appropriate, engineers. The Director shall ensure that review panels 
for proposals received under this section are open to approving high-
risk research.
  (c) Awards.--The Director may award grants under this section to 
individuals, groups, and centers. The Director shall ensure that some 
of the grants awarded under section 2 are awarded consistent with this 
section.
  (d) Application and Selection.--Applications for grants under this 
section shall be submitted to the Director at such time, in such 
manner, and containing such information as the Director may require. At 
a minimum, applications shall contain a brief description of how the 
proposed research will advance both the physical and nonbiomedical life 
sciences. In evaluating applications, the Director shall consider, at a 
minimum, how significantly the research would advance both the physical 
and nonbiomedical life sciences.
  (e) Other Agencies.--The Director may carry out this program jointly 
with the Department of Energy Office of Science and other relevant 
Federal agencies.
  (f) Report.--The documents prepared by the Director to accompany the 
annual Presidential budget submission shall specify amounts to be 
expended on the program in this section.

SEC. 10. RESEARCH ON INNOVATION AND INVENTIVENESS.

  In carrying out its research programs on science policy and on the 
science of learning, the National Science Foundation may support 
research on the process of innovation and the teaching of 
inventiveness.

SEC. 11. NASA'S CONTRIBUTION TO INNOVATION.

  (a) Sense of the Congress.--It is the sense of the Congress that--
          (1) a balanced science program as authorized by section 
        101(d) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
        Authorization Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-155) contributes 
        significantly to innovation in and the economic competitiveness 
        of the United States; and
          (2) a robust National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 
        funded at the levels authorized under sections 202 and 203 of 
        that Act, would offer a balance among science, aeronautics, 
        exploration, and human space flight programs, all of which can 
        attract and employ scientists, engineers, and technicians 
        across a broad range of fields in science, technology, 
        mathematics, and engineering.
  (b) Participation in Innovation and Competitiveness Programs.--The 
Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
shall fully participate in any interagency efforts to promote 
innovation and economic competitiveness through scientific research and 
development within the spending levels cited in subsection (a).

SEC. 12. NASA WORKFORCE TRAINING.

  (a) Establishment.--The Administrator of the National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration may establish a NASA Academy, which may be 
established as a virtual Academy using online learning techniques. The 
Academy, if established, shall be available to all employees of the 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration to facilitate increased 
knowledge of engineering and scientific principles to further the 
missions of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
  (b) Purpose.--The purpose of the Academy is to provide a unique 
training program to bridge the gap between the broad-based training 
provided by universities and the specific training needed to understand 
the different technologies which form the basis for work at the 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, as well as to update 
employees with the most current training available in the various 
skills and disciplines needed at the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration.
  (c) Submission of Plan.--Not later than 180 days after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the Administrator of the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration shall transmit to the Committee on Science of 
the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, 
and Transportation of the Senate a notification of whether the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration will establish an Academy as 
described in subsection (a). If an Academy is to be established, then 
concurrent with the notification, the Administrator shall transmit a 
plan for the establishment of the Academy.

SEC. 13. DEFINITIONS.

  In this Act--
          (1) the term ``institution of higher education'' has the 
        meaning given such term in section 101(a) of the Higher 
        Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001(a)); and
          (2) the term ``National Laboratory'' has the meaning given 
        the term ``nonmilitary energy laboratory'' in section 903(3) of 
        the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (42 U.S.C. 16182(3)).

  Amend the title so as to read:

      A bill to authorize the National Science Foundation and 
the Department of Energy Office of Science to provide grants to 
early career researchers to establish innovative research 
programs and integrate education and research and to conduct 
high-risk, high-return research, and for other purposes.

                        II. Purpose of the Bill

    The purpose of the bill is to bolster the research base in 
the United States by strengthening federal investment in the 
basic research that provides the background knowledge necessary 
for future technology developments. The bill authorizes 
programs at the National Science Foundation (NSF), the 
Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science, and the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

              III. Background and Need for the Legislation


            SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS

    While the U.S. continues to lead the world in measures of 
innovation capacity--research and development (R&D;) spending, 
number of scientists and engineers, scientific output, etc.--
recent statistics on the level of U.S. support for research 
relative to other countries indicate that this lead may be 
slipping. At the same time, other nations--particularly 
emergent nations such as China and India--have recognized the 
importance of innovation to economic growth, and are pouring 
resources into their scientific and technological 
infrastructure, rapidly building their innovation capacity and 
increasing their ability to compete with the United States in 
the global economy.

                  AMERICAN COMPETITIVENESS INITIATIVE

    The American Competitiveness Initiative, announced by the 
President in the 2006 State of the Union address, calls for 
doubling the combined (not necessarily the individual) budgets 
of NSF, the National Institute of Standards and Technology 
(NIST), and the DOE Office of Science over the next 10 years. 
The proposed funding increases are targeted to high-priority 
research areas, including alternative energy technologies, 
nanotechnology, supercomputing, manufacturing, cybersecurity, 
the performance of structures during disasters, and 
improvements in the U.S. scientific infrastructure, such as 
research facilities and government laboratories. These 
investments are expected to support the development of the next 
generation of transformative technologies.

                       FEDERAL ROLE IN INNOVATION

    A number of recent reports have outlined the issues that 
the U.S. faces as it tries to maintain a position of leadership 
and offered recommendations of what the U.S. should do to 
ensure its economic and national security. The National Academy 
of Sciences (NAS) report, Rising Above the Gathering Storm, 
describes how science and engineering are critical to American 
prosperity, examines how the U.S. is doing relative to other 
countries in science and technology today, and makes 
recommendations on how federal programs in support of research 
and education could be improved to position the U.S. to make 
the next generation of innovations needed to maintain U.S. 
competitiveness and security going forward. Other reports on 
this topic include the National Innovation Initiative from the 
Council on Competitiveness, which emphasizes the need to 
strengthen the innovation infrastructure in the U.S. to ensure 
future prosperity, and the National Defense Education and 
Innovation Initiative, from the Association of American 
Universities, which focuses on actions universities and the 
federal government can take to meet oncoming economic and 
security challenges.
    This Act focuses on research elements of the 
recommendations made in these reports by strengthening federal 
support for innovative research and for science and engineering 
researchers at the early stages of their careers, authorizing 
funding for research infrastructure, and establishing a program 
for interdisciplinary research.
    Support for young researchers is essential because they 
face the greatest hurdles in setting up laboratories and 
obtaining research grants, yet they are the most likely 
researchers to cross traditional disciplinary boundaries and do 
path breaking work.

                        IV. Summary of Hearings

    On Thursday, July 21, 2005, the Committee on Science held a 
hearing to examine the relationship between federal science and 
engineering research and education investments and U.S. 
economic competitiveness. The witnesses were Mr. Nicholas 
Donofrio, Executive Vice President for Innovation and 
Technology at IBM Corporation; Mr. John Morgridge, Chairman of 
Cisco Systems, Incorporated, and part-time professor at 
Stanford University's Graduate School of Business; and Dr. 
William Brody, President of The Johns Hopkins University and 
co-chair of the Council on Competitiveness working group that 
authored the National Innovation Initiative.
    The witnesses emphasized that the educational system needs 
to provide students with a solid background in science and 
engineering fields so that the U.S. has access to a 
technologically-literate workforce. The witnesses also stressed 
that investments in basic university research provide the 
background knowledge necessary for future technology 
developments.
    On Thursday, October 20, 2005, the Committee on Science 
held a hearing to receive testimony on the report released by 
NAS on October 12 entitled Rising Above the Gathering Storm: 
Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic 
Future. The report, which was requested by Congress, recommends 
ways to strengthen research and education in science and 
technology. The witnesses were Mr. Norman R. Augustine, retired 
Chairman and CEO of the Lockheed Martin Corporation (Mr. 
Augustine chaired the committee that wrote the report); Dr. P. 
Roy Vagelos, retired Chairman and CEO of Merck & Co. (Dr. 
Vagelos served on the committee that wrote the report), and Dr. 
William A. Wulf, President of the National Academy of 
Engineering.
    The witnesses emphasized that solving the problems of 
global economic competition requires significant improvements 
to America's K-12 and higher education systems and greater 
support for basic research, including innovative research in 
cutting-edge fields. The witnesses also stressed that the U.S. 
ability to innovate has been the source of U.S. prosperity and 
security, so future policy decisions should be aimed at 
generating an environment that supports innovation by creating 
a vibrant research base, educated workforce, and social climate 
that encourages students to pursue science and technology 
degrees.

                          V. Committee Actions

    On May 11, 2006, Representative Michael T. McCaul; 
Representative Sherwood Boehlert, Chairman of the Committee on 
Science; Representative Lamar S. Smith; Representative Ken 
Calvert, Chairman of the Space Subcommittee; Representative 
Vernon J. Ehlers, Chairman of the Environment, Technology, and 
Standards Subcommittee; Representative Judy Biggert, Chairman 
of the Energy Subcommittee; Representative Bob Inglis, Chairman 
of the Research Subcommittee; and Representative John J. H. 
``Joe'' Schwarz introduced H.R. 5356, the Early Career Research 
Act, a bill to authorize NSF and the DOE Office of Science to 
provide grants to early career researchers to establish 
innovative research programs and integrate education and 
research, and for other purposes.
    The Full Committee on Science met on Wednesday, June 7, 
2006, to consider the bill.
           Mr. McCaul, Mr. Boehlert, Mr. Gordon, and 
        Ms. Hooley offered an amendment in the nature of a 
        substitute that changed the title of the bill to the 
        Research for Competitiveness Act, inserted the 
        provisions of H.R. 5357 into this bill, added 
        authorization for an existing research infrastructure 
        program at NSF, added language on NSF research at the 
        interface between the physical and nonbiomedical life 
        sciences, and added provisions related to NASA and to 
        research on inventiveness. The amendment was adopted by 
        a voice vote.
           Mr. Miller of North Carolina offered an 
        amendment to add a new section to create a program at 
        NSF to give grants to universities to establish 
        precompetitive technology transfer centers. A unanimous 
        consent request to withdraw the amendment was agreed 
        to.
    Mr. Gordon moved that the Committee favorably report the 
bill, H.R. 5356, to the House with the recommendation that the 
bill do pass, and that the staff be instructed to make 
technical and conforming changes to the bill and prepare the 
legislative report and that the Chairman take all necessary 
steps to bring the bill before the House for consideration. 
With a quorum present, the motion was agreed to by a voice 
vote.

        VI. Summary of Major Provisions of the Bill, as Reported

           Authorizes an existing NSF program that 
        helps fund young faculty in which NSF provides grants 
        of at least $80,000 per year for five years to help 
        researchers establish a lab and pursue risky research 
        in emerging fields and ensures that this NSF program 
        grows proportionally with the overall NSF budget by 
        setting aside 3.5 percent of the agency's research 
        funding for this program.
           Authorizes $25 million at the DOE Office of 
        Science for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011 for 
        a similar program to support research by new faculty.
           Authorizes grants to early career 
        researchers in which NSF and DOE would provide up to 
        $75,000 per year for up to five years, and make an 
        additional $37,500 available each year provided the 
        researcher raises one-to-one matching funds from 
        private industry for the proposed research.
           Requires DOE to provide to Congress within 
        three months a report on efforts to recruit and retain 
        young scientists and engineers at the early stages of 
        their careers at the DOE National Laboratories. 
        Requires NIST to provide a similar report for early 
        career researchers at NIST.
           Modifies and authorizes appropriations for 
        an existing NSF program, Major Research 
        Instrumentation, which provides grants to purchase and 
        support cross-disciplinary, shared scientific and 
        engineering equipment, such as electron microscopes, 
        telescopes, and supercomputers, at institutions of 
        higher education.
           Amends the National Science Foundation Act 
        of 1950 to allow NSF to accept donations for specific 
        prize competitions.
           Authorizes a program at NSF to fund 
        potentially path-breaking basic research designed to 
        simultaneously advance the physical and nonbiomedical 
        life sciences.
           Allows NSF to support research on the 
        process of innovation and the teaching of 
        inventiveness.
           States the sense of Congress that a balanced 
        science program at NASA contributes significantly to 
        innovation in the United States and allows NASA to 
        establish a NASA Academy to provide a scientific and 
        engineering training program for NASA employees.

  VII. Section-by-Section Analysis (By Title and Section), as Reported


Sec. 1. Short title

    ``Research for Competitiveness Act.''

Sec. 2. National Science Foundation early career awards for science and 
        engineering researchers

    Establishes a program at NSF to award grants to scientists 
and engineers at the early stage of their careers at 
institutions of higher education and research institutions. 
Allows the existing Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) 
Program to be designated as the mechanism for awarding such 
grants. Sets the duration of the awards to be five years and 
the amount per year to be at least $80,000. Eligible applicants 
are tenure-track faculty at institutions of higher education or 
the equivalent at research organizations, such as 
observatories. Requires the award recipients to be selected on 
a competitive, merit-reviewed basis, based on the intellectual 
merit of the proposed work; the innovative or transformative 
nature of the proposed research; the extent to which the 
proposal integrates research and education, including 
undergraduate education in science and engineering disciplines; 
and the potential of the applicant for leadership at the 
frontiers of knowledge. Requires the Director of NSF to 
allocate at least 3.5 percent of funds appropriated for 
Research and Related Activities each year to the grants program 
under this section.
    Requires the Director of NSF to provide to Congress within 
six months a report describing the distribution of the CAREER 
Program awardees since fiscal year 2001 among different types 
of institutions. Requires the Director to provide to Congress 
within two years a report evaluating the impact of the CAREER 
Program on the ability of young faculty to compete for NSF 
research grants.

Sec. 3. Department of Energy early career awards for science and 
        engineering researchers

    Establishes at the DOE Office of Science a program to award 
grants to scientists and engineers at the early stage of their 
careers at institutions of higher education and research 
institutions. Allows the awards to be for up to five years and 
the amount per year to be at least $80,000. Eligible applicants 
are tenure-track faculty at institutions of higher education or 
the equivalent at research organizations, such as 
observatories. Requires the award recipients to be selected on 
a competitive, merit-reviewed basis, based on the intellectual 
merit of the proposed work; the innovative or transformative 
nature of the proposed research; the extent to which the 
proposal integrates research and education, including 
undergraduate education in science and engineering disciplines; 
and the potential of the applicant for leadership at the 
frontiers of knowledge. Requires the Director of the Office of 
Science to give priority to proposals in which the proposed 
work includes collaboration with a National Laboratory. 
Authorizes appropriations for the program of $25,000,000 for 
each of the fiscal years 2007 through 2011.
    Requires the Director of the Office of Science to provide 
to Congress within three months of enactment a report on 
efforts to recruit and retain young scientists and engineers at 
the early stages of their careers at the civilian National 
Laboratories. The report shall include a description of 
incentives for recruitment and retention, an evaluation of the 
effectiveness of the incentives, a description of barriers to 
recruitment and retention, and the amount and source of funding 
devoted to recruitment and retention efforts.

Sec. 4. Report on National Institute of Standards and Technology 
        efforts to recruit and retain early career science and 
        engineering researchers

    Requires the Director of NIST to provide to Congress within 
three months of enactment a report on efforts to recruit and 
retain young scientists and engineers at the early stages of 
their careers at NIST. The report shall include a description 
of incentives for recruitment and retention, an evaluation of 
the effectiveness of the incentives, a description of barriers 
to recruitment and retention, and the amount and source of 
funding devoted to recruitment and retention efforts.

Sec. 5. National Science Foundation Research Award Match Program

    Establishes a program at NSF to award grants on a 
competitive, merit-reviewed basis to scientists and engineers 
at the early stage of their careers at institutions of higher 
education and research institutions to conduct high-risk, high-
return fundamental research with the potential for significant 
scientific or technical advancement. Sets the duration of the 
awards to be up to five years and the amount per year to be up 
to $75,000, with an additional $37,500 available each year as a 
one-to-one match for funds the awardee raises from industry for 
the proposed research. Eligible applicants are tenure-track 
faculty at institutions of higher education or the equivalent 
at research organizations, such as observatories. Requires the 
criteria for awardee selection to include the potential of the 
applicant for leadership at the frontiers of knowledge; the 
innovative or transformative nature of research in the areas of 
interest described in the application; the creativity of the 
applicant; and the potential interest to industry of research 
in the areas of interest described in the application. 
Authorizes appropriations for the program of $3,000,000 for 
fiscal year 2007; $6,000,000 for fiscal year 2008; $9,000,000 
for fiscal year 2009; $12,000,000 for fiscal year 2010; and 
$15,000,000 for fiscal year 2011.

Sec. 6. Department of Energy Research Award Match Program

    Establishes a program at the DOE Office of Science to award 
grants on a competitive, merit-reviewed basis to scientists and 
engineers at the early stage of their careers at institutions 
of higher education and research institutions to conduct high-
risk, high-return fundamental research with the potential for 
significant scientific or technical advancement. Sets the 
duration of the awards to be up to five years and the amount 
per year to be up to $75,000, with an additional $37,500 
available each year as a one-to-one match for funds the awardee 
raises from industry for the proposed research. Eligible 
applicants are tenure-track faculty at institutions of higher 
education or the equivalent at research organizations, such as 
observatories. Requires the criteria for awardee selection to 
include the potential of the applicant for leadership at the 
frontiers of knowledge; the innovative or transformative nature 
of research in the areas of interest described in the 
application; the creativity of the applicant; and the potential 
interest to industry of research in the areas of interest 
described in the application. The Director of the Office of 
Science may give priority to proposals in which the proposed 
work includes collaboration with the National Laboratories. 
Authorizes appropriations for the program of $2,000,000 for 
fiscal year 2007; $4,000,000 for fiscal year 2008; $6,000,000 
for fiscal year 2009; $8,000,000 for fiscal year 2010; and 
$10,000,000 for fiscal year 2011.

Sec. 7. Major Research Instrumentation

    Expands the range of awards under the NSF Major Research 
Instrumentation Program to be between $100,000 and $20,000,000 
and allows funding to be used to support the operations and 
maintenance of instrumentation and equipment acquired under the 
program. Authorizes appropriations for the program of 
$94,200,000 for fiscal year 2007; $100,800,000 for fiscal year 
2008; $107,800,000 for fiscal year 2009; $115,300,000 for 
fiscal year 2010; and $123,400,000 for fiscal year 2011.

Sec. 8. Donations

    Amends the National Science Foundation Act of 1950 to allow 
NSF to accept donations for specific prize competitions.

Sec. 9. Program to foster cross-disciplinary research

    Establishes a program at NSF to award grants to 
individuals, groups, and centers for long-term, potentially 
path-breaking, basic research designed to simultaneously 
advance the physical and nonbiomedical life sciences. Requires 
the award recipients to be selected on a competitive, merit-
reviewed basis. Requires the review panels to include both 
physical scientists and nonbiomedical life scientists, and, 
when appropriate, engineers, and to be open to approving high-
risk research. Requires some of the grants awarded under the 
Early Career Program of Section 2 to be consistent with this 
section. Authorizes the NSF Director to carry out this program 
jointly with the DOE Office of Science and other relevant 
Federal agencies.

Sec. 10. Research on innovation and inventiveness

    Allows NSF to support research on the process of innovation 
and the teaching of inventiveness.

Sec. 11. NASA's contribution to innovation

    States the sense of Congress that a balanced science 
program at NASA contributes significantly to innovation and the 
economic competitiveness of the United States and that NASA 
shall, within the spending levels authorized in the NASA 
Authorization Act of 2005, fully participate in any interagency 
efforts to promote innovation and economic competitiveness 
through scientific research and development.

Sec. 12. NASA workforce training

    Allows NASA to establish a NASA Academy, which may use 
online learning techniques, to provide a training program for 
NASA employees to bridge the gap between the broad-based 
training provided by universities and the specific scientific 
and engineering training needed to carry out the NASA missions. 
Requires the Administrator of NASA to notify Congress within 
180 days if the Academy will be established and, if so, to 
provide a plan for its establishment.

Sec. 13. Definitions

    Defines ``Institution of Higher Education'' and ``National 
Laboratory'' for this Act.

                         VIII. Committee Views


                  FUNDING FOR EARLY CAREER RESEARCHERS

    A number of reports, including Rising Above the Gathering 
Storm from the NAS, emphasize the importance of funding 
researchers at the early stages of their careers in science and 
engineering. The Committee agrees that it is vital to provide 
support that allows young researchers to establish their 
laboratories and begin research projects that test accepted 
notions about existing fields and launch new fields. The 
Committee expects that NSF will continue its successful CAREER 
program, and the Act requires that, as overall funding for 
research expands at NSF, funding for CAREER expand 
proportionately to ensure that the pipeline of researchers 
remains strong. The Committee expects that DOE will build on 
its existing programs for young investigators to carry out the 
early career program authorized in this Act.
    In the Research Award Match Programs authorized at NSF and 
DOE, the Committee emphasizes that the projects to be supported 
should be fundamental research. In evaluating the applications, 
NSF and DOE are expected to place particular emphasis on the 
potential for creativity of the applicant and his ideas, i.e. 
on funding the ``person'' and not just the ``project,'' to 
empower recipients to propose and attempt high-risk risk, 
transformative research projects with the potential for 
significant scientific or technical advancement. This focus on 
the individual has been successfully emphasized in other grant 
programs, such as the Howard Hughes Medical Institute's 
Investigators Program.
    Applicants do not need an industrial partner to apply for 
the grants under the Research Award Match Programs, and the 
base funding of $75,000 is available to an awardee each year 
independent of whether he receives funding for industry. In 
addition, awardees may receive federal matching funds for 
industry support in any year of the grant, independent of 
whether they have received it in the past. A goal of the 
program is to gain industry support for long-range, fundamental 
research that could have implications for industry down the 
road. The notion here is to fund the kind of basic research 
that once would be been funded by the great industrial 
laboratories.
    In both the Early Career Awards Program and the Research 
Award Match Program authorized at DOE in this Act, the 
Committee authorizes DOE, in awarding the grants, to take into 
account whether the proposed work includes collaboration with 
the DOE National Laboratories. The Committee intends that use 
of DOE facilities, such as light sources, particle 
accelerators, nanoscale science research centers, and 
supercomputers, be considered as collaboration with the 
laboratories, provided there is substantial time spent at the 
facility or considerable interactions with DOE staff associated 
with the use.
    The programs authorized in Sections 2, 3, 5, and 6 focus on 
encouraging and supporting the next generation of researchers 
at universities and non-profit research organizations. Equally 
critical is ensuring that Federal and National Laboratories can 
hire young researchers to replace the growing number of 
scientists at these laboratories that will be eligible for 
retirement in the coming years. The reports required in 
Sections 3 and 4 are designed to provide the Committee with 
information on how the NIST and DOE National Laboratories are 
using their existing authorities to attract and retain early 
career researchers with training in fields of national 
importance.

  SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, LEGAL, ETHICAL, AND CULTURAL QUESTIONS ASSOCIATED 
                WITH ADVANCES IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    Information technology offers tremendous benefits to 
society. Yet the advancements in information technology and its 
growing pervasiveness in our society also raises substantial 
social, economic, legal, ethical, and cultural questions. 
Artificial intelligence research, in particular, requires 
consideration of potential long-term consequences of advances 
in computer capabilities, including whether such advances would 
lead to computers (including both hardware and software) that 
may have the capacity for autonomy or self-awareness. 
Therefore, the Committee expects that NSF and DOE Office of 
Science, in carrying out the grant programs authorized in 
Sections 2, 3, and 9 of this Act, would consider research 
proposals to explore the development of technological means to 
maintain the security and securability of computers in order to 
inhibit self-awareness. The Committee also expects NSF and DOE 
Office of Science to consider proposals to study the ethical, 
legal, and societal concerns arising from the potential 
development of hardware and software that would be capable of 
mimicking human abilities to learn, reason, and make decisions.

                     MAJOR RESEARCH INSTRUMENTATION

    Often cutting-edge research requires the development and 
use of complex new instruments or systems of instruments. The 
Major Research Instrumentation program at NSF supports the 
development and acquisition of equipment that is too large to 
be purchased under a single grant and that can and will be 
shared across labs, departments, or schools within an 
institution of higher education, or even across institutions. 
The Committee supports the continuation of this focus and 
expects NSF and institutions of higher education to work 
together to ensure that adequate support is provided for the 
specialized technical operations and maintenance of equipment 
developed and acquired under this program so that the maximum 
impact of the instrumentation on research and education is 
realized. The changes made to the MRI program by the Act to 
increase the maximum grant award size and to allow grant funds 
to be used for support of operations and maintenance of 
instruments acquired under the program are consistent with the 
recommendations of the NAS report, Advanced Research 
Instrumentation and Facilities.
    In addition to the agency-wide Major Research 
Instrumentation program, NSF also runs field-specific 
instrumentation programs in various research directorates, and 
the Committee acknowledges and supports the appropriateness of 
these programs and the importance of the projects funded 
through them.

                RESEARCH ON INNOVATION AND INVENTIVENESS

    The Committee expects NSF, in supporting research on the 
process of invention and the teaching of inventiveness, to 
involve the Directorate for Engineering, the Directorate for 
Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences, and the Directorate 
for Education and Human Resources. In addition, the Committee 
expects that such activities might include research aimed at 
increasing understanding of the creative mind and creative 
environment, including studying the neural, cognitive and 
social factors that facilitate or inhibit moments of innovation 
and discovery and the social and cognitive processes underlying 
the development of curiosity and problem solving skills; 
developing measures of inventiveness; studying the cultural, 
social and geographic contexts of innovation, including 
examining the influence on inventiveness of flexible learning 
environments and the role of parents, teachers, and mentors; 
and examining what organizational forms and practices, 
including patents and other governmental policies, facilitate 
innovation, its transformation into products, and the movement 
of products to markets.

                           IX. Cost Estimate

    A cost estimate and comparison prepared by the Director of 
the Congressional Budget Office under section 402 of the 
Congressional Budget Act of 1974 has been timely submitted to 
the Committee on Science prior to the filing of this report and 
is included in Section X of this report pursuant to House Rule 
XIII, clause 3(c)(3).
    H.R. 5356 does not contain new budget authority, credit 
authority, or changes in revenues or tax expenditures. Assuming 
that the sums authorized under the bill are appropriated, H.R. 
5356 does authorize additional discretionary spending, as 
described in the Congressional Budget Office report on the 
bill, which is contained in Section X of this report.

              X. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate

                                                     June 20, 2006.
Hon. Sherwood L. Boehlert,
Chairman, Committee on Science,
House of Representatives, Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for H.R. 5356, the Research 
for Competitiveness Act.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contacts are Deborah 
Reis and Leigh Angres.
            Sincerely,
                                          Donald B. Marron,
                                                   Acting Director.
    Enclosure.

H.R. 5356--Research for Competitiveness Act

    Summary: H.R. 5356 would authorize appropriations for the 
Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Science Foundation 
(NSF) for research grant programs. CBO estimates that 
implementing H.R. 5356 would cost $67 million in 2007 and $1.2 
billion over the 2007-2011 period, assuming appropriation of 
the specified and estimated amounts. Because H.R. 5356 would 
expand the authority of NSF to accept donations from nonfederal 
entities, enacting the bill could effect revenues and direct 
spending, but CBO estimates that such effects would be 
insignificant.
    H.R. 5356 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined by the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA) 
and would not directly affect the budgets of state, local, or 
tribal governments.
    Estimated cost to the Federal Government: The estimated 
budgetary impact of H.R. 5356 is shown in the following table. 
The costs of this legislation fall within budget function 250 
(general science, space, and technology).

Basis of estimate

    For this estimate, CBO assumes that H.R. 5356 will be 
enacted by the end of fiscal year 2006 and that the entire 
amounts authorized and estimated to be necessary will be 
appropriated for each year. Estimated outlays are based on 
historical spending patterns for NSF and DOE programs.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                  By fiscal year, in millions of dollars--
                                                           -----------------------------------------------------
                                                              2006     2007     2008     2009     2010     2011
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                        SPENDING SUBJECT TO APPROPRIATION

Spending under current law:
    Budget authority\1\...................................      273        0        0        0        0        0
    Estimated outlays.....................................      264      199       79       25        5        0
Proposed changes:
NSF grant programs:
    Estimated authorization level.........................        0      282      295      308      322      337
    Estimated outlays.....................................        0       62      192      257      286      304
DOE grant programs:
    Authorization level...................................        0       27       29       31       33       35
    Estimated outlays.....................................        0        5       26       29       31       33
    Total changes:
        Estimated authorization level.....................        0      309      324      339      355      372
        Estimated outlays.................................        0       67      218      286      317      337
Spending under H.R. 5356:
    Estimated authorization level.........................      273      309      324      339      355      372
    Estimated outlays.....................................      264      266      297      311      322     337
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\The 2006 level is the amount appropriated for that year for the NSF and DOE programs authorized by H.R. 5356.

            Spending subject to appropriation
    H.R. 5356 would authorize the appropriation of $309 million 
in 2007 and about $1.7 billion for the 2007-2011 period for NSF 
and DOE programs. Assuming appropriation of the necessary 
amounts, CBO estimates that implementing H.R. 5356 would cost 
$67 million in fiscal year 2007 and $1.2 billion over the 2007-
2011 period. As described below, most of these amounts would be 
used for federal grant programs.
    National Science Foundation Programs. H.R. 5356 would 
authorize funding for four NSF grant programs. The bill would 
authorize specific appropriations for two of these: between $3 
million and $15 million a year for matching grants to 
scientists and engineers for high- risk, high-return research 
and between $94 million and $123 million a year to institutions 
of higher learning for purchases of major scientific equipment. 
In addition, the bill would direct NSF to allocate 3.5 percent 
of amounts appropriated each year for research and related 
activities for grants to scientists and engineers under its 
program that supports development of faculty early in their 
careers. Based on 2006 appropriations, we estimate that this 
provision would authorize the appropriation of $154 million in 
2007 and $800 million over the 2007-2011 period. Finally, the 
bill would direct NSF to establish a cross-disciplinary grant 
program focusing on physical and nonbiomedical life sciences. 
Based on information provided by NSF regarding similar 
programs, we estimate that this provision would authorize the 
appropriation of about $30 million annually. We estimate that 
implementing the four grant programs would cost $62 million in 
2007 and $1.1 billion over the 2007-2011 period.
    Department of Energy Programs. H.R. 5356 would specifically 
authorize the appropriation of $155 million over the 2007-2011 
period for DOE grant programs. Of that amount, $125 million 
would be used to continue DOE's early-career research grants to 
scientists. The remaining $30 million would be used to create a 
new matching grant program. Assuming appropriation of these 
amounts, CBO estimates that implementing these programs would 
cost $5 million in 2007 and about $125 million over the 2007-
2011 period.
            Direct spending and revenues
    By allowing NSF to accept donations for specific prize 
competitions, H.R. 5356 could increase revenues from donations 
and subsequent direct spending of those revenues. Under current 
law, NSF can use and receive funds only if donated without 
restriction. Based on information provided by NSF, CBO expects 
that the effects of this provision on revenues and direct 
spending would be negligible.
    Intergovernmental and private-sector impact: H.R. 5356 
contains no intergovernmental or private-sector mandates as 
defined by UMRA and would not directly affect the budgets of 
state, local, or tribal governments.
    Estimate prepared by: Federal Costs: Deborah Reis and Leigh 
Angres; impact on state, local, and tribal governments: Emily 
Holt and Lisa Ramirez-Branum; impact on the private sector: 
Craig Cammarata.
    Estimate approved by: Peter H. Fontaine, Deputy Assistant 
Director for Budget Analysis.

        XI. Compliance With Public Law 104-4 (Unfunded Mandates)

    H.R. 5356 contains no unfunded mandates.

         XII. Committee Oversight Findings and Recommendations

    The Committee on Science's oversight findings and 
recommendations are reflected in the body of this report.

      XIII. Statement on General Performance Goals and Objectives

    Pursuant to clause (3)(c) of House rule XIII, the goals of 
H.R. 5356 are to establish programs to provide grants to 
researchers just starting their careers to conduct high- risk, 
high-return research; authorize the acquisition of shared 
scientific equipment by institutions of higher education; 
authorize a program at NSF to fund basic research designed to 
simultaneously advance the physical and nonbiomedical life 
sciences; authorize research at NSF on innovation; and 
authorize NASA to establish a NASA Academy to provide a 
scientific and engineering training program for NASA employees.

                XIV. Constitutional Authority Statement

    Article I, section 8 of the Constitution of the United 
States grants Congress the authority to enact H.R. 5356.

                XV. Federal Advisory Committee Statement

    H.R. 5356 does not establish nor authorize the 
establishment of any advisory committee.

                 XVI. Congressional Accountability Act

    The Committee finds that H.R. 5356 does not relate to the 
terms and conditions of employment or access to public services 
or accommodations within the meaning of section 102(b)(3) of 
the Congressional Accountability Act (Public Law 104-1).

      XVII. Statement on Preemption of State, Local, or Tribal Law

    This bill is not intended to preempt any state, local, or 
tribal law.

      XVIII. Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported

  In compliance with clause 3(e) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, changes in existing law made by 
the bill, as reported, are shown as follows (new matter is 
printed in italics and existing law in which no change is 
proposed is shown in roman):

       SECTION 11 OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACT OF 1950


                    GENERAL AUTHORITY OF FOUNDATION

  Sec. 11. The Foundation shall have the authority, within the 
limits of available appropriations, to do all things necessary 
to carry out the provisions of this Act, including, but without 
being limited thereto, the authority--
          (a)  * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          (f) to receive and use funds donated by others, if 
        such funds are donated without restriction other than 
        that they be used in furtherance of one or more of the 
        general purposes of the Foundation, except that funds 
        may be donated for specific prize competitions;

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                     XIX. Committee Recommendations

    On June 7, 2006, a quorum being present, the Committee on 
Science favorably reported H.R. 5356, The Research for 
Competitiveness Act, as amended, by a voice vote and 
recommended its enactment.

              XX. Proceedings of the Full Committee Markup

                              ----------                              


                        WEDNESDAY, JUNE 7, 2006

                  House of Representatives,
                                      Committee on Science,
                                                    Washington, DC.

    The Committee met, pursuant to call, at 2:39 p.m., in Room 
2318 of the Rayburn House Office Building, Hon. Sherwood L. 
Boehlert [Chairman of the Committee] presiding.
    Chairman Boehlert. I want to welcome everyone here for this 
markup on three important and bipartisan bills. The Committee 
on Science will come to order, as I started to say.
    Pursuant to notice, the Committee on Science meets to 
consider H.R. 5136, the National Integrated Drought Information 
System Act of 2006; H.R. 5358, the Science and Mathematics 
Education for Competitiveness Act; and H.R. 5356, the Research 
for Competitiveness Act.
    I ask unanimous consent for the authority to recess the 
Committee at any point during consideration of these matters, 
and without objection, it is so ordered.
    We will now proceed with the markup beginning with opening 
statements. I will go first, followed by my distinguished 
colleague and partner in this venture, Mr. Gordon.
    I am going to make all my general comments on today's bills 
now, and not speak on the bills later on. Since we have to 
squeeze in a lot of business this afternoon between Floor 
votes, and according to the report from the Floor, we can 
expect a series of votes some time in the 4:00 to 4:15 
timeframe.
    As usual with this committee, these bills reflect a lot of 
bipartisan work to solve real problems in practical ways.
    Our first bill today will be a measure to improve drought 
forecasting and monitoring, introduced by Mr. Hall. I 
appreciate Mr. Hall bringing this matter to our attention.
    Drought may seem like something that is easy to detect, but 
hard to do anything about; but that turns out to be wrong on 
both counts. It is tricky to figure out when a drought is 
developing, but if one knows, one can take many steps to alter 
water usage to mitigate drought's often severe economic 
consequences. So we need to pay more attention to this costly 
phenomenon, and Mr. Hall's bill, building on existing federal 
efforts, will enable us to improve drought forecasting and 
monitoring, which will save billions, with a ``B,'' billions of 
dollars. So, I expect this bill to move smoothly today, and on 
the House Floor. We will have one manager's amendment today, to 
reduce the authorization levels, to make that progress to the 
Floor a little easier.
    The other two bills we will take up today are the 
Committee's long-awaited innovation package.
    Our goal here is to take action on the recommendations of 
the National Academy of Sciences, the Council on 
Competitiveness, AEA, the Business Roundtable, the National 
Association of Manufacturers, and others, who have been calling 
for the U.S. to shore up its competitiveness by focusing more 
attention and more dollars on research and education.
    These calls were really music to our ears, because we have 
been issuing the same entreaties ourselves on this committee 
for a number of years, and especially in the last couple of 
years, as the challenge to future U.S. competitiveness has 
never become clearer.
    But we didn't want to answer those calls with a laundry 
list of new programs of dubious value, that would be unlikely 
to ever get funded. It might give us a lot of satisfaction and 
some fancy press releases, but that is not what this committee 
is about. We are about results. Indeed, we looked around to see 
what is working right now, or what has worked in the recent 
past, and then, we extended or expanded or built on those 
successful programs, and the result is a focused, bipartisan 
measure that should be able to move swiftly through the House.
    This measure is an intelligent middle ground between those 
who want to create scores of new, untested, expensive programs, 
and those who argue that all that is necessary is to increase 
overall funding for basic research, and leave everything else 
to chance. If we are to remain competitive, then we have to 
bolster key programs at the National Science Foundation, 
especially focused on K-12 and undergraduate education, and it 
is the prerogative of the Congress to do that.
    I want to thank Dr. Schwarz and Mr. McCaul, two active 
freshmen on this committee with a deep understanding of these 
issues, for introducing these bills.
    And I want to thank Mr. Gordon and the Members on both 
sides of the aisle, who worked with us on developing the final 
versions of these bills that are in the amendments in the 
nature of a substitute, including Dr. Ehlers and Ms. Biggert 
and Mr. Calvert, Ms. Jackson Lee and Mr. Green, and Mr. Honda. 
You get the idea of how we operate. Fingerprints of Members on 
both sides of the aisle are all over these bills, and that is 
the way it should be.
    The Schwarz bill focuses on education programs at the 
National Science Foundation, which runs programs that are 
critical to improving math and science education at all levels. 
The bill includes enhancing and extending the Noyce Scholarship 
program, one of my pet projects, to attract and better train 
science and math teachers. We also give renewed emphasis to the 
Math and Science Partnership program, now renamed the School 
and University Partnership Program.
    And we underscore NSF's role in the sometimes neglected, 
but critical area of undergraduate education. We also give 
clear authority to the Department of Energy for education 
programs, and we require an inventory and an evaluation of 
those programs.
    In Mr. McCaul's bill, we bolster research by ensuring that 
both NSF and DOE, we will set aside funding for young 
researchers, who are likely to perform the most creative and 
pathbreaking work. And we revive and idea from the 1980s, to 
try to get industry interested in these young academic 
researchers and in their long-term, basic research.
    I would add that both of these bills, and the underlying 
2002 NSF Act, direct that the programs in these bills, among 
other things, help bring more individuals from under-
represented groups into science, math, and engineering, and 
that is a goal that many Members of this committee have been 
very active in pursuing.
    So, we are taking action today, as we promised when we 
heard from the leaders of the National Academies Gathering 
Storm panel last year. We are setting a realistic agenda to 
increase U.S. investment in research and education in carefully 
targeted ways.
    I look forward to moving this legislation today, and to 
continuing efforts to see it signed into law this year. And I 
will continue to work with the appropriators to see that they 
provide the funding called for in the American Competitiveness 
Initiative and in these bills.
    Now, it is my privilege to turn to my partner in this 
venture, the distinguished gentleman from Tennessee, Mr. 
Gordon.
    [The prepared statement of Chairman Boehlert follows:]
          Prepared Statement of Chairman Sherwood L. Boehlert
    I want to welcome everyone here for this markup on three important 
and bipartisan bills. I'm going to make all my general comments on 
today's bills now and not speak on the bills later, since we have to 
squeeze in a lot of business this afternoon between Floor votes.
    As usual with this committee, these bills reflect a lot of 
bipartisan work to solve real problems in practical ways.
    Our first bill today will be a measure to improve drought 
forecasting and monitoring, introduced by Mr. Hall. I appreciate Mr. 
Hall bringing this matter to our attention.
    Drought may seem like something that is easy to detect but hard to 
do anything about. But that turns out to be wrong on both counts. It's 
tricky to figure out when a drought is developing, but if one knows, 
one can take many steps to alter water usage to mitigate drought's 
often severe economic consequences. So we need to pay more attention to 
this costly phenomenon, and Mr. Hall's bill, building on existing 
federal efforts, will enable us to improve drought forecasting and 
monitoring, which will save billions of dollars. So I expect this bill 
to move smoothly today and on the House Floor.
    We will have one manager's amendment today to reduce the 
authorization levels to make that progress to the Floor a little 
easier.
    The other two bills we will take up today are the Committee's long 
awaited innovation package.
    Our goal here is to take action on the recommendations of the 
National Academy of Sciences, the Council on Competitiveness, AEA, the 
Business Roundtable, the National Association of Manufacturers and 
others who have been calling for the U.S. to shore up its 
competitiveness by focusing more attention and more dollars on research 
and education.
    These calls were really music to our ears because we've been 
issuing the same entreaties ourselves for years, and especially in the 
last couple of years as the challenge to future U.S. competitiveness 
has become ever clearer.
    But we didn't want to answer these calls with a laundry list of new 
programs of dubious value that would be unlikely to ever get funded. 
Instead, we looked around to see what is working right now or what has 
worked in the recent past, and then we extended or expanded or built on 
those successful programs. And the result is a focused, bipartisan 
measure that should be able to move swiftly through the House.
    This measure is an intelligent middle-ground between those who want 
to create scores of new, untested, expensive programs and those who 
argue that all that's necessary is to increase overall funding for 
basic research and leave everything else to chance. If we are to remain 
competitive, then we have to bolster key programs at the National 
Science Foundation (NSF), especially programs focused on K-12 and 
undergraduate education, and it's the prerogative of the Congress to do 
that.
    I want to thank Mr. Schwarz and Mr. McCaul, two active freshmen on 
this committee with a deep understanding of these issues, for 
introducing these bills.
    And I want to thank Mr. Gordon and the Members on both sides of the 
aisle who worked with us on developing the final versions of these 
bills that are in the amendments in the nature of a substitute, 
including Mr. Ehlers, Ms. Biggert, Mr. Calvert, Ms. Jackson Lee, Mr. 
Green and Mr. Honda.
    The Schwarz bill focuses on education programs at the National 
Science Foundation (NSF), which runs programs that are critical to 
improving math and science education at all levels. The bill includes 
enhancing and extending the Noyce Scholarship program, one of my pet 
projects, to attract and train better science and math teachers. We 
also give renewed emphasis to the Math and Science Partnership program, 
now renamed the School and University Partnership Program.
    And we underscore NSF's role in the sometimes neglected, but 
critical area of undergraduate education. We also give clear authority 
to the Department of Energy (DOE) for education programs, and we 
require an inventory and evaluation of those programs.
    In Mr. McCaul's bill, we bolster research by ensuring that both NSF 
and DOE we will set aside funding for young researchers, who are likely 
to perform the most creative and pathbreaking work. And we revive an 
idea from the 1980s to try to get industry interested in these young 
academic researchers and in their long-term, basic research.
    I would add that both these bills, and the underlying 2002 NSF Act, 
direct that the programs in these bills, among other things, help bring 
more individuals from under-represented into science, math and 
engineering.
    So we're taking action today as we promised when we heard from the 
leaders of the National Academy's Gathering Storm panel last year. We 
are setting a realistic agenda to increase U.S. investment in research 
and education in carefully targeted ways.
    I look forward to moving this legislation today, and to continuing 
efforts to see it signed into law this year. And I will continue to 
work with the appropriators to see that they provide the funding called 
for in the American Competitiveness Initiative and in these bills.

    Chairman Boehlert. We will now consider H.R. 5356, the 
Research for Competitiveness Act. I recognize Mr. Gordon for 
his remarks.
    Mr. Gordon. Mr. Chairman, I think we are moving along well.
    Let me just say once again, I think this is a good bill. I 
think it would have been better if we had added the ARPA-E 
recommendations from the ``Rising Above the Gathering Storm'' 
bill that myself and most Members here have co-sponsored.
    Just to, once again, remind people, so that it stays on 
your radar, so hopefully, we will have a chance to deal with 
this later. But the Department of Defense had a little agency 
called DARPA, and we are familiar with that. It is in the 
advanced research area. They developed the Internet. They 
developed stealth technology, and a number of other important 
technologies. What we would like to see, and again, following 
on the recommendations of the report, is that within the 
Department of Energy, we set up a similar type of advanced 
research agency, that we look around, you know, the country, 
and we determine the eight or ten--for them to determine the 
eight or ten best technologies, where we could have some 
breakthrough with energy and alternative energies, that we 
bring the National Labs, the private sector, the universities 
together, really hunker down, focus on these, like they have 
done in DARPA, and see if we can't have some breakthroughs.
    And again, I will not make it as an amendment, but I raise 
it as an issue, so that we can hopefully talk about this more 
at a later date.
    [The prepared statement of Mr. Gordon follows:]
            Prepared Statement of Representative Bart Gordon
    Today, the Committee will consider legislative proposals for 
improving the future competitiveness of the Nation.
    The manager's amendments to H.R. 5356 and H.R. 5358, which I have 
co-sponsored, meld provisions from the majority's bills and my 
bipartisan bills, H.R. 4434 and H.R. 4596.
    I want to thank the Chairman and other Members of the Majority for 
working with me to improve both the scope and funding levels authorized 
in the manager's amendments so that they are more in-line with the 
recommendations of the recent report from the National Academy of 
Sciences, Rising Above the Gathering Storm.
    The resulting legislation focuses specifically on improving science 
and math education and on strengthening basic research.
    The markup vehicles now implement a number of the key 
recommendations of the Gathering Storm report, recommendations which 
represent a consensus for action from a distinguished panel 
representing business, academic, and education leaders.
    Last year, I introduced three bills based on the Rising Storm 
panel's recommendations that were in the Science Committee's 
jurisdiction, and I had hoped to see early action by Congress in 
implementing them.
    With the general uncertainty about our country's future economic 
prospects, we need to act promptly. At a recent ETS Subcommittee 
hearing with NIST's three Nobel Prize winners, all three agreed that we 
need to increase our investment in basic research and to improve K-12 
science and math education.
    The Gathering Storm report states that ``laying the foundation for 
a scientifically literate workforce begins with developing outstanding 
K-12 teachers in science and mathematics.''
    I believe the report got it exactly right and has identified 
teachers as the first priority.
    Therefore, I am pleased that the markup vehicle for H.R. 5358 will 
implement the top priority of the Academies' report, which is to put in 
place effective teacher training programs for new and in-service 
science and math teachers.
    The proposed modifications to the Noyce scholarship program will 
transform it into much more than a scholarship program. It will spur 
reform to change the way colleges and universities educate new science 
and math teachers. Teachers who emerge from the program will combine 
deep knowledge of their subject with expertise in the most effective 
practices for teaching science or math.
    The new teachers will also receive mentoring and support during the 
critical early years of their teaching careers, when teacher attrition 
is known to be high.
    Finally, the program is authorized at a level that would enable it 
to meet the goal of producing 10,000 highly qualified science and math 
teachers each year within the President's goal of doubling the NSF 
budget.
    In short, the manager's amendment now implements the highest 
priority of the Rising Storm report. In addition, the NSF's major K-12 
education program involving partnerships between universities and 
school systems is strengthened by the manager's amendment. Emphasis is 
placed on professional development opportunities for practicing 
teachers, including support for Master's degree programs and teacher 
institutes.
    While I am largely satisfied with these bills, I am disappointed 
that the Science Committee is being a follower and not a leader on the 
critical issue of innovation. We are following the action of Senate 
committees to move legislation, and the bills before us today were only 
recently introduced.
    In addition, we are taking a timid approach by not addressing all 
of the Gathering Storm report's recommendations within the Committee's 
jurisdiction.
    We are not taking up ARPA-E legislation to help meet the Nation's 
critical energy needs, and we are not authorizing the NSF and DOE 
Office of Science funding increases called for in both the President's 
American Competitiveness Initiative and in the National Academy's 
report. As the authorizing committee for these agencies, we are ducking 
our responsibilities if we do not act.
    So while the bills before us today are a good start, they do not 
represent a comprehensive approach. I hope the Committee will soon act 
to provide the missing pieces.
    Mr. Chairman, I yield back my time.

    [The prepared statement of Mr. Ehlers follows:]
         Prepared Statement of Representative Vernon J. Ehlers
    There are many ways we can foster innovation and competition at the 
national level, but the most critical is the support of education in 
science, technology, engineering and mathematics fields. I am pleased 
that today's bills artfully address this area by focusing on programs 
that maximize innovation and educational opportunities. By addressing 
teacher training, graduate interdisciplinary studies, and research in 
areas that bridge scientific fields, these bills combine to provide a 
comprehensive alliance putting us on the right track to remain 
competitive in today's global economy. NSF education programs play a 
strong role in promoting our economic competitiveness and national 
security and I am glad that my colleagues on the Committee recognize 
that this treasure trove of knowledge the Foundation represents should 
not be overlooked. The bills also demonstrate a strong commitment 
toward fundamental research, and place an emphasis on the promise of 
young research professors.
    I look forward to working with my colleagues and the scientific 
community to advance this important legislation. I believe that both 
bills align with the mission of bolstering American Competitiveness, 
and will support them strongly when they are considered by the whole 
House.

    [The prepared statement of Ms. Johnson follows:]
       Prepared Statement of Representative Eddie Bernice Johnson
    Thank you, Mr. Chairman and Ranking Member.
    I am happy that the Republican leadership has finally put together 
a package of legislation in response to the President's call for 
increased national competitiveness in science, technology, engineering 
and math.
    This initiative underscores the recommendations of several 
important reports, including the report called Rising Above the 
Gathering Storm, released last year by the National Academy of 
Sciences.
    A nation lacking science and math competitiveness is a nation 
lacking a future of prosperity. Advances in medicine, engineering and 
technology have touched every aspect of our lives.
    The bills up for consideration today focus on particular weaknesses 
in our national scientific enterprise.
    The enhancement of early career awards for investigators in the 
physical sciences will be important in maintaining our national 
pipeline of talent.
    Support of high-risk, high-reward research projects pertinent to 
industry are designed to spur innovation.
    Cross-disciplinary research is an important sector, and it is good 
to encourage collaboration between life sciences and the physical 
sciences.
    As always, the NASA workforce is deserving of the Committee's 
support, especially when it comes to programs to strengthen that 
workforce.
    Moreover, Mr. Chairman, the provisions in H.R. 5358 are likewise 
good ideas to enhance math and science education at all levels.
    Programs such as the Robert Noyce Teacher Scholarship provide 
strong support to math and science teachers, particularly as they enter 
the final years of their training. Research has shown that these years 
are critical for retention of teachers, and so it is good to provide 
support at this critical point in their education.
    Advanced degree programs for teachers such as those specified in 
the School and University Partnerships for Science and Math Education 
provision, are also important to keep educators on the cutting edge of 
their course material.
    H.R. 5358 contains many creative provisions to support math and 
science teachers from the beginning of their training throughout their 
careers.
    I believe this support is critical to enhancing students' views of 
math and science. Students need to see mentors who have passion for the 
subject material.
    One particular concern of mine is regarding our nation's people of 
color. Minorities, with the exception of students at Historically Black 
Colleges and Universities, are not pursuing careers in science, 
technology, engineering and math at the same rate of their peers.
    My hope was to see a much greater emphasis on programs supporting 
ethnic minorities. Although I commend the efforts of the National 
Science Foundation, Department of Energy and other organizations that 
support research in the physical sciences, the problem is clearly far 
from being resolved.
    This issue, of minority participation in math and science careers, 
is one I would like to see this committee address much more intently in 
the future.
    As former Chair of the Research Subcommittee, I support this 
committee's efforts to enhance programs in the name of national 
competitiveness.
    Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I yield back.

    [The prepared statement of Mr. Honda follows:]
         Prepared Statement of Representative Michael M. Honda
    Mr. Chairman, thank you for recognizing me, and I'll be brief.
    I just wanted to take this opportunity to thank you and your staff 
for working with me to include language about what I've been calling 
``teaching innovation'' in the manager's amendment.
    The language would allow NSF to use funding for the development and 
dissemination of curriculum materials that will help foster 
inventiveness and innovation, and to research the process of innovation 
and the teaching of inventiveness.
    I think that as we strive to train new scientists, engineers, and 
teachers to maintain global competitiveness in science and technology, 
we must realize that we cannot just train them in the same old way we 
have used in the past.
    We need to introduce them to new fields, teach them to be 
interdisciplinary, and ensure that they are taught the creativity and 
thinking skills of highly inventive and innovative people.
    Data on patent awards shows that in especially innovative high-tech 
companies, the cutting edge work has really been driven by a few highly 
innovative scientists and engineers. We need to figure out how these 
people ``do it'' and teach others those skills. That's what my language 
does.
    I'm not the only one who thinks this--leading experts made similar 
recommendations in the MIT-Lemelson Program report ``Invention,'' and 
many high-tech CEOs have told me the same thing and have endorsed my 
stand-alone bill from which this language is adapted, the INVENT Act, 
H.R. 5477.
    So again, I thank the Chairman for working with me to include this 
in the manager's amendment, and I yield back the balance of my time.

    Chairman Boehlert. Thank you so much.
    I ask unanimous consent that the bill is considered as read 
and open to amendment at any point, and that the Members 
proceed with the amendments in the order on the roster. Without 
objection, it is so ordered.
    The first amendment on the roster is an amendment offered 
in the nature of a substitute, offered by the gentleman from 
Texas, Mr. McCaul. I ask unanimous consent that the amendment 
in the nature of a substitute be treated as original text for 
purposes of amendment under the five minute rule, and without 
objection, that is so ordered.
    The Clerk will report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment to H.R. 5356, offered by Mr. McCaul of 
Texas.
    Chairman Boehlert. I ask unanimous consent to dispense with 
the reading. Without objection, so ordered.
    And I recognize Mr. McCaul for five minutes to explain this 
substitute amendment.
    Mr. McCaul. Thank you, Mr. Chairman, and I want to thank 
the Ranking Member, Mr. Gordon. Not to be outdone by the 
Ranking Member, I have actually triplets in pre-K, and five 
children overall, so I think the term active freshman by the 
Chairman is appropriate in this case.
    This amendment is about the future. It is the product of 
many hearings, including a field hearing, which Congressman 
Lamar Smith chaired, and I participated in Austin, Texas, at 
the IT World Congress.
    As many of you know, the technologies which enabled e-
commerce to become a reality in the 1990s are based on research 
initially conducted at universities like the University of 
Texas, which is in my hometown.
    Many of these programs were funded by federal agencies, 
such as the National Science Foundation and DARPA, United 
States investments in research and development during the past 
fifty years provided these breakthroughs, which transformed 
American society, and helped the U.S. to build the world's 
dominant economy. When you use a web browser, send an e-mail, 
or even use the Internet, you can thank those thinkers and 
innovators at American universities who have helped develop 
these great technologies that made our world smaller.
    Today, the technology developed in university labs 
translates into multi-billion dollar industries. For instance, 
in 2005, companies in my home State of Texas exported $31 
billion in computers and electronic products. So, you can see 
why it is important to nurture the minds and the innovators who 
are working on the most cutting edge ideas, and those who are 
preparing to be America's next high-tech workforce. The bills 
which our committee is marking up today intend to do just that.
    I am pleased to introduce today a substitute that improves 
on this important legislation, and I would like to thank my 
colleagues on both sides of the aisle for their support and 
comments, especially Chairman Boehlert, Ranking Member Gordon, 
Ms. Jackson Lee for helping us to include language on 
diversity, and Mr. Honda, and all the hardworking staff, and 
especially Elizabeth Grossman of the majority staff for her 
hard work on this important legislation.
    The substitute, which combines the two original bills into 
one, the Research for Competitiveness Act, carries forward the 
language on providing grants for scientists and engineers in 
the early stage of their academic careers, to establish 
innovative lines of research. In this capacity, we are 
investing in minds, and hoping to create America's next high-
tech workforce. It also recognizes the economic potential of 
scientific research by supporting scientists who conduct high 
risk, high return research, by creating a grant program that 
includes investments from both the Federal Government, and from 
private industry. This partnership will provide much needed 
synergy between some of the greatest minds at our universities 
and the private sector, to create incentives in areas with the 
most potential for significant technical advancement, and this 
is an area, Mr. Chairman, that we have talked about 
consistently throughout this Congress, and I am so proud to see 
this advance forward in legislation here today.
    This substitute also emphasizes the importance of basic 
research, which forms the building blocks for the most 
important scientific discoveries. To aid that research, the 
substitute also provides specific authorizations and guidance 
for the major research instrumentation program at NSF. This 
helps universities acquire the shared scientific equipment that 
is essential to scientists working in the fields from 
nanotechnology to astronomy.
    The amendment also authorizes an NSF program to foster 
research at the boundary between the physical and biological 
sciences. Recognizing the need to support scientists working in 
the exciting areas at the intersections between traditional 
disciplines.
    Finally, this amendment will add language recognizing the 
NASA workforce's contributions to innovation through the NASA 
science programs.
    America's competitors in the global IT marketplace are 
pouring billions into their science and technology 
infrastructure, rapidly building their innovation capacity, and 
dramatically increasing their ability to compete with the 
United States on the world stage. As our foreign competitors 
increase their investment in innovation, we too must do the 
same. That investment does not just mean dollars and cents. It 
also means building and maintaining a strong and well educated 
high-tech workforce.
    Improving math and science education for our kids, and 
providing incentives for our college students to pursue degrees 
and careers in a technical field, are equally important to any 
financial investment America could make in its quest for 
technological innovation.
    In closing, we have a great opportunity here today to help 
drive American innovation, and to build upon our high-tech 
workforce. I urge my colleagues on this committee to vote yes 
on the substitute amendment, and report the bill to the Floor 
for consideration.
    Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

    [The prepared statement of Mr. McCaul follows:]
          Prepared Statement of Representative Michael McCaul
    Thank you Mr. Chairman,
    As you know, many of the technologies which enabled e-commerce to 
become a reality in the 1990s are based on research initially conducted 
at universities like the University of Texas, which is in my hometown 
of Austin. Many of those programs were funded by federal agencies, such 
as the National Science Foundation and DARPA. United States investments 
in research and development during the past 50 years provided these 
breakthroughs which transformed American society and helped the U.S. to 
build the world's dominant economy.
    When you use a web browser, send an e-mail or even use the 
Internet, you can thank those thinkers and innovators at American 
universities who have helped develop these great technologies that made 
our world smaller. Today, the technology developed in university labs 
translates into multi-billion dollar industries.
    For instance, in 2005, companies in my home State of Texas exported 
$31 billion in computers and electronic products--and that is just 
Texas.
    So you can see why it's so important to nurture the minds and the 
innovators who are working on the most cutting edge ideas, and those 
who are preparing to be America's next high-tech workforce--the bills 
which our committee is marking up today intend to do just that.
    I am pleased to introduce today a substitute that improves on this 
important legislation. This amendment is the product of May's hearings, 
including a field hearing chaired by Congressman Lamar Smith in Austin, 
Texas at the IT World Congress.
    I would like to thank my colleagues on both sides of the aisle for 
their support and comments, especially Chairman Boehlert, Ranking 
Member Gordon, Ms. Jackson Lee for helping us to include language on 
diversity, and Mr. Honda and all their hardworking staff--especially 
Elizabeth Grossman of the Majority staff. The substitute, which 
combines the two original bills into one, the Research for 
Competitiveness Act, carries forward the language on providing grants 
for scientists and engineers in the early stage of their academic 
careers to establish innovative lines of research. In this capacity, we 
are investing in minds and hoping to create America's next high-tech 
workforce.
    It also recognizes the economic potential of scientific research by 
supporting scientists who conduct high-risk, high-return research, by 
creating a grant program that includes investments from both the 
Federal Government and from private industry. This partnership will 
provide much needed synergy between some of the greatest minds at our 
universities and the private sector to create incentives in areas with 
the most potential for significant technical advancement.
    This substitute also emphasizes the importance of basic research, 
which forms the building blocks for the most important scientific 
discoveries. To aid that research, the substitute also provides 
specific authorizations and guidance for the Major Research 
Instrumentation program at NSF, which helps universities acquire the 
shared scientific equipment that is essential to scientists working in 
fields from nanotechnology to astronomy. The amendment also authorizes 
an NSF program to foster research at the boundary between the physical 
and biological sciences, recognizing the need to support scientists 
working in the exciting areas at the intersections between traditional 
disciplines. Finally, this amendment will add language recognizing the 
NASA workforce's contribution to innovation through the NASA science 
programs.
    America's competitors in the global IT marketplace are pouring 
billions into their science and technology infrastructure, rapidly 
building their innovation capacity and dramatically increasing their 
ability to compete with U.S. companies on the world stage.
    As our foreign competitors increase their investment in innovation, 
we too must do the same. That investment does not just mean dollars and 
cents, it also means building and maintaining a strong and well 
educated high-tech workforce.
    Improving math and science education for our kids and providing 
incentives for our college students to pursue degrees and careers in a 
technical field are equally important to any financial investment 
America could make in its quest for technological innovation. In 
closing, we have a great opportunity here today to help drive American 
innovation and to build upon our high-tech workforce, and I urge my 
colleagues on the Science Committee to vote YES on the Substitute 
Amendment, and report the bill for Floor consideration.
    Thank you.

    Chairman Boehlert. I want to thank Mr. McCaul for his 
leadership on this issue, and for your eloquent explanation, 
not only of the provisions of the bill, the reasons why it is 
so desperately needed. So, thank you for your leadership.
    Is there anyone else who wish to be heard? Mr. Sherman.
    Mr. Sherman. Mr. Chairman, I move to strike the last word.
    Chairman Boehlert. The gentleman is recognized.
    Mr. Sherman. I commend both the author of the bill and the 
author of the manager's amendment. This is a good bill.
    I, in some other context, would offer an amendment, but in 
this case, I don't need to, because I am working with the 
Chairman on report language that will fully address my 
concerns, and I promise that it won't be a page long. We will 
get it down to a paragraph.
    One area--the bill isn't overly specific as to the 
substance of the research to be done, but one area that I think 
we do need more research in was the subject of hearings before 
this committee. When I asked for a consensus of the panel, and 
they came to a rough consensus that we are about 25 years away 
from supercomputers that exceed human intelligence. And so, I 
hope to work with the Chairman to include report language that 
one of the areas that we ought to get these young researchers 
involved in is the area of when you design a supercomputer, and 
you are seeking that maximum level of intelligence, what do you 
put into that research, into that supercomputer, that avoids, 
or at least seeks to avoid, self awareness. Or if you can't do 
that, how do you at least achieve, or how do you at least 
design the computer to avoid ambition. And I hope that would be 
among the many things that these fine young researchers 
research, and I thank the Chairman for his willingness to work 
on report language.
    Chairman Boehlert. I thank the gentleman very much. I don't 
mean to add to your concerns, but when you talk about 
supercomputers exceeding the intelligence of man in 25 years or 
so, my grandson's got a Game Boy that exceeds my intelligence 
level, but I thank you for that intervention, and of course, we 
will continue to work with you, as we develop report language.
    I would hope that visitors not particularly familiar with 
the Hill would learn something from this hearing. I like to 
think that this committee has it right. I mean, we work well 
together. We don't spend a lot of time trying to score partisan 
points on either side, as we approach a very serious matter 
called Election 2006.
    What we really try to do is emphasize the importance of the 
subject matter at hand, and try to figure out how we can sort 
out any differences, and come to some reasonable conclusions, 
and you know what? Nothing ever comes out where everybody is 
completely happy, but I think this committee reports products 
that everyone can be proud of. So, thank you for your 
intervention, and I thank all my colleagues for what they have 
to offer.
    Any other discussion on this particular amendment? All 
right, the second amendment on the roster is offered by the 
gentleman from North Carolina, Mr. Miller. Are you ready to 
proceed?
    Mr. Miller. I am, Mr. Chairman.
    Chairman Boehlert. The Clerk will report the amendment.
    The Clerk. Amendment to H.R. 5356, offered by Mr. Miller of 
North Carolina.
    Chairman Boehlert. I ask unanimous consent to dispense with 
the reading. Without objection, it is so ordered.
    The gentleman is recognized for five minutes to explain the 
amendment.
    Mr. Miller. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
    This bill is undoubtedly an important bill, H.R. 5356. It 
does follow the recommendations of the Augustine report, which 
we have referred to repeatedly during this hearing, during this 
markup, rather, during this meeting, and undoubtedly, we need 
to encourage young scientists to conduct higher risk, high 
return research early in their careers, so that we can tap into 
their enthusiasm, their intellect, their originality, and 
provide the research that will be necessary to make sure that 
our nation remains at the forefront of every new technology, 
and that we remain the most innovative economy on Earth.
    But Mr. Chairman, I am very concerned that we are missing 
an important step. We still have a Valley of Death, once ideas 
have made it through basic research, but before they can reach 
the marketplace. I have spoken with you, Mr. Chairman. I have 
spoken in Committee meetings. I have spoken privately with many 
Members of the Committee, including the Chairman, including Dr. 
Ehlers and others, about this problem, and the importance of 
trying to help get ideas to that stage of being commercially 
viable.
    It often is not really that much money that stands in the 
way, anywhere from $2,000 to $40,000. But particularly for 
smaller colleges and universities, that small amount of money 
is an insuperable problem, an insuperable hurdle in trying to 
get an idea from research to the marketplace to commercial 
viability, to where there can be a liquidity event, in the 
language of one witness in a hearing on this topic earlier this 
year or last.
    And until those colleges and universities can establish a 
self-sustaining pipeline to get ideas from research to 
viability, they simply cannot do it. This amendment would 
establish a very modest grant program to help colleges and 
universities establish a pre-competitive technology transfer 
center, simply to establish proof of concept, to patent and 
license, to cover patent and licensing expenses, to conduct 
feasibility studies. And the colleges and universities would 
have to be weaned from this funding fairly quickly. They would 
have to get programs up and running. They would have to 
establish a pipeline. They would have to learn to be self-
sufficient. They would have four years, four years and no more.
    Mr. Chairman, I have spoken to you about this problem, 
about the need. You have agreed with the need, I understand, 
that you agree with my concern. You share my concern, and you 
think this might be a good idea, but you are not entirely 
convinced that it is a good idea as an amendment to this bill.
    Mr. Chairman, if you are willing to work with me, to 
discuss with me other ways to get at this problem, to make sure 
that agencies within the jurisdiction of this committee may 
help solve the problem of getting, of technology transfer at 
that pre-competitive stage, I will certainly consider 
withdrawing the amendment.
    Chairman Boehlert. I can assure the gentleman that I will 
continue the dialogue that we enjoy, and if the past is 
prologue, your persuasiveness is such that you are getting me, 
slowly but surely.
    Mr. Miller. Mr. Chairman, there are some other issues we 
might discuss as well. But on this issue, I will accept the 
assurances of the Chairman, which I have learned are offered in 
good faith and can be relied upon, and I ask unanimous consent 
to withdraw this amendment.
    Chairman Boehlert. Without objection, so ordered.
    Are there any other amendments to the amendment in the 
nature of a substitute? If no, the vote occurs on the amendment 
in the nature of a substitute. All in favor, say aye. Aye. The 
opposed, no. The nos don't have it. The ayes have it, and the 
amendment is agreed to.
    Are there any other amendments? Hearing none, the vote is 
on the bill H.R. 5356, the Research for Competitiveness Act, as 
amended. All those in favor will say aye. Aye. Opposed, no. In 
the opinion of the Chair, the ayes have it.
    I now recognize Mr. Gordon to offer a motion.
    Mr. Gordon. Mr. Chairman, I move that the Committee 
favorably report H.R. 5356, as amended, to the House, with the 
recommendation that the bill, as amended, do pass.
    Furthermore, I move that the staff be instructed to prepare 
the legislative report, and make necessary technical and 
conforming changes, and that the Chairman take all necessary 
steps to bring the bill before the House for consideration.
    Chairman Boehlert. The question is on the motion to report 
the bill, as amended, favorably. Those in favor of the motions 
will say aye. Aye. Opposed, no. The ayes have it. The bill is 
favorably reported.
    Without objection, the motion to reconsider is laid upon 
the table. I move that Members have two subsequent calendar 
days in which to submit supplemental, minority, or additional 
views on the measure.
    I move, pursuant to Clause 1 of Rule 22 of the Rules of the 
House of Representatives, that the Committee authorizes the 
Chairman to offer such motions as may be necessary in the House 
to adopt and pass H.R. 5356, the Research for Competitiveness 
Act, as amended. Without objection, so ordered.
    I want to thank all the Members for their attendance, not 
just today, but for their active participation in the important 
deliberations of this committee.
    This concludes our markup.
    [Whereupon, at 3:53 p.m., the Committee was adjourned.]
                               Appendix:

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        H.R. 5356, Section-by-Section Summary, Amendment Roster






                Section-by-Section Summary of H.R. 5356,
                    Research for Competitiveness Act

SEC. 1.  SHORT TITLE

    ``Research for Competitiveness Act.''

SEC. 2.  NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION EARLY CAREER AWARDS FOR SCIENCE 
AND ENGINEERING RESEARCHERS

    Establishes a program at the National Science Foundation (NSF) to 
award grants to scientists and engineers at the early stage of their 
careers at institutions of higher education and research institutions. 
Allows the existing Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Program 
to be designated as the mechanism for awarding such grants. Sets the 
duration of the awards to be five years and the amount per year to be 
at least $80,000. Eligible applicants are tenure-track faculty at 
institutions of higher education or the equivalent at research 
organizations, such as observatories. Requires the award recipients to 
be selected on a competitive, merit-reviewed basis, based on the 
intellectual merit of the proposed work; the innovative or 
transformative nature of the proposed research; the extent to which the 
proposal integrates research and education, including undergraduate 
education in science and engineering disciplines; and the potential of 
the applicant for leadership at the frontiers of knowledge. Requires 
the Director to allocate at least 3.5 percent of funds appropriated for 
Research and Related Activities each year to the grants program under 
this section.
    Requires the Director of NSF to provide to Congress within six 
months a report describing the distribution of the CAREER Program 
awardees since fiscal year 2001 among different types of institutions. 
Requires the Director to provide to Congress within two years a report 
evaluating the impact of the CAREER Program on the ability of young 
faculty to compete for NSF research grants.

SEC. 3.  DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EARLY CAREER AWARDS FOR SCIENCE AND 
ENGINEERING RESEARCHERS

    Establishes at the Department of Energy Office of Science a program 
to award grants to scientists and engineers at the early stage of their 
careers at institutions of higher education and research institutions. 
Allows the awards to be for up to five years and the amount per year to 
be at least $80,000. Eligible applicants are tenure-track faculty at 
institutions of higher education or the equivalent at research 
organizations, such as observatories. Requires the award recipients to 
be selected on a competitive, merit-reviewed basis, based on the 
intellectual merit of the proposed work; the innovative or 
transformative nature of the proposed research; the extent to which the 
proposal integrates research and education, including undergraduate 
education in science and engineering disciplines; and the potential of 
the applicant for leadership at the frontiers of knowledge. Requires 
the Director to give priority to proposals in which the proposed work 
includes collaboration with a National Laboratory. Authorizes 
appropriations for the program of $25,000,000 for each of the fiscal 
years 2007 through 2011.
    Requires the Director of the Office of Science to provide to 
Congress within three months of enactment a report on efforts to 
recruit and retain young scientists and engineers at the early stages 
of their careers at the civilian National Laboratories. The report 
shall include a description of incentives for recruitment and 
retention, an evaluation of the effectiveness of the incentives, a 
description of barriers to recruitment and retention, and the amount 
and source of funding devoted to recruitment and retention efforts.

SEC. 4.  REPORT ON NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY 
EFFORTS TO RECRUIT AND RETAIN EARLY CAREER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING 
RESEARCHERS

    Requires the Director of the National Institute of Standards and 
Technology to provide to Congress within three months of enactment a 
report on efforts to recruit and retain young scientists and engineers 
at the early stages of their careers at the National Institute of 
Standards and Technology. The report shall include a description of 
incentives for recruitment and retention, an evaluation of the 
effectiveness of the incentives, a description of barriers to 
recruitment and retention, and the amount and source of funding devoted 
to recruitment and retention efforts.

SEC. 5.  NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION RESEARCH AWARD MATCH PROGRAM 
(originated in H.R. 5357)

    Establishes a program at NSF to award grants on a competitive, 
merit-reviewed basis to scientists and engineers at the early stage of 
their careers at institutions of higher education and research 
institutions to conduct high-risk, high-return fundamental research 
with the potential for significant scientific or technical advancement. 
Sets the duration of the awards to be up to five years and the amount 
per year to be up to $75,000, with an additional $37,500 available each 
year as a one-to-one match for funds the awardee raises from industry 
for the proposed research. Eligible applicants are tenure-track faculty 
at institutions of higher education or the equivalent at research 
organizations, such as observatories. Requires the criteria for awardee 
selection to include the potential of the applicant for leadership at 
the frontiers of knowledge; the innovative or transformative nature of 
research in the areas of interest described in the application; the 
creativity of the applicant; and the potential interest to industry of 
research in the areas of interest described in the application. 
Authorizes appropriations for the program of $3,000,000 for fiscal year 
2007; $6,000,000 for fiscal year 2008; $9,000,000 for fiscal year 2009; 
$12,000,000 for fiscal year 2010; and $15,000,000 for fiscal year 2011.

SEC. 6.  DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY RESEARCH AWARD MATCH PROGRAM (originated 
in H.R. 5357)

    Establishes a program at the Department of Energy Office of Science 
to award grants on a competitive, merit-reviewed basis to scientists 
and engineers at the early stage of their careers at institutions of 
higher education and research institutions to conduct high-risk, high-
return fundamental research with the potential for significant 
scientific or technical advancement. Sets the duration of the awards to 
be up to five years and the amount per year to be up to $75,000, with 
an additional $37,500 available each year as a one-to-one match for 
funds the awardee raises from industry for the proposed research. 
Eligible applicants are tenure-track faculty at institutions of higher 
education or the equivalent at research organizations, such as 
observatories. Requires the criteria for awardee selection to include 
the potential of the applicant for leadership at the frontiers of 
knowledge; the innovative or transformative nature of research in the 
areas of interest described in the application; the creativity of the 
applicant; and the potential interest to industry of research in the 
areas of interest described in the application. The Director may give 
priority to proposals in which the proposed work includes collaboration 
with the National Laboratories. Authorizes appropriations for the 
program of $2,000,000 for fiscal year 2007; $4,000,000 for fiscal year 
2008; $6,000,000 for fiscal year 2009; $8,000,000 for fiscal year 2010; 
and $10,000,000 for fiscal year 2011.

SEC. 7.  MAJOR RESEARCH INSTRUMENTATION

    Expands the range of awards under the NSF Major Research 
Instrumentation Program to be between $100,000 and $20,000,000 and 
allows funding to be used to support the operations and maintenance of 
instrumentation and equipment acquired under the program. Authorizes 
appropriations for the program of $94,200,000 for fiscal year 2007; 
$100,800,000 for fiscal year 2008; $107,800,000 for fiscal year 2009; 
$115,300,000 for fiscal year 2010; and $123,400,000 for fiscal year 
2011.

SEC. 8.  DONATIONS

    Amends the National Science Foundation Act of 1950 to allow the 
Foundation to accept donations for specific prize competitions.

SEC. 9.  PROGRAM TO FOSTER CROSS-DISCIPLINARY RESEARCH

    Establishes a program at NSF to award grants to individuals, 
groups, and centers for long-term, potentially path-breaking, basic 
research designed to simultaneously advance the physical and non-
biomedical life sciences. Requires the award recipients to be selected 
on a competitive, merit-reviewed basis. Requires the review panels to 
include both physical scientists and non-biomedical life scientists, 
and, when appropriate, engineers, and to be open to approving high-risk 
research. Requires some of the grants awarded under the Early Career 
Program of Section 2 to be consistent with this section. Authorizes the 
NSF Director to carry out this program jointly with the Department of 
Energy Office of Science and other relevant federal agencies.

SEC. 10.  RESEARCH ON INNOVATION AND INVENTIVENESS

    Allows NSF to support research on the process of innovation and the 
teaching of inventiveness.

SEC. 11.  NASA'S CONTRIBUTION TO INNOVATION

    States the sense of Congress that a balanced science program at the 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contributes 
significantly to innovation and the economic competitiveness of the 
United States and that NASA shall, within the spending levels 
authorized in the NASA Authorization Act of 2005, fully participate in 
any interagency efforts to promote innovation and economic 
competitiveness through scientific research and development.

SEC. 12.  NASA WORKFORCE TRAINING

    Allows NASA to establish a NASA Academy, which may use online 
learning techniques, to provide a training program for NASA employees 
to bridge the gap between the broad-based training provided by 
universities and the specific scientific and engineering training 
needed to carry out the NASA missions. Requires the Administrator of 
NASA to notify Congress within 180 days if the Academy will be 
established and, if so, to provide a plan for its establishment.

SEC. 13.  DEFINITIONS

    Defines ``Institution of Higher Education'' and ``National 
Laboratory'' for this Act.