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 108th Congress                                                   Report
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 2d Session                                                     108-580

======================================================================



 
         HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING REVITALIZATION ACT OF 2004

                                _______
                                

  July 1, 2004.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

  Mr. Boehlert, from the Committee on Science, submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                        [To accompany H.R. 4218]

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]

  The Committee on Science, to whom was referred the bill (H.R. 
4218) to amend the High-Performance Computing Act of 1991, 
having considered the same, report favorably thereon without 
amendment and recommend that the bill do pass.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
   I. Purpose of the Bill.............................................2
  II. Background and Need for the Legislation.........................2
 III. Summary of Hearings.............................................3
  IV. Committee Actions...............................................3
   V. Summary of Major Provisions of the Bill.........................4
  VI. Section-by-Section Analysis (by Title and Section)..............4
 VII. Committee Views.................................................8
VIII. Cost Estimate..................................................10
  IX. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate......................10
   X. Compliance With Public Law 104-4 (Unfunded Mandates)...........11
  XI. Committee Oversight Findings and Recommendations...............12
 XII. Statement on General Performance Goals and Objectives..........12
XIII. Constitutional Authority Statement.............................12
 XIV. Federal Advisory Committee Statement...........................12
  XV. Congressional Accountability Act...............................12
 XVI. Statement on Preemption of State, Local, or Tribal Law.........12
XVII. Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported..........12
XVIII.Committee Recommendations......................................23

 XIX. Proceedings of the Full Committee Markup.......................25

                         I. Purpose of the Bill

    The purpose of the bill is to revitalize interagency 
coordination and planning for the interagency program 
established by the High-Performance Computing Act of 1991 and 
to focus greater attention and resources on federal high-
performance computing programs. The program includes activities 
at the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Department of 
Energy (DOE) Office of Science, the National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration (NASA), the National Institute of 
Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Environmental 
Protection Agency (EPA).

              II. Background and Need for the Legislation


State of high-performance computing in the world today

    High-performance computers (also called supercomputers or 
high-end computers) are an essential component of U.S. 
scientific, industrial, and military competitiveness. However, 
the fastest and most efficient supercomputer in the world 
today--the ``Earth Simulator''--is in Japan, not the U.S.
    The success of Japan's Earth Simulator has caused a great 
deal of soul-searching in the high-performance computing 
community in the U.S. The Earth Simulator reflects a serious, 
sustained investment by the Japanese government in research, 
development, and construction of a customized computer designed 
to be the best in the world at tackling specific scientific and 
engineering tasks, including climate modeling and earthquake 
simulation. While Japan pursued this course, the U.S. chose to 
favor the use of commercially available components for 
constructing high-performance computers. An advantage of this 
approach was that it made high-performance computers more cost-
effective to develop by leveraging development costs against a 
larger market. A disadvantage was that certain kinds of 
research questions are difficult to pursue on the kinds of 
computers that can be built with commercial components.

The role of the U.S. Government in high-performance computing

    Despite the recent technical success of the Japanese, most 
experts still rate the U.S. as highly competitive in high-
performance computing. The depth and strength of U.S. 
capability stems in part from the sustained research and 
development program carried out by federal science agencies 
under an interagency program codified by the High-Performance 
Computing Act of 1991. That Act is widely credited with 
reinvigorating U.S. high-performance computing capabilities 
after a period of relative decline during the late 1980s.
    The Federal government promotes high-performance computing 
in several different ways. First, it funds research and 
development at universities, government laboratories and 
companies to help develop new computer hardware and software; 
second, it funds the purchase of high-performance computers for 
universities and government laboratories; and third, it 
provides access to high-performance computers for a wide 
variety of researchers by allowing them to use government-
supported computers at universities and government 
laboratories.
    According to the National Coordination Office of the 
National Information Technology Research and Development 
Program (NITRD), 11 agencies or offices participate in the 
high-end computing elements of the NITRD program. The total 
NITRD budget for all 11 agencies in Fiscal Year 2003 (FY03) for 
high-performance computing was $862.6 million. The largest 
research and development programs were at NSF, $287.7 million, 
and the DOE Office of Science, $135.7 million. Other major 
agency activities (with funding ranging between $60 and $115 
million) were at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the 
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, NASA, and DOE's 
National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). These budget 
estimates do not include the procurement costs for high-
performance computers purchased by agencies such as NNSA and 
NOAA for computational science related to their missions. In 
addition to high-end computing, the NITRD program includes 
other program component areas, such as large scale networking.

                        III. Summary of Hearings

    On May 13, 2004, the Committee on Science held a hearing to 
examine the current state of federal high-performance computing 
research and development activities. Dr. John Marburger, 
Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), 
endorsed H.R. 4218 on behalf of the Administration. Dr. 
Marburger also released the report of OSTP's High-End Computing 
Revitalization Task Force, Federal Plan for High-End Computing, 
during his appearance before the Committee.
    The other witnesses also voiced their support for the 
legislation. The Committee heard testimony from Dr. Irving 
Wladawsky-Berger, Vice President for Technology and Strategy, 
IBM Corporation; Dr. Daniel Reed, Director of the Renaissance 
Computing Institute at the University of North Carolina at 
Chapel Hill, and Dr. Rick Stevens, Director of the Mathematics 
and Computer Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory. 
Witnesses addressed the need for an ongoing, coordinated 
interagency planning process to guide federal investment in 
high-performance computing procurements, research, and 
development. The witnesses noted the importance of the federal 
role in high-performance computing to ensure U.S. leadership in 
the field, and to ensure that U.S. academic and industrial 
researchers have access to leadership class machines.

                         IV. Committee Actions

    On April 27, 2004, Representative Judy Biggert and 
Representative Lincoln Davis introduced H.R. 4218, the High-
Performance Computing Revitalization Act of 2004, a bill to 
update the High-Performance Computing Act of 1991 and to 
strengthen the U.S. position in high-performance computing.
    The Full Committee on Science met on Wednesday, June 16, 
2004, to consider the bill.
     Mr. Sherman offered an amendment to require 
studies of the societal, ethical, and legal implications of 
creating artificial intelligence. A unanimous consent request 
to withdraw the amendment was agreed to.
    Mr. Gordon moved that the Committee favorably report the 
bill, H.R. 4218, to the House with the recommendation that the 
bill do pass, and that the staff be instructed to make 
technical and conforming changes to the bill and prepare the 
legislative report and that the Chairman take all necessary 
steps to bring the bill before the House for consideration. 
With a quorum present, the motion was agreed to by a voice 
vote.

               V. Summary of Major Provisions of the Bill

     Defines ``high-performance computing'' as advanced 
computing, communications, and information technologies, 
including supercomputer systems, high-capacity and high-speed 
networks, special purpose and experimental systems, 
applications and systems software, and the management of large 
data sets.
     Updates the authorized activities of the 
interagency High-Performance Computing Research and Development 
Program. Requires the program to provide for long-term basic 
and applied research on high-performance computing; sustained 
access by the research community in the United States to high-
performance computing systems; computational science and 
engineering research on mathematical modeling and algorithms 
for applications in all fields of science and engineering; and 
educating and training of additional undergraduate and graduate 
students in fields relevant to high-performance computing.
     Updates and strengthens the coordination 
responsibilities of the Director of the Office of Science and 
Technology Policy (OSTP). Requires the Director to establish 
the goals and priorities for Federal high-performance computing 
research, development, networking, and other activities and to 
develop and maintain a research, development, and deployment 
roadmap for the provision of high-performance computing systems 
for use by the research community in the United States.
     Requires the President's Information Technology 
Advisory Committee (PITAC) to conduct periodic evaluations of 
the funding, management, coordination, implementation, and 
activities of the Program, and to report to Congress on the 
findings.
     Authorizes specific responsibilities for the 
National Science Foundation, the Department of Energy Office of 
Science, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the 
National Institute of Standards and Technology, the National 
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the Environmental 
Protection Agency under the High-Performance Computing Research 
and Development Program. Requires NSF and the DOE Office of 
Science to provide U.S. researchers with access to world-class 
high-performance computing systems.

         VI. Section-by-Section Analysis (by Title and Section)


Sec. 1. Short title

    ``High-Performance Computing Revitalization Act of 2004.''

Sec. 2. Definitions

    Amends section 4 of the High-Performance Computing Act of 
1991 (HPC Act) to further elaborate on, or amend, the 
definition of terms used in the Act:
     ``Grand Challenge'' means a fundamental problem in 
science or engineering, with broad economic and scientific 
impact, whose solution will require the application of high-
performance computing resources and multidisciplinary teams of 
researchers;
     ``High-performance computing'' means advanced 
computing, communications, and information technologies, 
including supercomputer systems, high-capacity and high-speed 
networks, special purpose and experimental systems, 
applications and systems software, and the management of large 
data sets;
     ``Program'' means the High-Performance Computing 
Research and Development Program described in section 101;
     ``Program Component Areas'' means the major 
subject areas under which are grouped related individual 
projects and activities carried out under the Program.
    Strikes the definition of ``Network'' because it refers to 
the National Research and Education Network, which no longer 
exists as such.

Sec. 3. High-Performance Computing Research and Development Program

    Amends section 101 of the HPC Act, which describes the 
organization and responsibilities of the interagency research 
and development program originally referred to as the National 
High-Performance Computing Program--and renamed the High-
Performance Computing Research and Development Program in this 
Act. Requires the program to:
     Provide for long-term basic and applied research 
on high-performance computing;
     Provide for research and development on, and 
demonstration of, technologies to advance the capacity and 
capabilities of high-performance computing and networking 
systems;
     Provide for sustained access by the research 
community in the United States to high-performance computing 
systems that are among the most advanced in the world in terms 
of performance in solving scientific and engineering problems, 
including provision for technical support for users of such 
systems;
     Provide for efforts to increase software 
availability, productivity, capability, security, portability, 
and reliability;
     Provide for high-performance networks, including 
experimental testbed networks, to enable research and 
development on, and demonstration of, advanced applications 
enabled by such networks;
     Provide for computational science and engineering 
research on mathematical modeling and algorithms for 
applications in all fields of science and engineering;
     Provide for the technical support of, and research 
and development on, high-performance computing systems and 
software required to address Grand Challenges;
     Provide for educating and training additional 
undergraduate and graduate students in software engineering, 
computer science, computer and network security, applied 
mathematics, library and information science, and computational 
science;
     Provide for improving the security of computing 
and networking systems, including research required to 
establish security standards and practices for these systems.
    Requires the Director of the Office of Science and 
Technology Policy (OSTP) to:
     Establish the goals and priorities for Federal 
high-performance computing research, development, networking, 
and other activities;
     Establish Program Component Areas that implement 
the goals established for the Program and identify the Grand 
Challenges that the Program should address;
     Provide for interagency coordination of Federal 
high-performance computing research, development, networking, 
and other activities undertaken pursuant to the Program;
     Develop and maintain a research, development, and 
deployment roadmap for the provision of high-performance 
computing systems for use by the research community in the 
United States.
    Leaves substantially unchanged the provisions of the HPC 
Act requiring the Director of OSTP to:
     Provide an annual report to Congress, along with 
the annual budget request, describing the implementation of the 
Program, including current and proposed funding levels and 
programmatic changes, if any, from the previous year;
     Consult with academic, State, and other 
appropriate groups conducting research on and using high-
performance computing.
    Requires the Director of OSTP to include in his annual 
report to Congress:
     A detailed description of the Program Component 
Areas, including a description of any changes in the definition 
of activities under the Program Component Areas from the 
previous year, and the reasons for such changes, and a 
description of Grand Challenges supported under the Program;
     An analysis of the extent to which the Program 
incorporates the recommendations of the Advisory Committee 
established by the HPC Act--currently referred to as the 
President's Information Technology Advisory Committee (PITAC).
    Requires PITAC to conduct periodic evaluations of the 
funding, management, coordination, implementation, and 
activities of the Program, and to report to Congress once every 
two fiscal years, with the first report due within one year of 
enactment.
    Repeals section 102 of HPC Act, the ``National Research and 
Education Network,'' which required the development of a 
network to link research and educational institutions, 
government, and industry. This network was developed but has 
since been supplanted by the Internet.
    Repeals section 103 of the HPC Act, ``Next Generation 
Internet,'' as this program is no longer in existence.

Sec. 4. Agency activities

    Amends section 201 of the HPC Act, which describes the 
responsibilities of the National Science Foundation (NSF) under 
the Program. Requires NSF to:
     Support research and development to generate 
fundamental scientific and technical knowledge with the 
potential of advancing high-performance computing and 
networking systems and their applications;
     Provide computing and networking infrastructure 
support to the research community in the United States, 
including the provision of high-performance computing systems 
that are among the most advanced in the world in terms of 
performance in solving scientific and engineering problems, 
including support for advanced software and applications 
development, for all science and engineering disciplines;
     Support basic research and education in all 
aspects of high-performance computing and networking.
    Amends section 202 of the HPC Act, which describes the 
responsibilities of the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration (NASA) under the Program. Requires NASA to 
conduct basic and applied research in high-performance 
networking, with emphasis on:
     Computational fluid dynamics, computational 
thermal dynamics, and computational aerodynamics;
     Scientific data dissemination and tools to enable 
data to be fully analyzed and combined from multiple sources 
and sensors;
     Remote exploration and experimentation;
     Tools for collaboration in system design, 
analysis, and testing.
    Amends section 203 of the HPC Act, which describes the 
responsibilities of the Department of Energy (DOE) under the 
Program. Requires DOE to:
     Conduct and support basic and applied research in 
high-performance computing and networking to support 
fundamental research in science and engineering disciplines 
related to energy applications;
     Provide computing and networking infrastructure 
support, including the provision of high-performance computing 
systems that are among the most advanced in the world in terms 
of performance in solving scientific and engineering problems, 
and including support for advanced software and applications 
development, for science and engineering disciplines related to 
energy applications.
    Amends section 204 of the HPC Act, which describes the 
responsibilities of the Department of Commerce, including the 
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the 
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), under 
the Program.
    Requires NIST to:
     Conduct basic and applied metrology research 
needed to support high-performance computing and networking 
systems;
     Develop benchmark tests and standards for high-
performance computing and networking systems and software;
     Develop and propose voluntary standards and 
guidelines, and develop measurement techniques and test 
methods, for the interoperability of high-performance computing 
systems in networks and for common user interfaces to high-
performance computing and networking systems;
     Work with industry and others to develop, and 
facilitate the implementation of, high-performance computing 
applications to solve science and engineering problems that are 
relevant to industry.
    Requires NOAA to conduct basic and applied research in 
high-performance computing applications, with emphasis on:
     Improving weather forecasting and climate 
prediction;
     Collection, analysis, and dissemination of 
environmental information;
     Development of more accurate models of the ocean-
atmosphere system.
    Amends section 205 of the HPC Act, which describes the 
responsibilities of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 
under the Program. Requires EPA to conduct basic and applied 
research directed toward the advancement and dissemination of 
computational techniques and software tools with an emphasis on 
modeling to:
     Develop robust decision-support tools;
     Predict pollutant transport and their effects on 
humans and on ecosystems;
     Better understand atmospheric dynamics and 
chemistry.

                          VII. Committee Views


Interagency planning and coordination

    The High-Performance Computing Act of 1991 codified an 
interagency planning process that remains in place today. 
However, the chief product of this process in recent years has 
been an annual retrospective review of activities undertaken by 
agencies, rather than a prospective planning document. The 
Committee expects all of the participating agencies to engage 
in a forward-looking planning and coordination process led by 
OSTP to coordinate high-performance computing activities across 
the federal government. The agencies, led by OSTP, should 
submit a coordinated budget for federal high-performance 
computing activities to the Office of Management and Budget. 
Furthermore, the agencies, led by OSTP, should develop and 
periodically refine a research, development, and deployment 
roadmap for high-performance computing systems. In addition, in 
formulating plans for the Program, the Committee expects the 
participating agencies to take into consideration the findings 
and recommendations of the President's Information Technology 
Advisory Committee, which is required to conduct recurring 
reviews of the planning, implementation, and contents of the 
Program.

Assuring U.S. researchers sustained access to high-performance 
        computing infrastructure

    The Committee believes that the High-Performance Computing 
Research and Development Program, in general, and NSF and DOE's 
Office of Science, in particular, must provide U.S. researchers 
with sustained access to high-performance computers that are 
among the most advanced in the world in terms of performance in 
solving scientific and engineering problems. This is necessary 
in order for the U.S. to maintain its position as a world 
leader in scientific and engineering fields and in technology 
innovation. By ``among the most advanced in the world,'' the 
Committee means general purpose scientific computing systems 
that would rank among the top few systems in existence in 
performance (1) on widely accepted standardized tests, such as 
the LINPACK Benchmark used to generate the Top 500 list; and 
(2) on actual production codes for solving the most demanding 
problems in science and engineering disciplines. The Committee 
intends that such computing systems be equivalent to 
``Leadership Systems'' as described in the May 10, 2004 report 
of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, Federal Plan 
for High-End Computing.
    The Committee is supportive of recent initiatives to make 
DOE's Office of Science high-performance computing resources 
more broadly available to researchers not otherwise supported 
by DOE and to allocate those resources on a competitive, merit-
reviewed basis. The Committee encourages DOE to increase the 
quantity of supercomputing resources allocated to U.S. 
researchers in this fashion and to provide information to the 
research community on the long-term availability of these 
resources.
    The Committee is supportive of continued NSF funding of 
software, algorithms, networking and data storage techniques, 
and education and outreach activities associated with high-
performance computing. However, the Committee emphasizes that 
significant attention and funding must also be devoted to 
procurement of high-performance computing hardware for high-
performance computing user facilities, including the NSF 
supercomputer centers.
    Overall, the Committee believes that for the federal 
government to effectively meet the scientific community's high-
performance computing needs, NSF and DOE's Office of Science 
each must support Leadership Systems which should be available 
for use by researchers from academia, industry, and government 
laboratories. By use of the phrase ``sustained access'' the 
Committee expects NSF and DOE to develop and maintain plans and 
budgets to assure ongoing improvements in the capability of 
high-performance computing user facilities, such as the NSF 
supercomputer centers and DOE's Office of Science high-end 
(high-performance) computing user facilities, so that the 
computing infrastructure made available through these 
facilities remains among the most advanced in the world.
    But the most advanced high-performance computing hardware, 
on its own, will not be enough to enable researchers to conduct 
the most advanced science. The Committee believes that the 
development of software, applications, networking, and data 
storage and management techniques, including support for the 
applied mathematics required to develop advanced software and 
algorithms, will be essential to enable researchers to make 
effective use of the high-performance computing resources made 
available under this Act.

National Information Technology Research and Development Program 
        (NITRD)

    The NITRD program includes six program component areas: 
High End Computing, Large Scale Networking, Software Design and 
Productivity, Human Computer Interaction and Information 
Management, High Confidence Software and Systems, and Social, 
Economic, and Workforce Implications of Information Technology. 
While the focus of this Act is on high-performance computing, 
the Committee recognizes that all program component areas are 
essential parts of the federal information technology research 
and development effort and expects the planning and 
coordination process for the NITRD program to result in an 
appropriate balance of resources among the program component 
areas. The Committee expects the annual report for the program 
to provide the rationale for the allocation of funding among 
the program component areas. The Committee expects that the 
allocations for the high end computing program component area 
will be sufficient to carry out this Act.

                          VIII. Cost Estimate

    A cost estimate and comparison prepared by the Director of 
the Congressional Budget Office under section 402 of the 
Congressional Budget Act of 1974 has been timely submitted to 
the Committee on Science prior to the filing of this report and 
is included in Section IX of this report pursuant to House Rule 
XIII, clause 3(c)(3).
    H.R. 4218 does not contain new budget authority, credit 
authority, or changes in revenues or tax expenditures. H.R. 
4218 does not authorize additional discretionary spending, as 
described in the Congressional Budget Office report on the 
bill, which is contained in Section X of this report.

             IX. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate

                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                      Washington, DC, July 1, 2004.
Hon. Sherwood L. Boehlert,
Chairman, Committee on Science,
House of Representatives, Washington, DC.
    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for H.R. 4218, the High-
Performance Computing Revitalization Act of 2004.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Kathleen 
Gramp.
            Sincerely,
                                      Elizabeth M. Robinson
                               (For Douglas Holtz-Eakin, Director).
    Enclosure.

H.R. 4218--High-Performance Computing Revitalization Act of 2004

    Summary: H.R. 4218 would amend existing statutory 
guidelines for interagency research and development (R&D;) 
related to high-performance computing. Approximately $1.6 
billion was appropriated for 2004 nondefense R&D; on high-
performance computing at six agencies: the National Science 
Foundation (NSF), Department of Energy (DOE), National 
Institutes of Health, National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration, Department of Commerce, and Environmental 
Protection Agency. This bill would realign program objectives 
with current R&D; priorities, repeal authorizations for 
activities that are technologically outdated and emphasize 
newer issues, such as providing researchers sustained access to 
the most advanced computing systems in the world. In addition, 
the bill would direct the program's Advisory Committee to 
evaluate program funding, management, and effectiveness on a 
periodic basis.
    CBO estimates that implementing H.R. 4218 would cost a 
total of $200 million over the 2005-2009 period, assuming 
appropriation of necessary funds for the new directives in the 
bill. CBO estimates enacting H.R. 4218 would have no effect on 
direct spending or revenues.
    H.R. 4218 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA) 
and would impose no costs on state, local, and tribal 
governments.
    Estimated cost to the Federal Government: The estimated 
budgetary impact of H.R. 4218 is shown in the following table. 
For this estimate, CBO assumes that the bill will be enacted 
near the end of 2004 and that outlays will follow historical 
patterns for R&D; infrastructure programs. The cost of this 
legislation primarily falls within budget function 250 (general 
science, space, and technology).

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                       By fiscal year, in millions of dollars--
                                                                    --------------------------------------------
                                                                       2005     2006     2007     2008     2009
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                  CHANGES IN SPENDING SUBJECT TO APPROPRIATION

Estiamted Authorization Level......................................       35       35       35       85       85
Estimated Outlays..................................................       11       23       35       58       73
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Basis of estimate: CBO expects that agencies would need to 
increase spending to meet the bill's new goal of providing 
researchers with sustained access to ``high-performance 
computing systems that are among the most advanced in the world 
in terms of performance in solving scientific and engineering 
problems.'' For this estimate, CBO assumes that this provision 
would authorize appropriations to provide sustained access to 
leadership-class facilities. Under the bill, two agencies--NSF 
and DOE--would be required to provide such systems for 
researchers.
    According to a May 2004 federal task force report on high-
end computing, leadership-class facilities are high-end 
computers that will enable breakthroughs in challenging 
scientific and engineering computational problems. There are no 
such systems currently available for U.S. civilian researchers, 
but CBO expects that DOE will build one leadership-class 
facility under existing law based on the department's current 
plans.
    According to DOE and NSF, such systems are typically 
acquired over a three-year period and would need to be replaced 
every three or four years. Hence, it is likely that NSF and DOE 
would need continuous funding for facility acquisition to 
provide researchers with sustained access to the most advanced 
computers. Based on information from these agencies, CBO 
expects that the cost of individual facilities could range from 
$60 million to $150 million (or an average of about $100 
million), depending on the capabilities of the facilities and 
the software and infrastructure needed to support them. 
Experience with existing systems suggests that operations and 
maintenance costs for each facility would cost about $15 
million a year. For this estimate, CBO assumes that NSF would 
build one facility over the 2005-2007 period and that both NSF 
and DOE would begin acquiring replacement facilities in 2008.
    Intergovernmental and private-sector impact: H.R. 4218 
contains no intergovernmental or private-sector mandates as 
defined in UMRA and would impose no costs on state, local, and 
tribal governments.
    Estimate prepared by: Federal Costs: Kathleen Gramp. Impact 
on State, Local, and Tribal Governments: Greg Waring. Impact on 
the Private Sector: Jean Talarico.
    Estimated approved by: Peter H. Fontaine, Deputy Assistant 
Director for Budget Analysis.

        X. Compliance With Public Law 104-4 (Unfunded Mandates)

    H.R. 4218 contains no unfunded mandates.

          XI. Committee Oversight Findings and Recommendations

    The Committee on Science's oversight findings and 
recommendations are reflected in the body of this report.

       XII. Statement on General Performance Goals and Objectives

    Pursuant to clause (3)(c) of House rule XIII, the goals of 
H.R. 4218 are to update the activities of the interagency High-
Performance Computing Research and Development Program; to 
authorize specific program areas at NSF, DOE, NASA, NIST, NOAA, 
and EPA; and to expand the responsibilities of OSTP and PITAC 
in order to enhance the planning, management, and coordination 
of the Program.

                XIII. Constitutional Authority Statement

    Article I, section 8 of the Constitution of the United 
States grants Congress the authority to enact H.R. 4218.

               XIV. Federal Advisory Committee Statement

    The functions of the advisory committee required by H.R. 
4218 could be performed by one or more agencies or by enlarging 
the mandate of another existing advisory committee.

                  XV. Congressional Accountability Act

    The Committee finds that H.R. 4218 does not relate to the 
terms and conditions of employment or access to public services 
or accommodations within the meaning of section 102(b)(3) of 
the Congressional Accountability Act (Public Law 104-1).

      XVI. Statement on Preemption of State, Local, or Tribal Law

    This bill is not intended to preempt any state, local, or 
tribal law.

      XVII. Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported

  In compliance with clause 3(e) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, changes in existing law made by 
the bill, as reported, are shown as follows (existing law 
proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new 
matter is printed in italic, existing law in which no change is 
proposed is shown in roman):

HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING ACT OF 1991

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *



SEC. 4. DEFINITIONS.

  As used in this Act, the term--
          (1) * * *
          (2) ``Grand Challenge'' means a fundamental problem 
        in science or engineering, with broad economic and 
        scientific impact, whose solution will require the 
        application of high-performance computing resources and 
        multidisciplinary teams of researchers;
          (3) ``high-performance computing'' means advanced 
        computing, communications, and information 
        technologies, including [scientific workstations,] 
        supercomputer systems [(including vector supercomputers 
        and large scale parallel systems)], high-capacity and 
        high-speed networks, special purpose and experimental 
        systems, [and] applications and systems software, and 
        the management of large data sets;
          (4) ``Internet'' means the international computer 
        network of both Federal and non-Federal interoperable 
        [packet switched] data networks;
          [(5) ``Network'' means a computer network referred to 
        as the National Research and Education Network 
        established under section 102; and
          [(6) ``Program'' means the National High-Performance 
        Computing Program described in section 101.]
          (5) ``Program'' means the High-Performance Computing 
        Research and Development Program described in section 
        101; and
          (6) ``Program Component Areas'' means the major 
        subject areas under which are grouped related 
        individual projects and activities carried out under 
        the Program.

  TITLE I--HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING [AND THE NATIONAL RESEARCH AND 
              EDUCATION NETWORK] RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

SEC. 101. [NATIONAL HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING] HIGH-PERFORMANCE 
                    COMPUTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM.

  (a) [National High-Performance Computing] High-performance 
Computing Research and Development  Program.--[(1) The 
President shall implement a National High-Performance Computing 
Program, which shall--
          [(A) establish the goals and priorities for Federal 
        high-performance computing research, development, 
        networking, and other activities; and
          [(B) provide for interagency coordination of Federal 
        high-performance computing research, development, 
        networking, and other activities undertaken pursuant to 
        the Program.
  [(2) The Program shall--
          [(A) provide for the development of technologies to 
        advance the capacity and capabilities of the Internet;
          [(B) provide for high performance testbed networks to 
        enable the research, development, and demonstration of 
        advanced networking technologies and to develop and 
        demonstrate advanced applications made possible by the 
        existence of such testbed networks;
          [(C) promote connectivity among computer networks of 
        Federal agencies and departments;
          [(D) provide for efforts to increase software 
        availability, productivity, capability, portability, 
        and reliability;
          [(E) provide for improved dissemination of Federal 
        agency data and electronic information;
          [(F) provide for acceleration of the development of 
        high-performance computing systems, subsystems, and 
        associated software;
          [(G) provide for the technical support and research 
        and development of high-performance computing software 
        and hardware needed to address Grand Challenges;
          [(H) provide for educating and training additional 
        undergraduate and graduate students in software 
        engineering, computer science, library and information 
        science, and computational science; and
          [(I) provide--
                  [(i) for the security requirements, policies, 
                and standards necessary to protect Federal 
                research computer networks and information 
                resources accessible through Federal research 
                computer networks, including research required 
                to establish security standards for high-
                performance computing systems and networks; and
                  [(ii) that agencies and departments 
                identified in the annual report submitted under 
                paragraph (3)(A) shall define and implement a 
                security plan consistent with the Program and 
                with applicable law.] (1) The President shall 
                implement a High-Performance Computing Research 
                and Development Program, which shall--
                  (A) provide for long-term basic and applied 
                research on high-performance computing;
                  (B) provide for research and development on, 
                and demonstration of, technologies to advance 
                the capacity and capabilities of high-
                performance computing and networking systems;
                  (C) provide for sustained access by the 
                research community in the United States to 
                high-performance computing systems that are 
                among the most advanced in the world in terms 
                of performance in solving scientific and 
                engineering problems, including provision for 
                technical support for users of such systems;
                  (D) provide for efforts to increase software 
                availability, productivity, capability, 
                security, portability, and reliability;
                  (E) provide for high-performance networks, 
                including experimental testbed networks, to 
                enable research and development on, and 
                demonstration of, advanced applications enabled 
                by such networks;
                  (F) provide for computational science and 
                engineering research on mathematical modeling 
                and algorithms for applications in all fields 
                of science and engineering;
                  (G) provide for the technical support of, and 
                research and development on, high-performance 
                computing systems and software required to 
                address Grand Challenges;
                  (H) provide for educating and training 
                additional undergraduate and graduate students 
                in software engineering, computer science, 
                computer and network security, applied 
                mathematics, library and information science, 
                and computational science; and
                  (I) provide for improving the security of 
                computing and networking systems, including 
                Federal systems, including research required to 
                establish security standards and practices for 
                these systems.
  [(3)] (2) The Director shall--
          (A) establish the goals and priorities for Federal 
        high-performance computing research, development, 
        networking, and other activities;
          (B) establish Program Component Areas that implement 
        the goals established under subparagraph (A), and 
        identify the Grand Challenges that the Program should 
        address;
          (C) provide for interagency coordination of Federal 
        high-performance computing research, development, 
        networking, and other activities undertaken pursuant to 
        the Program;
          [(A)] (D) submit to the Congress an annual report, 
        along with the President's annual budget request, 
        describing the implementation of the Program;
          (E) develop and maintain a research, development, and 
        deployment roadmap for the provision of high-
        performance computing systems under paragraph (1)(C); 
        and
          [(B) provide for interagency coordination of the 
        Program; and]
          [(C)] (F) consult with academic, State, industry, and 
        other appropriate groups conducting research on and 
        using high-performance computing.
  [(4)] (3) The annual report submitted under paragraph 
[(3)(A)] (2)(D) shall--
          [(A) include a detailed description of the goals and 
        priorities established by the President for the 
        Program;]
          (A) provide a detailed description of the Program 
        Component Areas, including a description of any changes 
        in the definition of or activities under the Program 
        Component Areas from the preceding report, and the 
        reasons for such changes, and a description of Grand 
        Challenges supported under the Program;

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

          (C) describe the levels of Federal funding for the 
        fiscal year during which such report is submitted, and 
        the levels proposed for the fiscal year with respect to 
        which the budget submission applies, for [specific 
        activities, including education, research, hardware and 
        software development, and support for the establishment 
        of the Network] each Program Component Area;
          (D) describe the levels of Federal funding for each 
        agency and department participating in the Program and 
        for each Program Component Area for the fiscal year 
        during which such report is submitted, and the levels 
        proposed for the fiscal year with respect to which the 
        budget submission applies; and
          [(E) include the report of the Secretary of Energy 
        required by section 203(d); and]
          [(F)] (E) include an analysis of the progress made 
        toward achieving the goals and priorities established 
        for the Program and the extent to which the Program 
        incorporates the recommendations of the advisory 
        committee established under subsection (b).
  (b) Advisory Committee.--(1) The President shall establish an 
advisory committee on high-performance computing consisting of 
non-Federal members, including representatives of the research, 
education, and library communities, network providers, and 
industry, who are specially qualified to provide the Director 
with advice and information on high-performance computing. The 
recommendations of the advisory committee shall be considered 
in reviewing and revising the Program. The advisory committee 
shall provide the Director with an independent assessment of--
          [(1)] (A) progress made in implementing the Program;
          [(2)] (B) the need to revise the Program;
          [(3)] (C) the balance between the components of the 
        Program, including funding levels for the Program 
        Component Areas;
          [(4)] (D) whether the research and development 
        undertaken pursuant to the Program is helping to 
        maintain United States leadership in [computing] high-
        performance computing and networking technology; and
          [(5)] (E) other issues identified by the Director.
  (2) In addition to the duties outlined in paragraph (1), the 
advisory committee shall conduct periodic evaluations of the 
funding, management, coordination, implementation, and 
activities of the Program, and shall report not less frequently 
than once every two fiscal years to the Committee on Science of 
the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, 
Science, and Transportation of the Senate on its findings and 
recommendations. The first report shall be due within one year 
after the date of enactment of this paragraph.
  (c) Office of Management and Budget.--(1) Each Federal agency 
and department participating in the Program shall, as part of 
its annual request for appropriations to the Office of 
Management and Budget, submit a report to the Office of 
Management and Budget which--
          (A) identifies each element of its high-performance 
        computing activities which contributes directly to the 
        [Program or] Program Component Areas or benefits from 
        the Program; and

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


[SEC. 102. NATIONAL RESEARCH AND EDUCATION NETWORK.

  [(a) Establishment.--As part of the Program, the National 
Science Foundation, the Department of Defense, the Department 
of Energy, the Department of Commerce, the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration, and other agencies participating in 
the Program shall support the establishment of the National 
Research and Education Network, portions of which shall, to the 
extent technically feasible, be capable of transmitting data at 
one gigabit per second or greater by 1996. The Network shall 
provide for the linkage of research institutions and 
educational institutions, government, and industry in every 
State.
  [(b) Access.--Federal agencies and departments shall work 
with private network service providers, State and local 
agencies, libraries, educational institutions and 
organizations, and others, as appropriate, in order to ensure 
that the researchers, educators, and students have access, as 
appropriate, to the Network. The Network is to provide users 
with appropriate access to high-performance computing systems, 
electronic information resources, other research facilities, 
and libraries. The Network shall provide access, to the extent 
practicable, to electronic information resources maintained by 
libraries, research facilities, publishers, and affiliated 
organizations.
  [(c) Network Characteristics.--The Network shall--
          [(1) be developed and deployed with the computer, 
        telecommunications, and information industries;
          [(2) be designed, developed, and operated in 
        collaboration with potential users in government, 
        industry, and research institutions and educational 
        institutions;
          [(3) be designed, developed, and operated in a manner 
        which fosters and maintains competition and private 
        sector investment in high-speed data networking within 
        the telecommunications industry;
          [(4) be designed, developed, and operated in a manner 
        which promotes research and development leading to 
        development of commercial data communications and 
        telecommunications standards, whose development will 
        encourage the establishment of privately operated high-
        speed commercial networks;
          [(5) be designed and operated so as to ensure the 
        continued application of laws that provide network and 
        information resources security measures, including 
        those that protect copyright and other intellectual 
        property rights, and those that control access to data 
        bases and protect national security;
          [(6) have accounting mechanisms which allow users or 
        groups of users to be charged for their usage of 
        copyrighted materials available over the Network and, 
        where appropriate and technically feasible, for their 
        usage of the Network;
          [(7) ensure the interoperability of Federal and non-
        Federal computer networks, to the extent appropriate, 
        in a way that allows autonomy for each component 
        network;
          [(8) be developed by purchasing standard commercial 
        transmission and network services from vendors whenever 
        feasible, and by contracting for customized services 
        when not feasible, in order to minimize Federal 
        investment in network hardware;
          [(9) support research and development of networking 
        software and hardware; and
          [(10) serve as a test bed for further research and 
        development of high-capacity and high-speed computing 
        networks and demonstrate how advanced computers, high-
        capacity and high-speed computing networks, and data 
        bases can improve the national information 
        infrastructure.
  [(d) Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency 
Responsibility.--As part of the Program, the Department of 
Defense, through the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, 
shall support research and development of advanced fiber optics 
technology, switches, and protocols needed to develop the 
Network.
  [(e) Information Services.--The Director shall assist the 
President in coordinating the activities of appropriate 
agencies and departments to promote the development of 
information services that could be provided over the Network. 
These services may include the provision of directories of the 
users and services on computer networks, data bases of 
unclassified Federal scientific data, training of users of data 
bases and computer networks, access to commercial information 
services for users of the Network, and technology to support 
computer-based collaboration that allows researchers and 
educators around the Nation to share information and 
instrumentation.
  [(f) Use of Grant Funds.--All Federal agencies and 
departments are authorized to allow recipients of Federal 
research grants to use grant moneys to pay for computer 
networking expenses.
  [(g) Report to Congress.--Within one year after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the Director shall report to the 
Congress on--
          [(1) effective mechanisms for providing operating 
        funds for the maintenance and use of the Network, 
        including user fees, industry support, and continued 
        Federal investment;
          [(2) the future operation and evolution of the 
        Network;
          [(3) how commercial information service providers 
        could be charged for access to the Network, and how 
        Network users could be charged for such commercial 
        information services;
          [(4) the technological feasibility of allowing 
        commercial information service providers to use the 
        Network and other federally funded research networks;
          [(5) how to protect the copyrights of material 
        distributed over the Network; and
          [(6) appropriate policies to ensure the security of 
        resources available on the Network and to protect the 
        privacy of users of networks.

[SEC. 103. NEXT GENERATION INTERNET.

  [(a) Establishment.--The National Science Foundation, the 
Department of Energy, the National Institutes of Health, the 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the National 
Institute of Standards and Technology may support the Next 
Generation Internet program. The objectives of the Next 
Generation Internet program shall be to--
          [(1) support research, development, and demonstration 
        of advanced networking technologies to increase the 
        capabilities and improve the performance of the 
        Internet;
          [(2) develop an advanced testbed network connecting a 
        significant number of research sites, including 
        universities, Federal research institutions, and other 
        appropriate research partner institutions, to support 
        networking research and to demonstrate new networking 
        technologies; and
          [(3) develop and demonstrate advanced Internet 
        applications that meet important national goals or 
        agency mission needs, and that are supported by the 
        activities described in paragraphs (1) and (2).
  [(b) Duties of Advisory Committee.--The President's 
Information Technology Advisory Committee (established pursuant 
to section 101(b) by Executive Order No. 13035 of February 11, 
1997 (62 F.R. 7131), as amended by Executive Order No. 13092 of 
July 24, 1998), in addition to its functions under section 
101(b), shall--
          [(1) assess the extent to which the Next Generation 
        Internet program--
                  [(A) carries out the purposes of this Act; 
                and
                  [(B) addresses concerns relating to, among 
                other matters--
                          [(i) geographic penalties (as defined 
                        in section 7(1) of the Next Generation 
                        Internet Research Act of 1998);
                          [(ii) the adequacy of access to the 
                        Internet by Historically Black Colleges 
                        and Universities, Hispanic Serving 
                        Institutions, and small colleges and 
                        universities (whose enrollment is less 
                        than 5,000) and the degree of 
                        participation of those institutions in 
                        activities described in subsection (a); 
                        and
                          [(iii) technology transfer to and 
                        from the private sector;
          [(2) review the extent to which the role of each 
        Federal agency and department involved in implementing 
        the Next Generation Internet program is clear and 
        complementary to, and non-duplicative of, the roles of 
        other participating agencies and departments;
          [(3) assess the extent to which Federal support of 
        fundamental research in computing is sufficient to 
        maintain the Nation's critical leadership in this 
        field; and
          [(4) make recommendations relating to its findings 
        under paragraphs (1), (2), and (3).
  [(c) Reports.--The Advisory Committee shall review 
implementation of the Next Generation Internet program and 
shall report, not less frequently than annually, to the 
President, the Committee on Commerce, Science, and 
Transportation, the Committee on Appropriations, and the 
Committee on Armed Services of the Senate, and the Committee on 
Science, the Committee on Appropriations, and the Committee on 
Armed Services of the House of Representatives on its findings 
and recommendations for the preceding fiscal year. The first 
such report shall be submitted 6 months after the date of the 
enactment of the Next Generation Internet Research Act of 1998 
and the last report shall be submitted by September 30, 2000.
  [(d) Authorization of Appropriations.--There are authorized 
to be appropriated for the purposes of this section--
          [(1) for the Department of Energy, $22,000,000 for 
        fiscal year 1999 and $25,000,000 for fiscal year 2000;
          [(2) for the National Science Foundation, $25,000,000 
        for fiscal year 1999 and $25,000,000 for fiscal year 
        2000, as authorized in the National Science Foundation 
        Authorization Act of 1998;
          [(3) for the National Institutes of Health, 
        $5,000,000 for fiscal year 1999 and $7,500,000 for 
        fiscal year 2000;
          [(4) for the National Aeronautics and Space 
        Administration, $10,000,000 for fiscal year 1999 and 
        $10,000,000 for fiscal year 2000; and
          [(5) for the National Institute of Standards and 
        Technology, $5,000,000 for fiscal year 1999 and 
        $7,500,000 for fiscal year 2000.
Such funds may not be used for routine upgrades to existing 
federally funded communication networks.]

                      TITLE II--AGENCY ACTIVITIES


SEC. 201. NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIVITIES.

  [(a) General Responsibilities.--As part of the Program 
described in title I--
          [(1) the National Science Foundation shall provide 
        computing and networking infrastructure support for all 
        science and engineering disciplines, and support basic 
        research and human resource development in all aspects 
        of high-performance computing and advanced high-speed 
        computer networking;
          [(2) to the extent that colleges, universities, and 
        libraries cannot connect to the Network with the 
        assistance of the private sector, the National Science 
        Foundation shall have primary responsibility for 
        assisting colleges, universities, and libraries to 
        connect to the Network;
          [(3) the National Science Foundation shall serve as 
        the primary source of information on access to and use 
        of the Network; and
          [(4) the National Science Foundation shall upgrade 
        the National Science Foundation funded network, assist 
        regional networks to upgrade their capabilities, and 
        provide other Federal departments and agencies the 
        opportunity to connect to the National Science 
        Foundation funded network.]
  (a) General Responsibilities.--As part of the Program 
described in title I, the National Science Foundation shall--
          (1) support research and development to generate 
        fundamental scientific and technical knowledge with the 
        potential of advancing high-performance computing and 
        networking systems and their applications;
          (2) provide computing and networking infrastructure 
        support to the research community in the United States, 
        including the provision of high-performance computing 
        systems that are among the most advanced in the world 
        in terms of performance in solving scientific and 
        engineering problems, and including support for 
        advanced software and applications development, for all 
        science and engineering disciplines; and
          (3) support basic research and education in all 
        aspects of high-performance computing and networking.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 202. NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ACTIVITIES.

  [(a) General Responsibilities.--As part of the Program 
described in title I, the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration shall conduct basic and applied research in 
high-performance computing, particularly in the field of 
computational science, with emphasis on aerospace sciences, 
earth and space sciences, and remote exploration and 
experimentation.]
  (a) General Responsibilities.--As part of the Program 
described in title I, the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration shall conduct basic and applied research in 
high-performance computing and networking, with emphasis on--
          (1) computational fluid dynamics, computational 
        thermal dynamics, and computational aerodynamics;
          (2) scientific data dissemination and tools to enable 
        data to be fully analyzed and combined from multiple 
        sources and sensors;
          (3) remote exploration and experimentation; and
          (4) tools for collaboration in system design, 
        analysis, and testing.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 203. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ACTIVITIES.

  [(a) General Responsibilities.--As part of the Program 
described in title I, the Secretary of Energy shall--
          [(1) perform research and development on, and systems 
        evaluations of, high-performance computing and 
        communications systems;
          [(2) conduct computational research with emphasis on 
        energy applications;
          [(3) support basic research, education, and human 
        resources in computational science; and
          [(4) provide for networking infrastructure support 
        for energy-related mission activities.
  [(b) Collaborative Consortia.--In accordance with the 
Program, the Secretary of Energy shall establish High-
Performance Computing Research and Development Collaborative 
Consortia by soliciting and selecting proposals. Each 
Collaborative Consortium shall--
          [(1) conduct research directed at scientific and 
        technical problems whose solutions require the 
        application of high-performance computing and 
        communications resources;
          [(2) promote the testing and uses of new types of 
        high-performance computing and related software and 
        equipment;
          [(3) serve as a vehicle for participating vendors of 
        high-performance computing systems to test new ideas 
        and technology in a sophisticated computing 
        environment; and
          [(4) be led by a Department of Energy national 
        laboratory, and include participants from Federal 
        agencies and departments, researchers, private 
        industry, educational institutions, and others as the 
        Secretary of Energy may deem appropriate.
  [(c) Technology Transfer.--The results of research and 
development carried out under this section shall be transferred 
to the private sector and others in accordance with applicable 
law.
  [(d) Reports.--Not later than 1 year after the date of 
enactment of this subsection, and thereafter as part of the 
report required under section 101(a)(3)(A), the Secretary of 
Energy shall report on activities taken to carry out this Act.]
  (a) General Responsibilities.--As part of the Program 
described in title I, the Secretary of Energy shall--
          (1) conduct and support basic and applied research in 
        high-performance computing and networking to support 
        fundamental research in science and engineering 
        disciplines related to energy applications; and
          (2) provide computing and networking infrastructure 
        support, including the provision of high-performance 
        computing systems that are among the most advanced in 
        the world in terms of performance in solving scientific 
        and engineering problems, and including support for 
        advanced software and applications development, for 
        science and engineering disciplines related to energy 
        applications.
  [(e)] (b) Authorization of Appropriations.--(1) * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 204. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACTIVITIES.

  [(a) General Responsibilities.--As part of the Program 
described in title I--
          [(1) the National Institute of Standards and 
        Technology shall--
                  [(A) conduct basic and applied measurement 
                research needed to support various high-
                performance computing systems and networks;
                  [(B) develop and propose standards and 
                guidelines, and develop measurement techniques 
                and test methods, for the interoperability of 
                high-performance computing systems in networks 
                and for common user interfaces to systems; and
                  [(C) be responsible for developing benchmark 
                tests and standards for high-performance 
                computing systems and software; and
          [(2) the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
        Administration shall conduct basic and applied research 
        in weather prediction and ocean sciences, particularly 
        in development of new forecast models, in computational 
        fluid dynamics, and in the incorporation of evolving 
        computer architectures and networks into the systems 
        that carry out agency missions.]
  (a) General Responsibilities.--As part of the Program 
described in title I--
          (1) the National Institute of Standards and 
        Technology shall--
                  (A) conduct basic and applied metrology 
                research needed to support high-performance 
                computing and networking systems;
                  (B) develop benchmark tests and standards for 
                high-performance computing and networking 
                systems and software;
                  (C) develop and propose voluntary standards 
                and guidelines, and develop measurement 
                techniques and test methods, for the 
                interoperability of high-performance computing 
                systems in networks and for common user 
                interfaces to high-performance computing and 
                networking systems; and
                  (D) work with industry and others to develop, 
                and facilitate the implementation of, high-
                performance computing applications to solve 
                science and engineering problems that are 
                relevant to industry; and
          (2) the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
        Administration shall conduct basic and applied research 
        on high-performance computing applications, with 
        emphasis on--
                  (A) improving weather forecasting and climate 
                prediction;
                  (B) collection, analysis, and dissemination 
                of environmental information; and
                  (C) development of more accurate models of 
                the ocean-atmosphere system.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


SEC. 205. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY ACTIVITIES.

  [(a) General Responsibilities.--As part of the Program 
described in title I, the Environmental Protection Agency shall 
conduct basic and applied research directed toward the 
advancement and dissemination of computational techniques and 
software tools which form the core of ecosystem, atmospheric 
chemistry, and atmospheric dynamics models.]
  (a) General Responsibilities.--As part of the Program 
described in title I, the Environmental Protection Agency shall 
conduct basic and applied research directed toward advancement 
and dissemination of computational techniques and software 
tools for high-performance computing systems with an emphasis 
on modeling to--
          (1) develop robust decision support tools;
          (2) predict pollutant transport and the effects of 
        pollutants on humans and on ecosystems; and
          (3) better understand atmospheric dynamics and 
        chemistry.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


                    XVIII. Committee Recommendations

    On June 16, 2004, a quorum being present, the Committee on 
Science favorably reported H.R. 4218, The High-Performance 
Computing Revitalization Act of 2004, by a voice vote, and 
recommended its enactment.


   XIX. PROCEEDINGS OF THE FULL COMMITTEE MARKUP ON H.R. 4218, HIGH-
            PERFORMANCE COMPUTING REVITALIZATION ACT OF 2004

                              ----------                              


                        WEDNESDAY, JUNE 16, 2004

                  House of Representatives,
                                      Committee on Science,
                                                    Washington, DC.

    The Committee met, pursuant to call, at 10:10 a.m., in Room 
2318 of the Rayburn House Office Building, Hon. Sherwood L. 
Boehlert [Chairman of the Committee] presiding.
    Chairman Boehlert. The Committee on Science will be in 
order. Pursuant to notice, the Committee on Science meets today 
to consider the following measures: H.R. 3890, To Reauthorize 
the Steel and Aluminum Conservation and Technology 
Competitiveness Act of 1988; H.R. 3598, Manufacturing 
Technology Competitiveness Act of 2004; H.R. 4218, High-
Performance Computing Revitalization Act of 2004; and H.R. 
4516, Department of Energy High-End Computing Revitalization 
Act of 2004. I ask unanimous consent for the authority to 
recess the Committee at any point during consideration of these 
matters. And without objection, it is so ordered.
    We will now proceed with opening statements, and I will 
lead off.
    I am going to keep my remarks very brief, because we have a 
long markup ahead of us. I would simply point out that once 
again we have come up with a good set of bipartisan bills that 
prepare our nation for the future. We have Ms. Hart's metals 
bill, which will help our nation save energy, helping the steel 
and aluminum industries remain competitive by helping our 
nation become less dependent on foreign sources of energy, all 
worthy goals. We have Ms. Biggert's computing bill--bills, 
which will revitalize our high-performance computing efforts, 
enabling our scientists and computing industry to excel as they 
face new challenges from abroad. And we have Dr. Ehlers' 
manufacturing bill, which will help our smaller manufacturers 
stay up-to-date and competitive. All of these bills reflect 
significant contributions from the Minority and have lead 
Minority co-sponsors, whom I am sure Mr. Gordon will 
acknowledge.
    Our debate today will be prolonged, but it won't be on 
fundamental goals or principles. It will be about whether to do 
even more in the manufacturing bill. I think we need to get 
this measure through before we take on additional issues. We 
will have lively discussion on that, but we are united on 
trying to do everything possible for our manufacturers.
    With that, let the games begin.
    Mr. Gordon.
    [The prepared statement of Chairman Boehlert follows:]

            Prepared Statement of Chairman Sherwood Boehlert

    I'm going to keep my remarks very brief because we have a long 
markup ahead of us.
    I would simply point out that once again we've come with a good set 
of bipartisan bills that prepare our nation for the future. We have Ms. 
Hart's metals bill, which will help our nation save energy, helping the 
steel and aluminum industry remain competitive while helping our nation 
become less dependent on foreign sources of energy. We have Ms. 
Biggert's computing bills, which will revitalize our high-performance 
computing efforts, enabling our scientists and computing industry to 
excel as they face new challenges from abroad. And we have Mr. Ehlers 
manufacturing bill, which will help our smaller manufacturers stay up-
to-date and competitive.
    All these bills reflect significant contributions from the Minority 
and have lead Minority co-sponsors, whom I'm sure Mr. Gordon will 
acknowledge.
    Our debate today will be prolonged, but it won't be on fundamental 
goals or first principles. It will be about whether to do even more in 
the manufacturing bill. I think we need to get this measure through 
before we take on additional issues. We'll have lively discussion on 
that, but we are united on trying to do everything possible for our 
manufacturers.
    With that, let the games begin.
    Mr. Gordon.

    Mr. Gordon. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. Let me say that we are 
pleased at the bipartisan cooperation we have experienced in 
the development of three of the bills considered today: H.R. 
3890, To Reauthorize the Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation 
and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988; H.R. 4516, the 
Department of Energy High-End Computing Revitalization Act of 
2004; and H.R. 4218, the High-Performance Computing 
Revitalization Act of 2004.
    With regard to H.R. 4218 and H.R. 4516, we believe the 
Committee is making a major contribution to reinvigorating 
high-end computing at a time when traditional U.S. lead is 
under vigorous challenge. We are depending on this program to 
increase ability to understand huge data sets across a wide 
spectrum of programs ranging from advanced manufacturing to 
weather prediction.
    The steel industry is one of several industrial sectors 
that are heavy users of energy and benefit from cooperative 
research with the Federal Government. We support not only 
continuing the Department of Energy's program with the steel 
industry as set out in H.R. 3890, but also strengthening the 
entire Industries of the Future Program.
    Unfortunately, though, however, the same level of 
cooperation did not occur on H.R. 3598 in developing our 
manufacturing policy. This is particularly disturbing in light 
of the battering this sector has endured over the last three 
years. We have no problem with the tentative first steps taken 
in H.R. 3598, but we do not think it is an adequate response to 
the problems that have cost the jobs of two million Americans. 
I will have further comments on this bill when it is called up 
for consideration.
    Thank you.
    [The prepared statement of Mr. Gordon follows:]

            Prepared Statement of Representative Bart Gordon

    We are pleased at the bipartisan cooperation we have experienced in 
the development of three bills to be considered today: H.R. 3890, To 
Reauthorize the Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology 
Competitiveness Act of 1988; H.R. 4516, The Department of Energy High-
End Computing Revitalization Act of 2004; and H.R. 4218, The High-
Performance Computing Revitalization Act of 2004.
    With regard to H.R. 4218 and H.R. 4516, we believe the Committee is 
making a major contribution to reinvigorating high-end computing at a 
time when the traditional U.S. lead is under vigorous challenge. We are 
depending on this program to increase our ability to understand huge 
data sets across a wide spectrum of problems ranging from advanced 
manufacturing to weather prediction. The steel industry is one of 
several industrial sectors that are heavy users of energy that benefit 
from cooperative research with the Federal Government. We support, not 
only continuing the Department of Energy's program with the steel 
industry as set out in H.R. 3890, but also strengthening the entire 
Industries of the Future Program.
    Unfortunately, the same level of cooperation did not occur on the 
H.R. 3598, The Manufacturing Competitiveness Act of 2004, in developing 
our manufacturing policy. This is particularly disturbing in light of 
the battering this sector has endured over the past three years. We 
have no problem with the tentative first steps taken in H.R. 3598, but 
we do not think it is an adequate response to the problems that have 
cost the jobs of two million Americans. I will have further comments on 
this bill when it is called up for consideration.

    Chairman Boehlert. Thank you very much, Mr. Gordon.
    Without objection, all Members may place opening statements 
in the record at this point.
    [The prepared statement of Ms. Johnson follows:]
       Prepared Statement of Representative Eddie Bernice Johnson
    Thank you, Chairman for calling this markup on High-Performance 
Computing.
    There has been much discussion on whether the United States is 
losing ground to foreign competitors in the production and use of 
supercomputers and whether federal agencies' proposed paths for 
advancing our supercomputing capabilities are adequate to maintain or 
regain the U.S. lead.
    As we all know, a high-performance computer, also called a 
supercomputer, is a broad term for one of the fastest computers 
currently available. Such computers are typically used for number 
crunching including scientific simulations, (animated) graphics, 
analysis of geological data (e.g., in petrochemical prospecting), 
structural analysis, computational fluid dynamics, physics, chemistry, 
electronic design, nuclear energy research, and meteorology.
    Supercomputers are state-of-the-art, extremely powerful computers 
capable of manipulating massive amounts of data in a relatively short 
time. They are very expensive and are employed for specialized 
scientific and engineering applications that must handle very large 
databases or do a great amount of computation, among them meteorology, 
animated graphics, fluid dynamic calculations, nuclear energy research 
and weapon simulation, and petroleum exploration.
    High-performance computers are gaining popularity in all corners of 
corporate America. They are used to analyze vehicle crash test by auto 
manufacturers, evaluate human diseases and develop treatments by the 
pharmaceutical industry and test aircraft engines by the aero-space 
engineers.
    It quite evident that supercomputing will become more important to 
America's commerce in the future. I look forward to working with this 
committee on its advancement. Mr. Chair, I yield back my time.

    [The prepared statement of Mr. Davis follows:]

           Prepared Statement of Representative Lincoln Davis

    Mr. Chairman, I want to thank you for calling up H.R. 4218, the 
High-Performance Computing Revitalization Act of 2004, which 
Congresswoman Biggert and I introduced. I also want to thank Ms. 
Biggert for working with me to help develop this legislation.
    H.R. 4218 amends the High-Performance Computing Act of 1991, which 
established a major federal research and development program in 
computing and networking that now involves seven agencies and is funded 
at about $2 billion per year. The bill seeks to reverse what I would 
characterize as a weakening of the planning mechanisms for the R&D; 
program established by the 1991 Act.
    High-performance computing and communications technology is key to 
the Nation's economic competitiveness and security, and it is important 
to prioritize and effectively coordinate activities among the 
performing agencies. The bill requires formal biennial reviews of the 
interagency program by the President's Information Technology Advisory 
Committee in order to provide outside advice for sharpening program 
priorities and improving program implementation.
    H.R. 4218 also attempts to focus more effort by the interagency 
program on high-end computing. The key requirement is for the Office of 
Science and Technology Policy to develop and maintain a roadmap for 
developing and deploying high-end systems necessary to ensure that the 
U.S. research community has sustained access to the most capable 
computing systems. In addition, NSF is explicitly required to provide 
for access by researchers to such computing systems. These requirements 
are designed to ensure the research community has access to the most 
powerful computing systems.
    Mr. Chairman, the interagency research program launched by the 1991 
Act has been largely a success. It has helped provide the computing and 
networking infrastructure required to support leading edge research and 
to drive information technology forward for the benefit of society at 
large.
    H.R. 4218 will serve to strengthen the research program and 
deserves the approval of the Committee. I ask my colleagues for their 
support in reporting the bill favorably to the House.

    The next bill on the roster is H.R. 4218, High-Performance 
Computing Revitalization Act of 2004. We will now proceed with 
opening remarks. Since I have already discussed the bill in my 
opening statement, I will now recognize Mr. Gordon for five 
minutes to present his opening remarks.
    Mr. Gordon. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I want to commend 
Congresswoman Biggert and Congressman Lincoln Davis for their 
leadership on the High-Performance Computing policy, and for 
the work on developing H.R. 4218. And I would like to now yield 
the balance of my time to my neighbor, Congressman Davis.
    Mr. Davis. Mr. Gordon, thank you, and Mr. Chairman, I want 
to thank you for calling up House Resolution 4218, the High-
Performance Computing Revitalization Act of 2004, which 
Congresswoman Biggert and I have introduced. I would also like 
to thank Mrs. Biggert for her work in helping to develop this 
legislation. House Resolution 4218 amends the High-Performance 
Computing Act of 1991, which established a major federal 
research and development program in computing and networking, 
that now involves seven agencies, and is funded at about $2 
billion per year.
    This bill seeks to reverse what I would characterize as a 
weakening of the planning mechanisms for the R&D; program 
established by the 1991 Act. High-performance computing and 
communications technology is key to the Nation's economic 
competitiveness and security. It is important to prioritize an 
effectively coordinated activity among the performing agencies.
    The bill requires formal, biannual reviews of the 
interagency program by the President's Information Technology 
Advisory Committee in order to provide outstanding advice for 
sharpening program priorities, and improving program 
implementation. This resolution also attempts to focus more 
effort by the interagency program on high-end computing.
    The key requirements is for the Office of Science and 
Technology Policy to develop and maintain a roadmap for 
developing and deploying high-end systems necessary to ensure 
that the U.S. research community has sustained access to the 
most capable computing systems. In addition, NSF is explicitly 
required to provide for access by researchers to such computing 
systems.
    These requirements are designed to ensure the research 
community has access to the most powerful computing systems. 
Mr. Chairman, the interagency research program launched by the 
1991 Act has largely been a success. It has helped provide the 
computing and network infrastructure required to support 
leading edge research, and to drive information technology 
forward for the benefit of society at large.
    This resolution will serve to strengthen the research 
program, and deserves the approval of this committee. I ask my 
colleagues for their support in reporting the bill favorably to 
the House. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I yield back the rest of my 
time.
    Chairman Boehlert. Mrs. Biggert is recognized.
    Mrs. Biggert. Thank you, Mr. Chairman, and I appreciate the 
opportunity to say a few words about the bill. I would like to 
start by thanking the bill's chief co-sponsor, Congressman 
Lincoln Davis, and also by thanking the other co-sponsors of 
this important legislation, including you, Mr. Chairman, Mr. 
Johnson, Mr. Ehlers, and Ms. Woolsey, and thank you all for 
your support.
    Let me just say that there--the bill does four things. 
First, it requires that federal agencies provide the U.S. 
research community access to the most advanced, high-
performance computing systems, and technical support for their 
users. Second, the bill requires federal agencies to support 
all aspects of high-performance computing for scientific and 
engineering applications, and third, the bill directs an 
interagency planning process to develop and maintain a 
research, development, and deployment roadmap for the provision 
of high-performance computing resources for the U.S. research 
community, and finally, the bill clarifies the mission of each 
of the federal agencies that have a role in developing or using 
high-performance computing.
    I believe that this bill will guide federal agencies in 
providing needed support to high-performance computing and its 
user community. Our nation's scientific enterprise and our 
economy will be stronger for it. And I yield back.
    Chairman Boehlert. Thank you very much. Without all--
without objection, all Members may place opening statements in 
the record at this point. I ask unanimous consent that the bill 
is considered as read and open to amendment at any point, and 
that the Members proceed with the amendments in the order of 
the roster. Without objection, so ordered.
    The first amendment on the roster is amendment number 1, 
amendment offered by the gentleman from California, Mr. 
Sherman. Are you ready to proceed?
    Mr. Sherman. Yes, I am. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
    This is an issue I have addressed this Committee----
    Chairman Boehlert. The Clerk will report.
    Ms. Tessieri. Amendment to H.R. 4218 offered by Mr. 
Sherman.
    [Note: See the Appendix for the Amendment offered by Mr. 
Sherman.]
    Chairman Boehlert. The gentleman is recognized.
    Mr. Sherman. Thank you. We have heard testimony in this 
committee that we are within roughly 25 years of artificial 
intelligence matching or exceeding human cognitive abilities.
    We cannot ignore that fact and plunge forward with 
computers as if they are simply tools, without reflecting that 
we are within a generation of, perhaps, another cognitive life 
form, or at least intelligence on this planet. Two bills will 
come before this committee dealing with supercomputing. A third 
agency of government is also dealing with that issue, DARPA, 
which is not under the jurisdiction of this committee. Their 
mission statement, on their webpage, which I will ask 
permission to enter into the record, states that it is their 
mission to develop a computer which will learn from its 
experience, be aware of themselves, and able to reflect on 
their own behavior. It is DARPA, not I, that uses human 
pronouns to describe that which DARPA is trying to create. Yet, 
they don't mention, certainly if you are working for the 
Defense Department and able to reflect on your own behavior, 
shouldn't you at least get veteran's benefits? I wonder.
    Now, we deal with two other agencies. We have been told, in 
this very room, that we don't know whether we are creating Data 
from The Next Generation, or HAL from 2001: A Space Odyssey. 
But we are moving in that direction. I at first thought that I 
would propose an amendment saying that we are not going to 
authorize research designed to create this human level 
cognitive ability. I have decided to water down my amendment in 
the hope that it might be accepted, and that is to simply 
require a study or series of studies before we go down this 
road.
    I have--I point out that on the nanotechnology bill, that 
is exactly what this committee did. And so, what my amendment 
would do--and we might need to clarify in the report language, 
and I would work with the Chair, with the Ranking Member, on 
the report language--is state that before you go forward with 
research designed to meet or exceed human cognitive ability, 
and we would define that in report language, we need to see 
studies as to the ethical and legal implications of the 
creation of artificial intelligence.
    The United States, of course, as it competes with the rest 
of the world, we want the strongest computers, the fastest 
computers, and we would like to think that we are only making a 
tool. That may be the case, but we cannot go forward along this 
line without at least looking at the issues that come before 
us.
    Now, I know this sounds like science fiction. In fact, I 
alluded to two works of science, one involving Data, the other 
HAL. But as one panel testified before us, if you are 
describing the future, and it sounds like science fiction, then 
it is possible that description of the future is false. But if 
you are describing the future and it doesn't sound like science 
fiction, you know that description of the future is false. The 
future is--tomorrow is today's science fiction. We just don't 
know which of the science fiction movies models the future.
    We should not rush headlong into the creation of a second 
cognitive intelligence on this planet without at least studying 
the implications. At that point, I will yield back, and hope 
that this amendment can be accepted.
    Chairman Boehlert. Thank you very much. I appreciate the 
gentleman's intent, and I must admit being intrigued by your 
statement, but this amendment is so broadly written that it 
could bring computer science to a halt.
    What do the terms in the amendment mean? Does a computer 
that can beat a human at chess qualify? Does a computer that 
can calculate and model far beyond human capabilities qualify? 
I don't know what we are banning here. This threatens a ban on 
research, even though there is no known threat, and the ban is 
ill-defined. That is a dangerous road to go down. I urge my 
colleagues to oppose the amendment.
    Now, let me tell you what has happened. We have a general 
agreement. We have been through many hours of spirited debate, 
productive debate, and some of the Members have just had to go 
elsewhere, and I am not going to drag everybody back here to 
vote on this amendment.
    I hope the gentleman would accept sort of a show of hands 
in support, opposition, and be guided by the sentiments of the 
majority here. Would you be willing to do that, Mr. Sherman?
    Mr. Sherman. I may not require a recorded vote on this 
amendment, Mr. Chairman.
    Chairman Boehlert. Thank you.
    Mr. Sherman. But if you will yield.
    Chairman Boehlert. I would certainly yield.
    Mr. Sherman. My original amendment could have been viewed 
as a threat to research, since it indicated we didn't authorize 
certain research. My goal now is, as we did with the 
nanotechnology bill, to require that the agencies that are 
funding this research also fund studies of the legal and 
ethical implications. So, there is no bar to further research. 
And just as we did not bar the development of nanotechnology, 
but rather, required a look at the societal implications.
    If there is a need to redraft my amendment, I would be 
happy to work with you after these hearings, with an 
understanding that we are going to require a look at these 
societal, ethical, and legal implications of this creation of 
supercomputing.
    Chairman Boehlert. Well, thank you very much for one, 
indicating that you probably were unlikely to call for a roll 
call vote. That shows you are considerate of other Members, 
both sides, time and effort. Two, I think everything we should 
do should consider societal impact, ethical impact. So I will 
be glad to work with you directly, have staff talk this thing 
through, and see if we can't accomplish some of your original 
intent to focus on the issue, without being proscriptive and 
preventing any research going forward absent such a study.
    Is that fair enough?
    Mr. Sherman. That is fair enough, and I think our work on 
the nanotechnology bill achieved that goal, and had 
overwhelming support on the----
    Chairman Boehlert. Well, we called for studies.
    Mr. Sherman. Right.
    Chairman Boehlert. But absent the studies, we didn't halt 
anything.
    Mr. Sherman. Exactly.
    Chairman Boehlert. Okay.
    Mr. Sherman. And I think we can achieve something that you 
are describing, rather than what could--we can do a better job 
of drafting.
    Chairman Boehlert. Got it.
    Mr. Sherman. Mr. Chairman.
    Chairman Boehlert. In the spirit of comity, then, do you 
ask unanimous consent that your amendment be withdrawn?
    Mr. Sherman. I do indeed.
    Chairman Boehlert. Well, thank you very much. The 
gentleman's amendment is withdrawn. Without objection, so 
ordered. Are there--where are we? Are there any further 
amendments? Then hearing none, the question is on the bill, 
H.R. 4218, High-Performance Computing Revitalization Act of 
2004. All those in favor will say aye. Aye. Those opposed, no. 
In the opinion of the Chair, the ayes have it. I will now 
recognize Mr. Gordon to offer a motion.
    Mr. Gordon. Mr. Chairman, I move that the Committee 
favorably report H.R. 4218 to the House with the recommendation 
that the bill do pass. Furthermore, I move that staff be 
instructed to prepare the legislative report, and make 
necessary technical and conforming changes, and that the 
Chairman take all necessary steps to bring the bill before the 
House for consideration.
    Chairman Boehlert. The question is on the motion to report 
the bill favorably. Those in favor of the motion will signify 
by saying aye. Aye. Opposed, no. In the opinion of the Chair, 
the ayes have it, and the bill is favorably reported. Without 
objection, the motion to reconsider is laid upon the table. I 
move that Members have two subsequent calendar days in which to 
submit supplemental, minority, or additional views on the 
measure. I move, pursuant to Clause 1 of Rule 22 of the Rules 
of the House of Representatives that the Committee authorize 
the Chairman to offer such motions as may be necessary in the 
House to adopt and pass H.R. 4218, and go to conference with 
the Senate on H.R. 4218, or a similar Senate bill. Without 
objection, so ordered.
    This concludes our Committee markup, and I want to thank 
those who indulged all of us for so many hours. I want to thank 
the staff on a bipartisan basis for their outstanding input, 
that makes these success stories possible.
    This Committee is adjourned.
    [Whereupon, at 2:15 p.m., the Committee was adjourned.]


                               Appendix:

                              ----------                              


   H.R. 4218, High-Performance Computing Revitalization Act of 2004; 
       Section-by-Section Analysis of H.R. 4218; Amendment Roster




 Section-by-Section Analysis of H.R. 4218, High-Performance Computing 
                       Revitalization Act of 2004

Sec. 1. Short Title

    ``High-Performance Computing Revitalization Act of 2004.''

Sec. 2. Definitions

    Amends section 4 of the High-Performance Computing Act of 1991 (HPC 
Act) to further elaborate on, or amend, the definition of terms used in 
the Act:

          ``Grand Challenge'' means a fundamental problem in 
        science or engineering, with broad economic and scientific 
        impact, whose solution will require the application of high-
        performance computing resources and multidisciplinary teams of 
        researchers

          ``high-performance computing'' means advanced 
        computing, communications, and information technologies, 
        including supercomputer systems, high-capacity and high-speed 
        networks, special purpose and experimental systems, 
        applications and systems software, and the management of large 
        data sets

          ``Program'' means the High-Performance Computing 
        Research and Development Program described in section 101

          ``Program Component Areas'' means the major subject 
        areas under which are grouped related individual projects and 
        activities carried out under the Program.

    Strikes the definition of ``Network'' that refers to the National 
Research and Education Network, which no longer exists as such.

Sec. 3.  High-Performance Computing Research and Development Program

    Amends section 101 of the HPC Act, which describes the organization 
and responsibilities of the interagency research and development (R&D;) 
program originally referred to as the National High-Performance 
Computing Program--and renamed the High-Performance Computing Research 
and Development Program in this Act. Requires the program to:

          Provide for long-term basic and applied research on 
        high-performance computing

          Provide for research and development on, and 
        demonstration of, technologies to advance the capacity and 
        capabilities of high-performance computing and networking 
        systems

          Provide for sustained access by the research 
        community in the United States to high-performance computing 
        systems that are among the most advanced in the world in terms 
        of performance in solving scientific and engineering problems, 
        including provision for technical support for users of such 
        systems

          Provide for efforts to increase software 
        availability, productivity, capability, security, portability, 
        and reliability

          Provide for high-performance networks, including 
        experimental testbed networks, to enable research and 
        development on, and demonstration of, advanced applications 
        enabled by such networks

          Provide for computational science and engineering 
        research on mathematical modeling and algorithms for 
        applications in all fields of science and engineering

          Provide for the technical support of, and research 
        and development on, high-performance computing systems and 
        software required to address Grand Challenges

          Provide for educating and training additional 
        undergraduate and graduate students in software engineering, 
        computer science, computer and network security, applied 
        mathematics, library and information science, and computational 
        science

          Provide for improving the security of computing and 
        networking systems, including research required to establish 
        security standards and practices for these systems.

    Requires the Director of the Office of Science and Technology 
Policy (OSTP) to:

          Establish the goals and priorities for federal high-
        performance computing research, development, networking, and 
        other activities

          Establish Program Component Areas that implement the 
        goals established for the Program and identify the Grand 
        Challenges that the Program should address

          Provide for interagency coordination of federal high-
        performance computing research, development, networking, and 
        other activities undertaken pursuant to the Program

          Develop and maintain a research, development, and 
        deployment roadmap for the provision of high-performance 
        computing systems for use by the research community in the 
        United States.

    Leaves substantially unchanged the provisions of the HPC Act 
requiring the Director of OSTP to:

          Provide an annual report to Congress, along with the 
        annual budget request, describing the implementation of the 
        Program, including current and proposed funding levels and 
        programmatic changes, if any, from the previous year

          Consult with academic, State, and other appropriate 
        groups conducting research on and using high-performance 
        computing.

    Requires the Director of OSTP to include in his annual report to 
Congress:

          A detailed description of the Program Component 
        Areas, including a description of any changes in the definition 
        of activities under the Program Component Areas from the 
        previous year, and the reasons for such changes, and a 
        description of Grand Challenges supported under the Program

          An analysis of the extent to which the Program 
        incorporates the recommendations of the Advisory Committee 
        established by the HPC Act--currently referred to as the 
        President's Information Technology Advisory Committee (PITAC).

    Requires PITAC to conduct periodic evaluations of the funding, 
management, coordination, implementation, and activities of the 
Program, and to report to Congress once every two fiscal years, with 
the first report due within one year of enactment.
    Repeals section 102 of HPC Act, the ``National Research and 
Education Network,'' which requires the development of a network to 
link research and educational institutions, government, and industry. 
This network was developed but has since been supplanted by the 
Internet.
    Repeals section 103 of the HPC Act, ``Next Generation Internet,'' 
as this program is no longer in existence.

Sec. 4. Agency Activities

    Amends section 201 of the HPC Act, which describes the 
responsibilities of the National Science Foundation (NSF) under the 
Program. Requires NSF to:

          Support research and development to generate 
        fundamental scientific and technical knowledge with the 
        potential of advancing high-performance computing and 
        networking systems and their applications

          Provide computing and networking infrastructure 
        support to the research community in the United States, 
        including the provision of high-performance computing systems 
        that are among the most advanced in the world in terms of 
        performance in solving scientific and engineering problems, 
        including support for advanced software and applications 
        development, for all science and engineering disciplines

          Support basic research and education in all aspects 
        of high-performance computing and networking.

    Amends section 202 of the HPC Act, which describes the 
responsibilities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
(NASA) under the Program. Requires NASA to conduct basic and applied 
research in high-performance networking, with emphasis on:

          Computational fluid dynamics, computational thermal 
        dynamics, and computational aerodynamics

          Scientific data dissemination and tools to enable 
        data to be fully analyzed and combined from multiple sources 
        and sensors

          Remote exploration and experimentation

          Tools for collaboration in system design, analysis, 
        and testing.

    Amends section 203 of the HPC Act, which describes the 
responsibilities of the Department of Energy (DOE) under the Program. 
Requires DOE to:

          Conduct and support basic and applied research in 
        high-performance computing and networking to support 
        fundamental research in science and engineering disciplines 
        related to energy applications

          Provide computing and networking infrastructure 
        support, including the provision of high-performance computing 
        systems that are among the most advanced in the world in terms 
        of performance in solving scientific and engineering problems, 
        and including support for advanced software and applications 
        development, for science and engineering disciplines related to 
        energy applications.

    Amends section 204 of the HPC Act, which describes the 
responsibilities of the Department of Commerce, including the National 
Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the National Oceanic 
and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), under the Program.
    Requires NIST to:

          Conduct basic and applied metrology research needed 
        to support high-performance computing and networking systems

          Develop benchmark tests and standards for high-
        performance computing and networking systems and software

          Develop and propose voluntary standards and 
        guidelines, and develop measurement techniques and test 
        methods, for the inter-operability of high-performance 
        computing systems in networks and for common user interfaces to 
        high-performance computing and networking systems

          Work with industry and others to develop, and 
        facilitate the implementation of, high-performance computing 
        applications to solve science and engineering problems that are 
        relevant to industry.

    Requires NOAA to conduct basic and applied research in high-
performance computing applications, with emphasis on:

          Improving weather forecasting and climate prediction

          Collection, analysis, and dissemination of 
        environmental information

          Development of more accurate models of the ocean-
        atmosphere system.

    Amends section 205 of the HPC Act, which describes the 
responsibilities of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the 
Program. Requires EPA to conduct basic and applied research directed 
toward the advancement and dissemination of computational techniques 
and software tools with an emphasis on modeling to:

          Develop robust decision support tools

          Predict pollutant transport and their effects on 
        humans and on ecosystems

          Better understand atmospheric dynamics and chemistry.